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Postcards From Utah Artists

Artist List
Lee Udall Bennion C.C.A. Christensen James Christensen Cyrus E. Dallin Snow Queen: Portrait of Adah Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley The Rhinoceros Entertaining Favorite Ladies II Paul Revere Portrait of John Hancock Dallin w/ Massasoit Sacajawea Capital from North Salt Lake Wash Day in Brigham City Sunrise, North Rim of the Grand Canyon Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James Richards Camp Chelsea VI Immigrant Train Channel Three Riders of the Range Moonrise in the Canyon Moab, Utah Keeper of the Gate Youthful Games Cockscomb, Near Teasdale New Bloom Factory Worker i

Jeanne Leighton-Lundberg Clarke

Louise Farnsworth Calvin Fletcher Mabel Frazer J. T. Harward Donald Olsen

George Ottinger Edith Roberson Paul Salisbury Dennis Smith Gary Smith

Sven Birger Sandzen

Douglas Snow

Trevor Southey Mahonri Young

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Postcards From Utah Artists


Contents
i Introduction

1 First Grade Visual Arts Lessons

11 Second Grade Visual Arts Lessons 15 Third Grade Visual Arts Lessons 29 Fifth Grade Visual Arts Lessons 25 Fourth Grade Visual Arts Lessons 35 Sixth Grade Visual Arts Lessons 55 Secondary Visual Arts Lessons 63 Dance Lessons

47 Additional Visual Arts Lessons, Elementary

67 Appendix App.III Directions for Making Your Own Postcards App. V Poster Lessons Spreadsheet App. VII Venn Diagram App. VIII Information from the Back of the Springville Museum of Arts Elementary Poster Set (24 posters, List on App. I)

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Postcards From Utah Artists


Introduction
This packet of lesson material is based on the Springville Museum of Arts Elementary Postcard Set. These 24 postcards are the same images as the SMA Elementary Posters (Each set has 24 postcards because the 4 images on the Cyrus Dallin Poster have been made into separate postcards). Each Elementary School in Utah will receive 16 sets of the postcards. The postcards were chosen as a tool for visual art education because they are relatively inexpensive, children focus longer on objects they can hold in their hands, and because postcards lend themselves so well to cooperative learning. In addition, teachers can easily increase their postcard collections by purchasing postcards from museums or through art supply catalogs or by downloading images and making color copies of the images. Another free source of postcards is from galleries with mailing lists.

Lee Bennion, Snow Queen

In the field of education, cooperative learning has been shown to result in substantial and consistent positive effects on achievement. Multiple sets of postcards lend themselves particularly well to this cooperative approach because they can be used in small groups in which the discovery and processing of knowledge shifts from an individual learner to that of a group of learners. Effective cooperative learning has many benefits for students. Some of these are the following:

(e) they participate at an increased rate in language building, and (f) they develop leadership skills. The core of the curriculum using these postcards is from Robert Nickelsons Masters of Art Education thesis. The lessons are formulated as integrated lessons that cover the four areas of art education: Aesthetics, Art Criticism, Art History, and Art Production. [The Utah State Core divides elementary visual arts into the areas of Making, Expressing, Perceiving, and Contextualizing.] Each lesson will take at least four class periods.

(a) students are individually accountable for their own learning gains, (b) they learn to respect the contributions of others, (c) previously reluctant or hostile students are drawn into full participation, (d) students learn both to provide and also receive encouragement,

The thesis curriculum has lessons only for grades 1, 3, and 5, but the lessons are adaptable and have been used successfully for grades 17. In addition, the lessons have been used in university classes for elementary education

majors and were enjoyed by those students. Other lessons have been added for grades 2, 4, and 6.

The packet contains some other ways to use the postcards in grades K12, identified by grade level and topic. Most are for visual arts, but a few other areas of the curriculum are included.

Postcards From Utah Artists


First Grade Visual Arts Curriculum

Jeanne Clarke, Entertaining: Favorite Ladies II C.C.A. Christensen Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley

Trevor Southey, New Bloom

Theme: Getting to Know an Artwork


Lesson Motivation: Introduce this lesson with the analogy that looking at artworks for the first time is like meeting someone new. Explain to the students that best way to get to know an artwork is to spend time with the artwork and get information about who made it, how, and why.

Introduce the Elementary Posters that have people in them, as if they were people the students were meeting. The three images at the top of this page all feature people: Jeanne Clarke (Entertaining: Favorite Ladies) Trevor Southey (New Bloom) and C.C.A. Christensen (Handcart Pioneers) After the groups have had a chance to look at these artworks, ask them if they know anything about these people. Ask them how they could get to know more about them. Explain that just like meeting new people, finding out information about artworks can help the students learn to know the artworks. 3

Ask for a few responses to the artworks: this is what an art critic would call an initial reaction. Have the students explore their reasons for their reactions. ART CRITICISM Art Criticism Objectives: Students will be able to look, listen, think, and talk about reasons for their reactions to artworks, look at how an artist uses the art elements and principles in an artworks , and explore reasons their reactions to an artwork have or have not changed from their looking.

Teacher Explanation: Although Art Criticism is sometimes taught as a series of linear, discreet steps, this lesson uses an inquiry method which begins with the students initial responses to an artwork, then proceeds to research to learn more about the artwork, the style, the artist, the artists intent, and then discussion or presentation that is centered on meaning and value. Good art criticism gives students ideas and information they can then apply to other artworks. Criticism also should be recursivestudents should revisit the artworks, look for more information, listen to or research others reactions to the artworks, and compare and contrast various works. As such, critical inquiry naturally includes aesthetic theories and art history as well as production activities that offer students the chance to gain greater understanding of particular artworks as well as to explore the students own creative abilities and needs for artistic experiences that relate to their lives. For young elementary students, who can neither read nor write effectively, this means the research material will have to be supplied by the teacher, and responses will need to be oral or simple statements the teacher or an aide can write out for the child. Older students can do the research themselves or be given some information by the teacher and find other information themselves. Although no right answers can be arrived at, students do need to justify or explain their views/ statements using references to specific characteristics of the artwork. A Formalistic Approach to Art Criticism: Even very young children are comfortable talking about the reality of what is represented in artworks. They like to identify what it is they are seeing. In this task, you will need to help your students resist this tendency and look beyond the reality represented and pay attention to the formalistic qualities of an artwork. Your students will need to look at how the artist used specific art elements and principles to create the work. Have the students get into groups of four and provide each group with a set of 24 postcards from the elementary postcard set. Next, show the large poster image of Chelsea VI by Donald Olsen from the elementary poster set.

Donald Olsen, Chelsea VI

Talk to the students about a color in Olsens Chelsea VI that you like and explain why you like that color.

Ask the students to tell you why they think the artist used that color in that part of the painting. Ask them to also explain to you how they would go about choosing colors to use in their own artworks. Then ask the students to tell the classmate closest to them how they think an artist might pick a color to use in a painting. Also ask them to talk about how the artists approach and their approach to picking a color to use are the same or different. Now, have each group of students look at the postcard images and select one of the images that has the color they like the most as a group. Ask the groups to look at how the artist has used that color. Did the artist use the color in more than one place in the painting? Is this color brighter or duller than the other colors in the painting? Ask the students to think about how the color makes them feel. How do you think the artist feels about that color? What do you think the artist wanted you to feel about that color?

Next, have the students look for other postcard images in which a different artist used that same color or a similar color. Have the students compare the ways in which the two artists used this color. Use questions to provoke similar conversations about the other art elements and principles used in the images of the artworks in the postcard set. This assignment can also involve the students in the use of creative dance movements to describe formalistic qualities of an artwork. For example, have students move in ways that are inspired by the colors or lines in an artwork. In addition, the students can respond to the formalistic qualities of an artwork using sounds. Ask the students to think about how a line used by an artist would sound to them. Have them choose words to describe the elements. Then, students can find ways to produce appropriate sounds using rhythm instruments or objects in the classroom. You may want to introduce other connections by asking questions such as How would this artwork feel if you could touch it? Which artwork would you most like to touch and why? You can also ask the students to respond to and describe where they would find the elements and principles you have discussed in their own homes.

Teaching strategies like the ones described will help the students focus on a formalistic approach to artworks. It is important not just to have the students analyze the lines, shapes, and colors of an artwork but to help the students to relate to these art elements from their own perspectives using their own life experiences. Now, give each group a postcard of Jasmine Sidewinder #91 by Gene Davis which is part of the University of Utahs Museum of Fine Arts collection. Ask them if they think this is a formalistic artwork. Why? Have the students take turns sharing their responses to it. Try and let all of the students have a chance to explore their reactions. Remind them to give the reasons for their responses.

Next, show the students the images of Chelsea VI by Donald Olsen and Jasmine Sidewinder #91 by Gene Davis again and have them look at them both together. Ask the students to turn to their closest classmate and talk to one another about what they know about these two images. Then ask 5

them to talk about how they feel about these artworks. Ask them to talk about how their feelings might have changed. Now ask them to share what they have talked about with the class. Assessment: Each student will use his or her copy of the following formative self assessment tool throughout each of the first grade lessons. By pointing to a symbol or by making a check in the appropriate box, they may indicate to the teacher their progress for each learning task.

During the learning tasks, the teacher will use the students self-assessment tool on page 9 to help identify students who need more time to work or need help or who have mastered the task. The teacher then will use these self-assessment tools to assess mastery of all of the tasks by each student at the end of the unit of study. Each of the four components of this lesson will involve the first four tasks of the assessment tool: looking, listening, thinking, and talking. The art production components will also involve these four tasks plus the task of making. Resources/Materials: Elementary Postcard SetSMA Elementary Poster SetSMA

Additional ArtworksGene Davis, Jasmine Sidewinder #91 from the Springville Museum of Art, Op and Pop Evening for Educators packet, April 2001. (Available via the Internet www.smofa.org or at the Springville Museum of Art) AESTHETICS Aesthetics Objectives: Students will be able to look, listen, think, and talk about their understanding of beliefs concerning artworks.

Aesthetics Lesson: Explain to the students that different people have different ideas about what art should be. This information can help them get to know artworks. The teacher should explain the following aesthetic theories to the students and give each student a set of die-cut symbols to use in this task: 1. RealismSome people believe art should mimic nature, should look real. The symbol they will use is a die-cut of a camera . 2. ExpressivismOther people believe art should Gene Davis, Jasmine Sidewinder #91 express feelings or ideas. Utah Museum of Fine Arts The symbol they will use for this theory is a die-cut of a heart. 3. FormalismOther people believe art is about lines and shapes and colors. The symbol they will use for this theory is a die-cut of a square or triangle. 6

Allow students to ask questions and make whatever additional explanations are necessary. One student in the group will deal the postcards out to the group members. Each student gets a turn to place one postcard by the symbol that best represents the artwork. That student must give the reasons for the choice. This continues until all the postcards are on the table. When all the groups are finished, have the groups put their postcards under the symbols which you have attached to the board or a table. Tabulate the results. Summarize the results for the students.

Assessment: During the learning task, the teacher will use the students self-assessment tool to help identify students who need more time to work or need help or who have mastered the task. Resources/Materials: Elementary Postcard Set and Elementary Poster set Sets of symbols: camera, heart, and a shape such as a triangle or square (You will need 6-8 sets of the symbols, one set for each group and one set for yourself.) Additional artworksGene Davis, Jasmine Sidewinder #91 from Op and Pop Art, Evening for Educators packet, April 2001. (Available via the Internet www.smofa.org or at the Springville Museum of Art) Art HistOrY Art History Objective: Students will be able to look, listen, think, and talk about the three artists who made the featured artworks, when they lived, what was important to them in their lives and their art. Students will also be able to identify artworks that may be similar or different from those artists artworks. Art History Lesson: Display the posters. Ask the students to review the aesthetic theories. Then explain that another way to learn about the artworks is to learn about the artists who made the artworks, when they lived, what they cared about, what their lives were like. Present information about the artists. You can use the information on the backs of the postcard or the information below. 1. James T. Harwood, Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James J. T. Harwood was born in Lehi, Utah, in 1860a long time ago. Harwood went to France to study art. (Show the class where France is on a map or globe.) His wife was also an artist (Show the poster: Richards Camp. J. T. and Harriet are glancing at each other.) Harwood loved his family. This painting is of Harwoods youngest son, Heber. Ask the students to choose an artwork from the set that is by an artist who cares about some of the same things as J. T. Harwood. Students should explain their responses to the members of their groups and do not have to agree. 2. Sven Birger Sandzen, Moonrise in the Canyon, Moab, Utah Birger Sandzen was born in Sweden, in 1871. He moved to Kansas and taught at a college. (Show the students where Kansas is on a map.) 7

He came to Utah to teach in the summer. Sandzen liked to paint using bright colors He also liked the brushstrokes in his paintings to show.

Ask students to choose one of the artworks that might have been painted by an artist who studied with Sandzen. Students should explain why they think that artist may have been Sandzens student. 3. Donald Olsen, Chelsea VI Donald Olsen was born in Provo, Utah. He plays the violin. Olsen was a teacher. He taught art and music. He didnt believe paintings should look like people or places, he thought they should just have shapes and color and line. Other artists who were alive at the same time also thought art should just have simple shapes and colors. Ask the students to choose an artwork that is similar to Olsens and say how. Next they should choose an artwork that is different and tell the group how it is different. Materials: Elementary Postcard SetSMA Elementary Poster SetSMA ART PRODUCTION Production Objectives: Students will be able to create two formalist artworks one of which will be three-dimensional.

(Demonstrate what a brushstroke is and then have students look at Sandzens painting to see the brushstrokes.)

Production Lesson: Research has shown that very Louise Richards Farnsworth young children enjoy the bright colors and simple Capitol From North Salt Lake shapes of abstract, minimalist artworks like Chelsea VI. Provide students with construction paper in several colors. Students will choose one color for the background. Then students will cut out simple shapes from other colors. You may wish to tie this to shapes they are learning to identify. Students should try several arrangements of the shapes rather than just using their first idea. When students have decided on a design, they should glue the shapes down. Then have students evaluate their designs. Are they satisfied or do the designs need anything added? (Choosing their favorite design from among several and later evaluating the design for completeness are important criticism processes.) Display the finished artworks and allow students to comment on and to contrast and compare their artworks with Olsens and any other similar artworks you have used in the activity. Make a display that includes professional artworks as well as the students designs. You may also want to make a 8

chart that has a one- or two-word definition of the three aesthetic theories you discussed and the symbols you used in the matching activity. This chart can be displayed during future lessons as a reminder of what the students learned and as a springboard for future art activities.

The unit may be expanded to include production activities that explore the process of making artwork that looks real and that expresses feelings. Summarize the major points, asking for student input: Different artists want their art to look different. Some artists want their art to look real, some want their art to express feelings, some want their art to show shapes and colors. Knowing what an artist was trying to do helps us understand their artwork. Knowing about the artists lives can also help us understand their artworks. The students in each group should discuss and plan how to arrange the shapes into an interesting design.

Frank Riggs, Sentinel

Raymond Jonas Abstract Configuration

Three-dimensional Formalism Lesson: Have the students bring three-dimensional containers from home, such as wrapping-paper tubes, shoe boxes, or metal cookie tins. Then have the students paint the shapes primary colors using Tempera or Acrylic paint.

Divide the students into groups of four and pass out the shapes to the groups. Each group should have five to nine shapes. 9 9

Neil Hadlock, Effron

Remind the students about the thumbnail sketches they did with the two-dimensional assignment. They should use a similar approach with this assignment. Explain to the students that when they work with three-dimensional shapes, they must think about how the design looks from all sides.

Give the groups sufficient time to try several possible arrangements. The teacher may have to help the students avoid just stacking the shapes on top of one another. Help the students see how they can balance one shape over the edge of another or turn them different directions. Remind the students to check how each new change in the arrangement of the shapes affects the design from all the sides.

When the groups have finished arranging their shapes, have an adult help the students stabilize the design using Blue Tack or self-adhesive Velcro. Give each group an opportunity to share with the class what they think was most successful about the way their group solved the assignment. Have the students record a check in the appropriate box of the self-assessment tool. If possible, display the arrangement of shapes from each group in the classroom or in the media center. Assessment: While the students are creating their artworks, the teacher will visit with each student and help him or her to assess their progress. The student will indicate and record their efforts in looking, listening, thinking, and talking about the process of making a formalistic artwork. The teacher will also help the students to assess their use of the art elements and principles in the design of their artworks and the overall look of the work.

The students will also look again at the artworks by Frank Riggs, Neil Hadlock, and Raymond Jonas to help them assess their own three-dimensional formalistic works. Resources/Materials: Springville Museum of Art web site images: smofa.org Frank Riggs Sentinel Neil Hadlock Effron Raymond Jonas Abstract Configuration Interdisciplinary connections: Language Arts Utah State Core Curriculum Topic: Speaking and Listening

Learn To Explore Ideas Through Talk Participate in discussions as a class and during group interactions Initiate conversation with peers Ask for clarification and explanation of words and ideas Follow implicit rules for conversation (i.e., taking turns and staying on topic) Tell and retell stories and events in logical order Ask and respond to questions in small group settings Explore ideas that may later be expressed in a personal artwork

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Postcards From Utah Artists


Second Grade Visual Arts Curriculum
Theme: There is art in Our eVerYdaY liVes
Objectives: 1. Art History: Students will discuss how artists have used everyday life as the subject of artworks and will be able to identify those artworks as Genre scenes. 2. Aesthetics: Students will be able to explain the Realist theory of art and the Expressivist theory of art and identify the two kinds of artworks. 3. Art Production: Students will choose an everyday scene to portray in an artwork. They will demonstrate their understanding of expressivist and realist by choosing one approach and making their genre scene fit that approach. 4. Art Criticism: Students will be able to critique their artworks as Realist art or as Expressivist art, using a 5step criticism model. Materials 2nd Grade postcards from the set: Keeper of the Gate, Wash Day In Brigham City, Youthful Games. Other postcards from the set: Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake, Riders of the Range, Richards Camp Other 2nd Grade artworks from the Masterworks list: Peasant Dance, I and the Village, The Gleaners, Parade or substitute Dance Around the Maypole by Pieter Bruegel the Younger, an UMFA Elementary poster, for Peasant Dance.

Postcards that are not genre scenes: Chelsea VI, Rhinoceros, Road to the River, Gary Smith Moonrise in the Canyon, Cockscomb, Youthful Games John Hancock, Paul Revere, Boy and Cat, etc. Sketch paper Good-quality drawing paper Pencils Colored pencils, paints, or crayons, and oil or hard pastels (you will need one medium such as paint or pastels, that lends itself to expressive drawing) 11

1. Art History: Students will discuss how artists have used everyday life as the subject of artworks and will be able to identify those artworks as genre scenes.

Show the class the poster of Washday in Brigham City. Ask what the woman in the painting is doing. Ask the students if their family ever hangs laundry on the line. (Even children whose families do not regularly hang out laundry may do so with particular items or when camping or may have a neighbor who does.) Ask the students why the artist might have chosen to make a painting of just everyday life. Tell the students that art that shows a scene from our everyday lives, like this one, is called a Genre Scene. (Genre is pronounced zhn-re) Write the word on the board and pronounce it for the children: have them say the word several times.

Divide the class into groups and give each group an assortment of postcards, some of which are genre scenes and some of which are not. Each child should choose a postcard and say why it is or isnt a genre scene, and place it in one of two pilesYes and No. When all the postcards have been sorted, allow stuCalvin Fletcher dents time to discuss the division and make changes Wash Day in Brigham City if the other members of the group can convince the child who made the decision to change his mind. Ask the class if some artworks are hard to classify as genre or not genre. They may not agree about Keeper of the Gate. Sometimes, information about the artwork might help you decide how to classify it. For example, because Keeper of the Gate is about the area the artist was allowed to wander as a child,and it shows him on a bicycle, some people might be influenced to say its a genre scene because of the idea behind the painting. Students do not need to agree. Do help them to articulate the reasons for their choices.

Extension: The students will learn to identify landscapes, genre scenes, and portraits. Add to the lesson above by showing the students a poster of a landscape such as Sunrise North Rim of Grand Canyon. (Landscapes show all or mostly just the land; any figures are small and not very important.) Then show the class the poster of Sacajewea and explain that portraits concentrate on a person or small group of people, not on an activity.) [There are, of course, artworks that blur or cross over the lines, but start with simple definitions. As the students learn more or as they identify the ways artworks cross the lines, help them explore the complexities of artworks that do not fit just one category.]

2. Aesthetics: Students will be able to explain the Realist theory of art and the Expressivist theory of art and identify the two kinds of artworks. Introduce the aesthetic theories or approaches of Realism and Expressivism. Aesthetic theories 12

explain different ideas people have about what art should be like. The Realist approach is that art should look like the person, place, or thing depicted. How good an artwork is is based on how real it looks. On the other hand, the Expressivist approach is that art should express an emotion or feeling. The artwork is judged on how well it expresses the artists feelings or invokes those feelings in the viewer. Most genre scenes are realistic, but a few artworks that can be classified as genre scenes are more expressive, such as Keeper of the Gate, I and the Village, and Parade. Simplified Variation: Limit the lesson to Realism, which means you do not need postcards of I and the Village and Parade. Have students, in their groups, classify the postcards according to whether they are Expressivist or Realist. All students do not have to agree. Have students find words that help explain the differences between the two approaches to art. Make a list of the words on the board.

Jacob Lawrence, Parade Image from allposters.com

3. Art Production: Students will choose an everyday scene to portray in an artwork. They will demonstrate their understanding of expressivist and realist by choosing one approach and making their genre scene fit that approach. Have students choose a scene from everyday life to portray in an artwork. Students should choose whether to make their artwork Realistic or Expressivist.

Give each student a piece of inexpensive paper. The students should fold the paper in half one way and then in half the other way so the folds indicate four thinking spaces. In each space, the students should sketch an idea for their artwork. They should consider the overall design as well as individual elements and how they can make their artwork expressive or realistic. Have the students review the genre scenes to see that artists make choices about how they portray sceneseven realist artists dont just make exact copies from real life.

Each sketch in a thinking space must have some changes from the previous one. When all four sketches are complete, students can choose one and make a light sketch on a large sheet of good drawing paper. Allow students to choose an appropriate medium and complete their artwork. Mount the artworks on larger sheets of colored paper, or display them in mats or frames which you have. Display the artworks after the critique is finished. 4. Art Criticism: Students will be able to critique their artworks as Realist art or as Expressivist art, using a 5step criticism model. Have students use the 5step criticism model below to critique their artworks. Remember, art 13

criticism is talking about art, not just saying how good it is.

1. What is your immediate reaction? (initial reaction) 2. What do you see? (description) 3. How has the artist put things together? (analysis) 4. What is the artist telling you? (interpretation) 5. What is your opinion of the artwork, and why? (informed preference) How successful were you at making your artwork expressive or realistic?(evaluation of personal work) Have students write a sentence about their artwork and display the writing with the work. For example: I wanted to show how much fun we have when we go camping.

Sources I and the Village, Parade, and Peasant Dance, can be found at barewalls.com For I and the Village, go to the artists list, click on C, find Chagall, click, go to page 3 The other two artworks can be found through the artist list: Jacob Lawrence and Pieter Bruegal You can purchase the prints for $15 or less or can make your own postcards following the directions in the appendix. You can access an image of Dance Around the Maypole at utah .edu/umfa and go to Education, then Elementary Posters You can access an image of The Gleaners, by Jean-Francois Millet, at allposters.com. Assessment Use the chart on page 9 for both formative and summative assessment of this lesson.

Pieter Brueghel the Younger, Dance Around the Maypole UMFA Elementary Poster 14

Postcards From Utah Artists


Third Grade Visual Arts Curriculum

Mahonri Young Industry: Factory Worker

Edith Roberson Channel Three

Paul Salisbury Riders of the Range

THEME: ALL IN A DAYS WORK AESTHETICS Motivation: The teacher brings into the classroom enough wrapped presents for each group of four students. As she is doing so, she explains that she got the presents from the driver of a very long limo that had pulled up in front of the school. She explains that the driver got out of the limo and handed her the presents. He told her that his dying boss had a last request. He wanted her students to preform a task for him. The task is to find a connection between the three postcard images in the package. Once the students have discovered a connection between the images, they should curate an exhibit in the museum of these images and other images from the museum based on that connection. If the students complete the task the man to donate the three artworks to the local museum.

Aesthetics Objectives: Each group of students will be able to analyze the three images by Edith T. Roberson (Channel Three), Paul Salisbury (Riders of the Range), and Mahonri Macintosh Young (Factory Worker) and identify and write down ways in which the images relate to one another according to the aesthetic concept of the artists intent. The students will also be able to write a justification of their opinions about the aesthetic concept of artists intent for each of these images. Each group of students will be able to organize and display an exhibit of these postcard images and similar postcard images that have the same relationship to one another. Finally, each group of students will also be able to write a statement that describes the rational behind their exhibit. Aesthetics Lesson: The students will open the packages and look at the three images by Edith T. Roberson (Channel Three), Paul Salisbury (Riders of the Range), and Mahonri Macintosh Young (Factory Worker). Explain to the students the aesthetic concept of artists intent. The artists intent is a way of stating what the artist is trying to communicate in the artwork. One way that they can 15

discover what might be artists intentions for making an artwork is to asking questions about the relationship between an artwork and the artist. The following two questions: (What is this artwork about?) or (What is the artist trying to communicate?) are examples of the type of questions your students could ask while searching for the artists intent. To find the answers to such questions the students should read the information from the back of the postcards. They can also read additional information found on the back of the elementary poster for that image. All Utah elementary schools have copies of these three posters and all of the posters can also be viewed on the CD-Rom included in this curriculum. Have the students write down the information they gather from the image and the other written materials they read and place it in a comparison chart.(page 23) This chart will make it easier to view what is similar, different, or what maybe a common connection between the artworks. Next the students will need to write in the chart their conclusions as to the artists intent for creating this artwork. Now have the groups review the information that they have written down about these three artworks and look for common connections between the images, materials, subjects, styles, and artists intentions. When the students decide what the common connections between the artworks are, they will need to use those connections to establish a theme for an exhibit. Now, give the students the complete elementary set of postcard images and allow them to select other images that match their theme for the exhibition. Once they have completed their selections, have them hang a bulletin board exhibition for the postcards selected. The groups should also write statements about their exhibits explaining the connections they have found, justifying their selection of their themes and images. The students should make simple labels for each of the artworks that give the name of the artist, the title of the artwork, the year it was created, the media, and the actual size. The students may invite another class or parents to view the exhibits. The students could also act as docents and give tours for the visitors. Advanced Variation: Allow students to search the Springville Museums web site for other images to include in their exhibit.

