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EXERCISES UNIT 5 STUDY PLAN Unit 5 closes the course focusing on the limits of postcolonial theory and literature.

Chapter 8 in McLeod highlights the critical spirit of the field of studies by questioning the geographical and historical parameters that define postcolonial literature and suggesting how it can include more open and unrestricting approaches to cultural production. As an e ample of opening the postcolonial !canon" that includes trans#cultural writing $writing that mo%es beyond and challenges national boundaries&' we will read in this Unit the wor(s of Chicana writer )loria An*ald+a and ,ati%e#American writers -herman Ale ie and Leslie Marmon -il(o' as well as other e amples of trans#cultural writing in the wor( of .en/amin 0ephaniah' a .ritish#born poet of Caribbean origin. 1t should be ta(en into account in this sub/ect $the same as in any other of the )rado de 2studios 1ngleses& that' preliminary to additional complementary acti%ities' students must read carefully and with critical insight the compulsory readings' both of a theoretical and literary stance' so as to tac(le later the tas(s and self#assessment e ercises proposed. ,ow students must read Chapter 8 in McLeod. A first section deals with the !limits of temporality" in postcolonialism' highlighting that postcolonial studies may o%er%alue colonialism as a !determining mar(er of history"' that the use of the !post" may be too celebratory' and that it does not pro%ide useful tools to analy*e !neo#colonialism." A second section focuses on the !limits of geography"' suggesting that most anthologies of postcolonial literature still maintain a postcolonial canon based on the Commonwealth geographical map3 more recent anthologies ha%e included other e periences of colonialism e panding the map' such as 1rish literature' 4elsh and -cottish' and Chicano5a and ,ati%e#American literature' as well as including !trans#cultural" writings. !6he problem of 4estern theory" section e poses the di%ision in postcolonial studies between an !anti#theorist" and a !pro#theorist" stance' the former critici*ing the use of 4estern forms of thought and an e cessi%e focus on theory and discourse instead of on social wor( and political resistance to fight material inequality in 6hird 4orld countries. 6he ne t section critici*es how Uni%ersity postcolonial literature courses ha%e been increasingly used to !ghettoi*e" certain writers and boo(s in order to answer the demand for more !e otic" literature' treating superficially out#of#the#cannon literature in 2nglish and including' on the other hand' always the same stipulated postcolonial writers. 6he ne t section posits the doubt about how closely postcolonialism may ser%e neo#colonialist strategies' since it has forgotten the ob/ecti%es of political resistance by questioning systematically nationalism and Mar ism' being also led by an elite of 6hird 4orld intellectuals assimilated into the 4estern academic system. McLeod' howe%er' presents a critique to the reconsideration of Mar ism as the solely theoretical %iew in postcolonialism in a recent proposal of !tricontinentalism". 7inally' McLeod tac(les the issue of !globalisation" and interestingly suggests how postcolonial theory can engage in a critical debate with this new form of imperialism

CHAPTER 8 MCLEOD'S QUESTIONS 1- Enumerate Anne McClintock an Ella S!o!at"# $oint# in relation to t!e $it%all# im$lie in t!e term &$o#t-coloniali#m'(

In her 1992 essay 'The Angel of Progress: Pitfalls of the Term "Postcolonialism" ' (in Colonial Discourse /Postcolonial Theory, pp. 25 !2""#, Anne $c%lintoc& ta&es iss'e (ith the 'post' in )postcolonial on the follo(ing gro'n*s. +irst, altho'gh postcolonial theory often challenges ,inary oppositions, the 'se of the 'post' represents glo,al history thro'gh a ,inary *i-ision: colonial . postcolonial. /econ*, ,y conferring on colonialism 'the prestige of history proper' (p. 255# non!0'ropean c'lt'res ,ecome historicise* (ith reco'rse to 0'ropean chronology. %olonialism ,ecomes the '*etermining mar&er of history' (p. 255#1 alternati-e (ays of *i-i*ing historical epochs or narrating historical time (hich *o not pri-ilege colonialism, are ignore*. In a**ing her -oice to those (ho ,elie-e that postcolonialism cannot accommo*ate the m'ltiplicity of histories an* e2periences it co-ers, $c%lintoc& arg'es that the term *oes not allo( 's to thin& a,o't ho( postcolonialism is ''ne-enly *e-elope* glo,ally' (p. 25"#. 3ifferent co'ntries enco'nter *ecolonisation at *ifferent times, (hile others ha-e not e2perience* it at all. In a**ition, not all forms of *ecolonisation are the same. 4y collapsing these *ifferent times into one temporality, 'the postcolonial', (e lose the opport'nity to thin& a,o't the historical *ifferences that e2ist ,et(een contrasting locations. 5ltimately, the 'post' in postcolonial is too premat'rely cele,ratory, implying an en* to all things colonial. Its cele,ratory emphasis *amagingly *irects attention a(ay from the contin'e*, neo! colonial operations thro'gho't the glo,e. /imilar arg'ments are raise* ,y 0lla /hohat in '6otes on the "Post!%olonial" ' (Social Text, 1. 2, 1992, pp. 99!11 #. /hohat shares $c%lintoc&'s misgi-ings that the term implies the en* of colonialism, an* (orries a,o't the collapse of chronology (hich this effects. '7hen e2actly, then, *oes the "post!colonial" ,egin8 7hich region is pri-ilege* in s'ch a ,eginning8 7hat are the relationships ,et(een these *i-erse ,eginnings8' (p. 19 #. It is -ery *iffic'lt to ',egin postcolonialism' is (e can ne-er ,e certain (hen the postcolonial originates. /hohat is also concerne* a,o't the ina,ility of postcolonialism to a**ress neo!colonialism. In the late t(entieth cent'ry, it is arg'e*, 7estern m'ltinational companies are the ne( 'colonialists', (hile America contin'es the military aggression of certain nations. The glo,al economic relationships ,et(een the (ealthy 7estern nations an* their poorer neigh,o'rs reflect 'colonialism's economic, political, an* c'lt'ral *eformati-e!traces in the present' (p. 195#. :ence:

The term 'post-colonial', when compared with neo-colonialism, comes equipped with little evocation of contemporary power relations; it lacks a political content which can account for the eighties and nineties-style U.S. militaristic involvements in local elites. %p. &'(). ranada, !anama, and "uwait-#raq, and for the sym$iotic links $etween U.S. political and economic interests and those of

There are three responses that can ,e ma*e here. +irst, let 's remem,er that (hen (e a**resse* postcolonialism in the intro*'ction to this ,oo&, (e caref'lly *eci*e* that (e (o'l* 'se the term to refer specifically to aesthetic practices: representations, *isco'rses an* -al'es. 'Postcolonialism' is not a strict historical mar&er1 it *oes not e2cl'si-ely *enote an epoch. 4't m'ch of the conf'sion s'rro'n*ing the term comes from its 'se simultaneously to *escri,e, on the one han*, historical an* economic material conditions ($ar2's ',ase', if yo' li&e# an*, on the other, historically sit'ate* imaginative pro*'cts an* practices ($ar2's 's'perstr'ct're'#. To &eep this conf'sion at ,ay (e reser-e* 'postcolonialism' to *escri,e the latter of these. /hohat in partic'lar stresses the nee* for 's to ,e -igilant at all times in *efining the term precisely, ,'t '6otes on the "Post!%olonial" ' co'l* ,e acc'se* of failing to *ifferentiate a*e;'ately ,et(een 'postcolonial' as a historical mar&er and an aesthetic critical practice. If caref'lly *efine*, postcolonialism perhaps can recognise the contin'ing agency of colonial *isco'rses an* relations of po(er in the contemporary (orl* as (e ha-e seen at -ario's points in this te2t. The pro,lem is not (ith the term, perhaps, ,'t in its artic'lation.

)- De#cri*e t!e countrie# an re+ion# t!e $o#tcolonial ant!olo+ie# *, -illiam -al#!. /o!n T!ieme. 0re+or, Ca#tle. or De*ora! Ma #en inclu e' 1o2 o t!e, i3er %rom one anot!er4 5All in t!e #ection &T!e limit# o% +eo+ra$!,(6

New maps (f)or ol ! T"e l#m#$s of %eo%rap"& 7illiam 7alsh *i-i*e* his 19< ,oo& Commonwealth Literature into si2 chapters, each *ealing (ith a separate area: In*ia, Africa, the 7est In*ies, %ana*a, 6e( =ealan* an* A'stralia. Accor*ing to some, postcolonial st'*ies to*ay apparently has mo-e* ,eyon* this selecti-e mapping > -ery m'ch an 'area st'*ies' mo*el for the fiel*'s remit > an* has re?ecte* many of the critical ass'mptions (ith (hich critics of %ommon(ealth literat're (or&e*, creating instea* a (i*e!ranging critical -oca,'lary of its o(n (hich *ra(s 'pon the (or& of other *isciplines. 4't for others, that shift ,et(een '%ommon(ealth' an* 'postcolonial' mappings of the fiel* has not ,een as prono'nce* as might ,e e2pecte*, (hile its critical ass'mptions still s'ffer from the rather generalising an* a,stract approach often fo'n* in %ommon(ealth literary st'*ies. There are t(o pro,lems (e can raise in this conte2t: @ Postcolonialism still accepts 'ncritically the geographical divisions of Anglophone %ommon(ealth literat're. @ Postcolonialism *oes not *iscriminate a*e;'ately ,et(een different experiences of colonialism.

Aet 's ta&e first the iss'e of geographical *i-isions. Bohn Thieme's e2cellent The Arnold Anthology of Post-Colonial Literatures in nglish (0*(ar* Arnol*, 199"# *i-i*es the fiel* graphically as follo(s: 7est Africa, 0ast Africa, /o'thern Africa, 6orth Africa, A'stralia, %ana*a, the %ari,,ean, 6e( =ealan* an* the /o'th Pacific, /o'th Asia (consisting of In*ia, /ri Aan&a, 4angla*esh, Pa&istan#, /o'th Asia (consisting of $alaysia, /ingapore, the Philippines, Thailan*#, an* CTrans! %'lt'ral 7ritingD. Aoo& ho( in ThiemeDs anthology there is a greater sensiti-ity to the *ifferences (ithin partic'lar regions (an* ,et(een them#, that is fo'n* in 7alsh's 19< ,oo&, as (ell as the incl'sion of something calle* Ctrans!c'lt'ralD literat're (hich cannot ,e containe* (ithin national categories. Eet: the map of %ommon(ealth literat're s'ch as (e fin* in 7alshDs ,oo& is still *etermining to a *egree ThiemeDs s',*i-isions t(enty!three years later, *espite his increase* n'ance an* sensiti-ity to *ifference: note ho(, for e2ample, Irelan* remains a,sent from ,oth 7alshDs an* ThiemeDs s',*i-ision of the fiel*. $ean(hile, Fregory %astle's 'sef'l collection of essays Postcolonial Discourses! An Anthology (4lac&(ell, 2991# also seems animate* ,y a more familiar 'area st'*ies' (ay of concept'alising the fiel* > altho'gh Irelan* *oes feat're > as fi-e of its si2 sections *eal (ith partic'lar an* pre*ominantly Anglophone postcolonial locations: /o'th Asia, Africa, the %ari,,ean, settler colonies an* Irelan*. /'ch mappings of the fiel* can ,e regar*e* from t(o contrasting perspecti-es, as ca'se either for complaint or congrat'lation. To ta&e the criticisms of this mapping first, (e can consi*er t(o o,?ections. If the st'*y of %ommon(ealth literat're pri-ilege* 4ritain as a central point of reference for the ne( literat'res in 0nglish, then postcolonialism also repeats this pri-ileging. It contin'es the collecting and tethering of these literatures to the colonial centre -ia the 'se of the term Cpostcolonial literat'reD (hich, for some, performs essentially the same tas& as the st'*y of %ommon(ealth literat're. +'rthermore, as the omission of Irelan* perhaps in*icates, the scope of post!colonialism remains limite* to a selective n'm,er of those co'nties (ith a history of colonialism, *eri-ati-e of the &ey areas of concern in %ommon(ealth literat're. :o( ra*ical is postcolonialism if it contin'es to pri-ilege a (ay of mapping the (orl* (hich is essentially colonialist an* ,elongs to a pre-io's (orl* or*er8

There are t(o (ays (e might respon* to these complaints. +irst, (e might note that postcolonialism has e2pan*e* in range an* foc's. Irelan* is a case in point. /e-eral critics ha-e arg'e* in recent years that many of the iss'es raise* in postcolonial st'*ies ! s'ch as lang'age, representation, resistance, nationalism, gen*er, migrancy an* *iaspora ! are central in the st'*y of Irish literat're, an* ha-e s'ggeste* that Irish c'lt're is consi*ere* s;'arely (ithin the history of colonialism an* resistance to it, an* (ith reco'rse to postcolonial critical metho*s. The incl'sion of Irish materials in %astle's anthology is a goo* e2ample of this. 0lle&e 4oehmer pointe** o't ho( late!nineteenth!cent'ry Irish nationalists often 'n*erstoo* their opposition to the 4ritish 0mpire as cotermino's (ith anti!collonial resisteance else(here, as in /o'th Africa for e2ample (see the intro*'ction to her ,oo& mpire" the #ational and the Postcolonial" $%&'-$&('! )esistance in *nteraction, G2for* 5ni-ersity Press, 2992#. In Culture and *mperialism, 0*(ar* /ai* arg'es that the Anglo!Irish (riter 7.4. Eeats sho'l* ,e rea* as an 'in*isp'ta,ly great nominal poet (ho *'ring a perio* of anti!imperialist resistance artic'lates the e2periences, the aspirations, an* the restorati-e -ision of a people s'ffering 'n*er the *ominion of an offshore po(er ' (Hintage, 199 , pp. 2"5!2""#. :e procee*s to rea* Eeat's poetry in tan*em (ith the (or& of the li&es of the %hilean poet Pa,lo 6er'*a an* %Isaire's 6egrit'*e poetry (a(hich (e loo&e* at in %hapter #. In a similar -ein, in his ,oo& Anomalous States! *rish +riting and the Post-Colonial ,oment (Aillip't Press, 199 #, 3a-i* Aloy* arg'es that 'JfKor the theory an* practice of *ecolonisation, ho(e-er, Irelan* is, to a sometimes *istressing e2tent, more e2emplary than anomalo's' (p. <#. Aloy*'s o(n (or& loo&s closely at the li&es of /eam's :eaney, /am'el 4ec&ett, 7. 4. Eeats an* Bames Boyce in the -ario's conte2ts (hich emerge from Irelan*'s postcolonial 'moment'. An* /imon +eatherstone has e2plore* the 'circ'lar traffic' (Postcolonial Cultures" 0*in,'rgh 5ni-ersity Press, 2995, p. 5L# of the Irish *iaspora's m'sical en*ea-o'rs in post!(ar Aon*on in parallel (ith %ari,,ean migration to Aon*on an* (ith a no* to Pa'l Filroy's mo*el of the '4lac& Atlantic'.

