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Ionic compounds are those compounds which constitutes metals and non-metals commonly known as cations and anions respectively. These constituents are dissociated partially or completely in water due to the polar nature of water. The water molecules surrounds and pull away from the crystal lattice in a process called hydration. NaCl (s) Na+(a ) + Cl-(a ) The ionic compounds are also called salts. The salt can !e classified into neutral" acidic and !asic dependin# on the type of hydrolysis reaction it under#oes. $asically" if cations hydroly%e water then the salt is acidic and if anion hydroly%e the water then salt is !asic. If none" then the salt is neutral. N&'+(a ) + &()(l) N&*(a ) + &*)+(a ) (acidic solution) +-(a ) + &()(l) N&*(a ) + &*)+(a ) (!asic solution) ,Cl(s) + &()(l) ,)&(a ) + &Cl(a ) (neutral solution) The acidity or !asicity of solution can !e detected !y usin# p& meter or p& indicator. -itmus paper are the p& indicator. $lue litmus turns red in acidic solution and red litmus turns !lue in !asic solution. The first part of the la! is ualitative analaysis in which a #iven solution has to !e predicted as acidic" !asic or neutral usin# the #uidelines !elow in techni ues part and then to !e tested !y dropin# solution into litmus paper to check if color chan#es. In the second part of la!" the salt solutions are prepared and e.perimental p& values of solution are determined usin# p& meter. /o" the purposes of this e.periment are to determine the acidity or !asicity of solution and write their hydrolysis e uations" to prepare the salt solutions with #iven molarity and volume and to e.perimentally determine the p& value for solution and compare it with theoritical value.

The followin# #uidelines are used to determine if the solution is acidic" !asic or neutral. 0t first the salt is !roken down into its component ions. +or e#1 NaCl (s) Na+(a ) + Cl-(a ) Then" cations and anions are inspected to see if they fall into followin# cate#ories. The cation under#o hydrolysis and produces an acidic solution if it is the con2u#ate of a weak !ase(N&'+" C(&3N&*+" C&*N&*+ ) or if it is a small" hi#hly char#ed metal ion (4n*+"+e*+"Cu(+"0l*+). C&*N&*+ (a ) + &()(l) C&*N&((a ) + &*)+(a ) (acidic solution) 0l*+(a ) + 5&() (l) 60l(&())57*+ (a ) (comple. metal ion) 60l(&())57*+ (a ) + &() (l) 60l(&())3)&7(+ (a ) + &*)+(a ) (acidic solution)

The anion under#o hydrolysis and produces a !asic solution if it is the con2u#ate !ase of weak acid and has no hydro#en atom in the formula. N)(- (a ) + &() (l) &N)( (a ) + )&- (a ) (!asic solution) If !oth cation and anion do not under#o hydrolysis then the salt is neutral. NaCl (s) Na+(a ) + Cl-(a ) (neutral)

If !oth the cation and anion under#o hydrolysis then ,a and ,! values are compared to determine the acidity or !asicity of solution. If ,a #reater than ,! then the solution is acidic and vice versa. 0fter hydrolysis e uations are written" the p& of salt solution can !e calculated usin# IC8 ta!les with known e uili!rium constant values. Then" percent ioni%ation can !e determined for various analysis. 9 ioni%ation: (Concn of ioni%ed acid or !ase) ; (initial concn of acid or !ase) < =>>9