Donald Beauregard, The Artists Father Clearing Sagebrush

Minerva Teichert, Spinning

William Parkinson, House Wife

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ART CRITICISM Art Criticism Motivation: An art critic is a professional who helps someone to look at an artwork and to go beyond the initial reaction and look deeper into what the artist has created. The art critic uses a method for looking called a critical model. We are going to act like we are art critics and look at some artworks using a simple model of criticism that has five basic steps or questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is your immediate reaction? (initial reaction) What do you see? (description) How has the artist put things together? (analysis) What is the artist telling you? (interpretation) What is your opinion of the artwork, and why? (informed preference)

Art Criticism Objectives: The students will be able to use the critical model from above to gather information about the artwork to share with the class in group presentations.

Art Criticism Lesson: The teacher will demonstrate how to use this critical model to the class with one of the images from the state core curriculum for the third grade. The students will then divide into small groups and use this model of criticism with one of the artworks to be studied in the art history lesson. The complete list of these images can be found on the next page. Each group will fill in its responses to the five steps of the model and share with the class in a presentation. ARTWORKS TO BE USED IN THE CRITICISM AND ART HISTORY LESSONS Diego Velzquez. The Forge of Vulcan 1630 Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. Mahonri Young Industry: Factory Worker 1938 Bronze Springville Museum of Art Jan Vermeer. The Lacemaker c.1669-1670. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France.

Vincent van Gogh. Morning, Leaving for Work 1890 Oil on canvas. Collection of Otto Krebs Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia. Paul Salisbury Riders of the Range 1953 Oil on canvas Springville Museum of Art

Dame Laura Knight Ruby Loftus Screwing a Breech-Ring 1943 oil on canvas Imperial War Museum, London, England Fernand Lger The Builders 1950 Oil on canvas Museum National Fernand Lger

Pietro Lorenzetti detail, Allegory of Good Government: Effects of Good Government in the City and the Country 1338-1339

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ART HISTORY Art History Objective: Students will be given copies of artworks and information about them that depict people at work from past centuries and will be able to analyze, discuss, and write down how these images are similar and different, and complete a comparison table. The students will be able to describe how both work and the depiction of work have changed over the centuries. Art History Lesson: Each group of students will be given a copy of the images listed in the comparisons charts below and the basic information about each of the artworks. The students are to view images and look carefully for similarities and differences between the four pairs of images and record their findings in the chart. Assign a pair of images to each group of students to use for a presentation to the class. The presentation must clearly describe how methods of work (physical labor) and the methods of creating an artwork have changed over the centuries. Assessment: The information from the comparison charts may be used by the students in an integrated performance assessment strategy that acts out the differences or similarities in a pantomime or play. The students then will complete the creative characteristics questionnaire, which assesses their integrated performance.

CREATIVE CHARACTERISTICS QUESTIONNAIRE

1. 2. 3. 4.

high level of energy ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ imaginative ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ enjoyment ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ cooperative ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

low energy ordinary disinterested resistant

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ttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Diego_Velasquez,_ The_Forge_of_Vulcan.jpg Artist Diego Velzquez The Forge of Vulcan 1630 Oil on canvas Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. Type of Work Depicted How the Artwork Was Made Comparison

Mahonri Young Factory Worker 1938 Bronze Springville Museum of Art, Springville, Utah

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http://galeria.klp.pl/p-3859.html

Artist Vincent van Gogh Morning, Leaving for Work 1890 Oil on canvas Collection of Otto Krebs Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia

Type of Work Depicted

How the Artwork Was Made

Comparison

Paul Salisbury Riders of the Range 1953 Oil on canvas Springville Museum of Art Springville, Utah

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http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/ vermeer/i/lacemaker.jpg Artist

http://www.awm.gov.au/sharedexperience/ images/enlarge/ld_2850.jpg How the Artwork Was Made Comparison

Jan Vermeer The Lacemaker c.1669-1670 Oil on canvas Louvre, Paris, France

Type of Work Depicted

Dame Laura Knight Ruby Loftus Screwing a Breech-Ring 1943 oil on canvas Imperial War Museum, London, England

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http://www.ac-nice.fr/artsap/Pedagogique/architecture/chantier_leger.html Artist Fernand Lger The Builders 1950 Oil on canvas Museum National Fernand Lger Type of Work Depicted

Detail from, http://commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/Image:Ambrogio_Lorenzetti_Allegory_of_ Good_Govt.jpg How the Artwork Was Made Comparison

Pietro Lorenzetti detail, Allegory of Good Government: Effects of Good Government in the City and the Country 1338-1339

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ART PRODUCTION Art Production Motivation: The students will create a story book about a day at work with a parent or other adult they admire. Oral interviews are encouraged as a means of gathering data. Art Production Objective: Students will be able to create a small eight-page story book about a day at work with a parent or some other adult they admire. The students will also be able to use principles of design in such a way as to emphasize what it is they like about the occupation. Art Production Materials: 12 x 18 heavy weight white drawing paper, markers, crayons, colored pencils, and scissors. Directions for the book are on page 24

Art Production Lesson: The students will interview his or her parent or other adult that they admire concerning their occupation. They will need to gather specific information that will help them illustrate what his or her daily routine is like at work. The students will need to ask specific questions about what it is about their job that they enjoy. The student should write notes from the interview that will highlight five things about their daily routine. The student should start the illustration of the book by creating small drawings (thumbnail sketches) that will depict the five different parts of the daily routine highlighted in the interview. Then the students will select the best of the sketches made for each of the five parts of the day and use them to create a drawing that will fill the space for that page in the book. The illustrations in the book might include details like: the type of clothes worn in this profession, the tools they might use to do their job, the people they work with each day, and details about the work environment. There are seven main criteria for the illustrations and the design of the book: 1. The drawings should be more than stick figures and figures should be depicted in correct human proportions. 2. The use of color should be similar to that used in a cartoon. Simple primary and secondary colors with some shading. 3. The parts of each of the images which are of most importance should fill the largest space on each page. 4. The front cover of the book should have text introducing the type of job. 5. The next five pages should depict the daily routine; no text can be used on these pages. 6. The last inside page of the book should list preparation, training, or education required to accomplish this kind of job; some text maybe used. 7. The back cover should include credits and thanks to the individual they interviewed. When the students are finished creating the books they can exchange their book with someone else to read or read their book to a student from a younger class.

Assessment: As a method of assessment the students can then write a book review that critiques the successfulness of their illustrations or that of another classmates. The students or the teacher may use the criteria in the check list above for a self-assessment or to judge the book.

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Postcards From Utah Artists


Fourth Grade Visual Arts Curriculum
Theme: Utah Art can tell us aBOut Utah HistOrY
Objectives: 1. Art HistoryStudents will be able to name two early Utah artists and explain their contribution to Utah Art. 2. Art Criticism/AestheticsStudents will explore different ways art is valuable to us by comparing several Utah artists works. Students will choose an aesthetic stance and be able to defend that stance. 3. Art ProductionStudents will make pioneer journals containing four drawings that illustrate events on the journey. Materials Postcards: Immigrant Train, George Ottinger; Handcart Pioneers, C.C.A. Christensen; Capital from North Salt Lake, Louise Richards Farnsworth; Richards Camp, J.T. Harwood; Riders of the Range, Paul Salisbury Other Utah artworks that can be found at smofa.org: Teepees, John Hafen; Rocky Mountains, Parishort, William Warner Major; Bishop Sam Bennion Farm, and Ontario Mill Park City, Danquart Weggeland; Sugar Refinery Burning, George Ottinger; Dreaming of Zion, Lee Greene Richards; Curtain Time Pioneer Theater, Cornelius Salisbury; Frontier Scout, Mahonri Young Language Arts/Social Studies/Art Production

Objective: Students will demonstrate their understanding of the pioneer trek to Utah by writing and illustrating journals that could have been written by pioneers. (You may wish to add specific class objectives for the illustrations and writing.) Materials Excerpts from pioneer journals such as Mary Gobel Peays (she was 12) artworks including Immigrant Train, George Ottinger; Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley C.C.A. ChristensenPostcard Set. Additional useful artworks: Teepees, John Hafen; Rocky Mountains, Parishort, William Warner Major; Frontier Scout, Mahonri Youngall available at smofa.org George Catlins paintings of Native Americans from BYU MOAs Lure of the West Packet, March 2002available at MOA bookstore and at http://www.lib.byu.edu/dlib/moa/

As part of a unit on the pioneers, have students become pioneers for a week. They can make books as shown on page 24. Then the students will write journal entries, illustrating the events that happen so that people 150 years later could read and see what their experiences were like. To introduce the activity: If you have a slide projector, project a slide of Lee Greene Richards Dreaming of Zion on the screen or wall while you read excerpts from Mary Gobel Peays journal. 25

(The slide is available in past SMA packets. You may be able to borrow a poster from a middle school, or, purchase a poster from the Springville Museum of Art for $5special price for teachers)

Ask the students how the picture does or does not look like what Mary Peay describes. Ask why an artist might not be most interested in being historically accurate. Then tell the students youre going to look at two artworks that are historically accurate. Divide the students into groups and have them look at the postcards of Immigrant Train and Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley and any other artworks you have. Also, have the students read another excerpt from a pioneer journal. As groups, have the students discuss why journals and artworks with accurate historical data are important. Then have the groups share their ideas with the class.

Lee Greene Richards, Dreaming of Zion

Explain to the class members that they are going to create journal entries that accurately reflect what pioneers might have gone through. Teach them how to make the books. As you continue to study the pioneers, have the students make a journal entry each day, using both written accounts as well as illustrations, as if they were part of a wagon train or handcart company. When the journals are finished, students should title them appropriately. Have the students read each others journals and discuss them as groups. Display the journals in the media center and invite other classes to view and read the journals.

Addition: You may want to complete a lesson on gesture drawing and depicting space in art before you start the journals. If you have already done this as a class, a brief review may be helpful: do three quick gesture drawings and review the list of space indicators on page 40. Evaluation: Have students evaluate their journals using a simple rubric of the criteria you choose. You can also evaluate the journals using the same rubric.

Art HistoryStudents will be able to name two early Utah artists and explain their contributions to Utah Art. Students will create a timeline of Utah art and identify ways the art tells us how life in Utah has changed over the years. Students will demonstrate their ability to read the labels on artworks correctly by identifying the year the artworks were created. As part of, or after finishing, the journals activity, have students learn about the two artists, George Ottinger and C.C.A. Christensen. Use information from the biographies included in the poster backs section. Divide students into groups and give them copies of the following postcards: Immigrant Train, Handcart Pioneers, Riders of the Range, Richards Camp, Boy and Cat, Wash Day in Brigham City, 26

Capitol from North Salt Lake, Road to the River, Youthful Games, and Keeper of the Gate. Have students speculate about Ottingers and Christensens possible impact on art in Utah. Have the groups share their ideas with another group. Each student should write a few lines in their art journals: Ottingers and Christensens names and the titles of their artworks, when they painted, and how they might have influenced the development of Utah art. (Although not the most important part of the activity, two ways the artists were influential are that their artworks exposed many of the early settlers of Utah to art. For example, CCA Christensen toured his Panorama through many small towns where people might not have gotten to see any art. Ottinger became a teacher and not only passed on his skills but also encouraged the next generation of artists to gain more extensive training by going to Paris.. Have the students organize the art images into a timeline. They should make the timeline without looking at the backs of the postcards. They can check the timeline dates after they are finished. Make sure they know how to read the labels on the back of the postcards. The year the artwork was created is the date that follows the artworks title. Ask if they were surprised by any of the dates on the artwork. Ask them to decide why they had a hard time telling on some artworks. For example, Riders of the Range depicts cowboys and cowboys have looked much the same for many years. Art Criticism/AestheticsStudents will explore different ways art is valuable to us by comparing several artists works. Students will choose an aesthetic stance and be able to defend that stance. Materials Two posters or large-size reproduc- tions of artworks. The first should be an artwork most of the students will like. The second should be Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley, SMA Elementary poster Postcards for the 4th grade: Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley, Immigrant Train, and Rhinoceros Other postcards such as Road to the River, Sunrise North Rim Grand Canyon, Boy and Cat, Riders of the Range, Capitol from North Salt Lake Other postcards, particularly of art works many of the students will con- sider beautiful, such as Cliffs of the Upper Colorado River, Wyoming Territory, Thomas Moran; Among the Sierra Nevada, California, Albert Bierstadt; both from BYU MOAs Lure of the West packet, March 2002, or the images are available from www.lib.byu.edu/dlib/moa/ 27

James Christensen, Rhinoceros

Art is valuable to different people in different ways. It may be valuable in several ways at once. Art criticism and aesthetics are ways to explore the ways we value art. In this component of the lesson, students will compare various artworks and determine the ways we might value each artwork. Then the students will choose one way we value art and argue that stance in a debate. Show the class a poster or large reproduction of an artwork that you think most of the students will respond to positively. Ask: What is your first reaction to this artwork? So is it valuable because its beautiful or makes you feel happy, or __________________ ? (use whatever responses the students have given) Why else might this work be valuable to someone? Hold up the poster of Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley. Ask: If you collected art by Utah artists, why might this artwork be valuable to you? Help the students explore the idea that art is valuable is different ways. Divide the students into groups and pass out the postcards. Ask the students to figure out as many different ways as they can that the artworks they have can be considered valuable. Students should make a list. If students need more direction, ask them questions such as the following: Which artworks would be most valuable to an art museum that specializes in Utah artworks? Why? Which artworks would be most valuable to a museum of Utah History? Why? Which artworks would be most valuable to you as something you would want in your home so you could look at it every day? Why?

Each student group will choose one artwork and decide why it may be valuable. They will choose two students who will debate two members of another group, using the reasons they determined in their group to assert that their artwork is the most valuable. Students will complete a form or write in their journals the title of the artwork they chose, the artist, and three reasons they believe the artwork is valuable. Artist:______________________________ Title: _________________________________________ This artwork is valuable because 1. 2. 3.

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Postcards From Utah Artists


Fifth Grade Visual Arts Curriculum

Cyrus Dallin: Paul Revere

John Hancock

Sacajawea

Massasoit

Theme: Searching for Visual Clues


ART CRITICISM Motivation: The artist as the creator is the first source of information about an artwork, but another creditable source is the art critic. He or she, like the artist, can guide the viewers eyes to see meaning in an artwork. It is often the writings of an art critic that help the viewer move beyond the initial response to an artwork and develop a clear understanding of an artwork that results in an informed opinion. In the following lesson, the students will act as an art critic by recording in writing their initial response, their description of the artworks, their analyzes of the visual clues built into the artwork by the artist, provide their interpretation of the artwork based on their observations, and come to a judgement of it. Art Criticism Objective: Students will be able to use a critical model to identify visual clues used by artists to help describe subjects and tell their stories.

Art Criticism Lesson: Divide the students into groups of four. Have students look at the four Cyrus Dallin postcards from the postcard set. Ask the students if they recognize any of the famous individuals in these sculptures: Paul Revere, John Hancock, Sacajawea, and Massasoit. Have the students pick one of these four famous people on which to conduct research so they will know about them. Now, have each group act as art detectives and write down visual clues that Dallin used to help a viewer recognize the individuals he sculpted. You may need to suggest that they look at things like clothing, the position of the figures, and other details. Also, ask the students to think about stories they know about any of these famous people and how these stories helped them to know who these people are. Encourage the individuals in each group to contribute to the discussions. 29

ART HISTORY Art History Objective: Students will be able to identify different styles of artworks by artists who have portrayed images of famous people and compare these styles to one another. Art History Lesson: Chuck Close creates super-sized paintings of famous artists and friends from photographs he takes. His paintings expose the faces of his subjects to the viewer on a level of intimacy previously only viewed by a mother or spouse. Chuck Close said, I paint heads because heads matter to everybody. If you paint a face big enough, its hard to ignore! (Scholastic Art, 1995)

To help the students gain an appreciation of this kind of close- up view, make a transparency of the black and white portrait image of the famous modern composer, Phil Glass, by Chuck Close. Most school and district media center coordinators are a great resource for the materials and expertise to create transparencies. Show the students this image on an overhead projector. Ask them to look for the details in the image like facial hair, pores of the skin, and wrinkles. To give the students a better understanding of how close you would need to get to a person to see such details and to help them understand how a person who is the subject might feel, give each group of four students two magnifying glasses and ask the students to take turns looking very close up through the glasses at one another's faces. Have the students share their feelings as to how they felt both as the viewer and as the subject. Ask the students if they would want a nine-foot Chuck Close painting of their own face in their house. Explain to the students that many of Chuck Closes subjects had trouble with their own images and did not want them hanging in their houses.

Now show the students the Martha Graham Paper Doll Quilt created in 1999 by Rebekka Seigel. Explain that this quilt is part of a series of twelve quilts that Rebekka Seigel has created about famous women. Ask the students if they know who Martha Graham was and what she did for a living. Have the students look for clues that Rebekka Seigel gave us about Martha Graham's life in this quilt. All of Rebekka Seigels paper doll quilts have several

Rebekka Seigel, Martha Graham Paper Doll Quilt images used by permission of the artist 30

removable outfits to dress up the person featured in the quilt. Just like Cyrus Dallin did, Rebekka researched each outfit and patterned them after outfits worn by the person.

Next, have each group of students discuss and compare Cyrus Dallins approach to portraying images of famous people with that of Rebekka Seigel and Chuck Close. Have the students complete the following descriptive matrix to help them look at the differences and similarities of each of these artists approaches. Use this list as a tool for formative assessment of the students processing of this information. The matrix is included at the end of the lesson.

Student groups will analyze the different styles of each artist and decide in what ways and where each artists works would be most appropriate within a community As assessment, students should summarize their decisions and the reasons for that choice. Art Production Objective: The students, working in small groups, will be able to create a mixedmedia quilt that tells about a famous living person.

Art Production Lesson: Have groups of students select a famous person to feature in a mixed-media quilt. Ask the students to research the life of the person they have selected. Some things they could look for are quotes, clothing, gestures, pets, hobbies, careers, family, friends, accomplishments, creations, or other unique details. Have the groups of students sort out and select the best of materials and information they have gathered about the famous person. Now, they should discuss what kind of images they will need to create to best represent the selected information. Have the students find and select appropriate materials to use for these images: cloth, magazine clippings, text, papers, and textures.

The groups may want to create drawings or paintings to illustrate the information, these can be integrated with the other materials. Next, have the students arrange the images and text or other elements to be used in the collage quilt until the design looks complete. Help the students use balance, rhythm, contrast, repetition, proportion, and unity in their designs. Ask them to check the relationship between the size of the images, the colors, the lines, the values, and their use of positive and negative space. Depending on the materials available, the students can glue, sew, or staple the finished design to a large sheet of oak tag, cardboard, or cloth. Have the students create a label for the quilt which contains the names of the students in the group, a title for the quilt, and a statement about the famous person they selected. Exhibit the finished quilts and allow the students to create jurors notes for the quilts created by the other groups. These note should be positive comments that relate to the different parts of the images that are most successful in telling about the famous person. Aesthetics Objective: Student will be able to discuss, compare and write about their conclusions for a selected art story problem. Aesthetics Lesson: Each group of students must select a famous person they want to commission an artist to portray. Each group must select one of two very different artists for the commission: Cyrus Dallin, the sculptor, and the Pop artist, Andy Warhol. The selection should be based on the 31

information they learn about the two artists and the works of art each has created. Then each student must also write a statement that justifies the selection they have made concerning the commission.

Background Information: Andy Warhol created many images of Marilyn Monroe. Who was Marilyn Monroe and why did Warhol choose to create a picture of her? (She was a Hollywood celebrity in the 1950s and 60s. Warhol used her face because almost everyone who saw the print would recognize her.) What is Warhol saying by displaying this celebritys face so prominently? Does he think that society should admire Marilyn Monroe? Why or why not? Cyrus Dallin also relies on the celebrity status of his subjects to help his viewers recognize his subjects, like Paul Revere. What does Cyrus Dallin want society to see about his subjects? How does Dallins approach differ from Warhols approach? Which of these two approaches best fits the kind of image your group would like for your famous person? Cyrus Dallin Andy Warhol sculptures sell for $300,000. Andy Marilyn Monroe Warhols Orange Marilyn, an acrylic and Brigham Young University Musuem of Art silkscreen ink painting on canvas, which was created in 1964, sold for a record price of $17,327,500 at Sotheby's auction house in May of 1998. How would the selling price of an artists artworks influence you if you were on a committee to choose an artist to create an image to represent a famous person? Does a higher price tag make an artwork better? Which artists artworks match the social values of your community? Which artist creates images that the majority of the people in your community would see as beautiful? How would your famous person react to the artist that you have selected to do the commissioned artwork.?

Have the students discuss these topics in their groups and write down their own responses to help them to decide which artist will get their vote. Have the class vote as a group on which artist to choose to do this commissioned artwork. Next, have the students write a press release for the school newspaper about the assignment, the two artists, and the reason why they selected that artist to do the commissioned artwork. Assessment: Use the sample rubric on the next page to assess the performance of each student in each of the four disciplines.

32

Objectives:

Aesthetics

Excellent

Art Criticism Student will be able to Students will be able to discuss, compare, and write describe visual clues, act about their conclusions for as an art critic, write an the art story problem initial response, describe, analyze, interpret, and judge artworks

Sample Rubric for Fifth Grade Lesson: Searching for Visual Clues

Production The student groups will be able to create a mixed media narrative quilt which tells a story about a famous living person

33 Participates some in class, makes minimal attempts to discuss, compare, and write conclusions with the group No attempt to compare ideas, refused to make written conclusions or provide reasons

Satisfactory

Actively engaged in class/group discussions, compares and contrasts ideas, Makes valid written conclusions, provides sound reasons for choice, choice based on aesthetic concerns

Actively engaged in all aspects of the creation of the quilt from individual elements, overall design, exhibition of quilt, created positive/relative jurors notes on quilts created by the other groups Creates some elements for the quilt and helps to complete the project, writes some acceptable jurors notes Made no effort to contribute to the design or creation of the quilt, did not write jurors notes

Needs to Improve

Art History Students will be able to view different styles of artworks by artists who have portrayed images of famous people and compare these styles to one another Discovers several clues, Has learned to compile a list of clues, recognize the styles and is engaged in group and is actively engaged discussions, writes a in the comparison complete and clear initial lesson, completes the response, description, descriptive matrix, chose analyze, interpret, and an artist to portray a judgment of artworks favorite celebrity, writes explanation for choice Mostly identifies visual Participates in clues, participates comparison task on in discussions but acceptable level, helps offers few meaningful select artist, makes connections an attempt to write explanation for choice but not complete Unable to discuss clues Makes little or no effort and refused to participate to recognize styles or in criticism tasks participate in comparison or descriptive matrix tasks

DESCRIPTIVE MATRIX
Artist Materials Used Artistic Approach Artists Intent

I Like/Dont Like Why

Cyrus Dallin

Rebekka Seigel

Chuck Close

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Postcards From Utah Artists


Sixth Grade Visual Arts Curriculum
Theme: There are manY waYs tO depict Landscape
Objectives: 1. Art History: Students will be able to define and identify landscapes. As members of small groups, the students will research an artist who paints landscapes and will demonstrate their knowledge of the artist and his work by making a short presentation to the class. 2. Aesthetics: Students will be able to discuss and make appropriate judgements as to what aesthetic theory best fits particular landscapes. Students will be able to justify their decisions using evidence from the paintings. 3. Art Production: Students will create a landscape using color blends, lightening and darkening colors, creating tints, shades, and tones. 4. Art Criticism: Students will evaluate their landscapes and find ways in which they are similar to the artists paintings they used in the Art History component. Materials Postcards: Road to the River, Maynard Dixon; Moonrise in the Canyon, Moab Utah, Birger Sandzen; Cockscomb near Teasdale, Douglas Snow; Sunrise, North Rim Grand Canyon, Mabel Frazer Sketch paper Good-quality paper Paint, colored pencils, or pastels

Art History

Objective: Students will be able to give a short presentation on a Utah artist who paints landscapes. The report will include information about the artists life and artworks.

Materials If you have postcards and biographical information on artists who have painted landscapes from past packets, you can use those. You may also have slides from past packets which can be scanned to make postcards. Or, download biographical information and images from the Springville Museum of Arts web page. You will need information

Birger Sandzen Moonrise in the Canyon Moab, Utah

35

on enough artists to allow one per small group. You can use the 4 postcards plus 26 other artists. The students need to have access to two artworks by each of the artists you use. See the list at the bottom of the page for artists with images of more than one landscape.

Downloading the images should take less than 30 minutes plus time to print one copy of each of the landscapes. See DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING YOUR OWN POSTCARDS, see appendix. You may want to print one copy of the landscapes as a small poster instead of just as a postcard, so students can use the artwork in their presentation. Another possibility is to print several postcard-size images and have the student pass those around during their presentation. (An additional source of landscape images is calendars. If the calendars do not include enough biographical information, try searching the web or a comprehensive art history text.)