In a**ition, it has occasionally ,een pointe* o't that the literat'res from the 4ritish Isles, s'ch as 7ales an* /cotlan*, can ,e tho'ght of as postcolonial. These co'ntries ha-e s'ffere* the instit'tional an* c'lt'ral a'thority of 0nglan* (hich the (riting from each has attempte* to challenge. As 4erthol* /choene has pro-ocati-ely arg'e* in his essay 'A Passage to /cotlan*: /cottish Aiterat're an* the 4ritish Postcolonial %on*ition' (Scotlands" 2 (1#, 1995, pp. 19<!122# 'JaK *isc'ssion of /cottish literat're in light of c'rrent postcolonial theory is ,o'n* to lea* to interesting res'lts. :ere (e fin* not only in*i-i*'al (or&s of postcolonial literat're ,'t a (hole tra*ition of postcolonial (riting' (p. 119#. $ean(hile, Bane Aaron an* %hris 7illiams ha-e arg'e* forcef'lly that
the application of questions, hypotheses and concepts drawn from postcolonial thinking to such issues as *elsh culture and politics has the potential to $e e+tremely fruitful ... !ostcoloniality em$races concepts such as am$ivalence %the mi+ of attraction and repulsion that may characteri,e relationships $etween imperial power and colony) and hy$ridity %the creation of 'transcultural' forms in the contact ,one $etween the two) that raise many awkward questions for *ales and the people of *ales. %'!reface' to Postcolonial Wales, ed. -ane .aron and /hris *illiams, University of *ales !ress, 0''(, p. +vi)

It might ,e arg'e*, therefore, that it is not the case that post!colonialism these *ays (or&s solely (ith the ol* map of the %ommon(ealth1 instea*, ne( conte2ts an* interc'lt'ral relations are ,eing reconsi*ere* in the light of postcolonial concepts an* ha,its of tho'ght. 3e,orah A. $a*sen's e*ite* collection of essays Post-Colonial Literatures! xpanding the Canon (Pl'to, 1999# is one s'ch *eli,erate attempt to go ',eyon* the %ommon(ealth' an* regar* the (or& of (among others# %hicano.a an* :ispanic (riters as postcolonial, calling attention to a ,o*y of (or& often neglecte* in anthologies of postcolonial (riting.

+'rthermore, a &ey *e-elopment in recent years has ,een the e2pansion of postcolonial st'*ies ,eyon* a *istinctly Anglophone frame to engage (ith other colonial legacies an* conte2ts > +rancophone, :ispanic, 3'tch, A'sophone. This has not meant simply applying familiar (Anglophone!force*# concept'al tools to ne( historical an* c'lt'ral circ'mstances, ,'t has often in-ol-e* opening 'p postcolonial st'*ies to transition an* transformation as a conse;'ence of s'ch ne( *e-elopments (hich are -ery m'ch 'li-e' iss'es to*ay, an* (hich often in-ol-e a *istinctly comparati-e stan*point that loo&s across *ifferent 0'ropean e2amples of colonialism an* its aftermath (see, for e2ample, 6icholas :arrison, Postcolonial Criticism! -istory" Theory" and the +or. of /iction, Polity, 299 , in (hich 4ritish an* +rench materials are co'nter!pointe*#. In their recent e*ite* collection %harles +ors*ic& an* 3a-i* $'rphy pro-i*e a sense of ho( the fiel* is e2citingly e-ol-ing as a conse;'ence of the (or& of scholars in a -ariety of lang'age tra*itions in their comments a,o't the ne(ly emerging area of +rancophone postcolonial st'*ies: '+rancophone Postcolonial /t'*ies e2ists as a challenge to any e2cl'si-e *efinition of the postcolonial. ... JItK also permits ... comparisons of sit'ations emerging from *ifferent colonial tra*itions, atten'ating the ris&s of generaliMation an* ens'ring the gro'n*ing of postcolonial reflections in specific sit'ations' (/rancophone Postcolonial Studies! A Critical *ntroduction, Arnol*, 299 , p. 1 #. /o it seems that postcolonialism has (i*ene* its scope an* cease* to pri-ilege the 4ritish %ommon(ealth ,y loo&ing at other rele-ant colonial conte2ts, sometimes ;'ite pro-ocati-ely. 7e might arg'e as a conse;'ence that one of the strengths of postcolonialism is that it has ma*e a-aila,le a -ariety of concepts an* rea*ing practices that can ,e pro*'cti-ely applie* to conte2ts that go ,eyon* the ol*er, selecti-e areas of concern (hich preocc'pie* critics of %ommon(ealth literat're.

That sai*, from a contrary position, (e might regar* as a strength the fact that the geographical *i-isions of %ommon(ealth literat're *etermine mappings of postcolonialism, an* ,e more (ary of these attempts to 'e2pan* the canon' or stretch postcolonialism so that it acco'nts for so many *i-erse materials. +or e2ample, one of the pro,lems of applying postcolonial concepts an* rea*ing strategies to a -ariety of conte2ts is that postcolonialism may,e ,ecomes *etache* from its historical an* geographical referents: 0mpire, colonialism, an* the once!colonise* co'ntries. There is a *anger in 'sing terms li&e 'colonialism' an* 'postcolonialism' too s(eepingly. Altho'gh the e2periences of the Irish, 7elsh an* /cots, an* those (ho s'ffere* from 4ritish an* +rench r'le, may ,e cite* as e2amples of colonialism, are these e2periences an* -ersions of colonialism necessarily the same8 Is it acc'rate to thin& of 7ales as s'ffering colonialism, an* if it *i*, (as this colonialism significantly the same as the colonisation of %ana*a or 6e( %ale*onia8 Pro,lems may arise (hen (orl*s li&e 'colonialism' an* 'postcolonialism' ,ecome attache* to any an* e-ery e2ample of international or interc'lt'ral conflict at the e2pense of an attention to the specifics of each case. +rom one perspecti-e the Irish, 7elsh an* /cots may appear as colonise* peoples, ,'t in other parts of the 0mpire (s'ch as In*ia, for e2ample# they f'nctione* as agents of colonialism an* prospere* 'n*er colonial r'le. 3oes thin&ing a,o't an e2pan*e* litany of locations as postcolonial act'ally threaten a respect for historical specificity, rather than sec're it8 4enita Parry has -oice* concern a,o't the ,lan&et application of postcolonial theory across myria* conte2ts as ha-ing 'stim'late* st'*ies (hich ,y e2ten*ing "colonisation" as an e2planatory notion applica,le to all sit'ations of str'ct'ral *omination, are *irecte* at form'lating a gran* theory -ali* for each an* e-ery *isc'rsi-e system' (Postcolonial Studies! A ,aterialist Criti0ue" No'tle*ge, 299L, p. #. These pro,lems of reference lea* to the secon* aspect of the pro2imity ,et(een postcolonialism an* the st'*y of %ommon(ealth literat're, (hich concerns the iss'e of *ifferent experiences of colonialism. In partic'lar, the contin'e* collecting together of the literat're from settler an* 'Thir* 7orl*' co'ntries 'n*er the 'm,rella term 'postcolonial' smac&s of the lac& of attention to history for (hich critics of %ommon(ealth literat're stan* acc'se*. Gne -ocal arg'ment (hich r'ns along these lines is gi-en ,y 0lla /hohat in an infl'ential essay, '6otes on the "Post! %olonial" ' (Social Text" 1. 2, 1992, pp. 99!11 #:

!ositioning .ustralia and #ndia, for e+ample, in relation to an imperial center, simply $ecause they were $oth colonies, equates the relations of the colonised whitesettlers to the 1uropeans at the 'center' with that of the colonised indigenous populations to the 1uropeans at the 'center' with that of the colonised indigenous populations to the 1uropeans. #t also assumes that white settler countries and the emerging Third *orld 2ations $roke away from the 'center' in the same way. Similarly, white .ustralians and .$original .ustralians are placed in the same 'periphery', as though they were co-ha$itants vis-3-vis the 'center'. The critical differences $etween the 1urope's 4sic5 genocidal oppression of .$originals in .ustralia, indigenous peoples of the .mericas and .fro-diasporic communities, and 1urope's domination of 1uropean elites in the colonies are levelled with an easy stroke of the 'post' %p. &'0).

/hohat's acc'sation that postcolonialism le-els the 'critical *ifferences' within an* 1etween nations is a rec'rring complaint ma*e against postcolonialism. The e;'ation of *i-erse peoples as postcolonial con-eniently forgets that their historical fort'nes can ,e (i*ely *ifferent. /een in this light, 'postcolonialism' ,ecomes a -ag'e, ahistorical, o,f'scatory term that merely s&ates o-er the historical an* political s'rfaces of -ario's nations an* ref'ses to atten* to them in *epth. :ere (e m'st also a** the criticisms of postcolonialism ,y feminists (hich (e loo&e* at %hapter ", partic'larly the remar& that postcolonialism contin'es to pri-ilege men an* gi-es little attention to the m'ltiple e2periences of (omen. The generalising ten*ency of postcolonialism remains, perhaps, its greatest (ea&ness. /hohat's foc's on the collapsing together of the settler an* 'Thir* 7orl*' comm'nities is a common ca'se of complaint. The thorny iss'es of the relationships ,et(een (hite settler comm'nities an* A,original or +irst 6ations peoples has ma*e it *iffic'lt to refer 'npro,lematically to the ol* *ominions of the 4ritish 0mpire in terms of the postcolonial. In his essay 'Postmo*ernism or Postcolonialism8 ' (Landfall" 155, 19O5, pp. ""! O9#, /imon 3'ring has seen fit to split the term 'post! colonialism' in t(o, 'sing the phrases 'postcolonising' an* 'postcolonise*': 'The former fits those comm'nities an* in*i-i*'als (ho profit from an* i*entify themsel-es as heirs to the (or& of colonising. The latter fits those (ho ha-e ,een *ispossesse* ,y that (or& an* (ho i*entify (ith themsel-es as heirs to a more or less 'n*one c'lt're' (pp. "9! <9#. Altho'gh this is an a*mira,le attempt to ,ear (itness to the political *ifferences an* tensions within nations, not ?'st ,et(een them, 3'ring's splitting of 'post!colonialism' re-eals ?'st ho( ;'ic&ly the term ,egins to ,rea& 'p 'n*er the press're of historical acc'racy. 7e might (on*er, then, if the term 'postcolonialism' co'l* ,e *ispen*e* (ith entirely an* more acc'rate concepts *isco-ere*.

6one the less, (e can respon* to this iss'e ,y noticing ho( a s(ift re-ie( of criticism in the fiel* s'ggests that /hoha'ts fears these *ays might ,e m'ch less easy to arg'e for. 0*(ar* /ai*'s Culture and *mperialism offers a range of e2citing (ays to rea* a -ariety of c'lt'ral te2ts in relation to each other an* to the -ario's forms of anti!colonial resistance aro'n* the glo,e, one (hich *oes not seem to sacrifice historical specificity. /imon +eatherstone's Postcolonial Cultures e2emplifies the -al'e of engaging not only (ith c'lt'ral specifics ,'t comparati-ely across *i-erse postcolonial phenomena. 0lle&e 4oehmer's mpire" The #ational"and the Postcolonial, $%&'-$&('! )esistance in *nteraction engages (ith the central position of Irelan* in resistance to 0mpire an* the (ays in (hich Irish *issi*ence reso'rce* an* (as inspire* ,y acti-ities in other colonise* conte2ts. 0ach of these three critics *eman*s that (e thin. comparatively within postcolonialism, rather than ,'n*le all things postcolonial into the same homogeneo's entity. +inally, No,ert B.%. Eo'ng's Postcolonialism! An -istorical *ntroduction (4lac&(ell, 2991# has attempte* to re*efine an* enhance o'r sense of the postcolonial ,y anchoring the concept sec'rely in the long an* -arie* history of resistance to colonisation, often ta&ing 's ,eyon* a '%ommon(ealth' ,ias ,y engaging (ith Aatin American, %hinese, +rancophone African an* other significant locations (as (e consi*er again, see ,elo(#. /o, the charge that postcolonialism is ins'fficiently responsi-e to the historical specifics of colonial conte2ts an* e2amples of postcolonial resistance an* transformation seems *iffic'lt to *efen* in the light of recent scholarship in the fiel*.

7- -!, !a8e Iri#! aut!or# *een +enerall, e9clu e ant!olo+ie#4

%rom $o#tcolonial

here are t(o (ays (e might respon* to these complaints. +irst, (e might note that postcolonialism has e2pan*e* in range an* foc's. Irelan* is a case in point. /e-eral critics ha-e arg'e* in recent years that many of the iss'es raise* in postcolonial st'*ies ! s'ch as lang'age, representation, resistance, nationalism, gen*er, migrancy an* *iaspora ! are central in the st'*y of Irish literat're, an* ha-e s'ggeste* that Irish c'lt're is consi*ere* s;'arely (ithin the history of colonialism an* resistance to it, an* (ith reco'rse to postcolonial critical metho*s. The incl'sion of Irish materials in %astle's anthology is a goo* e2ample of this. 0lle&e 4oehmer pointe** o't ho( late!nineteenth!cent'ry Irish nationalists often 'n*erstoo* their opposition to the 4ritish 0mpire as cotermino's (ith anti!collonial resisteance else(here, as in /o'th Africa for e2ample (see the intro*'ction to her ,oo& mpire" the #ational and the Postcolonial" $%&'-$&('! )esistance in *nteraction, G2for* 5ni-ersity Press, 2992#. In Culture and *mperialism, 0*(ar* /ai* arg'es that the Anglo!Irish (riter 7.4. Eeats sho'l* ,e rea* as an 'in*isp'ta,ly great nominal poet (ho *'ring a perio* of anti!imperialist resistance artic'lates the e2periences, the aspirations, an* the restorati-e -ision of a people s'ffering 'n*er the *ominion of an offshore po(er ' (Hintage, 199 , pp. 2"5!2""#. :e procee*s to rea* Eeat's poetry in tan*em (ith the (or& of the li&es of the %hilean poet Pa,lo 6er'*a an* %Isaire's 6egrit'*e poetry (a(hich (e loo&e* at in %hapter #. In a similar -ein, in his ,oo& Anomalous States! *rish +riting and the Post-Colonial ,oment (Aillip't Press, 199 #, 3a-i* Aloy* arg'es that 'JfKor the theory an* practice of *ecolonisation, ho(e-er, Irelan* is, to a sometimes *istressing e2tent, more e2emplary than anomalo's' (p. <#. Aloy*'s o(n (or& loo&s closely at the li&es of /eam's :eaney, /am'el 4ec&ett, 7. 4. Eeats an* Bames Boyce in the -ario's conte2ts (hich emerge from Irelan*'s postcolonial 'moment'. An* /imon +eatherstone has e2plore* the 'circ'lar traffic' (Postcolonial Cultures" 0*in,'rgh 5ni-ersity Press, 2995, p. 5L# of the Irish *iaspora's m'sical en*ea-o'rs in post!(ar Aon*on in parallel (ith %ari,,ean migration to Aon*on an* (ith a no* to Pa'l Filroy's mo*el of the '4lac& Atlantic'.