/ome of the chemicals to !e used in this e.periment are health ha%ards. /odium car!onate is sli#htly to.ic. /odium !icar!onates are safe. /odium !romide can cause irritation on eye and skin. Copper sulphate is irritant. +erric nitrate mi#ht cause fire and is irritant to eyes. )ther rest of the chemicals !ein# used are si#nificantly not harmful. $ut" in any circumstance they are not to !e inhaled. /afety is very important. 0ll the safety rules are to !e followed as shown in safety video.The !a#s are placed into cup!oard rack. +oods and drinks are not allowed in la!. ?roper attire (shoes and clothes that covers the suscepti!le !ody parts) should !e worn. @o##les are not !e removed until and unless instructor recommends to do so. Ase the re uired amounts of chemical. If e.cess do not put them !ack. 8ither" dispose into sink or #ive it to friends. If any #lassware !reaks" mop it with !rush and dispose into !roken #lass !in. In case of chemical spill in !ench" wipe it with paper towel. If hand cuts !y !roken #lass" use medical tape found in first aid kit !o. and inform instructor. Bo not touch any plu# or !are wires on devices used. 0fter e.periment is done" wipe all the water and chemical spill on !ench with paper towel and dump into re#ular !in. 0ll the chemical wastes should !e disposed into the chemical waste container. -itmus paper are to !e disposed in the trashcan.

Part 1- Acidic , Ba ic !r N"#tra$ a$t This part was a ualitative o!servation. +rom the #iven nine salt solution we had to predict whether they are acidic" !asic or neutral throu#h the hydrolysis reaction. BI water was taken as a neutral solution as a reference. +irst the ions present in a ueous salt solution were reco#ni%ed" then ions e.pected to hydroly%e water were predicted. Thus we were a!le to write hydrolysis reaction. If anion hydroly%e water then solution would !e !asic and if cation hydroly%e water then solution would !e acidic. If !oth cation and anion hydroly%e water then we would have to compare the value of ,a and ,!. ?rediction ta!le1 /alt solution Ions present Ions e.pect &ydrolysis reaction to hydroly%e water >.33C &() >.=>C Na(C)* N0 N0 N0 C)*(-(a ) + &()(l) &C)*-(a ) + )&(a ) (Na+"C)*(- C)*(-

Type of solution neutral !asic

>.=>C Na$r

Na+" $r-


no hydrolysis r.n &/)*-(a ) + &()(l) &(/)*(a ) + )&(a ) &(?)'-(a ) + &()(l) &*?)'(a ) + )&(a ) =.Cu(+(a ) + &()(l) 6Cu(&()).)&7+(a ) +&*)+(a ) (./)'(-(a ) + &()(l) &/)'-(a ) + )&(a ) ?)'*-(a ) + &()(l) &?)'(-(a ) + )&(a )

neutral !asic !asic Inconclusive .Bepends on value of ,a and ,! !asic Inconclusive .Bepends on value of ,a and ,! acidic !asic

>.=>C Na&/)* Na+" &/)*- &/)*>.=>C Na&(?)' Na+" &(?)'- &(?)'>.=>C Cu/)' Cu(+" /)'(Cu(+" /)'(-

>.=>C Na*?)' >.=>C C#/)'

*Na+" ?)'*- ?)'*-

C#(+" /)'(- C#(+" /)'(- =.C#(+(a ) + &()(l) 6C#(&()).)&7+ (a ) +&*)+(a ) (./)'(-(a ) + &()(l) &/)'-(a ) + )&(a ) +e*+ +e(+(a ) + &()(l) 6+e(&()).)&7+(a ) +&*)+(a ) &C)*-(a ) + &()(l) &(C)*(a ) + )&(a )

>.=>C +e(N)*)* +e*+"*N)*-

>.=>C Na&C)* Na+" &C)*- &C)*-

0fter theoritical determination of type of solution" we had to e.perimentally verify our prediction. /o" -itmus paper were chosen to !e p& indicators. If a solution is acidic then it turns !lue litmus red and if solution is !asic then it turns red litmus to !lue. /o with this fact we proceeded our e.periment !y addin# drops of each solution to !oth litmus paper one after another and #ot the followin# result. )!servation ta!le Test tu!e /alt solution D = ( * ' 3 5 F G H >.33C &() >.=>C Na(C)* >.=>C Na$r >.=>C Na&/)*

Color of solution clear clear clear clear

8.pected type of solution neutral !asic neutral !asic !asic

Chan#e in color of litmus paper No chan#e Eed litmus into !lue No chan#e No noticea!le chan#e $lue litmus chan#ed into sli#ht red