Additional artworks by Mabel Frazer and Douglas Snow can be found at sma.nebo.edu. Go to Collections, then to Artists. Other artworks by Birger Sandzen can be found at sandzen.org; go to America. Additional works by Maynard Dixon can be found at utah.edu/umfa/utah.html. One is also currently available at byu.edu/education/LessonPlans/index.html The presentations about the artists and their works should contain the following information: 1. One other artwork 2. Five facts about the artists life 3. Title, media, size, year, of artworks 4. Style

Allow time for each group to make a presentation to the image from utah.edu/umfa class. Have students use the form on page 49 to self-evaluate their presentations. You may use the scale for a teacher evaluation. You may also want to have students complete a quiz to evaluate what they learned from the other groups presentations. Number the artworks and hold each artwork up so the students can write down the artists name. They should spell the name correctly. The quiz is on page 50. ARTIST LIST FOR ART HISTORY LESSON All of the artists on the following list have at least two artworks on the Springville Museum web page at smofa.org, go to Art Collection, then to Browse, then to Browse Artists. Donald Beauregard Henry Culmer Valoy Eaton J. B. Fairbanks Lynn Fausett John Hafen Samuel Jepperson Howard Kearns Ranch Kimball Henry Moser Lee Greene Richards Howell Rosenbaum Cornelius Salisbury Paul Salisbury LeConte Stewart Danquart Weggeland A. B. Wright

Maynard Dixon Trees

36

Variations: A. Make copies of postcards or postcard-sized images on cardstock. Each student will write a note to a friend about the artwork pictured on the card, explaining something the child learned about the artist, artwork, or style. Evaluate the cards and then let the students mail them. B. Have students write an exhibition catalogue for an exhibit of the postcard artworks. C. Have students curate a show of landscapes from the postcards. (You will need more than the four postcards from the set, but wont need two artworks by each artist. There are postcards of landscapes in several of the past Evening for Educator packets including Lure of the West, BYU MOA, March 2002; and Communities and Towns, SMA Sept. 2001.) Students should be given a place and should hang the show and write a brief explanation of the showwho, why, and what. After students have viewed the exhibits, allow time for comment about how the shows differed and how students respond to those differences.

Evaluation: Have students complete a Learner Report similar to the one for the original Art History component, changing the information to reflect what the class did for the lesson. AESTHETICS Objective: Students will be able to discuss and make appropriate judgements as to what aesthetic theory best fits particular landscapes. Students will be able to justify their decisions using evidence from the paintings.

Materials Postcards from the set: Road to the River, Moonrise in the Canyon, Cockscomb near Teasdale, Sunrise, North Rim Grand Canyon Additional postcards from the Art History component OptionalThomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt postcards from BYU MOAs Lure of the West packet (these can J. Roman Andrus, Cadmium Crest be considered Instrumentalist artworks see information on Manifest Destiny in the Landscape lesson, Lure of the West packet) Or, make your own postcard-size images. Writing paper and pencils 37

Divide students into groups. Give each group a set of the four postcards from the set and two postcards from those used in the Art History component. Have the students decide which aesthetic theory each artwork best fits. Students must justify their decision with specifics from the artwork. For example, I think Keeper of the Gate is an expressive landscape because the colors and shapes are exaggerated, not natural. Background Information on Aesthetics MIMETIC (REALIST)Looks real, mimics nature HEDONISTGives pleasure, to the artist or the viewer INSTRUMENTALISTArt can be an instrument to bring about change EXPRESSIVESTExpresses a feeling, emotion, or idea

If your class has not worked in a similar way with aesthetics, do the activity with two of the postcards as a class. (You may want to use the posters for this.) Then have the class analyze the rest of the artworks as small groups. Have the students, as a group, make lists of words that describe the different qualities of the paintings. They should keep the lists for reference.

Have the groups share their decisions with the class. Discuss differences of opinion. (Students do not have to agree.) Variation for older or more experienced students: Have students debate the merits of differing aesthetic theories. Use the British form of debate in which individuals must change sides after 5 minutes and come up with new arguments.

Art Production
Objective: The students will demonstrate their competency by using color blending, creating tints and shades, toning, and using indicators of space in a landscape painting. Materials: paint brushes good-quality paper blending and color wheel sheets, pages 4547 38

After completing the other sections of the lesson, students will create a landscape. If you have not worked with color in paint, you will need to introduce the lesson by teaching the students these techniques. YOU DO NOT NEED TO BE A GOOD PAINTER TO TEACH THESE TECHNIQUES TO STUDENTS!

Give students paint, water, brushes, and several sheets of heavy paper. The paper does not need to be as high quality as that for the landscape, but should accept paint without deteriorating. Explain to students that with paint, or pigment, the primary colors are red, yellow and blue. The secondary colors, which can be mixed from the three primary colors but are usually provided in paint sets, are orange, green, and purple. Have students mix equal amounts of the primary and secondary colors to get the tertiary colors. You will want to try the mixing beforehand with your class paints because if the hues are not middle rangeneither cool nor warm variations, they may not produce good tertiary colors. Have students complete one of the color wheels from pages 45 and 46. They will place red, yellow, and blue at the spots for primary colors, green, purple, and orange where the secondary colors are indicated, and blend the colors to create the intermediate colors. Have the students keep the color wheel for reference.

Although colors are often lightened with white to make tints, or darkened with a very small amount of black to make shades, these color combinations tend to produce dull colors. The colors are livelier when you lighten a color with the next lighter color on the color wheel and darken with the next darker color on the color wheel. So to lighten a bright red, add a little orange or yellow. To darken red, add violet. Have students complete the color blending chart on page 47 by putting the colors where indicated, making two lightened and two darkened colors and one tint and one shade per color. To make a shade, add a very small amount of black. If desired, these two assignments can be completed using colored pencils or pastels instead of paint.

Assessment of these two assignments is pretty straightforward. You may wish to assign points or an overall grade, evaluating completeness and accuracy. You may want to choose a few of the students works to use as the standard for high quality and compare the rest against those. Creating a Landscape During the Aesthetics component of the lesson, students will have made judgements about which aesthetic theory particular landscapes fit. They should now decide what approach they will take to create a landscape. They may find it helpful to look at the list of words their group generated for that approach.

If possible, allow students to choose the medium they want to use. They should have their color wheels and blending charts out to help them choose colors and to remind them of the color blending Maynard Dixon, Rememberance of Tusayan, No. 2 process. 1924 byu.edu 39

If necessary, review indicators of space such as objects get smaller as they recede into the picture plane objects are higher in the picture plane as they get farther away objects get bluer or grayer as they get farther away objects lose detail as they get farther away objects in front overlap objects that are behind them

Evaluation: Create a simple rubric for students to use in evaluating Edwin Evans, American Fork Canyon their paintings, specifying the criteria you have set. If the students have several art projects in their portfolios, have the students assess their work for indicators of progress by noting three improvements in their work, one thing they want to get better at or learn to do, and by writing the most important thing they learned about landscape.

A fun way to assess the class learning and to stimulate further discussion and interest is to give students a Get out of Class Free card. This is a 3 x 5 note card. Each student must write a question he or she has and turn the card in before leaving class. Choose one or two cards per day and answer them. Advanced Art History Lesson: Objective: Students will demonstrate their knowledge of art history and critical dialogue by comparing Hudson River/Rocky Mountain School landscapes with early Utah artists landscapes.

Materials Postcards of four Hudson River School landscapes Postcards of four Utah landscapes from the early 1900s See Sources

Thomas Cole, Storm King of the Hudson image from bsu.edu/artmuseum

40

John B. Fairbanks, Harvest in Utah Valley

George L. Brown, View on the Hudson image from dfl.highlands.com 41

Have students use the information from the Poster Backs and the Springville Museum of Arts web page to learn about the Utah artists. The students will also need to do research on the Hudson River Schoolthe artists from this school who came West, like Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt were sometimes called the Rocky Mountain Schoolsame ideas, different area of the country. Students can search the web or you can get a copy of the Lure of the West packet from BYUs MOA. Students should work as small groups. Students should identify similarities, differences, and influences, and should suggest reasons for the differences. Variation: Compare Utah landscapes from different time periods.

Sources: Springville Museum of Arts web site: smofa.org John Hafen, Edwin Evans, J.T. Harwood, and J. B. Fairbanks were all members of the first group of Utah artists to study in Paris. Find artworks by artists such as Thomas Cole and George Loring Brown at artcyclopedia.com The Lure of the West packet has three postcards of landscapes by Hudson River School artists Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt. One work by each artist can also be found at byu.edu/moa/exhibits/index.html

42

Landscape Lessons for Advanced Students


1. As small groups, compare harvest scenes of Utah and European artists Speculate about the reasons for the differences. Consider artistic training, artistic tradition, cultural climate, geography, time period, social conditions. Choose one reason and research to see if your speculation is true. Share your findings with the class.

2. Research the Fauvists. Write a brief summary of their philosopy. Describe commonalities in their paintings. Create a fauvist landscape. Moonrise in the Canyon Moab, Utah, Birger Sandzen SMA Elemntary Poster Set, Postcard Set, and smofa.org Find examples of Utah art completed after Birger Sandzens teaching visits in 1929 and 1930 that show evidence of the artists being influenced by Sandzens use of color and his/or his broad brushstrokes. Use smofa.org

3. Research the Impressionists. Write a descritpion of their art-making techniques with examples of the way they used color. Create an Impressionist landscape. Footsteps in Spring, Liberty Park, J. T. Harwood The artwork can be accessed at smofa.org.

43

BASIC COLOR WHEEL

44

UTAH LANDSCAPESLearner Report


Name_______________________________________________ Period ______________

Our presentation contained the following information: Yes No c c c c c c c c One other artwork Five facts about the artists life Title, media, size, and year of artworks Artists style

Overall, our presentation was Great c Okay c Weak c

My participation in the research and presentation was Great c Okay c Weak c

The most important thing I learned is

45

Utah LandscapesPresentation Quiz


Artists Name Style of Art One Interesting Fact

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

46

Postcards From Utah Artists


Using Postcards in Lower Elementary Grades
Identifying kinds of artwork
Objectives: 1) Students will demonstrate their understanding of drawings, paintings, sculptures, and prints by accurately choosing each from a group of images. 2) Students will demonstrate their ability to draw, paint, make, a sculpture, and a print, by completing artworks in each medium. 3) Students will demonstrate their understanding of critical analysis by identifying ways their artworks are similar to those by professional artists. Many young children do not know what a painting is or how it differs from a drawing, sculpture, or a print. The following lesson will help them identify several kinds of artwork. This lesson may take as many as five class periods. Materials postcards: Choose 23 of the paintings from the Elementary Postcard set. 23 of the sculptures 23 drawingsmake postcards from draw ings such as A Compromise of Freedom and Control, Connie Borup or Eureka, B. F. Larsen, smofa.org; or choose da Vinci drawings at artcyclopedia/artists/leonardo_da_
vinci.html

Drawing Give the students sheets of good-quality drawing paper, pencils and rulers. Have students draw a border around the paper, using the width of the ruler and erasing the lines that overlap in the corner. Choose a subject for the students to draw or allow them the choice. Show the students how to use the side of the pencil lead to do some shading. Tell the students they have made a drawing. Show them the postcards you have made of drawings and have the students identify ways their drawings and the ones pictured on the postcards are similar. 47

23 prints such as Full Bloom, Trevor Southey (Postcard set), or Jennis Bookshelf, Royden Card; Blue Magnolias XVIII third state, Jenni Christensen; Killer Bee, Harry Taylor, smofa.org

Connie Borup, A Compromise of Freedom and Control

Painting

Give the class sheets of heavy paper and watercolor or tempera paints. Have them draw a border around the paper, as in the drawing component of the lesson. Then have the students draw simple shapes on the paper such as circles, squares, and rectangles. The shapes should overlap and fill the space. Then students will paint the shapes and the background. They may paint the border or leave it the color of the paper. Explain that they have now created a painting. (The reason for having students make separate drawings for the drawing and the painting are so students do not think all drawings are a prelude to painting.) Variation: Instead of shapes, have the students make a drawing inspired by a story you have read in class. They can then make a painting, as in the previous step. Divide the students into groups of 45 and give the students the postcards of the paintings and drawings. Have them separate the drawings and the paintings. (If you have enough postcards so each member of the group gets one an has to decide whether it is a drawing or a painting, you will ensure participation by all the students. Have the groups compare and see if everyone in the class agrees. Have students identify ways the drawings and paintings are the same and ways they are different. Then, have students identify ways their paintings and the postcard paintings are similar.

Sculpture

B. F. Larsen, Eureka 1937 Materials pencil oil-based clay or salt dough paint (optional) photographs of animalsyou can often purchase animal books at thrift stores and cut out the pages postcards of drawings, paintings, and sculptures

Give each student some oil-based clay or salt dough (recipe follows) and let them choose a photograph of an animal. Then the students will make the animals in clay. If you used oil-based clay, display the animals for a week or two before using the clay for other activities. If you used salt dough, allow the animals to dry, and then bake them at 350 degrees. After baking, the animals may be painted, or make the clay a neutral color such as a warm brown. Display the animals. When the students have completed a drawing, a painting, and a sculpture, divide the class into groups (new ones) and pass out the postcards. Have students divide the postcards into Drawings, Paintings, and Sculptures. Discuss as in the previous activity. 48

Printmaking
Materials styrofoam meat trays, plates, or pieces of insulation (the blue kind), cut into 2 x 2 squares pencils postcards of drawings, paintings, sculptures, and prints

Have students divide a sheet of 4 x 4 scratch paper into 4 by folding it in half and then in half again. In each square students should make a simple line drawing. Each square needs to have at least one small change. Students choose which design they like best and go over the lines. (If you have drawing pencils, a dark pencil such as a 3b is good. Then the design will be placed face down on the piece of styrofoam and rubbed to transfer the design. Students will use their pencils to carve down into the blocks to make the design. Remind the students that the lines they carve in will be the part without ink. Having an example to show the students is helpful. Then have students Royden Card, Jennis Bookshelf 1984 print their Woodcut/Blockprint designs. You may want to have them print the design once on white paper, wipe the printing block, and print again on a dark colored-paper using a light colored paint or ink. Ideas for Designs: Have students make a design from their initials. Have students draw one item such as a piece of fruit. Have students draw a person doing some activity.

You may also want to have the students print an edition. Printing an edition is how artists print: they make a group of prints at the same time, with the goal of making each print look the same. Prints should be signed at the bottom and numbered such as 2/5, which means the second print from an edition of five. Jenni Christensen Blue Magnolias XVII third state (3rd of 3) 1991 Intaglio/etching 49

Divide the students into groups and pass out the postcards. Have the students select the prints from the group of postcards. If the students have difficulty, help them identify traits of the prints. (One reason they may have difficulty is that artists use drawings to make prints and so some prints look very much like drawings. For example, compare Trevor Southeys print New Bloom with the da Vinci drawing on the right. On the other hand, Killer Bee, by Harry Taylor is easier to distinguish. Help the students figure out where they could get information that would help them know whether it is a print or drawing. They can look at the label, which includes what medium the artist used for the artwork.) Review the terms the class has learned: drawing, painting, sculpture, print.

Extension: Have a local artist or advanced student come and demonstrate for the students and show some of his or her work in one of the media youve explored. Or show a video of an artist painting, drawing, sculpting, or making prints.

Leonardo da Vinci, Head of the Virgin Drawing


image from ownfineart.com/Drawings/Head_of_the_Virgin_ in%20Three-Quarter_View.jpg

Resources

Videos: Check your district media center. Web Sources:


sma.nebo.edu artcyclopedia.com askart.com artincontext.com

Extension for older students: Have the students choose one media theyre most interested in and do a unit on that media. Make more complex or extended artworks, learn about an artist, learn about the history of the medium, discuss and critique artworks, etc.

Harry Taylor, Killer Bee, woodblock print 50

Using Postcards to Review the Elements and Principles of Art


The postcards make reviewing concepts the class has learned simple and fun. In addition, using them in groups offers students the chance to learn from each other.

For color: Divide the students into groups and pass out postcards to each group. Have the students find postcards with the color scheme you call out such as complementary, analogous, monochromatic, etc. When they have found a postcard that fits the category you have given, they can hold up the postcard. Then you can check for accuracy. Students can validate each others choices, too. Do similar reviews with line and shapes by asking for different kinds of examples. You can also have the students review vocabulary such as pattern, realistic, landscape, etc. These reviews can be used to assess and evaluate student learning about the concepts, terms, and ideas you have studied in art lessons.

Drawing, Advanced

Objective: Students will learn to draw freely, leaving all lines. Materials Postcard-sized reproductions of Madonna and Child (also called Virgin and Child with a Cat)* Charcoal, neutral-colored pastels Drawing paper Model Give the students postcards of Madonna and Child. Ask them to comment on da Vincis approach to drawing. Challenge them to complete three figure drawings of the model, leaving all lines and drawing as freely as possible.

Have students look at their drawings as small groups and describe what, if anything, has happened to their drawing style. Have students keep the drawings in their portfolios and revisit them periodically. * The same website has two other similar drawings by da Vinci.

Leonardo da Vinci Madonna and Child ca. 1480 image from larsdatter.com/cats.htm 51

Standing Up for Shape and ColorBut Make it Abstract


Objective: Students will understand 3-dimensional and abstract art so they can create their own abstract sculpture.

Materials: Images of both 2-D and 3-D art (4 images of 2-D and 3-D abstract art are included on the CD) Scissors, glue Construction paper and/or other colorful paper, Small pieces of cardboard Elementary Postcard sets Discussion: Display the examples of the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional art. Ask: What is art? After their responses, discuss the examples so students understand the difference between 2-D and 3-D art with questions such as: How was this one made? What is the difference between the 2-dimensional and the 3-dimensional art? Which kind of art do you think is better? hich do you like the best? Why? or What do you like about it?

Tell: One of the things we know about the people who lived on the earth thousands of years ago is the kind of art they made. When men were living in caves they drew art on the walls of the cave. Every civilization we know about has created art. Some of the art has been 2- D and some has been 3-D. Activity: Explain the postcards Divide students into groups. Pass out postcards Have students find the pictures of three-dimensional art Ask: What do you think these works of art are made of? Tell: Three-dimensional art is called sculpture. Write Cyrus Dallin and Mahonri Young on the board. Have the students separate the postcards. Read the bio information on the back. Then have students look one at a time at the Dallin pictures and read the information about the sculptures. Ask: Do you know any of the people he made these sculptures of? All of these sculptures are of real people in history.

Tell: Artists make art about the things they are interested in. Look through the postcards and find the one that is only shapes and colors. (Chelsea VI, by Donald P. Olsen) Ask: Is this a painting? 52

Now look at Mahonri Youngs sculpture. This sculpture is called Factory Worker. How is that different from the Cyrus Dallin sculptures?

What do you like about this picture? Why do you think the artist painted this kind of picture? Read the bio on the back of the postcard. Which of the works of art (the sculptures and Chelsea VI) do you like the best? Let students tell why they chose the one they did.

Tell: This artist liked to make shapes and colors. Using colors and/or shapes that are not like real things is called abstract art. Ask: How do you think we could make a sculpture (3-D work of art) that is abstract, out of these things? Discuss various ways of folding and rolling the paper to make it stand up in a 3-dimensional way. Project: Students will use the cardboard as a base to create a 3-D work of art using the colors they like. Assessment: Let the students show and talk about their work. Additional images for the lesson can be found on smofa.org Show: The supplies you have for the students to use.

Avard Fairbanks, Buffalo

Frank Riggs, Tohatchi

Layne Mecham, Reframing 53

Raymond Jonas, Abstract Configuration

Labels for backs of additional images (postcard sized)

Avard Tennyson Fairbanks, Buffalo (1912) BRONZE 28-1/2 x 46-1/2 x 19-1/2

Raymond Vincent Jonas, Abstract Configuration (1982) WOOD 45-3/4 x 72 x 60

Frank P. Riggs, Tohatchi (1990) METAL 85-1/4 x 38 x 58-3/4

Layne R. Meacham, Reframing MIXED MEDIA 72 x 66-3/8

54

Postcards From Utah Artists


Grades 612 Visual Arts Curriculum
Yes, No, Maybe So
Grades 6-12 Follow-up: This lesson can be a basis for almost any lesson on aesthetics.

Adaptations (Special Needs population): Do the homework in class with a peer tutor. Do worksheets in groups. Extensions (Gifted):Have students interview other faculty about what art is to them and how they came to that conclusion. Concepts/Foci: What is Art?; Introduction to aesthetics; Define what art is. Critical/Creative Skill: Write definition of what art is. Vocabulary: Aesthetics Multiple Intelligences: Interpersonal, Linguistic, Touch, Auditory, Spatial

Objectives: Students will be able to: Give examples of what they think is art, not art, and what could be art, Summarize their own ideas of what art is in a brief definition, Categorize objects as Art,Non-art, and Maybe Art, Appreciate that others define art differently, Recognize that not everything is art, Identify postcard images with aesthetic clusters. (Utah Art Core Standard 3.A.1)

Motivator: Place in front of the class a large wrapped box. Talk with the class about occasions when they receive gifts. Lead the class to discover it is when people want to share something of worth with others. In this box are six smaller boxes as well as objects that are art, not art, and could be art. Examples for objects are a small ceramic pot, flashlight, bar of soap, a wood craft/Christmas ornament, geode or crystal or some type of decorative rock, a real art work, a Brillo box, model airplane, unusual looking shoe, and so forth. Inside the smaller boxes are postcard examples and questions for the six clusters of aesthetics. They are as follows: What is art?; What is beauty?; Artist Intent; Aesthetic Experience; Artistic Creation; Art and Other Values. 55

Pass out the small boxes. One by one have students open them. Show the postcards or have large images up front for the class to see. Let the students read the questions in each box. Answer and discuss the questions together. Spend about three to five minutes per box. Do the What is Art? Box last. For each box use the postcards to engage in discussions. This last box is the focus of the lesson.

Lesson steps: Motivator. Pull the objects out of the box. Have students decide if it is art, not art, or could be art. Pick specific objects to discuss. If students are not engaging in the discussion use objects that are part of popular culture such as a car, clothing, designer shoes, and so forth. Give homework assignment worksheet Yes, No, Maybe so. Discuss with class what they found on their worksheets. Lead students to verbally express what they believe art is. In doing so, help the students recognize that not everything is art. Example, the toilet in the bathroom. Have students choose a postcard. Students will use the postcard to help them fill out the Making Distinctions worksheet. Use the Barbie article to help fill out the worksheet. The last step of the worksheet is to write a personal definition of what art is. The small boxes: What is art? John Chamberlain, Dolores James, 1962 Who makes art: Where is art? When is art? Why is art?

What is beauty? Emily Carr, Shoreline, 1936 Francis Bacon, Study After Pope Innocent X by Velazquez, 1951 What is beauty? Subjectivism beauty is in the eye of the beholder Objectivismonly one universal definition Is there an ugly or are there just degrees of beauty?

Artists Intent Any work of art by Andy Warhol Any work of art by an animal. These can be found on the Internet. I use Singgah the Asian Elephant. Can anyone or anything make art? Is anything an artist makes art? What about pizza or cookies? Does it have to have intent to be art? 56

Vincent van Gogh, Cypresses (1889) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Van_ Gogh

Artistic Creation George Segal, Bus Riders, 1962 Clive Arlidge, Heke Meets the Guv, 1962 Does the process of making art matter? Does the artist have to make something or can he/she just put a stick on a pedestal and call it art? Art and Other Values Ethical Chris Burden, Doorway to Heaven, November 15, 1975 Political Faith Ringgold, The Flag is Bleeding, 1967 Religious Salvador Dali, Crucifixion, 1954 Historical Lascaux Cave Paintings, Galloping Horse, 15,000 B.C.

Aesthetic Experience Most paintings by van Gogh Collin McCahon, Will He Save Him?, 1959 What are your reactions to a work of art. Are these similar to your reactions to nature? Is it good art if you have a negative reaction to the art, or if you dont have a reaction?

Lascaux Cave Paintings www.ursispaltenstein.ch/blog/weblog.php?/weblog/2007/07/10/

Economical Jasper Johns, Three Flags, 1958 Social Any work by Shirin Neshat Questions:

Helpful Articles:

Can values affect the viewers perception?

N.Y. Artists Cheesy Idea Fails to Melt Wyoming City Officials Hearts. Brandon Grigg., The Salt Lake Tribune, A-1, A-6 All-Consuming Barbie, Joan OBrien. The Salt Lake Tribune When is Art? Nelson Goodman

Should people spend $17 million for a Jasper Johns painting? Is it good art because its old? Do art and politics mix?

57

Making Distinctions Activity


Name one way certain things are LIKE art (or specific art forms) Name one way certain things are NOT LIKE art (or specific art forms) 1. One way a Barbie doll is LIKE art is

One way a Barbie doll is NOT LIKE art is 2. One way a flower is LIKE sculpture is One way a flower is NOT LIKE sculpture is

Continue with the above pattern of distinction statements with objects like a rock, a new car, a cereal box, and so forth. 3. One way a __________________________ is LIKE art is

One way a __________________________ is NOT LIKE art is 4. One way a __________________________ is LIKE art is One way a __________________________ is NOT LIKE art is 5. One way a __________________________ is LIKE art is One way a __________________________ is NOT LIKE art is

After making these distinctions you are ready to write a personal definition of art. On the back of this paper please write your personal definition of art is. Please use complete sentences. On a separate piece of paper, create a work of art that fits your definition of art.

58

Name _________________________________________________________

Yes, No, Maybe So

Period _________________________

Look around your house, outside, and in a building and find 5-10 objects for each category. Yes, this is art. No, this is not art. Well maybe, but Im not sure if this is art.

Yes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Maybe So 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

No

59

Aesthetics for Advanced or Experienced Students


Objective: Students will demonstrate their understanding of aesthetic theories by identifying artworks and explaining how they fit a particular aesthetic theory. Materials Students will need a copy of the explanantions of the theories. Research materialsart history texts, art reproductions, past Evening for Educator packets, the Internet Poster of Storm Spirits on Horizon #6 Show the class the poster and ask the students to apply the Mimetic Theory to it. Ask students how the artwork matches the theory and how it doesnt. If students do not believe the artwork is very mimetic, have them determine another theory it better fits and say why.