:- -!at are &tran#-cultural( 2ritin+# an 2!, are t!e, i;cult to <t in &ort!o o9( $o#tcolonial literature ant!olo+ie#4 5$' )=>6'

Aoo& ho( in ThiemeDs anthology there is a greater sensiti-ity to the *ifferences (ithin partic'lar regions (an* ,et(een them#, that is fo'n* in 7alsh's 19< ,oo&, as (ell as the incl'sion of something calle* Ctrans!c'lt'ralD literat're (hich cannot ,e containe* (ithin national categories. Eet: the map of %ommon(ealth literat're s'ch as (e fin* in 7alshDs ,oo& is still *etermining to a *egree ThiemeDs s',*i-isions t(enty!three years later, *espite his increase* n'ance an* sensiti-ity to *ifference: note ho(, for e2ample, Irelan* remains a,sent from ,oth 7alshDs an* ThiemeDs s',*i-ision of the fiel*. $ean(hile, Fregory %astle's 'sef'l collection of essays Postcolonial Discourses! An Anthology (4lac&(ell, 2991# also seems animate* ,y a more familiar 'area st'*ies' (ay of concept'alising the fiel* 8 although 1reland
does feature 8 as fi%e of its si Caribbean' settler colonies and 1reland. sections deal with particular and predominantly Anglophone postcolonial locations9 -outh Asia' Africa' the

/'ch mappings of the fiel* can ,e regar*e* from t(o contrasting perspecti-es, as ca'se either for complaint or congrat'lation. To ta&e the criticisms of this mapping first, (e can consi*er t(o o,?ections. If the st'*y of %ommon(ealth literat're pri-ilege* 4ritain as a central point of reference for the ne( literat'res in 0nglish, then postcolonialism also repeats this pri-ileging. It contin'es the collecting and tethering of these literatures to the colonial centre -ia the 'se of the term Cpostcolonial literat'reD (hich, for some, performs essentially the same tas& as the st'*y of %ommon(ealth literat're. +'rthermore, as the omission of Irelan* perhaps in*icates, the scope of post!colonialism remains limite* to a selective n'm,er of those co'nties (ith a history of colonialism, *eri-ati-e of the &ey areas of concern in %ommon(ealth literat're. :o( ra*ical is postcolonialism if it contin'es to pri-ilege a (ay of mapping the (orl* (hich is essentially colonialist an* ,elongs to a pre-io's (orl* or*er8

There are t(o (ays (e might respon* to these complaints. +irst, (e might note that postcolonialism has e2pan*e* in range an* foc's. Irelan* is a case in point. /e-eral critics ha-e arg'e* in recent years that many of the iss'es raise* in postcolonial st'*ies ! s'ch as lang'age, representation, resistance, nationalism, gen*er, migrancy an* *iaspora ! are central in the st'*y of Irish literat're, an* ha-e s'ggeste* that Irish c'lt're is consi*ere* s;'arely (ithin the history of colonialism an* resistance to it, an* (ith reco'rse to postcolonial critical metho*s. The incl'sion of Irish materials in %astle's anthology is a goo* e2ample of this. 0lle&e 4oehmer pointe** o't ho( late!nineteenth!cent'ry Irish nationalists often 'n*erstoo* their opposition to the 4ritish 0mpire as cotermino's (ith anti!collonial resisteance else(here, as in /o'th Africa for e2ample (see the intro*'ction to her ,oo& mpire" the #ational and the Postcolonial" $%&'-$&('! )esistance in *nteraction, G2for* 5ni-ersity Press, 2992#. In Culture and *mperialism, 0*(ar* /ai* arg'es that the Anglo!Irish (riter 7.4. Eeats sho'l* ,e rea* as an 'in*isp'ta,ly great nominal poet (ho *'ring a perio* of anti!imperialist resistance artic'lates the e2periences, the aspirations, an* the restorati-e -ision of a people s'ffering 'n*er the *ominion of an offshore po(er ' (Hintage, 199 , pp. 2"5!2""#. :e procee*s to rea* Eeat's poetry in tan*em (ith the (or& of the li&es of the %hilean poet Pa,lo 6er'*a an* %Isaire's 6egrit'*e poetry (a(hich (e loo&e* at in %hapter #. In a similar -ein, in his ,oo& Anomalous States! *rish +riting and the Post-Colonial ,oment (Aillip't Press, 199 #, 3a-i* Aloy* arg'es that 'JfKor the theory an* practice of *ecolonisation, ho(e-er, Irelan* is, to a sometimes *istressing e2tent, more e2emplary than anomalo's' (p. <#. Aloy*'s o(n (or& loo&s closely at the li&es of /eam's :eaney, /am'el 4ec&ett, 7. 4. Eeats an* Bames Boyce in the -ario's conte2ts (hich emerge from Irelan*'s postcolonial 'moment'. An* /imon +eatherstone has e2plore* the 'circ'lar traffic' (Postcolonial Cultures" 0*in,'rgh 5ni-ersity Press, 2995, p. 5L# of the Irish *iaspora's m'sical en*ea-o'rs in post!(ar Aon*on in parallel (ith %ari,,ean migration to Aon*on an* (ith a no* to Pa'l Filroy's mo*el of the '4lac& Atlantic'.

5- 1o2 oe# De*ora Ma #en ?u#ti%, t!e inclu#ion o% C!icano an Nati8e-American literature 2it!in t!e $o#tcolonial canon4

It might ,e arg'e*, therefore, that it is not the case that post!colonialism these *ays (or&s solely (ith the ol* map of the %ommon(ealth1 instea*, ne( conte2ts an* interc'lt'ral relations are ,eing reconsi*ere* in the light of postcolonial concepts an* ha,its of tho'ght. 3e,orah A. $a*sen's e*ite* collection of essays Post-Colonial Literatures! xpanding the Canon (Pl'to, 1999# is one s'ch *eli,erate attempt to go ',eyon* the %ommon(ealth' an* regar* the (or& of (among others# %hicano.a an* :ispanic (riters as postcolonial, calling attention to a ,o*y of (or& often neglecte* in anthologies of postcolonial (riting.

@- ReAect on t!e i##ue o% e9$an in+ t!e $o#tcolonial canon. an a*out t!i# Bue#tionC &Doe# t!inkin+ a*out an e9$an e litan, o% location# a# $o#tcolonial actuall, t!reaten a re#$ect %or !i#torical #$eci<cit,. rat!er t!an #ecure it4( 5$' )=:6' :oes thin(ing about an e panded litany of locations as postcolonial actually threaten a respect for historical specificity' rather than secure it; .enita <arry has %oiced concern about the blan(et application of postcolonial theory across myriad conte ts as ha%ing =stimulated studies which by e tending >colonisation> as an e planatory notion applicable to all situations of structural domination' are directed at formulating a grand theory %alid for each and e%ery discursi%e system= $Postcolonial Studies: A Materialist Critique, ?outledge' @AAB' p. CC&

D- -!at i# t!e $ro*lem im$lie *, $o#itionin+ to+et!er &#ettler( an &T!ir -orl ( countrie#" literature# in $o#tcolonial ant!olo+ie#4

These pro,lems of reference lea* to the secon* aspect of the pro2imity ,et(een postcolonialism an* the st'*y of %ommon(ealth literat're, (hich concerns the iss'e of *ifferent experiences of colonialism. In partic'lar, the contin'e* collecting together of the literat're from settler an* 'Thir* 7orl*' co'ntries 'n*er the 'm,rella term 'postcolonial' smac&s of the lac& of attention to history for (hich critics of %ommon(ealth literat're stan* acc'se*. Gne -ocal arg'ment (hich r'ns along these lines is gi-en ,y 0lla /hohat in an infl'ential essay, '6otes on the "Post! %olonial" ' (Social Text" 1. 2, 1992, pp. 99!11 #:
!ositioning .ustralia and #ndia, for e+ample, in relation to an imperial center, simply $ecause they were $oth colonies, equates the relations of the colonised whitesettlers to the 1uropeans at the 'center' with that of the colonised indigenous populations to the 1uropeans at the 'center' with that of the colonised indigenous populations to the 1uropeans. #t also assumes that white settler countries and the emerging Third *orld 2ations $roke away from the 'center' in the same way. Similarly, white .ustralians and .$original .ustralians are placed in the same 'periphery', as though they were co-ha$itants vis-3-vis the 'center'. The critical differences $etween the 1urope's 4sic5 genocidal oppression of .$originals in .ustralia, indigenous peoples of the .mericas and .fro-diasporic communities, and 1urope's domination of 1uropean elites in the colonies are levelled with an easy stroke of the 'post' %p. &'0).

=- -!at i# E!a*!a"# an

S$i8ak"# in e*te ne## to -e#tern t!eor,4

Pos$'olo(#al#sm) or $"e lo%#' of 'ap#$al#s$ mo er(#$&!

$'ch penetrating criticism of postcolonialism has ,een -oice* ,y $ar2ist critics, (hose o,?ection to postcolonial theory rests 'pon the -ie( that its 'c'lt'ralist' ,ias se-ers the sphere of intellect'al an* c'lt'ral en*ea-o'r from the realm of *irect action: resistance mo-ements, political *issi*ence, e-en arme* str'ggle. 4enita Parry *ecries this ten*ency in postcolonialism as part of 'a (i*er shift (ithin social theory itself a(ay from materialist 'n*erstan*ings of historical processes an* the sym,olic or*er, an* to(ar*s collapsing the social into the te2t'al' (Postcolonial Studies! A ,aterialist Criti0ue, No'tle*ge, 299L, p.L#. /e-eral infl'ential critics of postcolonialism challenge this percei-e* criti;'e!collapsing of the social into the te2t'al in postcolonial theory, an* they sta'nchly ref'se the primacy of the *isc'rsi-e (hich is *eeme* to characterise the (riting of thin&ers s'ch as 4ha,ha, /ai* an* /pi-a&. Nather than -ie( lang'age as a me*i'm (hich constr'cts reality, other postcolonial critics arg'e that reality is act'ally m'ch more than an 'effect' of lang'age or merely a *isc'rsi-e pro*'ct. 4eca'se postcolonial theory seems to pri-ilege the *isc'rsi-e o-er the material, it is acc'se* of ha-ing little to offer those &een ,oth to criti;'e an* inter-ene in the conflicts of the tangi,le, historical (orl*. As Terry 0agleton sees it, the prioritising of c'lt're has helpe* '*epoliticiMe the ;'estion of post!colonialism, an* inflate the role of c'lt're (ithin it, in (ays (hich JchimeK (ith the ne( post!re-ol'tionary climate in the 7est' (After Theory, Allen Aane, 299 , p. 12#. Postcolonialism, then, is more reactionary rather than re-ol'tionary, 'ltimately neo!colonial rather than co'nter!colonial, an* part of a general 7estern intellect'al malaise. The follo(ing moment from Arif 3irli&'s oft!;'ote* essay 'The Postcolonial A'ra: Thir* 7orl* %riticism in the Age of Flo,al %apitalism' (Critical *n0uiry, 29, 199L, pp. 2O! 5"#, offers a partic'larly ,racing e2ample of this stan*point. 3irli& o,?ects strongly to the ascen*ancy of the theoretical para*igms of hy,ri*ity, fragmentationan* *ifference in postcolonialism, an* s'ggests that the preferre* *isc'rsi-e or c'lt'ralist approach to postcolonialism is f'rthere* ,y an elite ,an* of intellect'als (ho seem 'n(illing to offer a criti;'e of ongoing social conflicts partly ,eca'se they are the l'c&y ,eneficiaries of the -ery glo,al capitalism (hich has ca'se* so m'ch contemporary strife.

*ithin the institutional side of the 6irst *orld academy, fragmentation of earlier metanarratives appears $enign %e+cept to hide$ound conservatives) for its promise of more democratic, multicultural and cosmopolitan epistemologies. #n the world outside the academy, however, it shows in murderous ethnic conflict, continued inequalities among societies, classes, and genders, and the a$sence of oppositional possi$ilities that, always lacking in coherence, are rendered even more impotent than earlier $y the fetishisation of difference, fragmentation, and so on. %p. 789).

Accor*ing to this line of arg'ment, postcolonial theory has conce*e* too m'ch gro'n* ,y ;'estioning oppositional *isco'rses s'ch as nationalism an* $ar2ism at the very moment (hen (e nee* these *isco'rses more than e-er to com,at conflicts aro'n* the (orl*. +or 3irli&, postcolonialism promotes a -ision of the (orl* (hich *oes not ac&no(le*ge s'fficiently on the contemporary (orl*'s reality > an* ,eca'se it *oes not ac&no(le*ge s'fficiently the ongoing fo'n*ational impact of capital an* mo*ernity on the contemporary (orl*'s reality > an* ,eca'se it *oes not ac&no(le*ge this fo'n*ational impact it cannot offer any (ay of criti;'ing it. :ence, 3irli& angrily asserts that postcolonialism is in effect practice* ,y a select fe( 'Thir* 7orl*' intellect'als (ho ha-e ta&en 'p '+irst 7orl*' fashiona,le theory for their o(n p'rposes. +rom their elite, pri-ilege* position as intellect'als, an* empo(ere* ,y their comman* of the cosmopolitan lang'ages of transnational aca*emic theory, this select fe( constr'ct the (orl* in their o(n hy,ri*ise* self!image ,y pro?ecting glo,ally '(hat are ,'t local e2periences' (p. L5#. $ean(hile o'tsi*e the i-ory to(er oppresse* people contin'e to &ill each other, o,li-io's to the 'hy,ri*ity' or their *ecentre* s',?ecti-ities an* their mista&en p'rs'it of *iscre*ite* metanarrati-es.

Postcolonial intellect'als *o not (ant 's to thin& a,o't the relationship ,et(een intellect'al *e,ate an* economic po(er ,eca'se they *o not (ant to ,e e2pose* as profiting from glo,al capitalism: 'To p't it ,l'ntly, postcoloniality is *esigne* to avoid ma&ing sense of the c'rrent crisis an*, in the process, to co-er 'p the origins of postcolonial intellect'als in a glo,al capitalism of (hich they are not so m'ch -ictims as ,eneficiaries' (p. 5 #. 3irli&'s s'spicions are raise* ,y the s'**en interest in transnationalism an* m'ltic'lt'ralism of people (or&ing (ithin capitalist in*'stries. A little local &no(le*ge of c'lt'ral 'otherness' an* *ifference can go a long (ay to assisting capitalism's fle2i,ility in esta,lishing itself in *ifferent times an* places. 3irli& concl'*es ,y hoping that the postcolonial intelligentsia 'can generate a thoro'ghgoing criticism of its o(n i*eology an* form'late practices of resistance against the system of (hich it is a pro*'ct' (p. 5"#. +or 3irli&, postcolonialism is little more than an elite *isco'rse (ith nothing to offer political *issi*ence an* criti;'e. It is a symptom of capitalist mo*ernity, not a criti;'e of it. +or some, postcolonialism remains too ca'ght 'p in a,str'se an* ,affling *e,ates a,o't the min'tiae of philosophy an* critical theory (hich are remote from the myria* str'ggles of the (retche* of the earth1 for others, the healthy con*ition of postcolonial literat're as a -ia,le aca*emic s',?ect &eeps the foc's of postcolonialism on a percei-e* elite form of representation often pro*'ce* ,y a (7estern!e*'cate*# (ealthy postcolonial intelligentsia, rather than on less rarifie* an* may,e more transformati-e forms of *issi*ent c'lt'ral en*ea-o'r ma*e ,y (once!# colonise* people: m'sic, *ance, foo*, sport, ra*io. This critical -ie( is capt're* (ell ,y P(ame Anthony Appiah's famo's remar& fist ma*e in 1999: 'Postcoloniality is the con*ition of (hat (e might 'ngenero'sly call a compra*or intelligentsia: of a relati-ely small!scale, 7estern!style, 7estern!traine*, gro'p of (riters an* thin&ers (ho me*iate the tra*e in c'lt'ral commo*ities of (orl* capitalism at the periphery' (*n ,y /ather2s -ouse! Africa in the Philosophy of Culture, G2for* 5ni-ersity Press, 1992, p. 1L9#. Appiah's (or*s s'ggest that postcolonial literat're, c'lt're an* critical st'*ies *o not signal a criti;'e or transformation of 7estern, '+irst 7orl*' society1 instea*, a(ar*!(inning postcolonial no-els an* ,oo&s on postcolonial theory are merely more commo*ities in the glo,al mar&etplace, (hich con-ert c'lt'ral *ifference into safe an* palata,le pac&ages, change nothing significantly an* shore 'p the 'ne;'al glo,al stat's ;'o of the t(enty!first cent'ry.