8.perimentally shown type of solution neutral !asic neutral neutral acidic acidic !asic neutral

>.=>C Na&(?)' clear >.=>C Cu/)' >.=>C Na*?)' >.=>C C#/)'

li#ht !lue inconclusive $lue litmus chan#ed into sli#ht red clear clear !asic Eed litmus chan#ed into dark !lue

inconclusive No chan#e

>.=>C +e(N)*)* yellowish acidic

$lue litmus chan#ed into red acidic

red => >.=>C Na&C)* clear !asic Eed litmus chan#ed into !lue !asic Ie also had to o!serve the color of solution as the color of solution mi#ht contri!ute to chan#e in color of litmus paper. Copper sulphate was li#ht !lue !ut it chan#e !lue litmus to red so we are confirmed its an acid. /imiliarly" +erric nitrate was yellowish red !ut it chan#ed !lue litmus to deep red so" the color of ferric nitrate did not contri!ute to !lue litmus color chan#e. /o" we are confirmed that ferric nitrate is an acid. Part % &H !' a$t !$#ti!( This part was a uantitative measurement. Ie had to measure the p& of ammonium chloride and sodium hydro#enphosphate solution. +or that we had to prepare the =>.>>m- of each solution with specific molarity. +or ammonium chloride tar#et molarity was >.=3>C and for sodium hydro#enphosphate" the tar#et molarity was >.(3>C. Ie did the !unch of calculation in our la! note!ook and o!tained the mass re uired for ammonium chloride to !e >.>G>(# and volume re uired for sodium hydro#enphosphate to !e (.>>m-. Then we proceeded to our e.periment. Ie cali!erated the p& meter with !uffer solutions and then took the measurement for each solution. /alt solution N&'Cl Na(&?)' Concerntration prepared(C) >.=3> >.>3>> Theoritical p& H.H3 3.>' 8.perimental p& (usin# p& meter) H.(F3 3.*GF

Part 1 Acidic, Ba ic !r N"#tra$ This part was ualitative analysis. Ie predcted the nature of solution and then e.perimentally verified. $ut" some of the prediction contradicted with the e.perimental o!servation. $elow is the list of the salt solutions that didnt match with prediction.(a( *"r t! data a($+ i &art1 ,#" - (!-1. =. Na&/)* J very weak !ase" hard to detect (. Na&(?)' J acidic" !ecause of followin# reaction that occurs. &(?)'(-(a ) &?)'(-(a ) + &+ (a ) &?)'(-(a ) ?)'*- + &+ (a ) /o" &(?)'(-(a ) + &()(l) &?)'(-(a ) + &*)+ (a ) *. Cu/)' J Copper !ein# small hi#hly char#ed metal ions" hydroly%e water and forms copper hydro.ide comple. ion and thus is acidic. I.e Cu(+(a ) + &()(l) 6Cu(&()).)&7+(a ) +&*)+ (a ) '. C#/)' -$oth of them are the constituents cation and anion of stron# !ase and acid respectively. /o the solution is neutral +ollowin# are the e uili!rium e.pression for each hydrolysis reaction that take place. (a( *"r t! data

a(a$+ i &art 1 ,#" - N! %. /alt solution 8 uili!rium e.pression >.33C &() >.=>C Na(C)* >.=>C Na$r >.=>C Na&/)* >.=>C Na&(?)' >.=>C Cu/)' >.=>C Na*?)' >.=>C C#/)' >.=>C +e(N)*)* >.=>C Na&C)* N0 ,!: 6&C)*-76)&-7;6C)*(-7 N0 N0 ,a: 6&?)'(-76&*)+7;6&(?)'7 ,a:6(Cu(&()).)&)+76&*)+7;6Cu(+7 ,!:6&?)'(-76)&-7;6?)'*-7 N0 ,a:6(+e(&()).)&)+76&*)+7;6+e(+7 ,!:6&(C)*76)&-7;6&C)*-7