Divide the students into small groups and have them discuss the theories on the handout. Then students should find at least two examples of art that match each theory. They must write out the reasons for their decision. Have each group present their artworks to the class, explaining their reasoning.

Variation: Have each group take a different theory. Each students in the group is responsible for finding one artwork that matches their groups theory. Each artwork must be from a different artist. Students will create posters or bulletin boards explaining the theory and displaying the artworks. Students will give a brief presentation to the class about their groups display. Variation: Assign students to research a particular aesthetic theory andartists who worked within that theory. Students will present their information as a panel. Or, have students debate the theories merits. Have a students act as the judge.

Related Production Assignment: Students will choose an aesthetic theory and produce an artwork that matches that theory. Artworks should be displayed with didactics that indicate the criteria the students were working within.

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Mimetic Theory (Imitationalist or Realist)

Definition: The Mimetic Theory is concerned with the artwork itself. It is a reflection of nature. The artwork is a correct representation of reality. Assertions: Art Imitates nature. To be a work of art it needs to look realistic. The work needs to copy reality. One tends to like art that looks real because one can recognize and understand it. To be art, it needs to be correct, complete, and vivid in its representation. The work of art needs to show that the artist has technical skill.

EXPRESSIONIST THEORY ExpressivismDefinition: The Expressivist Theory is concerned with the artist in a work of art. Art that fits into this category may communicate ideas, feelings, and emotions of the artist. It does not necessarily have to involve the audience, as long as the artist was able to express his inner feelings. These ideas, if conveyed, are usually communicated forcefully by the artist. Assertions: If a work of art expresses the feelings of the artist, then it is considered a work of art. Art should be filled with emotions. The emphasis is on the artist and the artwork. Technical skill is not as important as the feelings, moods, emotions, and ideas that the artist expresses. Art is the transmission of a feeling that the artist has experienced. The artist can create an artwork and it doesnt necessarily need to be understood. Realism is not important. HEDONIST THEORY

Definition: The Hedonist Theory is concerned with the work of art and the audience. For a work of art considered a good work of art, it need to bring pleasure to the audience. Assertions: The more pleasure one receives, the better the art work. People tend to judge too quickly whether it gives them pleasure or not. If a piece of art gives one feelings that one likes, then it is considered a good work of art. A great work of art is something that gives pleasure, either to a small audience or to a large audience. The audience becomes absorbed in the artwork and forgets itself. Artworks that are judged by the Hedonist Theory tend to be more decorative.

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INSTRUMENTALIST THEORY(contextualist or pragmatist)

Definition: The Instrumentalist Theory is concerned with the context or circumstances surrounding an artwork. It examines the ways art can promote social/political concerns. Art is evaluated on the greatness of its purpose and how effectively the artwork accomplishes that purpose.

Assertions: Art is an instrument to produce effects, usually for social, political, moral, or economic purposes. An artwork should advance the interests of humanity. Art should portray the context or circumstance of human needs. The audience should have a vivid, rich experience. Aesthetic value is determined both by the greatness of the purpose and also by the depth of the experience. Instrumentalist art usually refers to social issues. You may want to include additional aesthetic theories such as Formalist, Institutionalist, Feminist, etc. Good explanations of these theories can be found in the Fill in the GAP packet.

62

Postcards From Utah Artists


Elementary Dance Curriculum
Formalist Dance
Just as in the visual arts, dance approaches vary widely. This dance lesson is based on the formalist idea that lines, shapes, colors, etc., are what is most important. The lesson will be most effective if used after one of the art lessons on formalist art. Materials Posters: Chelsea VI, Don Olsen SMA Elementary Poster Set Postcards: Chelsea VI, other formalist artworks such as La Semilla Brota, Allen Bishop; Sentinel, Frank Riggs; Marine #2, George Dibble from sma.nebo.edu drum (optional) Process: Warm up by stretching gently in every direction and then shaking each body part, then the whole body. Show the students the poster of Chelsea VI and have the students identify the kind of artwork it is: a painting, a formalist artworkemphasis is on shapes and color and line. Have the students name some of the lines and shapes they see. Have them stand and make those lines and shapes with their bodies. Divide students into groups and pass out a set of postcards to each group. Each group will spend about 5 minutes exploring some individual shapes and lines their bodies can make, looking at the artworks for inspiration. Then have students work on putting those shapes together to make a group design. Students should choose a beginning shape, a shape as part of the group shape, and a way to get from the beginning shape to the group shape. The moving part should take 4 counts. The whole pattern will be as follows: Beginning shape: hold 4 counts Moving: 4 counts Group shape: 8 counts Each group should practice the pattern. Using the drum or clapping your hands, give the students the beat. Explain how you will count and how the students will move. 63

George Dibble, Marine #2

Give the following directions: Ready Beginning shape: 1, 2, 3, 4, Hold, 2, 3, 4. Move, 2, 3, 4. Hold, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. (Say the words in italics and clap or beat on Hold, Move, and Hold; they are beat one of the measures.)

Have each group of students preform the groups pattern for the class. If the students can count to themselves, use just Ready and then the beats. Otherwise, continue to provide directions and the beats. Extension: Add the dimension of movement and time to the lesson.

Frank Riggs, Sentinel

Allen Bishop, La Semilla Brota 64 64

Dance/Movement
Objective: Students will demonstrate their awareness of body position and posture by walking in different styles.

Materials: Postcards: Cyrus Dallin, John Hancock, Sacajawea, Paul Revere, Massasoit; Mahonri Young: Factory Worker Photographs of famous people If used with the fifth grade lesson on famous people, use only that part of the introduction. Warm up: Have students spread out at least an arms width from any other student. Tell the students you are all marionettes and demonstrate to the students: bend your knees slightly, bend your arms and hold them out to the sides as if they had strings attached at the elbows, and bob your head slightly. Call out instructions to the students and demonstrate the movement for them. Right elbow up then down, left knee up then down, head to the left and to the right, etc. Have the students go through a range of motion. Then, say all the strings let go! and collapse to the floor. Then slowly, curl up to standing.

Now have the students divide into five groups and form five lines on one side of the space. Explain that today, the class is going to explore one of the simplest movements we makewalking. Ask students to continue to imagine they are pulled upward by a string out of the top of their head, not so theyre looking up, just standing tall. Now have the students walk across the floor, a row at a time, a new row every 8 beats. Clap your hands or beat a drum (a large plastic ice cream bucket with its lid on works fine). When all the students have walked across the room and back, ask them to walk across the room as if they were a king or queen. Now ask them to walk like an athlete; then like a movie star, etc. Then give each group a postcard, a photograph, or a slip of paper with a famous persons name on it. The group should discuss for a moment how that individual would walk. Each group should have a chance to walk across and back as their person. Then have each group show the walk to the rest of the class. They can try to get the rest of the class to guess who they are, or they can have an announcer.

After each group has demonstrated the persons walk, allow the children to discuss what they saw and did. Ask the students to identify as many ways as they can how each walk was differentwhat made the walks expressive of individual characteristics.

65

66

Appendix
Directions for Making Your Own Postcards Venn Diagram Poster Lessons Spreadsheet

Information from the Back of the Springville Museum of Arts Elementary Poster Set
Carlos J. Andreson, Still Life with Guitar Lee U. Bennion, Snow Queen CCA Christensen, Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley James C. Christensen, The Rhinoceros Jeanne Leighton-Lundberg Clarke, Entertaining Favorite Ladies II Cyrus E. Dallin, Paul Revere, Portrait of John Hancock, Massasoit, and Sacajawea Maynard L. Dixon, Road to the River, Mt. Carmel, Utah Louise Richards Farnsworth, Capitol from North Salt Lake Calvin Fletcher, Wash Day in Brigham City Mabel Pearl Frazer, Sunrise, North Rim Grand Canyon John Hafen, The Mountain Stream James T. Harwood, Boy and Cat; My Little Son Heber James James T. Harwood, Richards Camp Donald P. Olsen, Chelsea VI George M. Ottinger, Immigrant Train, Away, Away to the Mountain Dell Edith T. Roberson, Channel Three Paul Salisbury, Riders of the Range Sven Birger Sandzen, Moonrise in the Canyon, Moab, Utah Dennis V. Smith, Keeper of the Gate Gary E. Smith, Farm Boy with Cap Gary E. Smith, Youthful Games V. Douglas Snow, Cockscomb, Near Teasdale Trevor, J. Southey, New Bloom Mahonri M. Young, The Factory Worker

App.I

App.II

Creating Postcards
You may want to supplement the Postcard Set with additional images. You can purchase images at museums or from catalogues, or you may be able to find art poster catalogs with pictures of the posters which can be cut out and pasted on cardstock. However, one of the best ways to get these images is to download and print images from the Internet. The postcard activities include suggestions to help you choose supplemental images. You may also find art history textbooks helpful: they can give you ideas of artists or styles that relate to your lesson materials. The following directions will help you create postcards from images you have found on the Internet: First, open a word processing program like WordPerfect or Microsoft Word. Next, open Netscape or Internet Explorer and use a search engine to find an image you want to use as a postcard. Another way to search is to go to art sites, such as artcyclopedia.com and the Springville Museums web site, www.smofa and search their data bases. Hint: choose the image with the largest size for the best resolution.

Once you have found a desired image, move your cursor to anywhere on the image. This will select the image. If you are using an IBM type computer, then click and hold the right mouse button till a pop-up menu is displayed. Move the cursor to select the menu choice "save image as." A new menu will appear that will allow you to name and save the image as a file in any directory you choose on your hard drive or a floppy disk. Now go back to your word processor and select insert from the menu bar, and a new pop-up menu will appear. From the insert pop-up menu, select graphics, and then a new pop-up menu will appear. Choose the option "from file." This will allow you to insert the image you saved as a file from Netscape or Microsoft Internet Explorer.*

Once the image is inserted in your document, you may increase the size of the image by moving your cursor over one of the dots at the corners until a double arrow appears at the corner. Now, hold and click on the left mouse button and at the same time, hold the control key down. This will allow you to increase or decrease the size of the image without distorting the proportions. A good size for a postcard is four by six inches.

Next, space down the page two or three lines and type the information for the label. The label should contain the following information: the name of the artist, the year the artist was born, and the year the artist died the title of the artwork and the year the artwork was created the size and media who owns the artwork If desired, then include a short biographical sketch and some background information about the artwork.

Now, print this document using a color printer, if possible. Cut and crop both the image and text to fit the 4"x 6" format. Glue the paper with the label and additional information on the back of the image using a small amount of glue from a glue stick. Now run both through a laminator, if possible, and trim the edges. It is most economical to run several postcards at a time through the laminator. * If the web browser you try doesnt bring up the menu to save the image, try a different web App.III

browser. Sometimes one works when another doesnt. Also, you can choose copy rather than save as from the menu. Then go to the graphics program you use, go to file, new, and then paste the image in the new file. Go to layers and flatten the image. The choose image and go to image size. This will allow you to make the image whatever size you want. If the image you have copied is very large, you can up the resolution as you decrease the image size, producing a better quality postcard.

App.IV

Venn Diagram

A C

Use a Venn Diagram to help students compare and contrast artworks, aesthetic stances, art styles, etc. Students identify the ways the two items or ideas are different, and these descriptors go in A and B. In the areas the circles overlap, C, the students put the ways the items or ideas are similar. The diagram is particularly useful for students who need a concrete way to visualize ideas.

App.V

The following two pages contain a spreadsheet indicating what areas of the Utah State Visual Arts Core Curriculum are met by the lessons and activities on the backs of the Springville Museum of Arts elementary posters.

App.VI

Grade
K K K 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 Louise Farnsworth George Ottinger James Christensen Mahonri Young Factory Worker The Rhinoceros Paul Salisbury Edith Roberson Channel Three Gary Smith Youthful Games Dennis Smith Keeper of the Gate pastel/ blending Calvin Fletcher Wash Day Trevor Southey New Bloom printmaking drawing, tempera/ overlapping, contour Jeanne L-L Clarke Entertaining Favorite Ladies II markers/blockin/detail, patterns line CCA Christensen Handcart Pioneers gradation Donald Olsen Chelsea VI shape/balance J T Harwood Boy and Cat value Lee Bennion Snow Queen collage/blocking/ rubbings color, value/ center of interest texture/shape/variety/ figure narrative

Artist

Title

Making Media/Tech/Process
(figure)

Perceiving Element/Principle/ Function

Expressing Subject Matter/ Symbol/Idea


non-objective approaches (genre) figureportraiture

Contextualizing History/Culture/ Other

purposes

color/repetition, unity color/harmony space space, color/center of interest

history figure, still life

watercolor/overlapping, wash/glazing collage/cast shadow

landscape/cityscape space/contrast, focal point/self-expression genre line/contrast, focal point still life

community/history

family history/ recreation (figure, genre) sculpture/sculptural processes print, photography space, form crayon/resists value/monement, repetition (figure) fantasy

Riders of the Range drawing/blending

autobiography

Immigrant Train

Capitol from North Salt Lake

painting/painting techniques, blocking

value, space/movement all value, space, color/all

cityscape

Utah history/science

Utah history

App.VII

(cityscape, genre)

science

scientific observation

Grade
Paul Revere Portrait of John Hancock Massasoit Sacajawea Sunrise, North Rim mixed media Grand Canyon Cockscomb Road to the River Richards Camp Moonrise in the Canyon all/cast shadows space, color, texture applied arts/thumbnail, cast shadows color, space, value/all drawing/modeling, crosshatching/ perspective space, value, color landscape printmaking line/texture/repetition abstract/ non-objective (genre) line (landscape) sculpture/scale proportion form, shape figure/national pride, love national history

Artist

Title

Cyrus Dallin

Making Media/Tech/Process

Perceiving Element/Principle/ Function

Expressing Subject Matter/ Symbol/Idea

Contextualizing History/Culture/ Other

Mabel Frazer

Doug Snow

cultures geography technology

Maynard Dixon

App.VIII
The Mountain Stream Still Life with Guitar Playing the Game Farm Boy with Cap pastels/foreground, middle ground, background/Impressionism, tints & shades using basic shapes/ drawing/mixing colors using warm colors using simple shapes/ creating mood line, color, texture/ design warm & cool colors/ composition color, shape/ composition

JT Harwood

The following posters were completed at a later date. The poster of John Hafens The Mountain Stream is designed for Elementary, but not for a specific grade. The posters of Carlos Andresons Still life with Guitar, Joseph Henry Sharps Playing the Game, and Gary Smiths Farm Boy with Cap each have a section for Elementary grades. At the time they were created, the State Core combined Making & Perceiving and Expressing & Contextualizing. The suggested activities have been divided into the original 4 areas, to simplify the chart. all, properties of color/ receding lines, vanishing point

Birger Sandzen

landscape/approaches biology, geography, physical science

John Hafen

Carlos Andreson

sources of inspiration/ expressing/comparseasons/developing a ing regions/impact of theme artwork creating dominance/ identifying design, texture art styles

Henry Sharp

Gary Smith

making meaning/Re- Taos artists, culture alism vs. Expressivism expressing feelings

understanding context

Carlos J. Andreson Still-Life with Guitar


The Artist
Carlos J. Anderson was born in 1904 in Midvale, Utah. He first studied art at the University of Utah, then continued his education at the Los Angeles Art Institute, Arts Students League in New York, Ecole de Beaux-Arts and the Academie Julian in Paris, and later, in Berlin. Andersons work was very well received in Europe, and he exhibited in group and one-man shows in Stockholm, Nice, and Paris. Returning to the United States in 1933, he participated in the Works Progress Administration (WPA) Art Program, receiving a government commission for a series of twenty-four paintings and drawings of places historically important in Utah. These top-quality renderings are mostly of historical buildings, and later, some of them were used to illustrate programs for the Utah Symphony and published in the book Early Utah Sketches by A. Russell Mortensen. The collection is currently held by the Utah State Fine Arts Collection. As another part of his WPA work, Andreson taught lithography, painting, and drawing at the Utah Arts Center.

During the late 1930s Anderson moved to New York and participated in the New York WPA, making lithographs of New York life and culture. For the next few years, Anderson continued to work as an artist in New York, painting in a stylized form of Realism that marked him as an American Scene painter. His work has a casual, earthy style and portrays typical everyday scenes of people and places, reflecting the socialism of the times. During this time he was known as Carlos Andreson, having made the name change in an effort to avoid long lists of Andersons. In 1937, he married the landscape watercolorist M. Lois Head, and she returned with him to Utah in 1946, but they later divorced.

Carlos Andresons work was exhibited at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington D. C. in 1936 and at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1938. Twice the Whitney Museum invited him to participate in exhibits, once asking particularly for an artwork with a western theme. Soon after the start of World War II, Abbott Laboratories commissioned Andreson to depict medical subjects at the stateside Naval hospitals. Seventeen of these works are included in the Navy Art Collection. Other institutions holding works by Carlos Andreson are the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Princeton University Collection, the Brooklyn Museum, the National Museum of American Art, the Utah State Fine Arts Collection, and the Springville Museum of Art. After the war Carlos Andreson moved to Salt Lake City in 1946, and then went to Los Angles in 1948, living there for one year. From Los Angles he moved to San Francisco where he worked at the San Francisco Museum of Art and became associated with the San Francisco Civic League. Later, he and his second wife, Lucille, lived in Oakland and while there, he drew illustrations for the Oakland Army Base. Although Andreson continued to create artworks, he never made the transition to painterly abstraction that pervaded the American art scene. He died in Salt Lake City on July 11, 1978. Bibliography Olpin, Robert S., William C. Seifrit and Vern G. Swanson. Artists of Utah. Gibbs Smith Peregrine Smith Books. 1997 http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/artist/a/andreson/andreson1.htm http://www.media.utah.edu/UHE/p/PAINT&SCULPT.html App.IX

The Art Carlos J. Andreson (Anderson) (19041978) Utah, NY, California Still-Life with Guitar 1950 oil on board, 12-1/4 x 16-1/4 Gift from Lynn A. Anderson Collection Springville Museum of Art

Carlos Andresons painting, Sill Life, with Guitar, is an example of New York Modernism. The oil is a cubist, although not fractured, painting with simplified, overlapping forms, and distorted perspective. The guitar, teapot, goblet, leaf, and vase are arranged in a nearly oval shape, set on the background of a larger, yellow oval, itself set on a series of more rectangular, overlapping shapes, The composition, as well as the strong textural lines, create a sense of movement that makes the painting feel alive and vibrant. However, the painting also seems out dated because the style was current for such a short time, quickly replaced by the painterly abstracts of the Abstract Expressionists.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education

Elementary Lessons Assessment of elementary lessons is designed to help the teacher identify class mastery as well as those individuals who may need extra help understanding specific concepts.

Under the Standard of Making Art and Expressing Meaning in Art This print of a painting can help students build or assemble basic shapes to form more complicated images: Identify the simple shapes that make up the guitar. Make drawings of familiar objects using this technique of combining shapes. After practicing this approach, make a more complete drawing by blocking in the major shapes with light pencil lines and then drawing over the top of those lines to refine the shapes. Find the basic shapes in other students drawings. Assess students ability to identify and combine simple shapes to make more complex shapes.

ExtensionMaking: Enhance a work of art by including textures and patterns: After looking at Andresons and other artists work and identifying the ways the artists have created visual texture, make many small drawings to experiment with ways to create texture and pattern. Make drawings of simple items, using the technique of building with basic shapes. Add visual interest to one drawing by adding textures or patterns, using the sheets of experiments for ideas. Assess students ability to identify texture, the number and quality of their experiments, and their use of texture in a drawing. Under the Standard of Appreciating and Decoding Meaning in Art This print of a painting can help students explore color blends: Postulate how Andreson created colors such as the light green color, the peach color of the guitar, etc. Theorize whether the artist would have added black or white to make the color. Using a color wheel, name the primary colors and the secondary colors, identifying which App.X

primary colors make specific secondary colors. Experiment with mixing white with colors (a tone), black with colors (a shade), and mixing two primary colors together to get secondary colors. Discuss the results of the experiments and the accuracy of their theories about Andresons colors. Write these discoveries on a chart to use for later color lessons. Discuss the reasons Andreson may have chosen specific colors and what meaning those colors may have had for the artist. Assess student participation, ability to identify primary and secondary colors, completion of the experiments, and the class understanding of the links between meaning and color. Under the Standard of Appreciating and Decoding Meaning in Art This print of a painting can help students identify dominant elements in artworks: Looking at the poster, identify the most important elements in the painting. Compare this to other artworks such as Jeanne Clarkes Entertaining Favorite Ladies II, Trevor Southeys New Bloom, and Sven Birger Sandzens Moonrise in the Canyon. Create an artwork with a dominant object, idea, element, or focal point by manipulating its size, painting it in a complementary color, repeating it, or contrasting it with other objects in the work. Identify the dominant element in classmates artworks. Assess students ability to identify dominant elements and whether their artwork demonstrates dominance. Under the Standard of Appreciating and Decoding Meaning in Art This print of a painting can help students group artists and their works by style or by similar visual characteristics: Using several posters of art of different styles as exemplars, identify other images that are similar in style or visual characteristics. Give reasons for groupings. Assess accuracy of identifications and ability to articulate rational support for decisions. Secondary Lessons

Under Standard 1Making: Students will assemble and create works of art, manipulate art media, and organize images with the elements and principles of art. This print of an artwork can help students refine art-making skills using current art-related technology Create a line drawing of a simple still life. Scan the drawing into the computer and use a computer art program to adapt the drawing to emphasize line and color. In small groups, show each other the computer images. Demonstrate any techniques others in the group do not know. Create a display with appropriate labels that explain the use of computer techniques. Assess students participation in and completion of assignment.

Extension: Under Standard 2Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. This print of a painting can help students critique and evaluate their own works of art. In small groups, critique personal artworks for aesthetic appeal, and discuss how the use of a App.XI

computer art program affects each artworks meaning. Evaluate the computer artworks on effective use of art elements and principles, impact of content, and expressive qualities using a rubric the class creates. Assess student evaluations for thoroughness and appropriateness.

Under Standard 2Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. This print of a painting can help students evaluate works of art based on aesthetic significance. After viewing a variety of reproductions of artworks (including Still-life with Guitar) that represent different aesthetic stances, choose one of the artworks, identify the aesthetic stance it best represents (for example, Realism, Expressivism, Formalism, etc.), and make a short statement to the class about the artworks aesthetic significance as an example of that stance. Use specific information from the image (such as subject matter, lighting, brush strokes, painting technique, etc.) of the artwork to justify the evaluation of the artwork as insignificant, somewhat significant, or very significant. Perform research to find similar works of art that may substantiate your assertion about the significance of a particular work of art, based on its aesthetic stance. Assess student statements for correlation between information and evaluation. Assess research for depth and correlation to evaluation of the artworks significance.

Under Standard 3Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. This print of a painting can help students create divergent, novel, or individually inspired applications of art media or elements or principles that express content. Looking at the poster of Still-life with Guitar, discuss the artists use of the art elements and principles in the painting. Consider why the artist chose those particular itemswhat meaning might they have had for him? Choose items for a still life which have meaning for you. Decide how a specific element or principle could emphasize the ideas or feelings you have about the items (content). Create an artwork with that emphasis, using at least two media, and abstracted shapes. If needed, research artists who have used multi-media to get ideas for your artwork. Assess student artwork for use of abstracted shapes, use of two media, use of an element or principle of art that emphasizes content, and for originality. Under Standard 4Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. This print of a painting can help students analyze the impact of time, place, and culture on works of art. In small groups, research Utah artists and artworks using books such as Utah Art and Sculpture, the Internet (including smofa.org), and the backs of posters. Look for information that indicates how the Utah art scene impacted the production of Modern Art in Utah. Discuss the information, and create a definition for Modern Art. Come to some conclusions about the development of Modern Art in Utah. Share your groups conclusions with the class and discuss differences. Assess students participation and logic and support of their conclusions.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art, All rights reserved


App.XII

Lee Udall Bennion Snow Queen: Portrait of Adah


The Artist
Born March 17, 1956, in Merced California, Lee Bennion moved to Utah in 1974 to study art at Brigham Young University. In 1976, she married ceramicist Joseph Bennion and moved to the rural setting of Spring City in Sanpete County, Utah. Today she has three daughters and is energetically involved in both church and community activities in the family-oriented life of Spring City.

In 1983, Lee returned to Brigham Young University where she earned a Master of Fine Arts in painting. She has received numerous honors and awards from the Art Community, is a frequent participant in presentations and workshops for artists and educators, and has been the featured subject of several articles in national art publications, including Southwest Art.

Lees commitment to family is reflected in the subject matter of many of her paintings. Her husband Joe believes the objects Lee sees with her eyes are transferred as visual information through the conduit of her soul. Lee Bennions distinctive style, with its pensive, elongated figures, is not so much portraiture as her own special harmony between subject, emotional atmosphere, and viewer. She says of her work, Although I primarily paint the figure, portraiture is not my main concern. My painting deals with form, color, and feelings foremost. Often a likeness of my model is also found in my paintings, and I enjoy this when it happens. My figures are often slightly distorted, never quite perfect, but hopefully still reflect the warmth and goodness that I feel exists within them. I am most pleased when these feelings reach the viewer, and some kind of dialogue occurs that goes beyond the recognition of the subject.

The Art
LEE UDALL BENNION (1956- ) Spring City Snow Queen: Portrait of Adah 1992 oil on canvas, 48 x 36 (121.9 x 91.4 cm) Gift from Eric Laurentsen, Arizona 1995.061

Redheaded Adah Bennion, the youngest of three children of Joseph and Lee Bennion of Spring City, is often the subject of her mothers paintings. This picture depicts the six year old in her pajamas standing in a window casement, with cutout paper snowflakes on the glass panes. In her left hand, Adah holds a troll doll, her hand covering its face. All the viewer sees is the dolls legs and bright redorange hair.