In challenging postcolonialism in this manner, many ha-e strongly conteste* the (ays in (hich $ar2ist mo*es of critical an* political analysis appear to ha-e ,een ?ettisone* in postcolonial tho'ght. %lass analysis is one e2ample: another (o'l* ,e anti!colonial nationalism, one of the most s'ccessf'l mo*es of pop'lar resistance in the once!colonise* (orl* that is in*e,te* to $ar2ism. As (e ha-e seen in %hapters an* L, the concepts of nation an* nationalism ha-e 'n*ergone se-ere criti;'e in the postcolonial st'*ies, an* for some these notions ha-e ,ecome *iscre*ite*, especially in the light of the 'nhappy fort'nes of nations in the (a&e of in*epen*ence. +or many $ar2ist critics of postcolonialism, the criti;'e of nationalism an* $ar2ist mo*es of political *issi*ence is totally 'naccepta,le an* the (orst conse;'ence of the t'rn to theory an* the a*-ocacy of the *isc'rsi-e in postcolonial st'*ies. :ence accor*ing to 6eil AaMar's, the &in* of postcolonial criticism in (hich 4ha,ha an* others are in-ol-e* sho'l* really ,e calle* 'post! $ar2ist criticism', an* he *ecries 'the strong anti!nationalist an* anti!$ar2ist *ispositions of most of the scholars (or&ing (ithin postcolonial st'*ies' ('Intro*'cing Postcolonial /t'*ies' in The Cam1ridge Companion to Postcolonial Literary Studies, e*. 6eil AaMar's, %am,ri*ge 5ni-ersity Press, 299L, pp. L, 5#. In thin&ing a,o't the se-eral iss'es raise* a,o-e, a n'm,er of points might ,e ma*e. +irst, 3irli&'s arg'ment that thin&ers s'ch as 4ha,ha, /ai* an* /pi-a& are *eli,erately ,ree*ing o,f'scation as a (ay of concealing their origins in glo,al capitalism seems remar&a,ly ignorant, if not *o(nright contempt'o's, of the origins of m'ch postcolonial tho'ght in *issi*ent conte2ts an* the commitments (hich many postcolonial thin&ers ha-e to criti;'ing the 'ne;'al con*itions of glo,al contemporaneity, al,eit in post!$ar2ist mo*es. 3irli& can appear as a pec'liar &in* of intellect'al A'**ite, in that he o,?ects to the fact that postcolonialism tries to ma&e sense of the (orl* in ne( (ays an* (ith ne( -oca,'laries (hich he is 'n(illling to learn, rather than in the familiar le2icon of $ar2ist criti;'e. :is arg'ment that postcolonialists ignore the primacy of capitalism as a primary fo'n*ation of reality is not really ,orne o't ,y the e-i*ence. A great *eal of postcolonial tho'ght has a,sol'tely conten*e* (ith the material realities of the contemporary (orl* *eri-e* from capitalism, as (e ha-e ,een seeing (an* as (or& on glo,alisation most recently e-i*ences#, (hile fig'res li&e Fayatri %ha&ra-orty /pi-a&, /t'art :all an* Pa'l Filroy ha-e ,een *e,ating pro*'cti-ely (ith $ar2ist mo*es of thin&ing for many years as part of their o(n postcolonial engagements (ith $ar2ist an* materialist mo*es of tho'ght. To arg'e that postcolonialism is simply *ri-en ,y the interests of capitalism, an* is ine-ita,ly complicit (ith it, con-inces fe( commentators (ho *o not *etect the &in*s of concealment of complicity (hich 3irli& asserts (ith an alarming *egree of paranoia.

In his criti;'e of 3irli&'s tho'ght, 3a-i* /cott notes ho( postcolonial thin&ers enco'rage 'more partial an* situated *eterminations' ()efashioning /utures! Criticism after Postcoloniality, Princeton 5ni-ersity Press, 1999, p. 1 9# of the role of capital in history, rather than *ispense (ith an attention to capitalism entirely in their (or&. :e also (on*ers (hy postcolonialism's allege* in*e,te*ness to capitalist mo*ernity a'tomatically con*emns it to toothless complicity: 'It (o'l* ,e an interesting ;'estion (hether the themes an* mo*alities that animate Jpostcoloniality'sK *eployment in critical practices are in some (ays *epen*ent 'pon the material con*itions pro*'ce* in the (a&e of the rise of a *istincti-ely trans! national or glo,al capitalism. 4't to ac&no(le*ge that a practice has *eterminate con*itions *oes not there1y ma&e it a mere i*eological reflection of any one of them' (p. 1L9#. Postcolonialism is ine-ita,ly fate* to inha,it the contemporary milie' of capitalist mo*ernity an* 'se its instit'tions in or*er to *isseminate its i*eas, ,'t *oes this ine-ita,ly con*emn it to complicity (ith glo,al capital8 The notion that complicity lea*s a'tomatically to rapport or o,e*ience is a contesta,le one. Gne lesson (e can learn from the history of resistance to 0mpire is that complicity *oes not e;'al coll'sion. As Fayatri %ha&ra-orty /pi-a& arg'es, (hile one can ne-er ,e f'lly o'tsi*e a str'ct're of po(er (e can attempt to negotiate tactically (ithin s'ch str'ct'res an* instit'ions in or*er to *esta,ilise them, 'nleash ne( &no(le*ges (ithin them, ,'c&le their smooth operations an* ,ring them to crisis. /pi-a& calls this process one of 'negotiation' *'ring an inter-ie( from 1999:
#f there is anything # have learnt in and through the last 07 years of teaching, it is that the more vulnera$le your position, the more you have to negotiate... you must intervene even as you inha$it those structures... # guess all # mean $y negotiation here is that one tries to change from something that one is o$liged to inha$it, since one is not working from the outside. #n order to keep one's effectiveness, one must also preserve those structures : not cut them down completely. .nd that, as far as # can understand, is negotiation. ;ou inha$it the structures of violence and violation, here defined $y you as *estern li$eralism. %The Post-Colonial Critic: Interviews, Strategies, Dialogues, ed. Sarah <arasym, =outledge, &>>', p.90).

6o be within is not necessarily to be complicit 8 to inhabit does not condemn one to obedience. 4or(ing with 4estern theory does not necessarily ma(e us support the =4est= or uphold the assumptions of 4estern theory' as -pi%a( herself demonstrated in her essay =Can the -ubaltern -pea(;= which we loo(ed at in Chapter D. ?eading a no%el for a uni%ersity postcolonial literature course does not automatically doom us to complicity with the ghettoising protocols of some institutions. Maybe because :irli(=s own Mar ist critical standpoint is non#negotiable he mista(es inhabitation for collusion and entirely fails to %alue at least the aims of -pi%a(=s critical endea%ours. Eappily' most subsequent Mar ist#led critiques of postcolonialism ha%e been far subtler and more con%incing than :irli(=s' and as a consequence their critical arguments ha%e often been much more penetrating and con%incing

F- E9$lain 2!at t!e 2a8e o% &anti-t!eori#t#( in $o#tcolonial #tu ie# #u++e#t#'

Aet's consi*er a *ifferent ,'t relate* point ,y t'rning to Fareth Friffith's essay 'Nepresentation an* Pro*'ction: Iss'es of %ontrol in Post!%olonial /t'*ies (*nterpreting Post-Colonialism, pp. 21! "#, (hich (ill a** another (elcome complication. G,?ecting to the (are of 'anti!theory', Friffiths ta&es iss'e (ith Ar'n P. $'&her?ee's arg'ment that only local an* specific frames of reference are the appropriate ones for In*ian literat're. Friffiths (on*ers if this line of thin&ing is ;'esting nostalgically for an area of in*igeno's In*ian c'lt're (hich has remaine* 'nto'che* ,y colonialism. :e acc'ses Ar'n P. $'&her?ee an* others of asserting a 'politics of rec'peration (hich s'ggests that the reco-ery of an 'npro,lematic alternati-e history JasK a simple an* s'fficient resistance practice in itself, an* one (hich has no inherent *angers' (p. 22#. In other (or*s, in *eman*ing that In*ian literat're is rea* (ith reco'rse to local an* historical specifics an* not -ia the niceties of postcolonial rea*ing practices, s'ch critics posit a -ersion of In*ian history an* c'lt're (hich has remaine* 'nto'che* ,y colonialism. /'ch a clea-age ,et(een that (hich has ,een infl'ence* ,y colonialism an* anti!colonial resistance, an* that (hich has not, is too neat an* ti*y for Friffiths. 7here *oes one *ra( the *i-i*ing line8 Nather, s'ch critics nee* to (a&e 'p to the 'necessary, in*ee* ine-ita,le, "hy,ri*ity" res'lting from the impact of colonisation on ,oth the colonise* an*, it nee*s to ,e sai*, the coloniser' (p. 2 #. ':y,ri*ity', then, is not ?'st a term ,an*ie* a,o't in cool metropolitan theory ,'t act'ally *escri,es the ine-ita,le an* -e2e* con*ition of all once!colonise* c'lt'res.

1>- -!at are t!e an+er# %oun . accor in+ to McLeo . in t!e recent $roli%eration o% $o#tcolonial literature cour#e# in Euro$ean an American uni8er#itie#4 This sense of postcolonial literat're co'rses as primarily gest'ral on the part of instit'tions is an important one, not least ,eca'se it e2poses ho( instit'tions may contain the 'nr'ly metho*ologies an* a(&(ar* ;'estions as&e* ,y postcolonial critics (?'st (hat is the relationship ,et(een mo*ernism an* primiti-ism8 etc.# (ithin the cordon sanitaire of a sing'lar mo*'le in '(orl* literat'res', 'postcolonial c'lt'res' or some s'ch form'lation. /'ch manoe'-res may res'lt in the ossification of a select canon of postcolonial (riters (ho, across many *ifferent co'ntries, come to stan* in for postcolonial (riting as a (hole, 'ltimately *epri-ing teachers an* st'*ents of the chance of p'rs'ing postcolonial iss'es an* te2ts across a range of co'rses an* s',?ect areas an* o-er many semesters rather than in ?'st one. As Bopi 6yman's recent s'r-ey of t(enty postcolonial (riting co'rses in pre*ominantly 0'ropean an* 6orth American 'ni-ersities has 'nco-ere*, often the same (riters appear again an* again across -ario's instit'tions, 6yman's 'top fi-e' are %hin'a Ache,e, /alman N'sh*ie, B.$. %oetMee, Tsitsi 3angarem,ga an* 3ere& 7alcott, (ith Ache,e's (or& ta'ght on at least 59Q of the s'r-eye* co'rses (see Bopi 6yman, 'A Post!%olonial %anon8 An 02plorati-e /t'*y of Post!%olonial 7riting in 5ni-ersity!le-el %o'rses' in Diasporic Literature and Theory 3 +here #ow4, e*. $ar& /hac&leton, %am,ri*ge /cholars P',lishing, 299O, pp. "! 5"#. 7e consi*ere* in %hapter 5 ho( postcolonial st'*ies has ,een in-ol-e* in re!rea*ing the esta,lishe* canon of 0nglish literat're, an* (e notice* the challenges to c'lt'ral -al'e (hich these re!rea*ings engen*er. 4't if postcolonial st'*ies is ,eing restricte* to fashioning its o(n canons partly as a res'lt of instit'tional proce*'res, ho( far!reaching (ill ,e its critical impact on the st'*y of c'lt'ral pro*'ction more generally8 An* might the ne( postcolonial canons play into the han*s of the commo*ification of percei-e* c'lt'ral otherness an* the increase* mar&ea,ility of postcolonial literat're as chic rather than challenging8 $ight the gest'ral politics of ,rief or sing'lar postcolonial st'*ies co'rses ,e a sign of an2io's neo!colonial containment rather than ,ol* postcolonial transformation8

11- Anal,Ge t!e Mar9i#t critic#" $o#tcolonial #tu ie#'

enunciation o% a &culturali#t( *ia# in

$'ch penetrating criticism of postcolonialism has ,een -oice* ,y $ar2ist critics, (hose o,?ection to postcolonial theory rests 'pon the -ie( that its 'c'lt'ralist' ,ias se-ers the sphere of intellect'al an* c'lt'ral en*ea-o'r from the realm of *irect action: resistance mo-ements, political *issi*ence, e-en arme* str'ggle. 4enita Parry *ecries this ten*ency in postcolonialism as part of 'a (i*er shift (ithin social theory itself a(ay from materialist 'n*erstan*ings of historical processes an* the sym,olic or*er, an* to(ar*s collapsing the social into the te2t'al' (Postcolonial Studies! A ,aterialist Criti0ue, No'tle*ge, 299L, p.L#. /e-eral infl'ential critics of postcolonialism challenge this percei-e* criti;'e!collapsing of the social into the te2t'al in postcolonial theory, an* they sta'nchly ref'se the primacy of the *isc'rsi-e (hich is *eeme* to characterise the (riting of thin&ers s'ch as 4ha,ha, /ai* an* /pi-a&. Nather than -ie( lang'age as a me*i'm (hich constr'cts reality, other postcolonial critics arg'e that reality is act'ally m'ch more than an 'effect' of lang'age or merely a *isc'rsi-e pro*'ct. 4eca'se postcolonial theory seems to pri-ilege the *isc'rsi-e o-er the material, it is acc'se* of ha-ing little to offer those &een ,oth to criti;'e an* inter-ene in the conflicts of the tangi,le, historical (orl*. As Terry 0agleton sees it, the prioritising of c'lt're has helpe* '*epoliticiMe the ;'estion of post!colonialism, an* inflate the role of c'lt're (ithin it, in (ays (hich JchimeK (ith the ne( post!re-ol'tionary climate in the 7est' (After Theory, Allen Aane, 299 , p. 12#. Postcolonialism, then, is more reactionary rather than re-ol'tionary, 'ltimately neo!colonial rather than co'nter!colonial, an* part of a general 7estern intellect'al malaise.