Part-% &H !' a$t !$#ti!( +rom the theoritical and e.perimental value of p&" we were a!le to calculate the calculate the percent error of our data. p& 9 error of N&'Cl solution: -5.'9 p& 9 error of Na(&?)' solution: F.*9 /a( *"r t! data a(a$+ i &art % ,#" - (!- 1. +rom e.perimental value of p& we were a!le to calculate the p)&" concerntration of hydronium ion and hydro.ide ions of each solution. /alt solution p& p)& 6&*)+7 (C) 6)&-7 (C) N&'Cl 3.*GF G.5=* (.H(<=>-* H.*G<=>-3 =.G(<=>-' G.GF<=>-* Na(&?)' H.(F3 '.F(3 /a( *"r t! data a(a$+ i &art % ,#" - (!- %.

In this e.periment we learn to determine if the salt solution is acidic" !asic or neutral throu#h the use of p& indicator( ualitative analysis) and p& meter( uantitave analysis). In ualitative part" the solution that turned red litmus to !lue were !asic and the solution that turned !lue litmus to red were acidic. The neutral solution showed no color chan#e. The copper sulphate solution and the ferric nitrate solution had their own color (li#ht !lue and yellowish red respectively). The color of the solution could affect the color chan#e of litmus paper. $ut in this e.periment" the color of the solution did not have si#nificant impact on the color chan#e of litmus paper. /imiliarly" in the uantitative part " the solution whose p& value was !elow F" was acidic and the solution whose p& value was a!ove F" was !asic. +or ammonium chloride the p& value was theoritically determined as H.H3 and e.perimentally measured as H.(F3" concludin# it to !e !asic. /imiliarly" for sodium hydro#enphosphate the p& value was theoritically determined as 3.>' and e.perimentally measured as 3.*GF "concludin# it to !e acidic in nature. The percent error for ammonium chloride and sodium hydro#enphosphate was calculated as -5.'9 and F.*9 respectively. These errors mi#ht !e due to improper conditionin# of #lasswares" inaccurate mass and volume

measured" use of less precise flask" addition of inaccurate amount of water for dilution etc. $ut" overall" e.periment went well and we understood the concept and techni ues !ehind it.


=.a. NiCl( : acidic Ni(+ (a ) + .&() (l) 6Ni(&()).-()&7+ (a ) +&*)+ (a ) !. Na(/ : !asic /(- (a ) + &() (l) &/- (a ) + )&- (a ) c. N&'C(&*)( : acidic or !asic dependin# on value of ,a and ,! If" ,a K,! " N&'+ (a ) + &() (l) N&* (a ) + &*)+ (a ) (acidic) If" ,a L,! " C(&*)(- (a ) + &() (l) &C(&*)( (a ) + )&- (a ) (!asic) d. $a(N)*)( : neutral" no hydrolysis r.n occurs since !oth are cations and anions of stron# !ase and acid respectively. (. BI water was tested in this e.periment to check if litmus paper had any uncertainities. *. If some solid salts were spilled on the !ench top while it was !ein# transferred into volumetric flask" then it would increase the p& value !ecause" as the mass of salt decreases" the molarity of salt also decreases which decreases the e uili!rium concerntration of hydronium ion. /ince p& is the inverse lo# of concerntration" as the concerntration decreases the value of p& increases. '. If the pipet was rinsed with distilled water !ut not conditioned with stock solution !efore use then it would increase the p& value !ecause it would cause dilution to solution thus" decreasin# the concerntration of solution and e ili!rium concerntration of hydronium ion./Ince p& is the inverse lo# of concerntration" as the concerntration decreases the value of p& increases. 3./odium !icar!onate is an effective antacid !ecause it converts stron# acid to a weak acid. +or" e.ample &C)*- (a ) + &() (l) &(C)* (a ) + )&- (a ) )&- (a ) + &Cl (a ) &() (l) + Cl- (a ) Na+ (a ) + Cl- (a ) NaCl (a )