Typical of Lee Bennions work is the composition which concentrates upon the essential components in this case, the window and figure. Another feature of Bennions work is the elongated figure, whose App.XIII

position she arranges to create an effective design. In this oil painting we see Adah gazing impishly at the viewer, while her pink-stockinged foot is wedged on the side of the window casing. Although a bright, engaging portrait of her daughter, this painting, like Bennions other work, has layers of meaning and references. There is a visual play on words in the paper snowflakes on the inside of the window and the real snowflakes outside. The troll doll is a reference to time and a tie to Lees own childhood, when the dolls were first popular. Bennion also says that at the time of the painting, when Adah was young, Lees life primarily revolved around her family and home, and she was inside much of the time. Thus, subconsciously, she painted the interior scene to represent her life, and the window to represent the future changes and possibilities. As with most of Lees work, Snow Queens subject looks out at the viewer with an unusually direct gaze, not only conveying Adahs personality, but also allowing Lee, as the painter, to engage the viewer through that gaze.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: create the basic shapes in a variety of materials and combinations as a starting point for blocking in the major objects (for example, the parts of the figure can be made with the media of pipe cleaners or wires) explore the technique of texture rubbings by placing thin paper over a rough surface such as a brick or cinder block and then rubbing the side of a crayon, charcoal or soft pastel over the top of the paper to transfer the texture of the object onto the paper. explore the collage process by placing several actual, implied, and rubbing examples on a heavy cardstock (see Perceiving Standard for definition of actual and implied textures).

Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: identify and classify the element of texture as portrayed in artworks according to the following two classifications: Actual: the artwork has a textured surface (rough, jagged, smooth, soft), or actual texture is applied to the work (for example, there are pieces of material, newsprint, or other objects adhered to the work). Note: when viewing artworks from a print or slide format it is often difficult to determine actual texture. Implied: the objects or shapes displayed within the artwork look like they have varying textures (for example, the clothing looks rough, the skin looks dried and weathered, the background looks smooth and silky).

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: describe the possible stories or themes artworks may be portraying. App.XIV

identify the classification that texture rubbings (see Making Standard above) fit under, actual or implied. Encourage the students to discuss the many combinations of classification rubbings can have. Note: rubbings are a combination of an implied texture that is taken from an actual surface. create an artwork that uses the element of texture to produce the principle of variety.

point out similarities and differences between the real objects and the ones portrayed in the artwork (for example, the texture of snow, the colors of evening skies). describe how colors, sizes of objects, basic shapes, and textures of objects within an artwork may help it convey a real or imagined story. create art that depicts stories, experiences, or themes. discuss how the concept of self is portrayed as a possible theme in artworks.

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: show how the five senses help one to create art. identify different cultures through works of art. discuss the tactile (concerned with the sense of touch) qualities that artworks may have and how the element of texture may enhance the tactile aspects of a work (for example, some art forms in African cultures are specifically designed to be touched and held).

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XV

Carl Christian Anton Christensen Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley
The Artist
C. C. A. Christensen was born in Denmark in 1832. He studied painting and toy making at the Academy of Art in Copenhagen. In 1850, he became a member of the Latter-day Saint (LDS) Church and served an LDS mission to Vest-Sjelland, Denmark. After returning home, he joined an emigrant company that took him to England and eventually to New York. From New York, he and his wife, Elsie Scheel, traveled to Nauvoo, Illinois, where they purchased a handcart and traveled by foot to Utah. During his trek, Christensen made many sketches of the American scenery and the events that happened along the journey, but it was not until the 1860s that he had the opportunity to paint again. Little about C. C. A. Christensens first years in Utah is known. Many years passed after his arrival in 1857 before he allowed his paintings to be exhibited publicly.

LDS pioneer and religious themes dominate Christensens work. Perhaps his greatest achievement is Mormon Panorama, a monumental narrative that tells in twenty-two 8 x 12 scenes about the history of the LDS Church from Joseph Smiths vision in Palmyra, New York, to the arrival of the LDS pioneers in the Great Salt Lake Valley. To make transportation of the panorama easier, the scenes were attached in sequence as a continuous scroll on a roller, and the artist and panorama toured in Arizona, Idaho, Colorado, and Utah (1869-1890). The pioneer experience was a favorite theme of Christensens in smaller works as well. Typical of this theme are two paintings from the 1890s: Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley (1890) and Winter Quarters (1891).

C. C. A., as he was called by historians in his later life and after his death, became a quiet but moving force in Utahs developing art history. He was one of the first artists employed to paint scenery for the Salt Lake Theater. During his life, he also worked on murals for the St. George, Manti, and Logan LDS temples

The Art

CARL CHRISTIAN ANTON CHRISTENSEN aka. C. C. A. CHRISTENSEN (1831-1912) Ephraim Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley 1890 oil on canvas, 16 x 12 (40.8 x 30.5 cm) Gift from Neil and Jane Schaerrer, Salt Lake City 1982.028

After their marriage during the summer of 1857, the artist and his bride, Elsie Scheel, honeymooned on the plains as they pulled a handcart from Iowa to Salt Lake City. C.C.A., as he was called, painted at least five pieces about the handcart journeys. The last handcart company came to Utah in 1860, App.XVI

thirty years before Christensen painted this oil, which is the earliest known Handcart picture. The significance of the pioneers trek westward was largely ignored by Utah artists for a generation after the pioneers settled in Utah.

Christensens work has a naive, or primative, quality that stems from his simple treatment of anatomy and perspective, which he learned during his early artistic training in Denmark. A genre artist by nature, his paintings, or scenes from daily life, reflect great narrative skill that earns him respect as a visual historian of his people. This oil shows the handcart pioneers climbing Little Mountain at the top of Emigration Canyon. When they approached the summit they could see their destination, Salt Lake City, for the first time. Jubilation began to sweep the company as they pushed and pulled their way up the steep mountain crest.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: apply the techniques of blocking-in and using basic shapes to begin drawing more complicated figures and objects. learn how to render cast shadows that fall opposite the source of light. learn to add black or white to color to change its value. loosely represent relative sizes of objects. explore the technique of gradation (working from dark to light) using a variety of media (for example, charcoal creates rich, dark blacks, adding water lightens watercolor or ink washes).

Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: identify the elements and principles the students art may share with the painting. point out colors in this work of art that have had black or white added to them to change their value. use the element of value to create a focal point or center of interest by placing the lightest area next to the darkest area. Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: identify how this artist has expressed feeling or mood through the use of line, value, color, or shape. describe how colors, sizes of objects, basic shapes, and textures of objects within an artwork may help it convey a real or imaginary story. create an artwork that expresses a feeling or mood using color, shapes, and/or lines. discuss the narrative purposes artworks can have.

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: identify the historical context of a painting. Strategy example: What are the people in this painting doing? How do the activities and situations of these people reflect historical events? connect two or more cultures in the community or state with the cultures art or craft forms. describe the connection between the materials available for two or more cultures and the kinds of art they produce.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art, All rights reserved


App.XVII

James Calvin Christensen The Rhinoceros


The Artist
James Christensen is an artist who captures our imagination with a delightful combination of innocence, humor, and curiosity. My aim, says Christensen, always begins with a desire to connect with another imagination. He adds, My work is an invitation to let your imagination run wild, explore, and make interpretations spontaneously. James Christensen, son of Sibyl and Harry Christensen, was born September 26, 1942, in Culver City, California. He grew up two blocks from the MGM studio; he and his friends often played in the back lot of the studio in Tarzans pond or on sets for movies such as Gone With the Wind. James loved to tell stories and use his imagination in play and drawing. Christensen attended Santa Monica City College, UCLA, and BYU, where he received his MA. In the middle of his studies, he served a mission for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) in Uruguay and became a member of the Mormon Mods, a performing group that toured Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The local art captured Christensens imagination and its influence can be seen in many of his works.

In 1972, Christensen moved to American Fork, Utah, and became an associate art director for the New Era, a teen magazine published by the LDS Church. He was also a freelance illustrator but continually worked on his own painting. Christensen created fantasy images for his own amusement, but he only displayed what he thought other people would like. However, he soon discovered that others liked his imaginative, magical worlds as much as he did. Christensen was a faculty member of BYUs art department from 1976 to 1997. He traveled with students in Mexico, Europe, and in Madrid, Spain. He returns to Europe frequently, and his art often reflects his travels.

Weaving dreams, hopes, fears, and humor into the fabric of everyday life, Christensen has created many enchanting works of art. My paintings are meant to excite the imagination and invite the viewer to become a participant in the creative process, says Christensen. His artwork delights adults and children alike.

The Art

JAMES CALVIN CHRISTENSEN (1942- ) Orem, Utah The Rhinoceros 1981 acrylic on board, 14-3/4 x 11-3/4 (37.5 x 29.8 cm) Gift from the artist, James C. Christensen, Orem 1985.011

James Christensen draws his images from experience, travel, and nature which he combines with his own active imagination. While he does not always strive to communicate a serious meaning or moral App.XVIII

lesson, his paintings often reflect situations which he has personally experienced and with which the viewer can also easily relate.

In this painting, The Rhinoceros, Christensen has reinterpreted a sixteenth-century drawing of an armored rhinoceros created by the German artist Albrecht Drer. Abundant detail, scientific perspective, logical space, light, color, and implied texture are characteristic of Christensens fantasy environments. The rhino is in a predicament; he is unable to go forward, but cant go back. The plastered room, painted to imitate the outdoors, offers the rhino no room to maneuver. The checkerboard floor is painted to give an illusion of depth in a room that has none, and the rhino is so cramped he cannot play with the tantalizingly close orange ball. The tick-bird remains loyal to his symbiotic friend because he also is trapped.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: show how to draw or paint objects from new or unusual points of view or perspectives. observe and render the details of real objects with a high degree of accuracy. distinguish between the following art concepts: Print: an artwork with multiple copies, usually handmade by an artist and part of a numbered or limited edition. Photographic print: a photographic reproduction of an original artwork that is machine generated. Note: the prints in this collection are photographic prints of original artworks. Photograph: an image that is considered to be an artwork, not a reproduction of an already existing artwork. Can have multiple copies. Original art: the original work of art, not a reproduction or a photographic print. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: show how to repeat elements to create movement. show how to portray a consistent light side closest to the light source and dark side opposite the source of light. Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: critique this artwork by one or more of the following criteria: The artist was trying to make the objects look real or life-like. The artist was trying to express a strong feeling or emotion. The artist was mainly concerned with the elements of line, color, and/or shape and conveyed that emphasis within the work. I like this artwork. I do not like this artwork.

Note: encourage the students to distinguish between the two types of judgments (e.g., the first three categories are based on specific criteria while the last two statements are based on personal preference only. Also, judgments can be given in degrees, such as, the artwork mainly looks, real but there are some emotional aspects expressed). interpret how the artist used symbols to express moods, feelings, and ideas. learn how to use symbols to express moods, feelings, and ideas in the students artwork. App.XIX

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: explain how scientific information can be communicated by the visual arts. look at the concept of art for self-expression as it relates to various cultures and within an individual students life (For example, in most Western civilizations art is commonly used as a means of self-expression. Many students find art a way to express feelings that are often hard to express orally). observe how famous or important works of art from history can be incorporated into a present-day artists work of art or can be incorporated into their own work of art (for example, Albrecht Drers Rhinoceros).

determine and explore a variety of sources of inspiration for this painting. predict why some people enjoy significant works of art that dont convey a clear story. explore the use of fantasy as a subject matter for art.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XX

Jeanne Leighton-Lundberg Clarke Entertaining Favorite Ladies II


The Artist
Jeanne Clarke was born in Alpena, Michigan. While she was still young, her family moved to Wyoming, Ohio, a suburb of Cincinnati. Clarke began her artistic training in Chicago, Illinois, where she studied simultaneously at the University of Chicago and at the Chicago Art Institute. Clarke married at the age of 19 and settled in Connecticut, where she raised three children. While there, she resumed her artistic training, taking private lessons and studying at the Silvermine Guild and Yale University.

A convert to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Clarke desired to study and better understand her religion. To accomplish this, in 1974, at the age of 50, she decided to move to Utah and attend Brigham Young University. In the space of five years, she earned both her BFA and MFA degrees. After graduating, Clarke began teaching drawing and painting at Brigham Young University.

Jeanne LeightonLundberg Clarke is a symbolist; her paintings contain symbols and metaphors that have multiple meanings. Clarke developed her personal style through trial and error, experimenting with Abstraction and Expressionism but finally settling with Realism. Although Jeanne uses Colorfield, Op Art, and Post-Impressionism techniques, she feels her paintings would be meaningless without people. When you get right down to it, she says, people are what its all about . . . All moments are special. The present moment is all that we have and if we treat each moment, each day, as if it is special, then we are living life to the fullest.

Clarke also considers herself a maximalist(an artist who fills every area of the canvas with detailed imagery) because she saturates every inch of the canvas with symbols. She explains, We are jugglers, trying to be mothers, career women, lovers, housekeepersthe overextended all-around handywoman. We pray that our humor holds up, and that time allows us some pleasure and some freedom to express ourselves. A minimalist art, or non-representational art consisting chiefly of geometric shapes and forms, certainly cannot symbolize a womans experience.

The Art

JEANNE LEIGHTON-LUNDBERG CLARKE (1925- ) Provo Entertaining Favorite Ladies II 1992-94 oil on canvas, 42 x 60 (106.8 x 152.5 cm) Gift from Allens Super Save Markets Newspaper Recycling Project, Ellen Allen, Steven and Kathryn Allen SMA 1995.043 Intricate and varied, the motifs in Clarkes paintings reflect her philosophy that life is abundant and complex, filled with hidden meanings waiting to be explored. Everything that is created has a pattern, she notes. Theres a genetic code which seals patterns into us and there are those patterns App.XXI

we have chosen to invite into our lives. Lifes events have patterns as well. Our routines are patterns. In my paintings I put patterns over patterns and they become textural. I invite the viewer to sort out the patterns, as in life.

Clarkes style expresses concern about the fundamental importance of women and the family in society. Matriarch of both her own and her extended family of aspiring student artists, she portrays positive moments of times when family and friends gather together. Her canvases of interior scenes are usually large and filled with objects of daily existence. Just as in this piece, most of her paintings have a table in the foreground, abundantly overflowing with decorative containers, floral bouquets, and bowls of fruits and nuts. Symbolically, the table represents the earth and the variety and plentitude of all the good things of life. The containers are visual metaphors for events, surprises, and happenings of human experience.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: observe how larger objects are created using details and patterns (e.g., wall behind the figures, table, containers, fabric, painting and frame in the background). create an artwork by blocking in general shapes and then using the medium of markers have the students repeat lines, colors and/or shapes to create various patterns or textures. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: show how secondary colors are mixed from primary colors. show where complementary colors (blue and orange, yellow and violet, red and green) have been used next to each other. show that the students art may share such things as colors, shapes, values, repetitions, or patterns with this painting. observe how repetition of elements such as color, line, and shape is used to create pattern in the painting. observe how the principle of unity is achieved by repeating patterns of line, color, shape, and/ or texture.

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: describe how colors, shapes, textures, or patterns help convey the story of the painting. by acting as an example for the students to mimic in creating their own art. identify the moods of the people within the painting. provide an example of how a feeling or mood is expressed in a painting with color, shapes, and/or lines. understand the importance that the subject matter of portraiture has had in the history of art. interpret the various symbols used within this artwork (note: see the biographical information included with this poster). Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: identify different cultures and time periods by identifying the culture or time period of each of the women represented in the painting. describe the purposes of some art forms found within local cultures. identify how women have been portrayed throughout history.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art, All rights reserved


App.XXII

Entertaining: Favorite Ladies II uses portraits of women painted by famous artists as symbolic guests at the artists table. Each guest represents an artist who has affected Clarkes own artistic development. Identification of individuals, clockwise from top center: 1. Vincent Van Gogh: Augustine Roulin (La Berceuse), 1889 (oil, 36-5/8 x 28-3/4 Art Institute of Chicago) 2. Andy Warhol: Marilyn Monroe, 1962 (silkscreen, Brigham Young University, Provo) 3. Pierre-Auguste Renoir: La Loge, 1874 (oil, Courtauld Collection, London) 4. Jan Vermeer: Girl In a Turban, 1660s (oil, 18-1/4 x 15-1/2) 5. Jeanne Leighton-Lundberg Clarke: Self-portrait of Artist 6. Jean Baptiste Camille Corot: Woman with a Pearl, 1912 (oil, 27-1/2 x 21 Louvre, Paris) 7. Willem DeKooning: Woman I, 1950-1952 (oil , 76x 58 Museum of Modern Art, New York) 8. Unknown Egyptian: Queen Nefertari in Adoration, 1290-1220 B.C. (fresco relief, Tomb of Nefertari Deir el-Medineh, Valley of the Queens, Egypt ) 9. Pierre Bonnard: Woman with a Striped Tablecloth, 1921 (oil, 23-1/4x 30 Private Collection) 10. Edgar Degas: Dancers, 1899 (pastel, 20 x25-1/8 The Toledo Museum of Art , Toledo, Ohio) 11. Edouard Manet: Luncheon on the Grass, 1863 (oil, 7-3/4 x 810-3/8 Musee dOrsay, Paris) 12. Pablo Picasso: Girl Before a Mirror, 1932 (oil, 53-3/4 x 4 3-1/2 Museum of Modern Art, New York) 13. Henri Matisse: Odalisque with a Red Coat, 1937 (oil, 55 x 46 cm Private Collection) 14. Rembrandt van Rijn: Hendrickje Stoffels, (oil, Louvre, Paris) 15. Eugene Delacroix: Orphan Girl in the Graveyard, 1823 (oil, National Gallery, London) App.XXIII

Cyrus E. Dallin Paul Revere, Portrait of John Hancock, Massasoit, and Sacajawea
The Artist
A Romantic-Realist, Cyrus Dallin was born in Springville, Utah, in 1861. Two circumstances of his early life in the western wilderness profoundly influenced him; the proximity of the log cabin where he was born to the lofty Wasatch Mountains and his familiarity with the Indians in their native haunts. The first awakened and fostered in him a love for the magnificence of form; the second furnished him with an unfailing source of material for his creative work.

At the age of 18, Dallin traveled to Boston to begin his art studies. In 1888, he went to Paris, where he remained until 1890, studying at the Ecole des Beaux Arts and at the Acadmie Julian under Henri Chapu. In 1890, Dallin returned to America and moved to Massachusetts. He remained in the East for the rest of his life, returning to Utah only for short visits.

In 1883, Dallin began work on a model of a statue of Paul Revere which he submitted to a competition for a commission to produce a monumental statue of Paul Revere, for downtown Boston. Though Dallin won the competition, he had to create five different models before the Commission approved the final version in 1899. It took another 40 years to get the bronze monument erected on the Paul Revere Mall near Old North Church. Native Americans provided the subject matter for many of Cyrus Dallins statues such as Massasoit (1920) and Sacajawea (1915). He also is well known for his portrait statues such as Portrait of John Hancock (1896).

Cyrus Dallin received many medals and honors both in America and in Europe. Among his many awards are a gold medal from the American Art Association of New York in 1888, a first class medal in 1903 from the Chicago Exposition, and a gold medal in 1904 at the St. Louis Exposition. In 1909 he received a gold medal from the Paris Salon, an honor, which until then, had been conferred on only six American sculptors. In 1943, at the age of 82, Dallin died at his home in Arlington Heights, Massachusetts. The sculptor is often remembered for the words he spoke on his final trip west in 1942, I have received two college degrees . . . besides medals galore, but my greatest honor of all is that I came from Utah.

The Art
CYRUS EDWIN DALLIN (1861-1944) Springville Paul Revere 1899 bronze, 37 x 32-5/8 x 18-1/8 (94 x 83.8 x 46 cm) Gift from Utah American Revolution Bicentennial Comm. App.XXIV

1976.002

Portrait of John Hancock 1896 bronze, 32-3/4 x 13-1/8 x 9-1/2 (83.4 x 33.2 x 24.0 cm) Gift from Utah American Revolution Bicentennial Comm. 1976.003 Photo of Cyrus E. Dallin with Massasoit 1920 bronze 9-1/2 high

Sacajawea 1915 bronze, 36-3/4 x 11-1/2 x 22 (93.4 x 29.1 x 55.0 cm) Gift from the 1941 Springville Seventh Grade, by exchange 1995.009 Cyrus E. Dallin usually sculpted two types of subjects: Epic of the Indian and Patriotic Heros. The four statues depicted in this poster show two of each kind. Dallins ability to portray horse and rider is displayed at its best in his piece Paul Revere (1899). Here Dallin shows the silversmith from Boston riding at breakneck speed to warn his countrymen that the British are coming! In Portrait of John Hancock (1896), the first signer of the Declaration of Independence, the figure is depicted standing with a crow-quill pen in one hand and the Declaration in the other. The artist has represented Hancock as a valiant leader at the very moment of signing one of the worlds most famous documents.

In the photo of Massasoit (1920), the artist can be seen sculpting the clay model for this famous statue, which was cast in bronze and placed near Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts. Massasoit was a Native American who befriended the Pilgrim settlers upon their arrival in the New World. Unlike painted portraits, where the subject is almost never larger than life, in outdoor monuments, sculpture is necessarily heroic in scale.

Dallins Sacajawea (1915) nobly depicts the Native American guide of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, pointing the direction they should go. She is seen both as a brave and strong leader of her people and as a mother. Sacajawea carries her child, Pomp, in a cradleboard on her back. The tender babys chubby cheeks sag as he sleeps, adding a sense of realism to an otherwise idealized representation.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: observe objects in detail and portray them with greater accuracy than the students have previously. classify three-dimensional forms in terms of the following spacial relationships: Full round or free standing sculpture: the form can be seen from all angles, with all surfaces exposed and part of the design. Bas-relief sculpture: the form emerges from a flat surface and is viewed only from the front or side. classify the media that are used in the creation of three-dimensional forms (e.g., wood, stone, clay, plaster, metal, resins, bronze, wire, and/or found objects). App.XXV

Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: classify these works as bronze, realistic sculptures. improve accuracy in proportion when rendering the human form in art. relate the following two-dimensional shapes to their equivalent three-dimensional forms: Shape Form Circle Sphere Square Cube Triangle Cone or Pyramid Rectangle Cylinder or Cubed Rectangle Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: determine their context by examining their subject matter, themes, symbols, ideas, and meanings. show how to create a symbol to represent the students interests or family heritage. convey an idea such as pride or love of ones family through art. predict aesthetic value to our state and nation.

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: express their thoughts, feelings, and ideas about these works. describe what the artists intentions may have been at the time each piece was created. describe and list examples of the major uses and functions these pieces have. discover how these works of art reveal the history and social conditions of our nation.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XXVI

Maynard Dixon Road to the River, Mount Carmel, Utah


The Artist
Maynard Dixon was a product of the West. Born in 1875 in Fresno, California, his remarkable paintings of Western landscapes and of American Indians depicted a land and a people that Americans wanted to romanticize. Dixons painting career can be divided into three primary phases. During his first phase, he began painting desert scenes in a simplified, almost cubist manner. Later, after marrying his second wife, the Depression-era photographer Dorothea Lange, he turned to melancholy, stylized images of the Great Depression and to turbulent views of city life.

In his later years he married fellow muralist and artist, Edith Hamlin, and maintained a successful studio in San Francisco. However, because of Maynards increasingly poor health, in 1939, he and Edith moved to Tucson, where they established a winter home. During the summers they lived in Mount Carmel, Utah and Dixon returned to studying the landscape of the West, the two of them making painting trips to surrounding areas as Maynards health allowed. According to art historian Robert Olpin, Dixon continues to be recognized as the greatest painter to capture the grandeur and monumentality of the Southern Utah landscape.

Dixons painting manner is difficult to classify. Olpin describes him as a Cubist-Realist, although his lifes works show the influence of the Impressionists, the Modernists, the Cubists, the Realists, and painters of the Old West such as Frederic Remington. He was a social critic and a poet, fearlessly painting commentaries on the plight of the Native American, the victims of the Great Depression, and of social unrest. He lived among the figures he painted, spending time among the Hopi, Blackfoot, and Navajo Indians. Maynard Dixon died in 1946, and in the spring of 1947 his wife, Edith, scattered his ashes near their Mount Carmel home. As author, Donald J. Hagerty, states in Desert Dreams, Standing there, you can look west toward Zion National Park, beyond which the landscape descends toward the silent vastness of the Great Basin. In every direction, the West unfolds: mesas, buttes, lonely valleys and spectacular canyons. . . . hundreds of other places, named and unnamed, echo back in form, color and light. This is where [the] artist searched for beauty and understanding, revealing the spirit of a time and a place through his work. . . .This is Maynard Dixon country.

The Art

(LAFAYETTE) MAYNARD DIXON (1875-1946) Mount Carmel, Utah Road to the River, Mount Carmel, Utah October 1940 oil on board, 16 x l9-5/8 (40.6 x 49.9 cm) Gift from Springville High School, Class of 1935 by exchange 1988.007 App.XXVII

A self-taught painter, Maynard Dixon first visited Zion Canyon in 1938, and in the autumn of the following year he purchased ten acres near Mount Carmel, a small community not far from Zion National Park. The artist returned from a Tucson, Arizona winter home in April of 1940 to supervise the building of a new summer residence in Utah, establishing his living pattern for the remaining six years of his life.

Already a noted artist of his day, Dixon continues to be recognized as one of the best at capturing the grandeur and monumentality of the Southern Utah landscape. Road to the River, Mount Carmel, Utah depicts the view from behind his home, looking toward the dirty Virgin River. He has portrayed nature in a calm manner, contrasting serene, blue mountains with energetic, golden poplars. The subdued foreground colors and strong geometric composition help to create a picture seemingly much larger than its actual dimensions. In addition, Dixons approach to painting the road and its surroundings has created a relaxing view of the area and has glorified its natural setting. He made no attempt at adding decorative details, but painted it as he saw it, letting the beauty of the landscape stand for itself.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education


Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: learn to use one point, linear perspective to create an illusion of depth such as in the fences or the barn. learn to portray distant objects higher on the picture plane. learn to draw cast shadows to describe the form or surface upon which they fall. learn to create a work of art that uses five distinct value changes from light to dark such as in the middle ground trees or in the barn structures. use the medium of colored pencil to explore the technique of crosshatching (placing lines of colors crosswise to lines of other colors) in rendering objects in the distance as lighter, grayer and/or bluer than those in the foreground or middle ground. learn to manipulate lines and their direction to show the shape or direction of the surface they are describing. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: compare/contrast with another 2D or a 3D work of art ways in which the artists have used elements such as line, shape, color, space, form, value and texture. Strategy example: what elements do each of these works have in common? What elements does one work have that the other does not? How are these elements used in similar ways? In different ways? illustrate how to create the illusion of space. describe the three properties of color: hue, value, and intensity and discuss how the artist has applied these properties. show how to differentiate and identify colors by value and intensity.