1)- E9$lain t!e ar+umentC &Po#t-coloniali#m. t!en. i# more reactionar, rat!er t!an re8olutionar,. ultimatel, neo-colonial rat!er t!an countercolonial. an $art o% a +eneral -e#tern intellectual malai#e( 5$' )F:6. in t!e li+!t o% t!e #ection in t!e C!a$ter'

Pos$'olo(#al#sm) or $"e lo%#' of 'ap#$al#s$ mo er(#$&! $'ch penetrating criticism of postcolonialism has ,een -oice* ,y $ar2ist critics, (hose o,?ection to postcolonial theory rests 'pon the -ie( that its 'c'lt'ralist' ,ias se-ers the sphere of intellect'al an* c'lt'ral en*ea-o'r from the realm of *irect action: resistance mo-ements, political *issi*ence, e-en arme* str'ggle. 4enita Parry *ecries this ten*ency in postcolonialism as part of 'a (i*er shift (ithin social theory itself a(ay from materialist 'n*erstan*ings of historical processes an* the sym,olic or*er, an* to(ar*s collapsing the social into the te2t'al' (Postcolonial Studies! A ,aterialist Criti0ue, No'tle*ge, 299L, p.L#. /e-eral infl'ential critics of postcolonialism challenge this percei-e* criti;'e!collapsing of the social into the te2t'al in postcolonial theory, an* they sta'nchly ref'se the primacy of the *isc'rsi-e (hich is *eeme* to characterise the (riting of thin&ers s'ch as 4ha,ha, /ai* an* /pi-a&. Nather than -ie( lang'age as a me*i'm (hich constr'cts reality, other postcolonial critics arg'e that reality is act'ally m'ch more than an 'effect' of lang'age or merely a *isc'rsi-e pro*'ct. 4eca'se postcolonial theory seems to pri-ilege the *isc'rsi-e o-er the material, it is acc'se* of ha-ing little to offer those &een ,oth to criti;'e an* inter-ene in the conflicts of the tangi,le, historical (orl*. As Terry 0agleton sees it, the prioritising of c'lt're has helpe* '*epoliticiMe the ;'estion of post!colonialism, an* inflate the role of c'lt're (ithin it, in (ays (hich JchimeK (ith the ne( post!re-ol'tionary climate in the 7est' (After Theory, Allen Aane, 299 , p. 12#. Postcolonialism, then, is more reactionary rather than re-ol'tionary, 'ltimately neo!colonial rather than co'nter!colonial, an* part of a general 7estern intellect'al malaise. The follo(ing moment from Arif 3irli&'s oft!;'ote* essay 'The Postcolonial A'ra: Thir* 7orl* %riticism in the Age of Flo,al %apitalism' (Critical *n0uiry, 29, 199L, pp. 2O! 5"#, offers a partic'larly ,racing e2ample of this stan*point. 3irli& o,?ects strongly to the ascen*ancy of the theoretical para*igms of hy,ri*ity, fragmentationan* *ifference in postcolonialism, an* s'ggests that the preferre* *isc'rsi-e or c'lt'ralist approach to postcolonialism is f'rthere* ,y an elite ,an* of intellect'als (ho seem 'n(illing to offer a criti;'e of ongoing social conflicts partly ,eca'se they are the l'c&y ,eneficiaries of the -ery glo,al capitalism (hich has ca'se* so m'ch contemporary strife.

*ithin the institutional side of the 6irst *orld academy, fragmentation of earlier metanarratives appears $enign %e+cept to hide$ound conservatives) for its promise of more democratic, multicultural and cosmopolitan epistemologies. #n the world outside the academy, however, it shows in murderous ethnic conflict, continued inequalities among societies, classes, and genders, and the a$sence of oppositional possi$ilities that, always lacking in coherence, are rendered even more impotent than earlier $y the fetishisation of difference, fragmentation, and so on. %p. 789).

Accor*ing to this line of arg'ment, postcolonial theory has conce*e* too m'ch gro'n* ,y ;'estioning oppositional *isco'rses s'ch as nationalism an* $ar2ism at the very moment (hen (e nee* these *isco'rses more than e-er to com,at conflicts aro'n* the (orl*. +or 3irli&, postcolonialism promotes a -ision of the (orl* (hich *oes not ac&no(le*ge s'fficiently on the contemporary (orl*'s reality > an* ,eca'se it *oes not ac&no(le*ge s'fficiently the ongoing fo'n*ational impact of capital an* mo*ernity on the contemporary (orl*'s reality > an* ,eca'se it *oes not ac&no(le*ge this fo'n*ational impact it cannot offer any (ay of criti;'ing it. :ence, 3irli& angrily asserts that postcolonialism is in effect practice* ,y a select fe( 'Thir* 7orl*' intellect'als (ho ha-e ta&en 'p '+irst 7orl*' fashiona,le theory for their o(n p'rposes. +rom their elite, pri-ilege* position as intellect'als, an* empo(ere* ,y their comman* of the cosmopolitan lang'ages of transnational aca*emic theory, this select fe( constr'ct the (orl* in their o(n hy,ri*ise* self!image ,y pro?ecting glo,ally '(hat are ,'t local e2periences' (p. L5#. $ean(hile o'tsi*e the i-ory to(er oppresse* people contin'e to &ill each other, o,li-io's to the 'hy,ri*ity' or their *ecentre* s',?ecti-ities an* their mista&en p'rs'it of *iscre*ite* metanarrati-es. Postcolonial intellect'als *o not (ant 's to thin& a,o't the relationship ,et(een intellect'al *e,ate an* economic po(er ,eca'se they *o not (ant to ,e e2pose* as profiting from glo,al capitalism: 'To p't it ,l'ntly, postcoloniality is *esigne* to avoid ma&ing sense of the c'rrent crisis an*, in the process, to co-er 'p the origins of postcolonial intellect'als in a glo,al capitalism of (hich they are not so m'ch -ictims as ,eneficiaries' (p. 5 #. 3irli&'s s'spicions are raise* ,y the s'**en interest in transnationalism an* m'ltic'lt'ralism of people (or&ing (ithin capitalist in*'stries. A little local &no(le*ge of c'lt'ral 'otherness' an* *ifference can go a long (ay to assisting capitalism's fle2i,ility in esta,lishing itself in *ifferent times an* places. 3irli& concl'*es ,y hoping that the postcolonial intelligentsia 'can generate a thoro'ghgoing criticism of its o(n i*eology an* form'late practices of resistance against the system of (hich it is a pro*'ct' (p. 5"#.

+or 3irli&, postcolonialism is little more than an elite *isco'rse (ith nothing to offer political *issi*ence an* criti;'e. It is a symptom of capitalist mo*ernity, not a criti;'e of it. +or some, postcolonialism remains too ca'ght 'p in a,str'se an* ,affling *e,ates a,o't the min'tiae of philosophy an* critical theory (hich are remote from the myria* str'ggles of the (retche* of the earth1 for others, the healthy con*ition of postcolonial literat're as a -ia,le aca*emic s',?ect &eeps the foc's of postcolonialism on a percei-e* elite form of representation often pro*'ce* ,y a (7estern!e*'cate*# (ealthy postcolonial intelligentsia, rather than on less rarifie* an* may,e more transformati-e forms of *issi*ent c'lt'ral en*ea-o'r ma*e ,y (once!# colonise* people: m'sic, *ance, foo*, sport, ra*io. This critical -ie( is capt're* (ell ,y P(ame Anthony Appiah's famo's remar& fist ma*e in 1999: 'Postcoloniality is the con*ition of (hat (e might 'ngenero'sly call a compra*or intelligentsia: of a relati-ely small!scale, 7estern!style, 7estern!traine*, gro'p of (riters an* thin&ers (ho me*iate the tra*e in c'lt'ral commo*ities of (orl* capitalism at the periphery' (*n ,y /ather2s -ouse! Africa in the Philosophy of Culture, G2for* 5ni-ersity Press, 1992, p. 1L9#. Appiah's (or*s s'ggest that postcolonial literat're, c'lt're an* critical st'*ies *o not signal a criti;'e or transformation of 7estern, '+irst 7orl*' society1 instea*, a(ar*!(inning postcolonial no-els an* ,oo&s on postcolonial theory are merely more commo*ities in the glo,al mar&etplace, (hich con-ert c'lt'ral *ifference into safe an* palata,le pac&ages, change nothing significantly an* shore 'p the 'ne;'al glo,al stat's ;'o of the t(enty!first cent'ry.

In challenging postcolonialism in this manner, many ha-e strongly conteste* the (ays in (hich $ar2ist mo*es of critical an* political analysis appear to ha-e ,een ?ettisone* in postcolonial tho'ght. %lass analysis is one e2ample: another (o'l* ,e anti!colonial nationalism, one of the most s'ccessf'l mo*es of pop'lar resistance in the once!colonise* (orl* that is in*e,te* to $ar2ism. As (e ha-e seen in %hapters an* L, the concepts of nation an* nationalism ha-e 'n*ergone se-ere criti;'e in the postcolonial st'*ies, an* for some these notions ha-e ,ecome *iscre*ite*, especially in the light of the 'nhappy fort'nes of nations in the (a&e of in*epen*ence. +or many $ar2ist critics of postcolonialism, the criti;'e of nationalism an* $ar2ist mo*es of political *issi*ence is totally 'naccepta,le an* the (orst conse;'ence of the t'rn to theory an* the a*-ocacy of the *isc'rsi-e in postcolonial st'*ies. :ence accor*ing to 6eil AaMar's, the &in* of postcolonial criticism in (hich 4ha,ha an* others are in-ol-e* sho'l* really ,e calle* 'post! $ar2ist criticism', an* he *ecries 'the strong anti!nationalist an* anti!$ar2ist *ispositions of most of the scholars (or&ing (ithin postcolonial st'*ies' ('Intro*'cing Postcolonial /t'*ies' in The Cam1ridge Companion to Postcolonial Literary Studies, e*. 6eil AaMar's, %am,ri*ge 5ni-ersity Press, 299L, pp. L, 5#. In thin&ing a,o't the se-eral iss'es raise* a,o-e, a n'm,er of points might ,e ma*e. +irst, 3irli&'s arg'ment that thin&ers s'ch as 4ha,ha, /ai* an* /pi-a& are *eli,erately ,ree*ing o,f'scation as a (ay of concealing their origins in glo,al capitalism seems remar&a,ly ignorant, if not *o(nright contempt'o's, of the origins of m'ch postcolonial tho'ght in *issi*ent conte2ts an* the commitments (hich many postcolonial thin&ers ha-e to criti;'ing the 'ne;'al con*itions of glo,al contemporaneity, al,eit in post!$ar2ist mo*es. 3irli& can appear as a pec'liar &in* of intellect'al A'**ite, in that he o,?ects to the fact that postcolonialism tries to ma&e sense of the (orl* in ne( (ays an* (ith ne( -oca,'laries (hich he is 'n(illling to learn, rather than in the familiar le2icon of $ar2ist criti;'e. :is arg'ment that postcolonialists ignore the primacy of capitalism as a primary fo'n*ation of reality is not really ,orne o't ,y the e-i*ence. A great *eal of postcolonial tho'ght has a,sol'tely conten*e* (ith the material realities of the contemporary (orl* *eri-e* from capitalism, as (e ha-e ,een seeing (an* as (or& on glo,alisation most recently e-i*ences#, (hile fig'res li&e Fayatri %ha&ra-orty /pi-a&, /t'art :all an* Pa'l Filroy ha-e ,een *e,ating pro*'cti-ely (ith $ar2ist mo*es of thin&ing for many years as part of their o(n postcolonial engagements (ith $ar2ist an* materialist mo*es of tho'ght. To arg'e that postcolonialism is simply *ri-en ,y the interests of capitalism, an* is ine-ita,ly complicit (ith it, con-inces fe( commentators (ho *o not *etect the &in*s of concealment of complicity (hich 3irli& asserts (ith an alarming *egree of paranoia.

In his criti;'e of 3irli&'s tho'ght, 3a-i* /cott notes ho( postcolonial thin&ers enco'rage 'more partial an* situated *eterminations' ()efashioning /utures! Criticism after Postcoloniality, Princeton 5ni-ersity Press, 1999, p. 1 9# of the role of capital in history, rather than *ispense (ith an attention to capitalism entirely in their (or&. :e also (on*ers (hy postcolonialism's allege* in*e,te*ness to capitalist mo*ernity a'tomatically con*emns it to toothless complicity: 'It (o'l* ,e an interesting ;'estion (hether the themes an* mo*alities that animate Jpostcoloniality'sK *eployment in critical practices are in some (ays *epen*ent 'pon the material con*itions pro*'ce* in the (a&e of the rise of a *istincti-ely trans! national or glo,al capitalism. 4't to ac&no(le*ge that a practice has *eterminate con*itions *oes not there1y ma&e it a mere i*eological reflection of any one of them' (p. 1L9#. Postcolonialism is ine-ita,ly fate* to inha,it the contemporary milie' of capitalist mo*ernity an* 'se its instit'tions in or*er to *isseminate its i*eas, ,'t *oes this ine-ita,ly con*emn it to complicity (ith glo,al capital8 The notion that complicity lea*s a'tomatically to rapport or o,e*ience is a contesta,le one. Gne lesson (e can learn from the history of resistance to 0mpire is that complicity *oes not e;'al coll'sion. As Fayatri %ha&ra-orty /pi-a& arg'es, (hile one can ne-er ,e f'lly o'tsi*e a str'ct're of po(er (e can attempt to negotiate tactically (ithin s'ch str'ct'res an* instit'ions in or*er to *esta,ilise them, 'nleash ne( &no(le*ges (ithin them, ,'c&le their smooth operations an* ,ring them to crisis. /pi-a& calls this process one of 'negotiation' *'ring an inter-ie( from 1999:
#f there is anything # have learnt in and through the last 07 years of teaching, it is that the more vulnera$le your position, the more you have to negotiate... you must intervene even as you inha$it those structures... # guess all # mean $y negotiation here is that one tries to change from something that one is o$liged to inha$it, since one is not working from the outside. #n order to keep one's effectiveness, one must also preserve those structures : not cut them down completely. .nd that, as far as # can understand, is negotiation. ;ou inha$it the structures of violence and violation, here defined $y you as *estern li$eralism. %The Post-Colonial Critic: Interviews, Strategies, Dialogues, ed. Sarah <arasym, =outledge, &>>', p.90).

To ,e (ithin is not necessarily to ,e complicit > to inha,it *oes not con*emn one to o,e*ience. 7or&ing (ith 7estern theory *oes not necessarily ma&e 's s'pport the '7est' or 'phol* the ass'mptions of 7estern theory, as /pi-a& herself *emonstrate* in her essay '%an the /',altern /pea&8' (hich (e loo&e* at in %hapter ". Nea*ing a no-el for a 'ni-ersity postcolonial literat're co'rse *oes not a'tomatically *oom 's to complicity (ith the ghettoising protocols of some instit'tions. $ay,e ,eca'se 3irli&'s o(n $ar2ist critical stan*point is non!negotia,le he mista&es inha,itation for coll'sion an* entirely fails to -al'e at least the aims of /pi-a&'s critical en*ea-o'rs. :appily, most s',se;'ent $ar2ist!le* criti;'es of postcolonialism ha-e ,een far s',tler an* more con-incing than 3irli&'s, an* as a conse;'ence their critical arg'ments ha-e often ,een m'ch more penetrating an* con-incing.

17- Anal,Ge S$i8ak"# un er#tan in+ o% &ne+otiation( in t!e Buote %oun on $a+e )F=' The notion that complicity lea*s a'tomatically to rapport or o,e*ience is a contesta,le one. Gne lesson (e can learn from the history of resistance to 0mpire is that complicity *oes not e;'al coll'sion. As Fayatri %ha&ra-orty /pi-a& arg'es, (hile one can ne-er ,e f'lly o'tsi*e a str'ct're of po(er (e can attempt to negotiate tactically (ithin s'ch str'ct'res an* instit'ions in or*er to *esta,ilise them, 'nleash ne( &no(le*ges (ithin them, ,'c&le their smooth operations an* ,ring them to crisis. /pi-a& calls this process one of 'negotiation' *'ring an inter-ie( from 1999: #f there is anything # have learnt in and through the last 07 years of teaching, it is that the more vulnera$le your position, the more you have to negotiate... you must intervene even as you inha$it those structures... # guess all # mean $y negotiation here is that one tries to change from something that one is o$liged to inha$it, since one is not working from the outside. #n order to keep one's effectiveness, one must also preserve those structures : not cut them down completely. .nd that, as far as # can understand, is negotiation. ;ou inha$it the structures of violence and violation, here defined $y you as *estern li$eralism. %The Post-Colonial Critic: Interviews, Strategies, Dialogues, ed. Sarah <arasym, =outledge, &>>', p.90).