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: select themes or symbols appropriate for describing an idea or personal experience. evaluate an artwork in terms of craftsmanship, concepts, objectives, creativity, beauty now and beauty when it was created. Strategy example: What is beauty? How has the concept of what is beautiful in art changed or remained the same over the years? What role do craftsmanship (skillful blending of the elements of art), objectives, and creativity play in the creation of a App.XXVIII

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: compare/contrast this painting with others past or present in terms of subject matter, culture, and history. explain how things such as experiences, values, and cultural settings can influence ones perceptions of this painting. explore how various landscapes represent geographical regions.

beautiful work of art? Discuss these questions both generally and in relation to this specific piece.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XXIX

Louise Farnsworth Capitol from North Salt Lake


The Artist
Utah native Louise R. Farnsworth was born in 1878 to Joseph and Louise Farnsworth. She grew up in Salt Lake City, Utah, but received much of her artistic training in Paris and at the Art Students League in New York. Her cousin, Utah artist Lee Greene Richards, also greatly influenced Farnsworths artistic development through his use of bright color and loose, free application of paint.

A Figurative-Expressionist, Farnsworths own investigation of brilliant, fauvist color brought her significant success in Paris, where her work was admitted into the Paris Salon. This honor, while prestigious in the International Art World, did not assure her success in Utah. In fact, in her native state, she met with less than overwhelming appreciation. One of the possible reasons for this negative reception is that in Utah and much of the United States, art was generally viewed as a mans territory. It was quite uncommon for a woman from Utah to study art at all, let alone for her to travel to Paris to do so.

Additionally, Farnsworth took a non-traditional approach to painting. She portrayed Utah landscapes in a passionate, bright, and expressionistic way gleaned from her studies in Paris. This unique approach was a surprise to many of her fellow Utahns. Farnsworth never put on a major exhibition in Utah, nor did she associate with any other Utah artists with the exception of her cousin, Lee Greene Richards. She found more acceptance in New York, where she put on her first solo exhibition in 1934 at the Montross Gallery, with a second solo exhibition following at the same gallery in 1938. Louise Farnsworth died in 1969, an expatriate of her native state but a pioneer in color and style .

The Art

LOUISE RICHARDS FARNSWORTH (1878-1969) SLC Capitol from North Salt Lake, 1935 oil on canvas, 15 x 22 (38.3 x 56.1 cm) Gift from Lund-Wassmer Collection 1986.134

Farnsworth was a cousin and pupil of the noted landscape and portrait painter, Lee Greene Richards, of Salt Lake City. Farnsworth and Mabel Frazer were Utahs first female Modern artists. Having studied both in New York and Paris, Farnsworth developed a fauvist approach: pure, bold colors, combined with simple handling, which resulted in rough brushstrokes, thick outlines, and a loose application of paint. These characteristics establish her as a Modern artist. The raw color of her vivid landscapes is applied in aggressive but rhythmic brushstrokes, which lend themselves to an expressionistic focus on emotion and a depiction of the landscape of her inner self. Capitol from North Salt Lake demonstrates the artists tendency to utilize two sets of complimentary colors, blue with orange and violet with yellow. We see the capitol building and Salt Lake skyline in silhouette against a foreground of industrial buildings, rail yards, and smokestacks, with the Wasatch App.XXX

Mountains as background. Together they form a powerful image that defies the small size of the picture itself.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education


Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student:

Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student:

draw complicated objects by beginning with the start-up skill of blocking-in. see how to use an unusual point of view or perspective while portraying a subject. identify the following paint media and discuss their individual properties: Paint Media - Properties Watercolor - Transparent, water-soluble, dries lighter Oil - Transparent or opaque, needs solvents, slow drying Tempera - Opaque, water-soluble, dries darker Acrylics - Generally transparent, water-soluble, dries quickly discuss and/or explore some of the following painting techniques: Blending: mixing two or more pigments Glazing: placing transparent layers of pigments over each other Scumbling: placing opaque layers of pigments over another color Shading: making darker values of a color by adding black Tinting: making lighter values of a color by adding white Toning: making less intense or grayer colors by adding their complements

determine its overall value key. identify evidence of space, shadow, and color. see how to portray a consistent light side closest to the light source and dark side opposite the source of light. analyze how the various elements of an artwork might be used to create principles (e.g., how is the element of color used to create balance, how is the element of line used to create movement or rhythm, how is the element of shape used to create variety). Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: interpret how the artist used symbols to express moods, feelings, and ideas. classify a work according to subject matter. (e.g., this is a cityscape painting.) determine and explore a variety of sources of inspiration for artworks. identify the theme of a painting.

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student:

explain how Utahs history is revealed by the visual arts. see how to create a work of art that connects to the art and cultures of Utah by using similar designs or motifs. describe the effects that location and the availability of materials have had on buildings in this work. discuss the variety of art forms (e.g., painting, sculpture, drawing, photography, weaving, archi- tecture, ceramics, jewelry) and how their significance differs from culture to culture.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art, All rights reserved


App.XXXI

Calvin Fletcher Wash Day in Brigham City


The Artist
Calvin Fletcher, fondly known as The Prof, was born in Provo, Utah, on June 24, 1882. A lover of both art and education, he began studying at an early age and progressed quickly, starting university studies at age 15.

Fletchers desire to improve motivated him to learn continuously throughout his life. Though originally interested in sculpture, Fletcher chose to pursue his talent as a landscape painter. He was not a painter who created solely according to emotion and intuition; the principles of design were also important to him. Through extensive study of great masters works, he found the movement from Realism to Abstraction came naturally, because his works were based upon correct design principles. Thus, although Fletcher was a Modernist, his paintings were always based on classical design, even in the most modern of his Expressionist works. His continuous efforts to learn these principles resulted in a deep understanding of art, its history, and its purpose. Fletchers life had its share of hardships. In February of 1909, Calvins first wife, Sara A. Herbert, died, leaving him alone with their two young children. He then married Zettie Ricks in December of that same year. Calvin and Zettie added six children to their family before her death in July of 1925. Finally, in December of 1926, Calvin wed his third wife, Clare Irene Thompson, with whom he had his last six children. After graduating from Brigham Young Academy, Calvin continued his education in New York, London, Paris and Chicago. Upon finishing his studies, this artist and educator taught both in Utah County schools and also at BYU. In 1907, he became a professor at Utah Agricultural College in Logan, Utah. It was during the 40 years spent there that Fletcher most influenced Utah Art. Calvin Fletcher led Utah from Impressionism to Modern Expressionism. From the 1920s to the 1940s, Fletcher brought distinguished national artists such as Lee Randolph, Birger Sandzen, BJO Nordfelt, Otis Oldfield, Ralph Stack Pole, and Ralph Pearson to teach summer classes at Utah State Agricultural College. These renowned artists solidified Fletchers ideas in the minds of Utahs young artists and helped him establish modern art in Utah.

The Art
CALVIN FLETCHER (1882-1963) Provo Wash Day in Brigham City 1929 acrylic on board, 24-1/2 x 27 (61.3 x 68.0 cm) Gift from F. Ed and Judy Bennett, Salt Lake City 1982.034 App.XXXII

Both as a student and as head of the Art Department of the Utah State Agricultural College (University), Fletcher interacted with leading Western modernists. Their influence on his work is

seen primarily in his inventive compositions. For example, Wash Day in Brigham City is a bold departure from the restrained, conservative Utah painting of the day. This domestic genre piece shows a woman hanging wet clothes to dry in the frigid northern Utah air. Genre is a term used to describe a painting that portrays scenes from daily life, usually having a narrative quality. This type of subject matter was first used by Dutch seventeenth-century artists, such as Jan Vermeer. Interestingly, we see the trees with most of their leaves still intact even though winter has settled in.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education


Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: color and draw pictures with the sky band extending down from the top of the page to the tops of the mountains, buildings, or horizon. portray people and objects in a more natural size relationship. create an image of a person or object by copying its outline or contour onto a piece of paper. draw vertical objects, such as telephone poles, chimneys, or trees perpendicular to the horizon rather than the diagonal lines upon which they may rest. overlap objects as a method of creating a sense of depth in a work of art. use a painting medium such as tempera to explore paint processes such as blending colors, layering colors over other colors that are already dried, and/or applying areas of flat color. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: identify the use of secondary and tertiary colors. see how to color or paint a work of art using predominantly warm or cool colors. investigate how color can create a sense of harmony within an artwork. produce a work of art using a particular color to help display a sense of harmony (for example, sometimes artists use an undercoat of one color to help unify the work). Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: suggest and investigate possible meanings, stories, interpretations, or themes for this work. speculate whether the meaning of a piece of art had changed from its creation to the present. describe how line, shape, color, and texture are used to express ideas or convey stories. Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: see how to practice sketching as a means of scientific observation or record keeping. observe how everyday tasks can take on added significance when portrayed in art.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XXXIII

Mabel Pearl Frazer Sunrise, North Rim Grand Canyon


The Artist Mabel Pearl Frazer was born in West Jordan, Utah, on August 28, 1887. A very independent personality, Frazer became devoted to art at an early age. Her sister described her this way, Her religion and her art took precedence over everything else in her life; she couldnt be bothered with anyone or anything else. Frazer greatly valued her education. She graduated with honors from what was then the Beaver branch of the Brigham Young Academy (later known as the Murdock Academy), and in 1914, Mabel graduated from the University of Utah. She then took a teaching position at Lewis Junior High in Ogden, just long enough to finance her life-long dream of studying art in New York.

In 1920, after a year of study at the Beaux Arts Institute of Design in New York, Frazer joined the University of Utah art staff and remained there until her retirement, 33 years later. During that time, she was instrumental in expanding the art department to include many new disciplines. As she was extremely versatile, her teaching responsibilities included no less than nine different subject areas including art history, textile design, sculpture, ceramics, serigraphy, design, painting, landscape painting, and human anatomy. She handled many managerial duties but was continually passed over for promotion because she was a woman. Three years before her retirement she finally was appointed to associate professor.

When Frazers estate was appraised in 1981, it included over 386 artworks, most of which were oil paintings. She showed her work in both Utah and New York. One of her works still hangs in the Uffizi gallery in Florence, Italy. Mabel Pearl Frazer enjoyed a very long and active artistic career before her death at age 94. She said, An artist must have something to say. Art is just another language and the would-be painter should at least learn the rudiments of the languagecolor, composition, drawing, etc.

The Art

MABEL PEARL FRAZER (1887-1982) Fillmore/SLC, Utah Sunrise, North Rim Grand Canyon, oil on canvas, 33 x 57-3/4 (83.6 x 147.0 cm) Gift from the Waldis Family (Madeleine, Dick & Nettie), SLC 1981.026 In 1930, the New York Herald Tribune wrote of Mabel Frazers work, Miss Frazers observation and her tendency is to suit her painting to the very mood and texture of the country itself. Few paintings partake of the mood and texture of the country more than Frazers oil, Sunrise, North Rim Grand Canyon. The vivid color of Frazers landscape is an example of the influence of Birger Sandzen on Utah art during the late 1920s. App.XXXIV

During the late 1920s and early 1930s, Frazer painted the Grand Canyon, Zion, Kanab, and Cedar Breaks several times, including her Sunset, East Rim. No.s 1 and 2. Typical of her best work are the flowing rhythms, bold color in flat patterns, and her expansive compositions. Frazer was one of the most advanced female painters of her day.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum - Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: differentiate between foreground, middle ground, and background. explore the use of mixed media through the creation of an artwork (for example, do an ink or pastel drawing over a watercolor wash, add a watercolor wash over a crayon resist drawing). explore a technique with varying media (for example, crosshatch with pastel, colored pencil, and/or fine point marker) explore processes involved with various art forms (for example, drawing [a direct process], sculpture, or printmaking [both involve a variety of techniques and processes]).

Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: show how to use contour lines to indicate the forms and orientation of objects. describe all the elements (for example, line, color, shape, space, value, texture, and form) and/ or objects they see in an artwork.

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: show how to use a personal experience as inspiration to create a work of art. discover the variety of representation a single theme in art can include (for example, using the theme of nature, the images can include vast, immense vistas or intimate, detailed studies of individual flowers). Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: express thoughts, feelings, and ideas about this image. describe what the artists intentions may have been at the time the painting was made. discover how works of art reveal the history, social conditions, and/or value systems of a culture. define the art forms of varying cultures (for example, African cultures do not have a strong tradition of oil painting, but they do have many forms of sculpture; Japanese cultures emphasize ceramic art forms and also do not have a strong tradition of oil painting).

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XXXV

John Hafen The Mountain Stream


The Artist
John Hafen was born in 1856 in Scherzingen, Switzerland. His family, converts to the LDS faith, came to the United States when Hafen was six years old, determined to join the Saints in Utah. On the way, they spent 12 days in Winter Quarters, Nebraska, and Hafens two-year-old brother died there. They made the rest of the journey by ox team. After reaching Utah, the Hafens settled first in Payson and then after two other moves, established themselves in Salt Lake City in 1868. John was very interested in art from a young age and became one of the youngest and earliest students at the Twentieth Ward Academy or Seminary, in Salt Lake City, a school that included drawing instruction in its lessons. During the next ten years, Hafen was taught by George Ottinger and Dan Weggeland, two early Utah artists who not only became friends with the young Hafen, but also encouraged him to seek traditional training outside Utah. In 1881, a group of young artists, including Hafen, founded the Utah Art Association, which later became the Utah Art Institute. The Associations purpose was to produce exhibitions and provide art instruction. The initial exhibit was the first time artists in Utah had organized and directed their own show. Over the next nine years, Hafen continued to paint and draw and exhibit when possible, including at George A. Meears Sample Roomhe was a whisky wholesalerwhere space was available for local artists to display their work, free of charge. In 1890, Hafen helped convince LDS church authorities to sponsor the French Art Mission, an opportunity to study at the Acadmie Julian in Paris. The trip also was made possible for several other young Utah artistsJ. B. Fairbanks, Lorus Pratt, and Edwin Evans. The artists studies in France were subsidized by the LDS church so the artists could improve their skills and paint murals and paintings in the LDS temples upon their return to Utah.

Hafens studies in Paris had a vital impact on his work; like many other young artists of the time, he switched his interest from academic studio work to landscape painting from nature. Espousing his new view, Hafen wrote, Cease to look for mechanical effect or minute finish, for individual leaves, blades of grass, or aped imitation of things, but look for smell, for soul, for feeling, for the beautiful in line and color. Back in Utah by 1892, Hafen began work on the murals for the Salt Lake Temple. Although Hafen did the most work, Pratt, Fairbanks, Evans, and Dan Weggeland all contributed their Paris-honed skills.

The next year, the Society of Utah Artists was reestablished with Hafen serving as vice president. The societys exhibits were well received, with many people willing to pay the entrance fees. Although Hafens paintings from the middle 1890s to about 1907 are now considered masterpieces of Utah art, he wasnt able to support his fast-growing family on what he made from his work. Consequently, he held various jobs and at times received support from the Church in exchange for paintings and drawings, which now make up the impressive Hafen collection at the Museum of Church History and Art in Salt Lake City. App.XXXVI

Hafen taught at the Brigham Young Academy and eventually settled in Springville with his wife and ten children. Originally, the family lived with the Myron Crandall Jr. family because the Hafens couldnt afford to pay rent. Later, Hafen traded a painting for a hilly section of Crandalls land. Alberto O. Treganza, a close friend of the Hafens, designed their home in the Swiss chalet style. The building was paid for by sales of paintings and the bartering of paintings to a local doctor who traded the paintings for work his destitute patients did on the Hafen home. To cover one bare cement wall, Hafen painted a mural of hollyhocks and attached it to the wall. After Hafens death, the canvas was removed, mounted, and framed and is now owned by the Springville Museum of Art. The Hafen home in Springville still stands today. While in Springville, his interest in art education led Hafen to donate this painting, The Mountain Stream, to the Springville High School and to encourage other artists (including his friend, Cyrus Dallin) to donate artwork. This art collection grew and eventually necessitated a building to house and display the art: the collection became the Springville Museum of Art.

Although Hafen made frequent painting and selling trips across the country, he lived in extreme poverty until he moved to Indiana late in his life. There he was accepted into a group of regional impressionist artists and at last began to achieve success as an artist, including the award of a prestigious commission to paint the governors portrait. He lived in an attractive cottage overlooking a beautiful valley, surrounded by friends. However, just as he began to realize his life-long dream of providing for his family through sales of his art, Hafen contracted pneumonia and died in 1910. Ironically, John Hafen is now considered the most appealing of the early Utah stylists, and was called Utahs greatest artist by Alice Merrill Horne, an early Utah art activist. He, of all the early Utah artists, best communicated the poetic essence of the local scenes of nature.

The Art
JOHN HAFEN (18561910) Springville Utah/ Indiana The Mountain Stream (1903) oil on canvas, 26 x 23 Gift from the artist

The painting, The Mountain Stream, is typical of the paintings Horne was referring to. It shows a wooded glade with a small stream tumbling over stony ridges in miniature waterfalls. The composition is strong: The white trunks of the aspen trees in the middleground are set off by the staccato black markings where limbs have broken off or died. The light enters above the trees, highlighting the sharp green grasses and white flowers, and focusing on the frothy stream near the center of the painting. The brightness is balanced and contained by the darker maple tree, the shaded shrubs, and the shadowed section of stream in the foreground.

The technique is painterly, with leaves, flowers, and grasses merely indicated. Instead, Hafen has created the soul of a picture-perfect spot in the Utah mountains. As with the best literature, the painting leaves enough of the detail for the viewer to fill in that the scene becomes personal, it takes on the memories or imagination of the viewer. App.XXXVII

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education


Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: differentiate between foreground, middle ground, and background. apply the medium of oil pastels (or regular pastels) to capture the thick strokes of an impressionistic art style. design a mural, as a class, based on a natural setting that is familiar create an artwork using tints and shades in order to show the effects of light (tinta color plus white, shadea color plus black)

Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: compare/contrast the work with a super-realistic painting such as Carel Brest van Kempens Lizard Relay: Jaquarundi with Green Iguanas and Banded Basilisks. What is similar? What is different? describe all the elements (for example, line, color, shape, space, value, texture, and form) and identify the most dominant examples of each. identify receding lines and a vanishing point. recognize the three properties of color: hue, value, and intensity and discuss how the artist has applied these properties. Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: show how to use a personal experience as inspiration to create a work of art. determine and explore a variety of sources of inspiration for artworks (dreams, memories, seasons, weather, moods etc.). brainstorm how the feeling of the work would change if it were painted during different times of day or during different seasons of the year. create a work of art by developing a theme such as the woods, peacefulness, sounds of nature, etc.

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: express thoughts, feelings, and ideas about nature, peace, and how they relate to this image. explore how various landscapes portray different geographical regions. (compare a desert scene with this mountain scene) explain how things such as experiences, values, and cultural settings can influence ones perceptions of this painting. (How would you perceive this painting if you grew up in the Antarctic?) describe the impact of this painting in the time and place it was created. (This painting was the first of a collection that later became the Springville Museum of Art)

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XXXVIII

James T. Harwood Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James


The Artist
J. T. Harwood was born in Lehi, Utah, in 1860. In college, Harwood studied with Utah artists George Ottinger and Danquart A. Weggeland. In 1888, at their urging, Harwood became the first of a group of Utah-born artists to travel to France and study art in Paris. While in Paris, Harwood met another American art student, Harriet Richards, and in 1891, they were married. In 1892, he became the first Utahn to have a painting in the prestigious Paris Salon. During the next few years, the Harwoods divided their time between a Salt Lake City studio and Paris, where they returned repeatedly for refresher experiences. In 1904, the Harwoods returned to Salt Lake City, and James taught art in the local high schools and painted in his studio. During the period of 1907 to 1910, Harwoods work became more oriented toward color and somewhat broader in approach as he moved from Academic Realism to Impressionism. In April of 1921, his beloved Harriet died. Two years later, Harwood became the head of the art department at the University of Utah. As chairman, he developed an art program that emphasized drawing foundations and craftsmanship that was carried forward long after Harwood was gone. In December of 1927, Harwood met and fell in love with a young literature student, Ione Godwin. Their relationship was considered scandalous because of the age difference of 47 years, but on June 1, 1929, they married. Harwood found in Ione the inspiration to begin a re-energized period of work. At 70, Harwood resigned from the University of Utah and took his family to Paris once again, where he painted, made prints, and participated in exhibits at the Salon. Over the next nine years, Harwoods art became recognized not only at home but also in the art museums of Europe. He remained in Europe until 1939 when the threat of war sent the Harwoods home to Salt Lake City, where he died in October of 1940.

Harwood is known for charming slice of life genre paintings like the popular Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James (1910, previously known as Boy with a Bun) and his Richards Camp, Holiday ParkWeber Canyon (1888). He was also a gifted printmaker and watercolorist. Most unusual however, was that in his seventies, Harwood shifted his painting style, this time, to Neo-Impressionism, a relaxed form of Pointillism.

The Art
JAMES T. HARWOOD (1860-1940) Lehi/SLC Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James (Boy with a Bun), 1910 oil on canvas, 40 x 32-1/4 (101.9 x 82.0 cm) Museum Purchase from artist, 1910.007 App.XXXIX

The artists fifth and last child, Heber James Harwood (1905- ), is shown sitting on a pew from an old Latter-day Saint (LDS) chapel, which Harwood bought and put in his studio. The barefooted Heber

James wears overalls while he sits and eats a raisin bun. A pet cat curiously sniffs, interested in the food, and the childs eyes tenderly engage the viewer. The picture is a warm embodiment of family life, painted by a caring father, James T. Harwood.

The painting is a combination of the Academic Realist and Impressionist styles. The emphasis on rational space, clarity, order, calm and quiet which Harwood adopted from the academic tradition is combined in this painting with the beginnings of the influences Impressionism would have on him. Through the use of the impressionist brush technique, Harwood was able to capture the essence of the young boy without resorting to minute details.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: create basic shapes in a variety of materials and combinations as a starting point for more complex subjects. identify the various media (materials) that may have been used to create this artwork (for example, canvas stretched onto wood supports, primer to seal the canvas, oil paints, solvents, brushes, and possibly rags). identify the various techniques that may have been used to create this artwork (for example, in some areas the colors were put on flatly while other areas required the blending of color, some areas are more detailed than others). identify the various processes that may have been used in creating this artwork (for example, an idea was sketched and then transferred to the primed canvas. An undercoating was then used to block in the various values, layers of color were added with each layer displaying more details. The finished painting was dried, varnished and framed). Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: identify the expressive properties value can have within an artwork (for example, a work that displays mostly dark values {low keyed} tends to have a somber or heavy mood while a lighter valued {high keyed} work appears more joyous and bright). create a work of art which uses a low keyed value range and then reproduce the same work with a high-keyed value range. Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: point out similarities and differences between the real objects and the ones portrayed in the print. create art that tells stories or describes experiences. identify some of the approaches artworks display (for example, some look real, others display strong feelings or emotions, and others are mainly concerned with the use of color, line, and/or shape). Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: discuss how the concept of self is portrayed. identify different cultures portrayed through artworks.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved


App.XL

James T. Harwood Richards Camp, Holiday ParkWeber Canyon


The Artist
J. T. Harwood was born in Lehi, Utah, in 1860. He studied art in college with Utah artists George M. Ottinger and Danquart A. Weggeland. In 1888, at their urging, Harwood became the first of a group of Utah-born artists to travel to France and study art in Paris. While in Paris, Harwood met another American art student, Harriet Richards, and in 1891, he and Harriet were married. In 1892, he became the first Utahn to have a painting in the prestigious Paris Salon. During the next few years, the Harwoods divided their time between a Salt Lake City studio and Paris, where they returned repeatedly for refresher experiences. In 1904, the Harwoods came back to Salt Lake City, and James taught art in the local high schools and painted in his studio. During the period of 1907 to 1910, Harwoods work became more oriented toward color and somewhat broader in approach as he moved from Academic Realism to Impressionism. In April of 1921, his beloved Harriet died. Two years later, Harwood became the head of the art department at the University of Utah. As chairman, he developed an art program which emphasized drawing foundations and craftsmanship that was carried forward long after Harwood was gone. In December of 1927, Harwood met and fell in love with a young literature student, Ione Godwin. Their relationship was considered scandalous because of the age difference of 47 years, but on June 1, 1929, they married. Harwood found in Ione the inspiration to begin a re-energized period of work. At 70, Harwood resigned from the University of Utah and took his family to Paris once again, where he painted, made prints, and participated in exhibits at the Salon. Over the next nine years, Harwoods art became recognized not only at home but also in the art museums of Europe. He remained in Europe until 1939, when the threat of war sent the Harwoods home to Salt Lake City, where he died in October of 1940.

Harwood is known for charming slice of life genre paintings like Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James (1910, previously known as Boy with a Bun) and Richards Camp, Holiday ParkWeber Canyon (1888). He also was a gifted printmaker and watercolorist. Most unusual however, was that in his seventies, Harwood again shifted his painting style, this time to Neo-Impressionism, a relaxed form of Pointillism.

The Art

JAMES T. HARWOOD (1860-1940) Lehi/Salt Lake City Richards Camp, Holiday Park Weber Canyon 3 Aug 1888 oil on canvas, 26 x 45 (66.1 x 114.6 cm) Museum Purchase 1996.020 This painting, Richards Camp, Holiday ParkWeber Canyon, is autobiographical, unlike any other Utah painting from the pioneer period. The setting is the campground at Holiday Park that belonged App.XLI

to Harwoods soon-to-be wifes family. The camp activities were recorded on this canvas by J. T. Harwood in July and signed on the 3rd of August 1888. The painting depicts a number of white tents nestled among tall pines in a forest clearing. Harrietts (Hatties) father, Dr. Heber John Richards, is resting on a hammock, wearing a pith helmet and smoking a cigar. His wife and five daughters dot the scene. The mother and her two daughters are preparing food, while a son-in-law in fishing gear is on the left. Elsewhere, another daughter is reading a book, while the youngest daughter holds her doll.

The most interesting aspect of the picture is the image of the artist holding his easel and paint kit, heading off to paint. He furtively peeks to his left at Hattie, who has filled a pail of water for the camp. She clandestinely glances back at him. The emotional thrust is direct and poignant. Although not widely accepted at the time, Harwood believed the painting to be his best landscape painted up to that date. (South, 1987, p.29) Some elements of the work could be criticized, but the work was very ambitious, far exceeding the efforts of other Utah artists at the time.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum - Utah State Office of Education


Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: show cast shadows as darker directly under the object casting them. fuse cast shadows that overlap (for example, observe them in the center of the Harwood painting and in the way the trees leave outlined shadows on the tent sides). draw cast shadows to describe the form or surface upon which they fall, as in the flat side of the white canvas tent serving almost as a screen for a shadow reproduction of the silhouette of the trees. Strategy example: Have the students demonstrate an understanding of this by drawing the cast shadow falling on a surface such as a ball, the cast shadow of a pole falling on stairs, the cast shadow of a pencil falling on a pile of blocks, etc. create an artwork that has five distinct value changes from light to dark. consider a variety of ideas before starting an artwork by using a personal experience, trip or vacation. make a thumbnail sketch or verbal description to help organize art ideas before beginning the actual piece. clean and put back in order artmaking areas after projects. respect other student artworks as well as his or her own. explore some applied art forms (for example, quilting, weaving, tole painting, china painting, batik). Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: describe the three properties of color in a painting: hue, value, intensity. observe and apply changes in hues, values, and intensities of color. create an illusion of space in a work of art. portray a familiar environment using linear perspective. discuss the structures or language of art by listing the elements (for example, color, line, shape, space, value, texture, and form) and the principles (unity, balance, center of interest or focal point, rhythm, movement, and/or harmony) found in various artworks. App.XLII

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: select themes or symbols appropriate for describing an idea or personal experience in art. explore the use of technology, CD-ROMs, and the museum homepage on the internet to view this work and others in the Springville Museums CD-ROM of Utah artists. interpret artworks using some of the following aids: the title of the work, the artists history, the artworks history (for example, when was the piece was completed, who was the work done for, what culture was the work completed in), symbols, meanings (either implied or actually portrayed), personal insights or feelings, and expressive properties evident (for example, bright colors express a specific mood, dark values express somber feelings). Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: infer ways the availability of resources, technologies, and social conditions have affected artworks. hypothesize the role of visual arts in modern electronic media: video, computers, lasers, etc. Strategy example: How could the subject matter of this painting or other narrative works be portrayed using modern electronic media?

hypothesize whether the meanings of significant works of art change over time. Strategy example: What would this painting mean to the artist or to a viewer who lived at the same time as the artist? How does this meaning differ or remain similar to the meaning it has for viewers today? explain how things such as experiences, values, and cultural settings can influence the perceptions of artworks. Strategy example: How could the meaning change for someone who had traveled across the United States as these pioneers did in comparison with someone who had never had this kind of experience? How could your values/beliefs affect the meaning of this painting for you? discuss What is art? by comparing the following examples: a dollar bill with a fine art print, a plastic-lidded container with a ceramic vase, a yearbook photo with a fine art photograph, a scrambled note with a purposeful drawing, a newspaper advertisement with a fine art painting, and/or a small plastic toy with a sculpture. distinguish between fine art forms and craft or folk art forms of a culture.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XLIII

Donald P. Olsen Chelsea IV


The Artist - Donald P. Olsen A noted classical violinist turned abstract painter, Donald Olsen is considered the most significant of the second generation of Utah modernists. Don Olsen was born in Provo, Utah. He did his undergraduate work at Brigham Young University and then continued his education at the University of Utah. After graduation, Olsen taught in Provo, Lincoln, and Jordan High Schools, as well as at the College of Southern Utah, where he taught music and art. He also was an art instructor at the Art Barn in Salt Lake City.

Olsen has been called one of the most persuasive protagonists (leading figures) of non-objective art from the 1950s to the 1980s. Because of his dedication to modern art, the development of his painting style has paralleled modern arts evolution. He has experimented with almost every modern style of painting from the brushed-action painting of Abstract Expressionism, to the hard-edge of Minimalism. In 1955, he had a solo show at the Salt Lake Art Center. After this show, he was known for thickly painted-with-muscle brushwork. Later on in his career, Olsens work moved towards a type of Geometric Purism that has its beginnings with artists such as Piet Mondrian.

According to James Haseltine, Following his marriage to Betty in 1962, Don Olsen did some of his more lively work-a series of canvases dominated by white used as positive shape, negative passage or ground, dripped line, or textural splatter. His colors are most often used unmixed, directly from the tube, alla prima, with reds most prominent and blues, greens and yellows playing a secondary role. The Art

DONALD PENROD OLSEN (1910-1984) Provo/Salt Lake City Chelsea VI, 1980 acrylic on canvas, 67-1/2 x 80 (170.7 x 197.1 cm) Museum Purchase 1981.056

Abstract painter Don Olsen studied with Hans Hofmann at Provincetown, Massachusetts, in 1954. Later, his frequent trips to New York gave him access to the important twentieth-century abstract painters. He was profoundly influenced by the New York School and always returned from his trips full of vigor. He was Utahs conduit to the cutting edge of the American avant garde. This painting, Chelsea VI, belongs to the New York School of Minimalist, Hard-Edge art, popular from the late 1960s to the early 1980s.

An unpretentious, sensitive, and intellectual man, Don Olsen was the leading exponent in Utah of nonobjective and experimental art. In his own words, his philosophy of painting is simply stated, Painting is not an illusion. A painting can only be itself; it does not simulate, borrow from, or pretend to be anything outside itself. It is a real thing and its reality lies in being itself. A painting reveals the internal expression of the artist and has nothing to do with observation of visual facts. App.XLIV

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum - Utah State Office of Education


Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: create various shapes by having lines intersect. Note: a shape is also created if a line connects with the edges of the paper. create a non-objective (one that does not contain a recognizable object or subject matter) artwork through exploring the placement and/or layering of various shapes. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: name the basic shapes within a work of art (for example, geometric and natural). group objects by the similarity of shapes. create a work of art with simple shapes that promote the following two types of balance: Symmetrical: the size of objects or shapes appear to be similar on both sides of the artwork Asymmetrical: the size of objects or shapes are dissimilar on both sides of the artwork.

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: describe how colors, sizes of objects, general shapes, and textures of objects within an artwork might help it convey a real or imagined story. classify artworks according to the following approaches: Realistic: looks real or life-like, usually mimics nature. Expressive: displays emotions, feelings and/or moods. Formal: emphasizes the elements such as line, color, and/or shape. It is not concerned with looking like something (realistic) or trying to create strong emotions (expressive). Usually it is non-objective (does not have a recognizable object or subject matter). Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: define what cultures may have a tradition of the following art concepts: creates art as a means of self-expression creates art for religious purposes creates art for narrative purposes creates art for functional purposes

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XLV

George M. Ottinger Immigrant Train: Away, Away to the Mountain Dell


The Artist
George M. Ottinger was born in Pennsylvania but was raised in New York City by his uncle. When he was 16, he ran away to become a sailor on a whaling ship, and by the age of 20, he had traveled around the world. Ottinger began his formal training in art by studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts under Robert W. Weir.

In 1861, after having been converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ottinger and his mother immigrated by wagon train from Florence, Nebraska, to Salt Lake City, a distance of 1079 miles. While in Utah, he engaged in a number of occupations. Among these occupations were photo tinter, theatrical scene painter, chief engineer of the fire department, lumber clerk, and first art instructor at the University of Deseret, later renamed the University of Utah. Later, he was influential in forming the Utah Art Association. As an artist, Ottinger can be classified as a Romantic Realist. He painted a variety of subject matter including genre scenes, seascapes, landscapes, portraits, and historical events. The current value of his paintings is attributed, in part, to their accuracy and historic detail. Among his major works are western scenes and a series of allegorical and historical interpretations of the history of Mexico. These paintings provide the viewer with glimpses of the scenery, lifestyle, clothing, and other articles of the past. Ottingers art is important both for historical reasons and also because it provided a base for Utah art. One of early Utahs most important artists, he taught hundreds of students at Utahs first institution of higher learning, the University of Deseret, as well as in private lessons. In his early years, Ottingers work was valued by the public. He had many commissions and earned numerous medals and awards at art fairs. However, in his later years, Ottinger was challenged by a shift in stylistic tastes, as the art market preferred more impressionistic work. This shift in taste caused him to struggle and to search for new subject matter that would interest his patrons. However, he never lost his zeal to persevere and to keep painting. At the age of 67 he wrote, Individually I feel as young and ambitious and desirous to push ahead as ever.

The Art
GEORGE M. OTTINGER (1833-1917) Salt Lake City Immigrant Train: Away, Away to the Mountain Dell: The Valley of the Free, 1897 oil on canvas, 20 x 40 (51.0 x 101.7 cm) Gift from A. Merlin and Alice Steed Trust 1982.001 App.XLVI

Ottinger, who immigrated with the pioneers in the Milo Andrus Company, arrived in Salt Lake City in the fall of 1861. This painting depicts the pioneers traveling across the plains, a famous moment of Utah history which Ottinger experienced personally.

In Immigrant Train - Away, Away to the Mountain Dell: The Valley of the Free, Ottinger has chosen to portray a Mormon pioneer train disappearing into the distance as it passes Chimney Rock in eastern Wyoming, on the way to Utah Territory. With flute and accordion the pioneers sing the stirring ballad, Away Away to the Mountain Dell: The Valley of the Free, as they steadily walk westward. To the left can be seen a buffalo skull raised on a stick marking a grave, as parents mourn the death of a loved one.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum - Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: learn how to portray cast shadows as having different shapes than the objects that cast them. explore the medium of crayon by practicing the following techniques: apply thickly, lightly, on top of other colors, and on top of other media like watercolor or tempera. create a crayon resist by applying crayon lines thickly onto the paper and then applying a coat of paint over the entire surface. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: identify an overall value key. learn how to alter the intensity of any color by adding its complement or black or white to it. discuss how placement of subject matter higher or lower on the picture plane creates an illusion of depth. learn how to portray a consistent light side closest to the light source and dark side opposite the source of light. discuss the use of an element (for example, line) to create movement. Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: examine the overall value key of this work and discuss how it relates to the mood of this painting. interpret the symbols the artist used to express moods, feelings, and ideas. determine the artists source of inspiration for the point of view or perspective he used to portray his subject. classify artworks according to the following subject matter: Still life: contains small inanimate objects Fantasy: contains objects/people in unreal situations Non-objective: contains no recognizable object Figurative or portraiture: contains representations of a person Genre: contains scenes of objects and people in everyday life Nature: contains close-up views of natural objects and/or animals Landscape: contains natural scenery as the principle subject Seascape: scenes of the sea are the central subject Cityscape: urban scenes are the central subject identify the theme of this piece. hypothesize why this painting may be valuable. App.XLVII

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: explain how much of Utahs history is revealed by the visual arts. learn how to create works of art that connect to the early art and cultures of the state using similar designs or motifs. create art that expresses his or her connections to early Utah art. explain how scientific information can be communicated by the visual arts.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.XLVIII

Edith T. Roberson Channel Three


The Artist
Edie Roberson was born on February 18, 1929, in Wilmington, Delaware. Roberson studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and later with Charles McClelland, a student of Howard Pyle. In 1960, she moved to Utah, where she immediately became active in local exhibitions and had two solo shows at the Salt Lake Art Center. Since that time, Edie Roberson has become one of the states most important imaginative and visionary artists.

Edie believes art is a vital method of communication, and her artworks are intended as personal statements. Her work has been described as eclectic (made up of various sources) and as Magic Realism. She describes herself as a Super-Realist who likes to get close enough and deep enough to explore every surface and detail, taking small objects and painting them in large scale. Channel Three, like many of her artworks, is a trompe loeil (fool-the-eye) painting.

Roberson has as wide a range of subjects, techniques, and styles as any Utah artist. Her works vary from trompe loeil, to direct landscape painting. She works in many different media including acrylic, oil, pastel, and watercolor. Found objects and manufactured items such as dolls, toys, and postcards play a significant role in her works. These objects and their arrangements convey her feelings about the passage of time. According to Robert Olpin, [Her] mastery of medium is thorough but purely for purposes of expressing deeply held feelings regarding the worlds things.

About her work Roberson says, The subject matter for my paintings is chosen intuitively from all kinds of objects Ive collected through the years. . . old rusty bicycles, dolls, miniatures, toys, and objects like marbles and feathers. Each has a special history whether known or unknown, and when they come together in different ways they tell a story. Theyre like symbols in a dream. Edie is careful to leave room for viewers to make up their own stories from the objects she puts in her pieces. The Art EDITH T. ROBERSON (1929- ) Salt Lake City Channel Three 1981 oil on board, 24 x 36 (60.7 x 91.3 cm) Gift from A. Merlin and Alice Steed Trust 1983.027 In Edie Roberson, Utah inherited one of its most significant intellectual and philosophical artists. Robert Olpin notes, [She has] a rather romantic interest in the lives surrounding and shaping and touching the surfaces of inanimate objects.

Channel Three is her painting of a cork bulletin board complete with thumbnailed or stapled notes, cards, photos, and drawing cutouts, etc. As a trompe loeil, it fools the eye and boggles the brain. Trompe loeil, a French term meaning to fool the eye, refers to a painting, or a detail in a App.XLIX

painting, that deceives the viewer into thinking the objects in the painting are real and not merely represented. This works particularly well with this painting because the painting is on the same plane and the same scale as an actual bulletin board.

The title Channel Three is not representative of what the painting is and yet, neither is this a bulletin board; it is a painting. In addition, the title refers to the Surrealist notion of channeling responses, which leads the viewer to question realities, as in the floating jellybeans. The artist makes viewers want to touch the painting because mere eyes cannot be trusted. However, the Museum rule is: You can look but you must not touch!

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum - Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: show how to render cast shadows as falling opposite their source of light. experiment with the collage process by cutting and gluing various images and/or textures onto a piece of heavy cardstock. Note: have the students validate their choice of how much background or base is left uncovered.

Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: create a work of art that uses contrast to create a focal point. discover how an artist has thoughtfully used all of the area within the picture plane (the actual surface of a canvas or paper upon which the artist works). create a work of art displaying shallow or crowded space or both. Note: compare with other artworks that display vast or deep space to see if the students have different perceptions about the mood or intent that space can create. Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: invent possible stories that may explain what is going on in the artwork. judge if symbols communicate the meaning of this painting clearly. create symbols that express individual or group interests. imitate or use similar subject matter, symbols, ideas, themes, and/or meanings found in this painting.

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: see how to use a visual art form to express an idea from a non-art subject. discuss how art can be a means of self-expression or a way to express an artists emotions or both. discuss particular artworks (for example, self-portraits) as types of autobiography.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.L

Paul Salisbury Riders of the Range


The Artist
Western Realist Paul Salisbury has probably achieved more notability and respect as a Cowboy/ Western landscape painter than any other painter of these scenes. His oil paintings represent nature and its inhabitants with subtle realism. Throughout his life, he was devoted to scenes and history of the American Indian and the Western Cowboy. Salisburys early years were spent on his fathers ranch in Richfield, Utah, near the Kanosh Indian Reservation. There he gained a sympathetic awareness and understanding of the western landscape and its inhabitants. During his younger years, he worked for his father on the family ranch, but as often as possible Paul took off by himself and drew the scenery and animals around him.

Salisbury received formal art training under his uncle, Cornelius Salisbury, who encouraged him in his artistic pursuits. Paul continued his formal education at Brigham Young University under B. F. Larsen and E. H. Eastman. He also was privately instructed by LeConte Stewart, a noted Utah landscape artist. Despite his early training as an artist, it was not until later years that Salisbury was able to work continuously as a painter. When he did, he attracted a great deal of attention, and people throughout Europe and the United States commissioned him to paint for them because he was well-known as a Western Americana artist. Riders of the Range was painted in 1953. As evident in this painting, Salisbury taught his students that there are no harsh colors in nature. Here, he has rendered the desert in soft, pastel hues and earth tones. These light colors and the use of short, invisible brushstrokes create a soft texture that when combined with his treatment of light adds to the calm atmosphere created in the painting.

The Art
PAUL SALISBURY (1903-1973) Provo Riders of the Range 1953 oil on canvas, 30 x 36 (76.5 x 91.6 cm) Gift from Max and Kolene Knight, Springville 1990.007 The growing trend during the 1950s and 1960s toward Cowboy/Western art manifested itself in the paintings of Paul Salisbury of Provo. He was Utahs first significant Cowboy and Indian artist. As one of Utahs very few professional artists, he worked full time on his art and was not affiliated with a university or another occupation. It is apparent that Salisburys conservative painting style was perfectly suited to traditional Utah tastes. Riders of the Range illustrates Salisburys ability to create unity in his paintings by using a consistent tonality and bold composition. Utah art, as a whole, was not figuratively based, but rather App.LI

it was grounded upon landscape. However, in this painting, the artist has effectively composed two cowboy figures, additional horses, and cattle within a desert landscape, creating a powerful, authentic image. The painting is dated 1953, the only year Salisbury dated any of his works.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum - Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: paint with complementary color schemes. create the appearance of space by drawing distant objects smaller and with less detail than objects in the foreground. establish more natural size relationships between objects. render cast shadows as falling opposite their source of light. explore with the following drawing techniques to increase perception/rendering skills: Draw quickly: have the students draw a simple object found in the room. The drawing should only take five seconds to complete. Drawing quickly forces the student to perceive the object and then render only its basic concepts of size and shape. Draw from memory: have the students handle and observe a simple object (for example, their shoe, a stapler, a tape dispenser) for a couple of minutes. Encourage the students to take mental notes as to the relative size and shape of the object. Have the students place the object out of sight and then draw the object using their memory. Compare completed drawings with the actual objects. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: see how to create a work of art that uses contrast to create a focal point. observe how line can help define the contour of a three-dimensional form (for example, the folds of the shirt define the anatomy of the cowboy, the saddle defines the form of the horse). Note: contour is not just the outline of the object, it includes all the edges (interior and exterior) and surfaces of the object.

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: explain its possible meanings or interpretations. invent possible stories that may explain what is going on in this painting. group other works of art with similar themes or subject matter with this work. provide an example of how to create symbols or motifs in art that express individual or group interests. Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: predict how a work of art or a craft can be connected to an older or ancient culture. describe why a local craft or art form looks like it was made in your area. explore the use of artworks to document historical data.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.LII

Sven Birger Sandzen Moonrise in the Canyon, Moab, Utah


The Artist
Birger Sandzen was born in Sweden in 1871, and died in Lindsborg, Kansas, in 1954. Sandzen was best known as an impressionist landscape painter of the American Rockies, but he was also a graphic artist and, for over 50 years, a university professor.

The son of a Lutheran minister, Sandzen received all of his art education in Europe. He immigrated to Kansas in 1894, at the age of 23, with an appointment to teach modern languages, painting, and aesthetics at Bethany College in Lindsborg. For the next 52 years, he devoted himself to teaching, not only at the college but also across the prairie in small towns and villages, leaving behind generations of men and women with an appreciation of the visual arts. Sandzen was a professional artist with little interest in making a national reputation for himself. He was happy influencing no more than the small, Midwestern communities. In 1928, Sandzen came to Utah at the invitation of Calvin Fletcher of the Utah State Agricultural College (later known as Utah State University) in Logan. While in Utah, Sandzen also was invited to be a visiting professor at the Brigham Young University in Provo for the summer of 1928. He later taught in Logan, Utah, during the summers of 1929 and 1930.

The heightened color and intensity of emotion which Sandzens paintings display are not a reflection of the calm, methodical manner in which they were executed. His philosophy, according to Sandzens daughter, is best described as controlled exuberance for life. Also called a Poetic Expressionist, in reference to his orientation to figures and landscapes, he captured the imagination of many other Utah artists, because his work was so unlike Utahs art at the time.

The Art

SVEN BIRGER SANDZEN (1871-1954) Kansas/Utah Moonrise in the Canyon, Moab, Utah 1928 oil on canvas, 40 x 48 (101.2 x 122.1 cm) Gift from Springville High School, Junior Class, SMA-1928.003 Birger Sandzen was attracted to Utah by the enthusiastic reception three of his paintings had received at the Springville High School Art Gallerys Spring Salon in 1927. In early 1928, he was in southeastern Utah where he painted Moonrise in the Canyon, Moab, Utah. When he exhibited the oil at the 1928 Salon, it was purchased by the Junior class for the Gallery. Sandzens influence on Utah art of the period was immeasurable. His thick impasto, raw color, and regionalist scenery captured the imagination of such Utah artists as Phillip H. Barkdull, Louise Richards Farnsworth, Mabel Frazer, LeRoy Gardner, and Calvin Fletcher. Sandzen painted in a NeoApp.LIII

Impressionistic or Fauvist style very unlike the restrained, conservative art of Utah at the time. Fauvism, from the French fauve, meaning wild beast, is a style using pure, brilliant color combined with rough brushstrokes and thick outlines. The Fauves strove to liberate color; light and shadows were believed to be equally luminous, resulting in works that contrast hues rather than tones. Sandzens expressive, energetic style was short-lived because the onset of the Great Depression caused a more somber spirit to pervade the art of the period.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum - Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: identify and show how to use the horizon line to represent eye level in art. learn how to fuse cast shadows that overlap. explore another art medium, such as stained-glass, to determine whether this same type of image could be reproduced in a similar fashion.

Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: learn how to create the illusion of space. describe the three properties of color: hue, value, and intensity. show how to modify the value of colors to create intentional effects such as the difference between the sky and the land in this painting. differentiate and identify colors by value and intensity. explore how the type of rendering (for example, loose, painterly brush strokes) helps define the apparent texture of the actual object.

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: group artists and their works according to style or similar visual characteristics. select themes or symbols appropriate for describing an idea or personal experience. brainstorm several different approaches for creating an artwork using this image as a basis. (For example, how would it appear if the brush strokes were smooth and undetectable, what if a different color scheme were used, what if the work were completed half the size of the original or twice as large?) Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: describe the impact of this painting in the time and place it was created. hypothesize whether the meaning of this painting has changed over time. make connections between this artwork and another discipline (for example, biology, geography, and/or physical science).

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.LIV

Dennis Von Smith Keeper of the Gate


The Artist
Dennis Smith was born in 1942 in Alpine, Utah, where he lived until 1961, when he traveled to Denmark to live for two and one-half years. While there, he was attracted to the expressionism and humanistic themes of Scandinavian art. Upon returning from Denmark, he graduated from Brigham Young University and continued his graduate studies there until being accepted to the Royal Academy of Art in Copenhagen, Denmark. By 1968, after returning to Utah, Smith had set up his first studio in his fathers old chicken coop and had begun to exhibit his work. Originally, he was best known for his sculptures of children, which exhibit his ability to capture moments of play, reflection, and intimacy. Other early works such as his flying machines, like Aeroplane Contraption (1975), depict the fanciful imaginings of children. His sculptural pieces range from life-size garden sculptures to small, figurative bronzes.

In the late 1980s, Smith turned to oil painting for an inner exploration, a creative exercise where I dont have to prove anything. While Smith may not have felt the need to prove himself with his paintings, the paintings are proving that as an artist, he is not restricted to three-dimensional art forms. His painting style leans towards Figural Abstraction, and his paintings, though often intensely personal, are built on metaphors universal enough to invite others in, to share their memories and symbols too. Some of his paintings, like Keeper of the Gate (1989), and many of his sculptures, are celebrations and explorations of the freedoms and restraints of childhood. This exploration of childhood and family has inspired artwork that is exhibited through galleries in the United States and is permanently installed in public plazas, airports and buildings. Smith has received commissions from public and private institutions, and his art is located in many locations across the United States as well as in Russia and England.

The Art
DENNIS VON SMITH (1942- ) Highland, Utah Keeper of the Gate 1989 oil on canvas, 60 x 60 (152.4 x 152.4 cm) Gift from David and Ingrid Nemelka, Mapleton, 1989.082 The painting represents the artists childhood memories of Alpine, Utah, vividly recollected in paint. As a memory, it is slightly jumbled in terms of perspective, color, juxtaposition, and size, just like a dream. The painting is based on a time when the artist had just turned eight years old and received a birthday gift of an American Flyer bicycle. His parents told him not to ride farther than the gas station at Four-Corners. The gas station was the edge of his world, it was the Keeper of the Gate to the outside world for the curious and adventurous boy. App.LV

Like much of Smiths work, Keeper of the Gate deals with balance. In this particular piece, the balance is between safety and freedom. The painting shows the area he was allowed to roam as a child. Within it, the gate represents the boundary where his freedom both began and ended. Smith is exploring both the nature of freedom and of limits, which themselves often simultaneously give and restrict. Furthermore, the painting comments on the setting of arbitrary limits and on strictures on freedom and free agency, which are set by others.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum - Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: color and draw pictures with the sky band extending down from the top of the page to the tops of the mountains, buildings, or horizon. portray people and objects in a natural size relationship. draw vertical objects, such as telephone poles, chimneys, or trees perpendicular to the horizon rather than the diagonal lines upon which they may rest. use the medium of oil pastels (or regular pastels) to change the intensity or brightness of a color (for example, to lower the intensity of red mix a little of its complement green). explore the process of painting by having the students use oil pastels to place several colors right next to each other and then mix them slightly with a brush dipped in an odorless solvent. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: identify the appearance of space. create a sense of space in a work of art by using one of the following methods: Overlapping Smaller size further away Less detail further away Less intense color further away Lighter in value further away Objects placed higher in the Slightly bluer further away format appear further away

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: suggest and investigate possible meanings, ideas, symbols, or interpretations of an artwork. speculate whether buildings have meanings or portray ideas. create a work of art by developing a theme such as childhood memories. describe how elements of art such as line, shape, color, and texture are used to express ideas and convey meanings. Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: see how to create a work of art that reflects part of family history/traditions or neighborhood history/culture. identify the meaning (intent of the artist) communicated in an artwork.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.LVI

Gary Ernest Smith Farm Boy, with Brown Cap


The Artist
Gary Ernest Smith was born in a small farm community 25 miles northeast of Baker, Oregon, in 1942. He attended Eastern Oregon State College and Brigham Young University, earning both a Bachelor and Master of Fine Arts degrees. He served in the United States Army for two years as an illustrator, and then taught art at BYU and acted as gallery director for three terms. Since 1972, Smith has been selfemployed as an artist. He and his wife, Judy Asay Smith, have four children and live in the arts community of Highland, Utah.