To ,e (ithin is not necessarily to ,e complicit > to inha,it *oes not con*emn one to o,e*ience. 7or&ing (ith 7estern theory *oes not necessarily ma&e 's s'pport the '7est' or 'phol* the ass'mptions of 7estern theory, as /pi-a& herself *emonstrate* in her essay '%an the /',altern /pea&8' (hich (e loo&e* at in %hapter ". Nea*ing a no-el for a 'ni-ersity postcolonial literat're co'rse *oes not a'tomatically *oom 's to complicity (ith the ghettoising protocols of some instit'tions. $ay,e ,eca'se 3irli&'s o(n $ar2ist critical stan*point is non!negotia,le he mista&es inha,itation for coll'sion an* entirely fails to -al'e at least the aims of /pi-a&'s critical en*ea-o'rs. :appily, most s',se;'ent $ar2ist!le* criti;'es of postcolonialism ha-e ,een far s',tler an* more con-incing than 3irli&'s, an* as a conse;'ence their critical arg'ments ha-e often ,een m'ch more penetrating an* con-incing.

1:- De<ne t!e conce$t o% &tricontinentali#m( a# #u++e#te /' C' Youn+. an it# $it%all#. accor in+ to McLeo '

*, Ro*ert

Pos$'olo(#al#sm or $r#'o($#(e($al#sm! T"e l#m#$s of ma$er#al#s$ 'r#$#*+e Gne of the most important recent $ar2ist!inspire* criti;'es of postcolonialism is No,ert B. %. Eo'ng's ,oo& Postcolonialism! An -istorical *ntroduction (cite* a,o-e#. In contrast to 3irli&, Bo'ng's &ey concern is not to *ismiss postcolonialism as the enemy of $ar2ist thin&ing ,'t rather to reorient postcolonialism in terms of the $ar2ist!inspire* political mo-ements (hich challenge* colonialism an* 0mpire across the (orl*. Eo'ng e2poses an alternati-e narrati-e of the e-ol'tion of postcolonialism (hich gro'n*s it not only in the fort'nes of a,str'se critical theory ,'t fin*s it entirely to the long history of anti!colonial *issi*ence. This in-ol-es Eo'ng in t(o partic'lar tas&s: first, he e2poses an* e-al'ates the $ar2ist an* nationalist re-ol'tionary tho'ght an* action in (hat he terms the 'tricontinent': Aatin America, Africa an* Asia. Nesistance to colonialism, he remin*s 's, 'goes ,ac& to the ,eginnings of colonialism itself. $ost of those s',?ecte* to colonialism resiste* from the first moment of 0'ropean inc'rsions, from the %ari,s in the %ari,,ean, to the In*ian $'ghal r'lers, to the $aoris in 6e( =ealan*' (p. 1"1#. :istorically, $ar2ism has pro-i*e* the most effecti-e means of organising an* p'rs'ing resistance, he s'ggests. The (ealth of anti!colonial action co'l* not ha-e happene* (itho't the impact of $ar2ist tho'ght an* its -ario's interpretations aro'n* the (orl* (hich ma*e possi,le =apata's $e2ican re,ellion of 1919, the Per'-ian $ar2ist $ariRteg'i's ra*ical (ritings, the re-ol'tionary achie-ements of %he F'e-ara an* +i*el %astro in %',a an* Aatin America, resistance in Anglophone an* +rancophone Africa, the ins'rgency of (omen's re-ol'tionary gro'ps, P(ame 6&r'mah an* Pan!Africanism, socialism an* Fan*hi!ism in In*ia, an* many other forms of *issi*ence ,esi*es. /econ*, Eo'ng 'n*erscores the in*e,te*ness of '+irst 7orl*' thin&ers s'ch as Bac;'es 3erri*a an* $ichel +o'ca'lt to the history of 0mpire an* resistance, in or*er to challenge the opposition ,et(een theoretical an* material realms (hich seems to operate in the (or& of many critics of postcolonial theory. 7hile these t(o fig'res seem to ha-e little to say a,o't colonialism an* resistance to it in their (riting, Eo'ng firmly an* pro-ocati-ely connects their intellect'al en*ea-o'rs to the longer history of colonialism an* its resistance an* effects a po(erf'l an* far!reaching reorientation of postcolonialism to(ar*s its $ar2ist an* materialist conte2ts, especially the re-ol'tionary *issi*ent achie-ements *isco-ere* in Aatin America, Africa an* Asia.

In reconnecting postcolonial theory (ith the long history of *issi*ence to

(hich it is in*e,te*, Eo'ng's ,oo& ret'rns critical attention to a n'm,er of intellect'als an* ra*icals > the Fhanaian P(ame 6&r'mah, the Trini*a*ians %. A. N. Bames an* Feorge Pa*more, an* others > (hose (hor& an* achie-ements ha-e ,een in *anger of ,eing entirely forgotten in recent years, especially (ithin the rarifie* philosophing of m'ch postcolonial theory. 7hereas one or t(o ra*ical fig'res from the *ays of the -ario's anti!colonial str'ggles ha-e ,een remem,ere* > the most -isi,le e2ample is +rantM +anon, (hose early (or& has preocc'pie* 4ha,ha > many other s'ch fig'res ha-e not. After rea*ing Eo'ng's ,oo&, ho(e-er, it is impossi,le to en*orse the (al(ays ;'estiona,le# clichI that postcolonialism magically ,egins in 19<O (ith the p',lication of /ai*'s 5rientalism. 7hile it is tr'e to say that postcolonialism as an academic practice (as in part engen*ere* ,y the seismic shift engen*ere* ,y /ai*'s ,oo&, as (e ha-e consi*ere* a,o-e, Eo'ng *emonstrates ho( /ai* an* other contemporaneo's thin&ers stan* at the far en* of a m'ch longer tra?ectory of tho'ght an* action, in*e,te* to $ar2ism, an* their (or& nee*s to ,e 'n*erstoo* historically in these terms. . Thro'gho't Postcolonialism! An -istorical *ntroduction Eo'ng (rites (ith patience, fairness, e-en!han*e*ness, clarity an* refreshing *irectness. Eet li&e all ,oo&s it is not fla(less, an* (hen enco'ntering it for the first time it is 'sef'l to &eep in min* the -ie( that its 'historical' narrati-e of postcolonialism is not necessarily a'thoritati-e. T(o points of contention arising from it are (orth mentioning here, partly as a (ay of enco'raging yo' to enco'nter this richly re(ar*ing ,oo& in a critically fertile manner. Eo'ng's inter-ention in postcolonial *e,ates arg'a,ly *oes not resol-e them f'lly, an* in*ee* opens 'p some a**itional pro,lems to consi*er too.

+irst, Eo'ng's mo*el of the 'tricontinental', inspire* ,y the 19"" conference in :a-ana of the Grganisation of /oli*arity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia an* Aatin America, ta&es s'staine* attention a(ay from other locations (hich (e ha-e feat'res *i-erse an* *i-ergent forms of colonial settlement an* resistance. /pecifically, settler colonies s'ch as %ana*a, 6e( =ealan* an* A'stralia play -irt'ally no part in Eo'ng's *isc'ssion of postcolonialism > a term (hich, as he says at one point, he (o'l* in*ee* m'ch prefer to *o a(ay (ith an* replace pro-ocati-ely (ith 2tricontinentalism2 (p. 5< > italics in original#. Gn one or t(o occasions Eo'ng a**resses the partic'lar circ'mstances of the settler colonies an* is min*f'l of the partic'lar challenges they create. As he p'ts it, 'settler societies (ith in*igeno's inha,itants as in 6orth, %entral an* /o'th America, /o'th Africa, Tai(an, A'stralasia, Jare placesK (hose settlers in historical terms often ,roach the ,o'n*aries ,et(een coloniMers an* coloniMe*, an* (here settler!,ase* national an* c'lt'ral i*entities are 'n*er long!stan*ing challenge > for e2ample, ,y the $aori claim to ethnocracy in 6e( =ealan*' (p. "9#. Eet Eo'ng chooses not to e2plore in *epth the partic'lar challenges an* phenomenon of settler nationalism on the one han*, (hen 0'ropean!*escen*e* peoples agitate* for self!r'le *istinct from 0'ropean ?'ris*iction, or the -ario's forms of in*igeno's resistance to settlement on the other. Altho'gh it is al(ays a little ch'rlish to challenge a ,oo& for (hat it e2cl'*es rather than (hat it incl'*es, it is (orth (on*ering if a history of postcolonialism can e-er ,e (ritten (itho't greater reference to the partic'lar con*itions of the settler colonies. Eo'ng's lac& of attention to s'ch locations, I (o'l* haMar*, is ,eca'se they (o'l* tro',le his -ersion of postcolonialism's history as fundamentally in*e,te* to $ar2ist forms of re-ol'tion an* *issi*ence. Gn the one han*, the gro(th of settler nationalism in places s'ch as %ana*a an* A'stralia (as not the pro*'ct of $ar2ist! inspire* politics nor *i* it al(ays mo'nt a far!reaching criti;'e of capitalism. Gn the other han*, A,original or '+irst 6ations' forms of resistance in s'ch places ha-e often ,een f'elle* ,y in*igeno's forms of &no(le*ge (hich are in many (ays incommens'rate (ith 7estern!*eri-e* mo*es of tho'ght an* in*ee* *o not necessarily re;'ire s'ch reso'rces (incl'*ing $ar2ism# in or*er to ma&e entirely legitimate claims for territorial free*om an* self!go-ernance. The lac& of a significant presence of $ar2ist infl'ence in these conte2ts possi,ly e2plains (hy they *o not sho( 'p for long in Eo'ng's ,oo&, ,'t their a,sence limits the range of his 'historical' acco'nt of postcolonialism, especially as regar*s in*igeno's an* A,original mo*alities of resistance. +or these reasons, Eo'ng's insistently $ar2ist acco'nt of postcolonialism res'lts in some important an* perhaps *amaging omissions.

The iss'e of omission lea*s to the secon* ;'estion (e might ha-e a,o't Eo'ng's (or&, an* it concerns his perpet'al foc's on the lea*ers of re-ol'tionary gro'ps an* colonise* peoples: %he F'e-ara, $ahatma Fan*hi, AIopol* /enghor, TiImoho Faran Po'yatI, Amilcar %a,ral an* se-eral others. Eo'ng's foc's on the political sacrifices an* ,ra-e ra*icalism of these an* other great fig'res is -ital. Eet, (ith the possi,le e2ception of his foc's on (omen's gro'ps, Eo'ng is less s&ille* at comm'nicating the en*ea-o'rs an* acti-ities of less e2traor*inary fol&s in the colonies, (hose *ay!to!*ay acts of *issi*ence (ere part of their *iffic'lt e2periences an* practices of e-ery*ay life, an* (hose 'nspectac'lar, often or*inary!loo&ing acts of resistance to colonial r'le (ere e-ery ,it as important as the acti-ities an* inspiration of their lea*ers in challenging colonial a'thority. In seeming to organise his (or& thro'gh the accomplishments of the great fig'res of anti!colonial *issi*ence, at times Eo'ng comes closer to (riting an heroic rather than historical intro*'ction to postcolonialism, one (hich confects an emoti-e hagiography of anti! colonial $ar2ist!infl'ence* ra*icals. The presence, roles an* practices of e-ery*ay life of the oppresse* 's',altern' peoples can seem a little m'te* as a conse;'ence. The thr'st of these t(o critical ;'estions (hich I am ma&ing here *o not necessarily *iminish the achie-ements of Eo'ng's ,oo&, (hich are manifol*. 4't they *o mo*estly point to one or t(o concerns (e might ha-e a,o't the acc'racy or sta,ility of the term 'historical' in its s',title, an* alert 's to the fact that e-en a ,oo& as (i*e!ranging an* impressi-e as this is still only one &in* of intern-ention in a perpet'ally conteste* fiel*. %an postcolonialism ,e oriente* so sec'rely to this tricontinental history8 7hat *o (e incl'*e, an* (ho gets left o't, in the -ario's (ays (e might historicise postcolonialism8 An* (hat a,o't postcolonialism's f't're8

15- Tr, to McLeo '

e#cri*e &+lo*ali#ation( u#in+ t!e conce$t# o3ere

*,

,lo-al#sa$#o( a( 'pos$'olo(#al#$&'. $"e (ew #mper#+m! Gne e-ening a fe( months ago I (as sat at home in 7est Eor&shire, tal&ing on my lan*!line telephone to my partner (ho happene* to ,e staying in a hotel in /y*ney. 3'ring the con-ersation I sent her some information she nee*e* -ia a te2t message from my mo,ile phone. 7ithin a,o't a secon* or so of sen*ing the message, I hear* her mo,ile phone ,leep in her hotel room: the message ha* tra-elle* a *istance of appro2imately 19,599 miles an* ha* ,een recei-e* safely ,efore I ha* time to place my han*set ,ac& on the ta,le. 7e also tal&e* a,o't her flight arrangements ,ac& to 4ritain1 *espite ,eing half a (orl* (ay, she (o'l* ,e ,ac& home (ithin a mere LO ho'rs. +or those of 's (ho ha-e gro(n 'p 'se* to air tra-el, the internet, mo,ile phones, *igital an* satellite technology, the -ignette of my phone!call to A'stralia pro,a,ly seems har*ly (orth pa'sing o-er, so or*inary (ill it seem. Eet the realities of to*ay's transport an* comm'nication net(or&s that it recor*s (o'l* ha-e ,een the transformations of technology on so many elements of life. In his (or& on 's'permo*ernity', $arc A'gI has tal&e* a,o't the remar&a,le transformations of scale that ha-e occ'rre* as a conse;'ence of technologies that ha-e ma*e the glo,e appear a m'ch smaller place than it 'se* to:
*e are in an era characterised $y changes of scale : of course in the conte+t of space e+ploration, $ut also on earth? rapid means of transport have $rought any capital within a few hours' travel of any other. .nd in the privacy of our homes, finally, images of all sorts, relayed $y satellites and caught $y the aerials that $ristle on the roofs of our remotest hamlets, can give us an instant, sometimes simultaneous vision of an event taking place on the other side of the planet % NonPlaces: Introduction to an Anthropology o Super!odernity , trans. -ohn <owe, @erso, &>>(, p. 7&).

The conse;'ences of li-ing in a (orl* that appears smaller *'e to the ne( technologies an* practices of contemporary life ha-e ,een *escri,e* (ith reco'rse to terms li&e 'postmo*ernity', 's'permo*ernity', 'late capitalism', 'capitalist mo*ernity', an* others ,esi*es. These *ays the most common name for the con*ition (hich A'gI *escri,es is glo,alisation. The emergence of glo,alisation ,oth as a li-e* reality an* the foc's of aca*emic st'*ies has ha* conse;'ences for the e-ol'tion of postcolonialism, not least ,eca'se se-eral iss'es (hich preocc'py postcolonial thin&ers seem at the heart of *e,ates a,o't glo,alisation. These incl'*e things li&e international migration, the percei-e* *ecline of the nation!state, glo,alisation as a form of imperialism, the neo!colonial operations of glo,alisation, c'lt'ral transformation, an* the necessity an* challenge of resistance in the face of a ne( form of international po(er. 7hat *oes glo,alisation mean for *ifferent c'lt'res aro'n* the (orl*8 7hat is it *oing to so!calle* c'lt'ral otherness or *ifference8 :o( might postcolonialism offer 's a (ay of criti;'ing glo,alisation8 Is postcolonialism 'p to the ?o, of *ealing critically (ith glo,alisation, or has it met its historical an* intellect'al limits in glo,alisation8

Flo,alisation names a contemporary (orl* con*ition characterise* ,y the transformation of economic, political an* c'lt'ral relations on a planetary scale. Pey to these transformations is the sense that the nation!state is *eclining as the most important form of so-ereignty aro'n* the (orl* an* emerging instea* are fe( net(or&s an* instit'tions (hich operate transnationally, often c'tting across the physical ,or*ers an* political interests of nation!states. These instit'tions incl'*e economic agencies li&e the International $onetary +'n* (I$+# an* the 7orl* 4an&, (ealthy transnational corporations (T6%s# s'ch as $icrosoft, %oca!cola an* Feneral $otors ((hose ann'al t'rno-er can ri-al that of some nations#, non!go-ernmental organisations (6FGs# s'ch as G2fam or Freenpeace, an* international me*ia o'tlets (tele-ision companies, p',lishing ho'ses, etc.# thro'gh (hich c'lt'ral pro*'cts circ'late across large glo,al a'*iences. Flo,alisation emerges as a (e,!li&e str'ct're facilitate* ,y instant an* often -irt'al comm'nication net(or&s, (here (ealth, ,'siness contracts, financial transactions an* c'lt'ral images can ,e circ'late* at the clic& of a mo'se or ,y pressing the ret'rn &ey on yo'r P% > an* (here the fate of tho'san*s of people can ,e altere* ,y the *ecisions of those sat in ,oar*rooms tho'san*s of miles a(ay, may,e spea&ing a *ifferent lang'age or li-ing a m'ch more l'2'rio's life to those (hose economic fort'nes are in their han*s (for an e2cellent an* concise (ay into thin&ing a,o't glo,alisation, see $anfre* 4. /teger, 6lo1alisation! A 7ery Short *ntroduction, secon* e*ition, G2for* 5ni-ersity Press, 2999#.

Flo,alisation scholars ha-e long ,een intereste* in the interaction ,et(een s'ch glo,al flo(s an* their local impact, an* the relationship ,et(een the glo,al an* local is one (hich has partic'lar resonance (ithin postcolonialism. A &ey commentator on glo,alisation is Ar?'n Appa*'rai, (hose (or& offers a n'm,er of important (ays of engaging (ith the c'lt'ral conse;'ences of glo,alisation. In an early an* infl'ential ,oo&, ,odernity at Large! Cultural Dimensions of 6lo1alisation (5ni-ersity of $innesota Press, 199"#, Appa*'rai *escri,es the emerging glo,alise* (orl* as constit'te* ,y a series of *is?'nct'res (hich cannot ,e 'n*erstoo* (ith reco'rse to ol*er centre!periphery mo*els (s'ch as metropolis!colony, for e2ample# or (ith ol*er, sta,le an* more pre*icta,le notions of pro*'ction, cons'mption an* migration. Instea*, he i*entifies fi-e *imensions of glo,alisation that feat're the s'ffi2 '!scape': ethnoscapes, me*iascapes, technoscapes, financescapes an* i*eoscapes. The 'se of '!scape' signifies 'the fl'i*, irreg'lar shapes of these lan*scapes' that are ,est tho'ght of as 'perspecti-al constr'cts, inflecte* ,y the historical, ling'istic, an* political sit'ate*ness of *ifferent sorts of actors: nation! states, m'ltinationals, *iasporic comm'nities, as (ell as s',national gro'pings an* mo-ements ((hether religio's, political or economic#, an* e-en face!to!face gro'ps, s'ch as -illages, neigh,o'rhoo*s an* families' (p. #. 6ote here the emphasis on the essential mallea,ility of these phenomena, en*lessly morphing as the glo,al an* local interact (ith one another in comple2 an* 'npre*icta,le (ays. Appa*'rai 'ses 'ethnoscape' to refer to increasingly mo,ile an* fl'i* gro'ps or comm'nities (hich inha,it the glo,e (s'ch as to'rists, immigrants, ref'gees, e2iles an* g'est (or&ers#. :is term 'technoscape' refers to the ne( technological net(or&s (hich integrate *ifferent locations an* (hich facilitate glo,al flo(s of information at high -elocities, (hile 'financescapes' refers to the str'ct're an* circ'lation of glo,al capital aro'n* the (orl*. '$e*iascapes' refer ',oth to the *istri,'tion of the electronic capa,ilities to pro*'ce an* *isseminate information' (p. 5#, primarily image!,ase*, (hile 'i*eoscapes' refers to the circ'lation of i*eas to *o (ith po(er: free*om, rights, so-ereignty, *emocracy an* other s'ch terms.

Appa*'rai's list of '!scapes' -i-i*ly capt'res the chaotic integration of an* interaction ,et(een technology, (ealth, information, the me*ia, po(er, people an* c'lt're (hich characterises the glo,alise* (orl*. :is (or& offers a (ay of thin&ing a,o't migrant an* *iasporic peoples ,eyon* the centre!periphery a2is of metropolitan motherlan*!colonial o'tp't (hich has informe* m'ch thin&ing a,o't postcolonial *iasporas of the first an* secon* generations (hich (e e2plore* in %hapter <, an* opens 'p ne( (ays to consi*er the realities an* conse;'ences of li-ing 'in!,et(een' that encompass a range of constit'encies of peoples. In a later highly rea*a,le ,oo&, /ear of Small #um1ers! An ssay on the 6eography of Anger (3'&e 5ni-ersity Press, 299"#, Appa*'rai offers f'rther frame(or&s for thin&ing a,o't glo,alisation. :e *escri,es an ol*er (orl* or*er as a '-erte,rate' (orl* system (here in*i-i*'al nations are loc&e* together into an international ,o*y (here the so-ereignty of each nation is paramo'nt. 4't the '!scapes' an* systems of the contemporary (orl* seem more 'cell'lar' than -erte,rate: the term 'cell'lar' is 'se* to capt're a (orl*' clearly lin&e* 'p ,y m'ltiple circ'its along (hich money, ne(s, people, an* i*eas flo(, meet, con-erge, an* *isperse again' (p. 25#. %ontemporary glo,alisation is an amalgam of the t(o systems, he arg'es, re;'iring some sta,le forms of organisation an* e2change ,'t clearly operating in an 'npre*icta,le, mo,ile an* comple2 fashion. 7e can *iscern this sit'ation ,y thin&ing for a moment a,o't the contemporary phenomena of asyl'm!see&ers, ref'gees an* economic (or&ers (ho, on the one han*, are often ca'ght 'p in the cell'lar logics of glo,alisation, mo-ing from place to place in search of employment, or, on the other han*, are fleeing the m'r*ero's acti-ities in their nati-e lan*s an* (hose attempts to cross national ,or*ers are met (ith 'nsympathetic an* *eh'manising agencies of ,or*er control, internment an* *eportation.

+or some critics, the operations of glo,alisation represent a ne( phase in the p'rs'it of imperialism, an* it is here that postcolonialism ,ecomes especially intereste* in glo,alisation. 7e sa( in %hapter 1 that colonialism (as only one &in* of e2ample of an imperial str'ct're, *efine* ,y the acti-ity of *ifferent forms of 0'ropean settlement. 7e might li&e to thin& of glo,alisation as a form of imperialism ,y remote control, one (hich no longer re;'ires colonial settlement ,'t (hich can o,tain po(er o-er other locations an* peoples > their reso'rces, c'lt'ral an* social acti-ities, an* (ealth > precisely (ith reco'rse to the ne( technologies an* '!scapes' (hich characterise the contemporary. $ichael :ar*t an* Antonio 6egri ha-e famo'sly artic'late* this sense of contemporary glo,alisation is in*e,te* to colonialism in the comm'nication net(or&s, international relations an* histories of migration an* settlement (hich colonialism has ,e;'eathe* the present, as (ell as the international initiati-es of the *issenting 'm'ltit'*e' ( mpire, :ar-ar* 5ni-ersity Press, 2999, p. L # (hich oppose* colonialism often ,y opening 'p channels of international soli*arity an* inspiration. Eet rather than mo-ing 's ,eyon* an imperial (orl*, glo,alisation creates 'its o(n relationships of po(er ,ase* on e2ploitation that are in many respects more ,r'tal than those it *estroye*' (p. L #. 5n*er to*ay's 0mpire, the m'ltit'*e of people (hich historically la,o're* 'n*er colonialism an* capitalism fin* themsel-es ensnare* again ,y a glo,al imperi'm (hich s',?ects them to f'rther e2ploitation, po-erty an* har*ship. Gnce!colonise* nations increasingly fin* themsel-es ser-icing *e,ts o(ne* to (ealthy '+irst 7orl*' organisations often in the glo,al 6orth (hich charge high interest on the loans they ma*e a-aila,le for *e-elopment pro?ects. %omm'nities of lo(!pai* (or&ers can fin* themsel-es ;'ic&ly re*'n*ant (hen a T6% mo-es its pro*'ction to an entirely *ifferent part of the (orl* ,eca'se of cheaper la,o'r costs, or ,e force* 'ne2pecte*ly to mo-e tho'san*s of miles aro'n* the glo,e in search of (or&. :ence, 'JtKhe en* of mo*ern colonialisms, of co'rse, has not really opene* an age of 'n;'alifie* free*om ,'t rather yiel*e* to ne( forms of r'le that operate on a glo,al scale' (p. 1 L#. As :ar*t an* 6egri see it, then, the ne( (orl* or*er is characterise* ,y the *ecline of the so-ereignty of the nation!state an* the emergence of a ne( form of international a'thority (hich consi*ers it ?'st an* right to inter-ene self!intereste*ly in conflicts aro'n* the (orl* in the g'ise of ,eing at the ser-ice of right an* peace ((e might (ant to thin& here a,o't the 5/!le* in-asion of Ira; or the conflicts in Afghanistan as part of a glo,al '7ar on Terror'#. These acts of inter-ention ser-ice the interests an* *eman*s of glo,al capitalism > T6%s, po(erf'l financial concerns an* the li&e, often hea*;'artere* in 6orth America an* other '+irst 7orl*' locations > an* assist in ,in*ing the (orl* more tightly together as a comple2 mar&et in (hich more an* more commo*ities can ,e tra*e*. $ean(hile, the m'ltit'*e is face* (ith the challenge of respon*ing to an* resisting the ne( imperial a'thority of the glo,alise* 0mpire, (hile s'ffering increase* economic (retche*ness an* 'ncertainty.

It might seem, then, that postcolonialism can play an e2tremely important part in contesting the ne( glo,al imperi'm *'e to the concept'al tools it has at its *isposal. Eet :ar*t an* 6egri cast *o',t on the effecti-eness of postcolonial thin&ing to offer any meaningf'l challenge to the ne( (orl* or*er. mpire contains a short ,'t start criti;'e of postcolonialism in (hich they s'ggest that &ey concepts of postcolonialism act'ally mimic rather than confront the machinations of contemporary glo,alisation. Altho'gh postcolonial theorists ten* to prioritise fragmentary s',?ecti-ities, e-ol-ing forms of ,ecoming an* hy,ri* mo*es of tho'ght an* c'lt'ral pro*'ction, it is claime* that their intellect'al strategies 'that appear to ,e li,eratory (o'l* not challenge ,'t in fact coinci*e (ith an* e-en 'n(ittingly reinforce the ne( strategies of r'leS" ( mpire, :ar-ar* 5ni-ersity Press, 2999, p. 1 O#. This is ,eca'se glo,al capitalism often mo,ilises the fragmentary, hy,ri*, the *ifferent an* fl'i* as part of its machinery (as Appa*'rai's engagement (ith '!scapes' testifie*#. +or :ar* an* 6egri, then, those postcolonial theorists '(ho a*-ocate a politics of *ifference, fl'i*ity an* hy,ri*ity in or*er to challenge the ,inaries an* essentialism of mo*ern so-ereignty ha-e ,een o'tflan&e* ,y the strategies of J0mpire'sK po(er' (p. 1 O# ,eca'se they ha-e not come 'p (ith tools to challenge the glo,alise* present1 rather, their theoretical terms of reference are entirely in t'ne (ith the interests of glo,al capital. +or these reasons, :ar*t an* 6egri arg'e that postcolonialism is an effecti-e criti;'e of the colonial an* *ecolonising past ,'t not the glo,al present: 'postcolonial theory Jmay ,eK a -ery pro*'cti-e tool for rerea*ing history, ,'t it is entirely ins'fficient for theoriMing contemporary glo,al po(er' (p. 1L"#. Gr in other (or*s, postcolonialism offers an effecti-e (ay of criti;'ing the (orl* characterise* ,y mo*ern so-ereignty, a&in to the -erte,rate mo*el of international or*er of (hich Appa*'rai spo&e. 4't it offers no effecti-e (ay of criti;'ing or challenging the more cell'lar con*ition of the ne( imperial so-ereignty of 0mpire, ,eca'se its -oca,'laries an* &ey concepts offer no meaningf'l alternati-e to the metho*s an* *esign of 0mpire. In this -ie(, then, postcolonialism has ,een ren*ere* ,an&r'pt ,y glo,alisation.

The engagement (ith glo,alisation in postcolonial st'*ies has ten*e* to ta&e at least three paths. +irst, some critics ha-e conteste* the claims ma*e ,y the li&es of :ar*t an* 6egri, especially their arg'ment that the mo*ern so-ereignty epitomise* ,y the nation!state has (ane* so spectac'larly an* the har*!(on free*oms of once! colonise* peoples ha-e ,een effecti-ely era*icate* in a ne( imperi'm (see, for e2ample, 4enita Parry, Postcolonial Studies! A ,aterialist Criti0ue, No'tle*ge, 299L, pp. 9 !19 #. /econ*, others ha-e calle* for an* attempte* to theorise ne( *emocratic forms of politics, *issi*ence an* ethics that are re;'ire* in a glo,alise* (orl* (here c'lt'res are interacting more an* more an* (here the e2perience of c'lt'ral *ifference > in the me*ia, at (or&, on the street, on the mo-e > is ,ecoming the norm an* not the no-elty of e-ery*ay life. A ne( glo,alise* (orl* re;'ires ne( (ays of thin&ing an* acting ethically. :o( can (e li-e together as part of a glo,al comm'nity (itho't necessarily s'pporting e2ploitation, an* ho( can (e act ethically an* responsi,ly in a (orl* (here *ifferent peoples ha-e mar&e*ly *ifferent -ie(s on ho( to li-e8 /ome of this (or& has ta&en place in the name of 'cosmopolitamism', a term that (as pre-io'sly 'se* pe?orati-ely to ,ear (itness to an elite class of the affl'ent an* internationally mo,ile ,'t is more an* more coming to name an ethical sit'ation in (hich, as P(ame Anthony Appiah s'ggests, (e ac&no(le*ge ,oth o'r general o,ligation to others 'nli&e o'rsel-es an* recognise the legitimacy of specific people's *ifferences. As Appiah conten*s, 'there (ill ,e times (hen these t(o i*eals > 'ni-ersal concern an* respect for legitimate *ifference > clash. There's a sense in (hich cosmopolitanism is the name not of the sol'tion ,'t of the challenge' (Cosmopolitanism! thics in a +orld of Strangers, Peng'in, 299", p. 2-iii#. Pa'l Filroy has also (ritten a,o't the nee* for a -ernac'lar form of cosmopolitanism (hich 'fin*s ci-ic an* ethical -al'e in the process of e2pos're to otherness. It glorifies in the or*inary -irt'es an* ironies > listening, loo&ing, *iscretion, frien*ship > that can ,e c'lti-ate* (hen m'n*ane enco'nters (ith *ifference ,ecome re(ar*ing' (After mpire! ,elancholia or Convivial Culture4 No'tle*ge, 299L, p. <5#. In e2periencing .forms of c'lt'ral e2perience ,eyon* one's imme*iate p'r-ie(, it ,ecomes m'ch har*er to thin& in a parochial or 'nethical fashion a,o't the li-es of others. /'ch i*eas ha-e le* Filroy to tal& of the nee* for a ne( form of planetary conscio'sness or 'planetary h'manism' (8etween Camps! #ations" Cultures and the Allure of )ace, Allen Aane, 2999, p. 5"# (hich gro'n*s a ne( ethics an* politics fit for the present an* (hich ta&es 's ,eyon* the encampe* an* entrenche* politics ,ase* on mo*ern concepts of race an* nation.