Gary Smith presents impressive credentials as an artist. Though known for his paintings, in recent years he has also turned his talents to sculpture. His canvases depict the life and landscape of rural America from the turn of the century to the present, mostly in Utah and Oregon. These artworks hang in museums, in private, corporate, and university collections, as well as in churches along the Wasatch front. With five other artists, he recently painted murals for the LDS Temple in Nauvoo, Illinois. He is extensively published as an illustrator and has received many major commissions for his paintings and sculptures. Termed a Neo-Regionalist by many, Smith works on the basis of reinterpretation of rural, midAmerica themes. While acknowledging the appropriateness of the term Neo-Regionalist, he also feels its too limiting and calls his style minimal. As an artist he concentrates on spatial and coloristic solutions, direct statements that capture the essential character of his subject: icon and image are more important than explicit detail. The themes of Smiths work are often spiritual, though the interpretation is clearly unique in form and style. The subjects of Gary Smiths art range through three major areasovert and latent religious subjects, landscapes, and evocations of the rural west, each born from poignant personal experiences in his life.

Smith admits to being a driven painter who needs the distractions of his musician wife and his children to rescue him from spending all day in the studio. He attributes his work ethic to his upbringing. With his brothers and father, Smith worked on the family cattle ranch and farm. Farming is hard work; I didnt want to do that the rest of my life, he says. I wanted more. I wanted to be an artist. I had no idea what that entailedit was a dream, kind of an unreachable dream. Gary Smith has obviously achieved his dream. His work is praised by both critics and collectors alike for its power to resonate in the mind and memory of contemporary America. (Overland Gallery) Theodore F. Wolff, past art editor for the Christian Science Monitor, says of Gary Smith, Few artists today see things whole. Most prefer a sliver of the truth and an art defined by theory, passion or imitation. Not so Gary E. Smith. For him art is expansive and holistic, ideal for sharing what is good, beautiful and true, and the best way to communicate ones deepest beliefs and intuitions.

Smith says his . . . art is a constant struggle for the new insight, for the more effective technique. It is as changing and evolving as life itself. To unite humanity with the earth through art is like combining the body with the spirit. Careful observers of Smiths work walk away from his paintings with a broader, more appreciative view of beauty and of the goodness of the earth and the people who work it, and of this artist, who paints it. App.LVII

The Art
GARY ERNEST SMITH (1942 ) Highland, Utah Farm Boy, with Brown Cap 1990 oil on canvas, 12 x 9

Gary Smith says, Art is a way of addressing humanity . . . and my works attempt to merge ideas and memories. Smith believes Good art functions on many levels. There is the surface appeal of subject, and below that are layers that may be peeled off, revealing information about the individual artist and the psychology of his era. Theres the subject but theres also the underlying theme.

Of the main themes I deal with in the creative process, productivity and self-reliance seem to reoccur in the rural people I paint. I attempt to portray something of the struggles and triumphs of those who work with a sometimes friendly, sometimes harsh environment. It is important for me to live and work with my family in a rural area. I need to follow the seasons and be close to the land in which I have such a deep emotional attachment. Gary Smiths painting, Farm Boy, with Brown Cap, is representative of these themes of self-reliance and hard work. It has the bold colors and simplified forms that make his paintings symbolic of a whole history and way of life, a kind of people and a relationship with the land that cannot be counterfeited. It is the combination of color, form, and symbol that makes Garys work appeal to sophisticated urban audiences as well as to western ones.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education


Elementary Lessons Assessment of elementary lessons is designed to help the teacher identify class mastery as well as those individuals who may need extra help understanding specific concepts.

Under the Standard of Making Art and Expressing Meaning in Art This print of a painting can help students learn to simplify shapes: After examining the posters of Farm Boy, with Brown Cap and Youthful Games, compare the shapes in those artworks with J. T. Harwoods Boy and Cat and Paul Salisburys Riders of the Range. Make artworks by drawing basic shapes on construction paper, cutting them out and gluing them to a background. Make three items such as a building, a person, and a plant of some kind; arrange these on the background, and glue the shapes down. Talk about the choices students made in making and placing their shapes. Assess students ability to cut, paste, follow directions, and to explore the reasons for their choices.

Under the Standard of Appreciating and Decoding Meaning in Art This print of a painting can help students convey ideas and feelings: After examining the poster, discuss: Does Smith like the kind of person he painted? Does he care about the place the boy lives? How can you tell? How could you make an artwork that tells how you feel about something? Assess student participation and understanding of concepts. App.LVIII

Under the Standard of Making Art and Expressing Meaning in Art This print of a painting can help students create a mood using color: After looking at the poster, discuss the kind of feeling students get from looking at the artwork. Identify how the colors help create those feelings. Make a simple painting using colors that will convey a specific feeling. Assess students ability to choose colors consistent with an emotion. Under the Standard of Appreciating and Decoding Meaning in Art This print of a painting can help students understand context: After looking at the poster, discuss the following questions: What area of the country do you think this boy lives in and why? What kind of music might he listen to? What kind of dancing might this boy do? What might his life be like? Assess students participation and understanding of context.

Secondary Lessons Standard 2Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. This print of a painting can help students create a visual image as the outcome of critical inquiry: Look at the print of the artwork. Discuss the following questions: 1. What is your initial reaction to this artwork? 2. What is the style of this work; what aesthetic stance does it represent? 3. What might help you understand the artwork better? 4. How can you find such information? Are there other avenues you can explore? As small groups, read and research information about Gary Smith, and view other images of his work online and from past Evening for Educators packets. Find any other information your think may be pertinent. Discuss the meaning of the image. Manipulate this image in some way that communicates your response to Gary Smiths painting Farm Boy with Brown Cap. For example, scan the image into the computer and alter or add to the image; combine the image with text or other images from magazines or newspapers, make the image into an ad, etc. Assess students visual image for clarity and creativity as a comment on the original artwork. Standard 1Making: Students will assemble and create works of art, manipulate art media, and organize images with the elements and principles of art. This print of a painting can help students explore color blending using various media: Discuss Gary Smiths use of color. Using an assortment of colored media, practice making a variety of color blends, shading from light to dark within a specific hue. Keep samples in a folder for reference. Assess student color samples for number and improvement in quality. Standard 4Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. This print of a painting can help students explore, in small groups, how context relates to regionalist artworks. Gary Smith is often called a regionalist. Look at his work and decide why. Determine what creates the sense of a particular region. App.LIX

Find work by other regionalists such as Thomas Hart Benton, John Rogers Cox, John Steuart Curry, and Grant Wood: Compare their work with Smiths. Explore how you feel about your region and sense of community. Identify and list visual cues that would give viewers a sense of your region. Assess student participation in group work and assess their lists for depth and creativity.

Standard 3Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. This print of a painting can help the students discover where artists ideas come from and explore ideas for their own artworks. View this poster as well as other posters such as Lizard Relay: Jaquarundi with Green Iguanas and Banded Basilisks, by Carel Brest van Kempen; Cottage Industry, by Jacqui Biggs Larsen; Abstract Configuration, by Raymond Jonas; Curious Onlookers, by Alexei Trotsenko; Over Three Billion Served, by Alex Darais; Sacred Cows of Art History, by Gregory Abbott; Man with a a Headache This Big, by Wayne Kimball; Irises, by Gary Price; and Da Winnah!, by Mahonri Young In small groups read the poster backs to find information about how the artists got their ideas and how they make their artworks personally meaningful. Share the groups ideas with the class. Outside of school, explore several ways the artists whose work you studied got their ideas, and find ideas for your own artworks. In small groups, brainstorm how you could make those ideas personally meaningful. Extension: Standard 1Making: Create the artwork based on your ideas of how to make an artwork that is personally meaningful. Assess group work for participation and quality of research and ideas. Assess artwork for its ability to convey personal meaning.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.LX

Gary Ernest Smith Youthful Games


The Artist
Gary Smith was born in the rural eastern Oregon community of Baker, in 1942. He attended Eastern Oregon State College and Brigham Young University, from which he earned a Master of Fine Arts degree. After serving in the United States Army for two years as an illustrator, he joined the faculty at BYU and acted as gallery director for three terms. Smith has been self-employed as an artist since 1972. Today, he and his wife, Judy Asay Smith, live in Highland, Utah, with their four children.

Dr. Vern Swanson of the Springville Museum of Art describes Smith as constantly seeking his ends through stylistic experiment. A symbolist, Smith strives for simple, direct statements that capture the essential character of his subject; icon and image are more important than explicit detail. Large bold shapes, Smith says, with minimal detail, are the substance of my work. Most of the detailing in my pictures is implied rather than painted.

As an artist, Gary expresses himself through consistent Classical Abstraction as he concentrates on spatial and coloristic solutions. His themes are often spiritual, though the interpretations are clearly unique in form and style. Three major subjects dominate Smiths art: overt and latent religious subjects, landscapes, and evocations of the rural West. Each of these subjects are influenced by poignant personal experiences. Art is a way of addressing humanity, he says, and my works attempt to merge ideas and memories.

Smith believes that Good art functions on many levels. There is the surface appeal of subject and below that are layers that may be peeled off, revealing information about the individual artist and the psychology of his era. Theres the subject but theres also the underlying theme. Smith also says that his . . . art is a constant struggle for the new insight, for the more effective technique. It is as changing and evolving as life itself. To unite humanity with the earth through art is like combining the body with the spirit. That personal insight Smith struggles to attain and to share is successfully expanded to encompass the viewers of his paintings. Careful observers walk away from his paintings with a broader, more appreciative view of beauty and of the goodness of the earth and the people who work it, as well as of this artist, who paints it.

The Art
GARY ERNEST SMITH (1942- ) Highland Youthful Games 1984 oil on canvas 48 x 48 (121.7 x 121.7 cm) Gift from Lund-Wassmer Collection: from Vern G. & Judy N. Swanson 1986.010 App.LXI

In the early 1980s, Gary Ernest Smiths palette knife paintings were filled with symbolic forms laden with feeling. Although Smith is a Western artist, he isnt the typical Cowboy artist, for among his subjects are farmers and laborers, the nameless sod busters, which no self-respecting Cowboy artist would dare paint. Smiths country figures are the emblems of all that is true, simple, and beloved in American culture. Theodore E. Wolf, art critic for the Christian Science Monitor, wrote, Smith is a rural artist, not an urban one. His interests lie with individuals and families interacting patiently and philosophically with the land. The people in his paintings are at peace with themselves and with their worldand when theyre not, they accept their fate with quiet dignity. Even his children at play remain, at all times, part of the landscape; they and the rhythms and patterns made by their activities are not more and not less a part of the total picture than the fields in which they play, the ponds on which they skate, or the wooded farmland in which it all takes place.

Youthful Games, a painting such as described above by Wolf, evokes memories and feelings of summer evenings in a rural neighborhood, where the local children try to prolong their freedom past the golden light of evening. A group of teenage boys is portrayed playing touch football deep into dusk, when the football can no longer be seen and everything in their world is blending together into night.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum - Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: color and draw pictures with the sky band extending down from the top of the page to the tops of the mountains, buildings, or horizon. draw vertical objects, such as telephone poles, chimneys, or trees perpendicular to the horizon rather than to the diagonal lines upon which they may rest. overlap objects as a method of creating a sense of space in a work of art. explore the painting medium of watercolor by using the following technique (wash) and process (glazing): Wash: pre-wet an area of watercolor paper with clear water. Stroke a line of watercolor across the top portion. Repeat the next stroke so it slightly overlaps the previous stroke. Continue this process until the entire area is covered. Note: the brush may need to be reloaded with paint to ensure an even distribution of color across the entire area. Glazing: After an area of watercolor has dried, quickly wash another transparent layer of color over the dried area. Several layers or glazes of color can be added as the watercolor dries. Note: to make the watercolor more transparent, add more water and less pigment. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: identify the appearance of space. Strategy example: What things tell you there is space in this painting? (For example, overlapping, less detail in the background, background objects are smaller in size.) discuss how overlapping has created a sense of space in this work. (For example, figures overlap the hill, trees overlap the houses, which overlap more trees, which overlap fields and mountains.) discuss how the size of objects in this work may have contributed to the creation of a sense of space. Strategy example: Where are the largest objects? Where are the smallest objects? App.LXII

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: suggest and investigate possible meanings, stories, or interpretations for this work. see how to portray an idea, theme, or short story in an artwork. describe how line, shape, color, and texture are used to express ideas or convey stories. Strategy example: How does the use of contour lines and scant detail affect the ideas or meanings communicated by the painting? What may have been the artists purpose in doing this? Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: explore recreational pursuits of other cultures and/or the importance of recreation within their own lives. see how to create a work of art that reflects part of family history/traditions or neighborhood history/culture.

What do the relative sizes of these objects say about their location in space? create a work of art by varying the color intensity of areas to create a focal point or center of interest. Note: color intensity can be changed by adding its complement. Also, when you reduce the intensity of a color it appears to recede into the distance.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.LXIII

V. Douglas Snow Cockscomb, near Teasdale


The Artist
Douglas Snow was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, in 1927. After high school, Snow studied at the University of Utah, majoring in theater. He also studied art with LeConte Stewart and Lee Greene Richards. In 1946, he moved to New York, and a year later, transferred to the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan. At Cranbrook, Snow rapidly finished a BFA and an MFA and, in 1950, was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome. After returning to the United States in 1951, Snow embarked on a successful teaching career, first in Detroit and then at the University of Utah, where he later became chairman of the art department.

Considered one of the most exciting and dynamic painters of the West, Snow, a Romantic Landscape Abstractionist, ranks among the most influential artists of the Utah modernist school. As chairman of the University of Utah Art Department from 1966-71, Douglas Snow was instrumental in bringing exhibits featuring outstanding contemporary artists to the university, thus opening the art department to major modern influences.

At different times in his career, Snows own work has been described both as Abstract Expressionism and as Academic Abstract Impressionism. Whatever one chooses to label his works, his paintings are clearly a successful marriage of several styles, the resultant artworks being both powerful and individualistic.

Snows works are in many public and private collections including New Yorks Museum of Modern Art, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, the Springville Museum of Art, and the Museum of Art at Brigham Young University. In addition, Snow painted murals at the Salt Lake Public Library, the University of Utah, the Pioneer Theater, the Salt Lake International Airport, the Iron Blossom Lodge, Snowbird, and the Scott M. Matheson building in Salt Lake City.

The Art
V. DOUGLAS SNOW (1927- ) Salt Lake City Cockscomb, near Teasdale 1985 oil on canvas, 68 x 83-1/2 (172.6 x 212.1 cm) Anonymous Gift from Mapleton 1989.069 Douglas Snow lives in Teasdale, Utah, where he has a view out his studio window of the Cockscomb an outcropping of white limestone shot with iron, copper, and other minerals. Snows formidable talents are perfectly suited to abstract and sumptuous displays of the Utah desert. The Cockscomb, near Teasdale is a tour de force of lush color, loose brushwork, indirect technique, and abstract vision. The pictures scale and closeup view create an overwhelming abstract image, which becomes more and more realistic as the viewer moves further and further away from the painting. App.LXIV

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education


Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: observe objects in detail and portray them in a variety of ways. explore the printmaking process of monoprint. Following a brief description of the process have the students manipulate a water-based media (ink or tempera or acrylic paint) on a glass or metal plate until they have designed their desired image. Place a sheet of paper directly over the plate and rub the back of the paper with the palm of the hand until the printing media is transferred onto the paper. Gently pull the paper away from the plate and place face up until dry. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: use contour lines to indicate the forms and directions of objects. create the illusion of patterns and textures by the repetition of dots, lines, shapes, tones, colors, and value contrasts. identify the use of distortion of objects in artworks.

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: classify this work as realistic, abstract, or non-objective. use a personal experience as inspiration to create a work of art using abstraction (for example, simplify, distort, or exaggerate). discuss various art forms (for example, a photograph, a commercial print of an original artwork, and a print made as an original artwork) and compare similarities and differences. Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: describe what the artists intentions may have been at the time the painting was made. discover possible significant uses of or functions for this painting. identify the natural aspects of distorted forms in this painting. discuss the possibilities of this artwork being created in a different geographic region, time period, and/or by the other gender.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.LXV

Trevor Jack Thomas Southey New Bloom


The Artist
Trevor Southey is a native of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Africa, born in 1940 of immigrant European ancestry. His interest in art developed at an early age when rheumatic fever confined him to bed for months at a time, and often, his only companions were a pen, pencil, and paper.

Southey attended art schools in England and South Africa before coming to the United States in 1965 to attend Brigham Young University (BYU). After receiving his degrees, he joined the BYU art faculty. While teaching there, he became a founding member of the highly significant Mormon Art and Belief Movement (1966-1978). Southey personally worked to establish a Mormon Art form through his use of Latter-day Saint subject matter. In 1977, he decided to dedicate his full energies to an art career, resigned from the faculty at BYU and, in 1982, established a studio in Salt Lake City. An Academic-Realist, figurative artist, Southey, like the Renaissance painters, uses the physical body to portray the soul. Rather than merely depicting the figure, he unconsciously evokes the spirituality of the human form through his use of other worldly, everyman figures, combining realism with personal allegorical content. Talking about his art and his life, Southey says, There is a strange element of surprise in suddenly finding oneself middle aged, and internalizing the fact that one is perceived as an artist. There was not really any other natural thing for me to do with my life. . . . Certainly, the direction of my work was never planned. It is rooted simply in my being and my personal history. . . . Some artists are a little shy about such introspection; I rather like the inquiry, enjoying especially the increased perspective which others bring to the work. But I have become less and less sure of the answers. . . . I used to work more with answers; things as they should be tended to dominate my work. . . . I think my work these days is more inclined to ask questions.

In 1983, Southey moved to San Francisco, where his work found critical and popular success. During the 1990s he commuted between San Francisco and Utah, working in both states. Over the past two decades he has become proficient in sculpture and printmaking as well as in painting.

The Art

TREVOR JACK THOMAS SOUTHEY (1940- ) Alpine New Bloom 1977 etching, 16-1/4 x 22-1/2 (41.3 x 57.0 cm) Gift from Ellie Sonntage, Salt Lake City 1990.060 This intaglio print was made using the etching technique. Etchings are made by drawing with a sharp tool on a metal plate that has been covered with asphaltum, a black, sticky substance that App.LXVI

resists acid. The tool creates the drawing by exposing areas of the metal plate. The plate is then bathed in acid, which bites into the exposed parts of the metal and creates depressed lines where the drawing was. The plate is then cleaned of asphaltum, inked, and printed under heavy pressure. The original drawing now appears as the printed image. This particular artwork began as a representational pencil drawing of a woman Southey knew from his church. For Southey, the experience of creating the image led to thoughts of death, resurrection, the cycle of life, and of moving to a new stage of life. In the final artwork, the woman had become more a universal symbol than a depiction of a particular person. This print was part of a series of prints with the individual elements used in different places and in different combinations. The delicate elegance of Southeys draftsmanship suits the ideas he was exploring. Although New Bloom is not typical of his work, Trevor feels this particular print is one of his most successful pieces. He says the print is like a walk down a country lane, and he believes it successfully communicates his intended message.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: identify the media (materials and supplies) that are necessary to complete this print. (Metal or plastic printing plate, etching tools or chemicals, ink, brayer, print paper, rags or toweling, and printing press.) identify the individual techniques that make up the print process. (Probably an original sketch is transferred onto the printing plate, the design is etched with tools and/or chemicals onto the printing plate, the print paper is prepared, the plate is inked, the plate is registered (aligned) with the paper, the print is run through the press, the print is pulled off the plate, the print is dried and the edition is numbered and signed.) discuss the unique aspects of prints. (Duplicate copies or an edition can be made from one plate, printing is a process that requires several steps or stages, most prints are the reverse of the image that is on the plate.)

Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: identify elements and characteristics that his/her art may share with this print. use line to create a drawing of a person or object. use a varying density of lines to create value. observe proportions by comparing the size of the woman in the print with the size of the rose.

Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: identify how artists express feelings or mood through the use of line, repetition, or shape. Strategy example: What is the mood expressed in this print? How do elements such as line or the lack of color contribute to the creation of mood in this etching? show how various symbols in the print help convey its story (idea or meaning). Strategy example: What does the rose symbolize in this print? How does it contribute to the idea or meaning of the print? Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: discover cultures by looking at art. Strategy example: Where do you think this woman is from? What age do you think she is? What is she doing? What is she wearing? What does this imply about where she is from and her age? App.LXVII

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

describe how an understanding of science concepts helps one to create art (such as prints) and how a knowledge of how to create art helps one to understand science concepts. Strategy example: Discuss with the class how acid affects metal when applied to its surface, and how asphaltum protects metal from the effects of acid. Explain how the printing process is a practical example of how this knowledge can be used.

App.LXVIII

Mahonri Macintosh Young Factory Worker


The Artist
Mahonri Young was born August 9, 1877, twenty days before the death of his grandfather, Brigham Young. Mahonri was the last grandchild of Brigham Young, and legend has it that Brighams last words were, How is the new grandson?

Mahonris Salt Lake high school experience was notably shortone day! He claimed he had more important things to do. The more important things were repairing the family furniture and modeling figures. In 1897, determined to satisfy his interest in art, Mahonri took a job at a bicycle repair and stationary shop in order to pay J. T. Harwood for art lessons. Describing his study of art, Mahonri said, I have always drawn, and since I was 18 have consciously tried to learn to draw. I have loved and studied all the great draftsmen, but have always gone to nature for my material. I have tried to make good drawings, not drawings that look good.

Mahonri learned about the national art scene by reading Harpers and Scribners magazines. He drew, painted, sculpted, and worked to save enough money to study in New York City. In 1899, Young left Utah to attend the Art Students League in New York City. Once there, Mahonri studied under the academic muralist Kenyon Cox, learning his approach to Representationalism. The New York experience was an eye opener for the Salt Lake-born Mahonri. Back in Utah, Young took a job with the Salt Lake Herald as a photo-engraver. His dream was to save enough money to travel to Paris. Once in Paris, Youngs years were full of academic study. His real education, however, took place in the classrooms of nature, the studio, and the museum gallery. As he studied, Young became aware that he tended to paint linear action studies which related more to sculpture than to painting. For this reason, he shifted his focus to sculpture, and although Young experimented in the modernist approaches of abstract forms, he always returned to realistic expression to pursue his interest in capturing the human figure in motion. A Stylizing Social Realist, Young was the winner of numerous awards and commissions on both local and national levels. During his life, he completed approximately 120 sculptures, 300 etchings, 1500 watercolors, more than 100 oil paintings, and thousands of sketches.

The Art
MAHONRI MACINTOSH YOUNG (1877-1957) Salt Lake City/New York Factory Worker c. 1938 bronze, 45-1/2 x 26 x 14 (115.5 x 66.0 x 35.3 cm) Gift from Blaine & Louise Clyde & W. W. Clyde Co. 1984.006 App.LXIX

Utahs most famous New York-based artist, Mahonri M. Young, spent the Great Depression teaching at the Art Students League and doing work for the American Pavilion at the New York Worlds Fair of 1939. His Factory Worker and his Farm Worker were included in the decorative architecture of the pavilion. Youngs Factory Worker ennobles the industrial laborer. No other American sculptor has better represented the laborer in action; bone, brawn, and sweat. Young depicted the worker, the blacksmith, the scrub woman; all, as heroes of progress.

Concepts, Visual Art Core Curriculum Utah State Office of Education

Under the Standard of Making, this print can help the student: see how to use simplified forms such as cones, spheres, and cubes to begin drawings or sculptures of complex figures. explore the design possibilities of a three-dimensional object explore three-dimensional forms using one or more of the following sculptural processes: Additive: add small amounts of materials until the form is achieved (for example, clay pot or a found-object sculpture). Subtractive: removing or carving away parts from a solid mass (for example, stone or wood sculpture). Indirect: the form is shaped from one material, such as clay or plaster, then a mold is made of the form and another material such as bronze or plaster is poured into the mold. Several copies can be made. Under the Standard of Perceiving, this print can help the student: define space in two-dimensional artworks (height, width, and implied depth) and threedimensional forms (height, width, and actual depth). discover how empty spaces and the spaces surrounding a sculpture are thoughtfully used to make a three-dimensional work of art. Under the Standard of Expressing, this print can help the student: explain possible meanings or interpretations of this sculpture. invent possible stories that may explain what is going on in this sculpture. discuss how an artists work may be different if it is displayed publicly as opposed to being displayed at home or in private.

Under the Standard of Contextualizing, this print can help the student: explore personality or achievements of a person by examining a portrait of them. explore sculptural forms from various cultures (for example, Stonehenge, Easter Island figures, totem poles, Olmec heads, Tikal temples, African masks, ancestor figures, Buddhist stupas) to determine their significance within each culture.

Copyright 1997 Springville Museum of Art All rights reserved

App.LXX