A thir* postcolonial response to glo,alisation has foc'se* on the relationships ,et(een postcolonial c'lt'ral en*ea-o'rs an* the glo,alise* mar&ets in (hich many postcolonial (riters in partic'lar ha-e prospere*. It has often ,een remar&e* 'pon that since /alman N'sh*ie's no-el ,idnight2s Children (19O1# (on that year's 4oo&er PriMe for fiction > one of 4ritain's most prestigio's literary a(ar*s > at the time of (riting the $an 4oo&er PriMe (as it is no( calle*# has ,een (on ,y a postcolonial (riter no less than thirteen times in t(enty!se-en years. This might mean that postcolonial (riting is effecti-ely transforming ho( certain rea*ers 'n*erstan* an* interact (ith the (orl* in in*'cting them into *ifferent c'lt'ral horiMons an* e2periences. Gr it might mean something else entirely: namely, that postcolonial literat're has ,ecome a ,ran*. Postcolonial literat're these *ays might ,e c'lt'rally -isi,le an* pop'lar, ,'t (ho is rea*ing these te2ts, an* (hy8 As No,ert +raser has pointe* o't, (hile the (or& of the t(ice!4oo&er (inner B.$. %oetMee seems to attract attention in '+irst 7orl*' co'ntries an* is pop'lar in this nati-e /o'th Africa, 'north of the =am,eMi it is har*ly &no(n' (8oo. -istory Through Postcolonial yes, No'tle*ge, 299O, p 1O"#. Is postcolonial literat're as it is 'n*erstoo* in the 7est act'ally rea* in postcolonial locations8 $ight this matter8 +'rthermore, (hat are '+irst 7orl*' rea*ers ma&ing of the postcolonial te2ts that ha-e pro-en so pop'lar an* s'ch ,ig money!spinners for certain p',lishing ho'ses8 Is it ,eca'se they in-ite rea*ers into (orl*s (hich they en?oy rea*ing a,o't simply ,eca'se they appear e2otic, safely sanitise* ,y the con-ersion of *ifference into am'sing *istraction8 Are colonialist ha,its of tho'ghts really changing8 These &in*s of ;'estions ha-e ,een e2plore* ,y Fraham :'ggan in his infl'ential st'*y The Postcolonial xotic! ,ar.eting the ,argins (No'tle*ge, 2991#, in (hich he e2plores the pop'larity of postcolonial st'*ies an* postcolonial c'lt'ral te2ts (ithin the conte2t of glo,al mar&ets, pointing o't that c'lt'ral *ifference is often a highly salea,le commo*ity an* ,ig ,'siness. In percei-ing of c'lt'ral o,?ects as e2otic an* commo*ifying then as s'ch for cheerf'l glo,al cons'mption, strategies of mar&eting effecti-ely ne'tralise their *isr'pti-e potential an* seiMe 'pon their c'lt'ral marginality as a 'ni;'e selling point. The res'lt is (hat :'ggan calls the postcolonial e2otic, (here the *issi*ent potential of postcolonial e2otic, (here the *issi*ent potential of postcolonial c'lt'res comes into conflict (ith glo,al mar&ets (hich see& to t'rn postcolonial te2ts into ,lan*, apolitical ciphers of c'lt'ral *i-ersity for their o(n financial gain:
The postcolonial e+otic, # have $een suggesting, occupies a site of discursive conflict $etween a local assem$lage of more or less related oppositional practices and a glo$al apparatus of assimilative A commercial codes. Bore specifically, it marks the intersection $etween contending regimes of value? one regime : postcolonialism : that posits itself as anti-colonial, and that works towards the dissolution of imperial epistemologies and institutional structures; and another : postcoloniality : that is more closely tied to the glo$al market, andthat capitalises $oth on the widespread circulation of ideas a$out cultural otherness and on the worldwide trafficking of culturally 'othered' artefacts and goods. %p. 0C).

:'ggan's point perhaps recalls :ar*t an* 6egri's in a *ifferent conte2t: that glo,alisation profits from the -ery things (hich postcolonialism hol*s *ear, namely a regar* for c'lt'ral specificity an* *ifference. :'ggan's sense of mar&et!*ri-en 'postcoloniality', (here strangeness sells, might ,e tho'ght to hol* the 'pper han* to*ay, as '+irst 7orl*' peoples rea* e2otic 4oo&er!(inning paper,ac&s an* -isit foreign climes as chaperone* to'rists in or*er to ha-e an e2otic e2perience (ith scant regar* for the peoples, places an* c'lt'res at sta&e. If this is the case, ho( can the &in*s of cosmopolitanism an* planetary h'manism a*-ocate* ,y Appiah an* Filroy e-er o,tain8 Postcoloniality an* e2oticism may act as a prophylactic to the &in*s of c'lt'ral enco'nters (hich postcolonialism often *eman*s as an ethical imperati-e. :'ggan is caref'l not to gi-e 'p on postcolonialism, ho(e-er, an* he maintains faith in the agency of postcolonial c'lt'ral te2ts to challenge the ne( imperi'm of glo,al mar&ets that characterise postcoloniality. :'ggan arg'es that postcolonial (riters might ,e tho'ght of as ha-ing the agency to inter-ene (ithin the glo,al commo*ifying en*ea-o'rs of contemporary capitalism an* 'se their e2otic an* fashiona,le stat's to engen*er critical, transformati-e tho'ght ,y 'manip'latJingK the e2otic to their o(n en*s' (p. 2#. In other (or*s, ass'mptions a,o't the e2oticism of other c'lt'res can ,e manip'late* an* *eploye* tactically ,y postcolonial (riters in or*er to contest the machinations of postcoloniality -ia a &in* of 'strategic e2oticism' (p. 2# that is conscio'sly chosen (:'ggan's term echoes /pi-a&'s 'strategic essentialism' (hich (e *isc'sse* in %hapter "#. Ai&e other critics, :'ggan *oes not pres'me that complicity al(ays lea*s to compliance. In*ee*, it is perhaps the ?o, of a committe* postcolonial scholar to e2pose ho( s',-ersi-e c'lt'res retain their agency an* transformati-e a,ilities in the mi*st of resi*'al, *ominant an* emergent str'ct'res of ine;'ality an* e2ploitation. Flo,alisation presents ne( challenges to postcolonialism, ,'t e-i*ence s'ggests that it is ,eginning to meet those challenges in important (ays that contin'e to reso'rce critical tho'ght.

1@- -!at are t!e interaction# an t!e &local( in +lo*ali#ation4

conAict# *et2een t!e &+lo*al( an

Flo,alisation scholars ha-e long ,een intereste* in the interaction ,et(een s'ch glo,al flo(s an* their local impact, an* the relationship ,et(een the glo,al an* local is one (hich has partic'lar resonance (ithin postcolonialism. A &ey commentator on glo,alisation is Ar?'n Appa*'rai, (hose (or& offers a n'm,er of important (ays of engaging (ith the c'lt'ral conse;'ences of glo,alisation. In an early an* infl'ential ,oo&, ,odernity at Large! Cultural Dimensions of 6lo1alisation (5ni-ersity of $innesota Press, 199"#, Appa*'rai *escri,es the emerging glo,alise* (orl* as constit'te* ,y a series of *is?'nct'res (hich cannot ,e 'n*erstoo* (ith reco'rse to ol*er centre!periphery mo*els (s'ch as metropolis!colony, for e2ample# or (ith ol*er, sta,le an* more pre*icta,le notions of pro*'ction, cons'mption an* migration. Instea*, he i*entifies fi-e *imensions of glo,alisation that feat're the s'ffi2 '!scape': ethnoscapes, me*iascapes, technoscapes, financescapes an* i*eoscapes. The 'se of '! scape' signifies 'the fl'i*, irreg'lar shapes of these lan*scapes' that are ,est tho'ght of as 'perspecti-al constr'cts, inflecte* ,y the historical, ling'istic, an* political sit'ate*ness of *ifferent sorts of actors: nation!states, m'ltinationals, *iasporic comm'nities, as (ell as s',national gro'pings an* mo-ements ((hether religio's, political or economic#, an* e-en face!to!face gro'ps, s'ch as -illages, neigh,o'rhoo*s an* families' (p. #. 6ote here the emphasis on the essential mallea,ility of these phenomena, en*lessly morphing as the glo,al an* local interact (ith one another in comple2 an* 'npre*icta,le (ays. Appa*'rai 'ses 'ethnoscape' to refer to increasingly mo,ile an* fl'i* gro'ps or comm'nities (hich inha,it the glo,e (s'ch as to'rists, immigrants, ref'gees, e2iles an* g'est (or&ers#. :is term 'technoscape' refers to the ne( technological net(or&s (hich integrate *ifferent locations an* (hich facilitate glo,al flo(s of information at high -elocities, (hile 'financescapes' refers to the str'ct're an* circ'lation of glo,al capital aro'n* the (orl*. '$e*iascapes' refer ',oth to the *istri,'tion of the electronic capa,ilities to pro*'ce an* *isseminate information' (p. 5#, primarily image!,ase*, (hile 'i*eoscapes' refers to the circ'lation of i*eas to *o (ith po(er: free*om, rights, so-ereignty, *emocracy an* other s'ch terms.

1D- E9$lain Ar?un A$$a urai"# conce$t# o% &et!no#ca$e#. me ia#ca$e#. t!ecno#ca$e#. etc'( #u++e#te in one o% !i# *ook# a*out +lo*ali#ation'

Flo,alisation scholars ha-e long ,een intereste* in the interaction ,et(een s'ch glo,al flo(s an* their local impact, an* the relationship ,et(een the glo,al an* local is one (hich has partic'lar resonance (ithin postcolonialism. A &ey commentator on glo,alisation is Ar?'n Appa*'rai, (hose (or& offers a n'm,er of important (ays of engaging (ith the c'lt'ral conse;'ences of glo,alisation. In an early an* infl'ential ,oo&, ,odernity at Large! Cultural Dimensions of 6lo1alisation (5ni-ersity of $innesota Press, 199"#, Appa*'rai *escri,es the emerging glo,alise* (orl* as constit'te* ,y a series of *is?'nct'res (hich cannot ,e 'n*erstoo* (ith reco'rse to ol*er centre!periphery mo*els (s'ch as metropolis!colony, for e2ample# or (ith ol*er, sta,le an* more pre*icta,le notions of pro*'ction, cons'mption an* migration. Instea*, he i*entifies fi-e *imensions of glo,alisation that feat're the s'ffi2 '!scape': ethnoscapes, me*iascapes, technoscapes, financescapes an* i*eoscapes. The 'se of '! scape' signifies 'the fl'i*, irreg'lar shapes of these lan*scapes' that are ,est tho'ght of as 'perspecti-al constr'cts, inflecte* ,y the historical, ling'istic, an* political sit'ate*ness of *ifferent sorts of actors: nation!states, m'ltinationals, *iasporic comm'nities, as (ell as s',national gro'pings an* mo-ements ((hether religio's, political or economic#, an* e-en face!to!face gro'ps, s'ch as -illages, neigh,o'rhoo*s an* families' (p. #. 6ote here the emphasis on the essential mallea,ility of these phenomena, en*lessly morphing as the glo,al an* local interact (ith one another in comple2 an* 'npre*icta,le (ays. Appa*'rai 'ses 'ethnoscape' to refer to increasingly mo,ile an* fl'i* gro'ps or comm'nities (hich inha,it the glo,e (s'ch as to'rists, immigrants, ref'gees, e2iles an* g'est (or&ers#. :is term 'technoscape' refers to the ne( technological net(or&s (hich integrate *ifferent locations an* (hich facilitate glo,al flo(s of information at high -elocities, (hile 'financescapes' refers to the str'ct're an* circ'lation of glo,al capital aro'n* the (orl*. '$e*iascapes' refer ',oth to the *istri,'tion of the electronic capa,ilities to pro*'ce an* *isseminate information' (p. 5#, primarily image!,ase*, (hile 'i*eoscapes' refers to the circ'lation of i*eas to *o (ith po(er: free*om, rights, so-ereignty, *emocracy an* other s'ch terms.

1=- 1o2 can $o#tcolonial t!eor, *e en+a+e $!enomenon o% +lo*ali#ation4

2it! t!e #ocio-!i#torical

It might seem, then, that postcolonialism can play an e2tremely important part in contesting the ne( glo,al imperi'm *'e to the concept'al tools it has at its *isposal. Eet :ar*t an* 6egri cast *o',t on the effecti-eness of postcolonial thin&ing to offer any meaningf'l challenge to the ne( (orl* or*er. mpire contains a short ,'t start criti;'e of postcolonialism in (hich they s'ggest that &ey concepts of postcolonialism act'ally mimic rather than confront the machinations of contemporary glo,alisation. Altho'gh postcolonial theorists ten* to prioritise fragmentary s',?ecti-ities, e-ol-ing forms of ,ecoming an* hy,ri* mo*es of tho'ght an* c'lt'ral pro*'ction, it is claime* that their intellect'al strategies 'that appear to ,e li,eratory (o'l* not challenge ,'t in fact coinci*e (ith an* e-en 'n(ittingly reinforce the ne( strategies of r'leS" ( mpire, :ar-ar* 5ni-ersity Press, 2999, p. 1 O#. This is ,eca'se glo,al capitalism often mo,ilises the fragmentary, hy,ri*, the *ifferent an* fl'i* as part of its machinery (as Appa*'rai's engagement (ith '!scapes' testifie*#. +or :ar* an* 6egri, then, those postcolonial theorists '(ho a*-ocate a politics of *ifference, fl'i*ity an* hy,ri*ity in or*er to challenge the ,inaries an* essentialism of mo*ern so-ereignty ha-e ,een o'tflan&e* ,y the strategies of J0mpire'sK po(er' (p. 1 O# ,eca'se they ha-e not come 'p (ith tools to challenge the glo,alise* present1 rather, their theoretical terms of reference are entirely in t'ne (ith the interests of glo,al capital. +or these reasons, :ar*t an* 6egri arg'e that postcolonialism is an effecti-e criti;'e of the colonial an* *ecolonising past ,'t not the glo,al present: 'postcolonial theory Jmay ,eK a -ery pro*'cti-e tool for rerea*ing history, ,'t it is entirely ins'fficient for theoriMing contemporary glo,al po(er' (p. 1L"#. Gr in other (or*s, postcolonialism offers an effecti-e (ay of criti;'ing the (orl* characterise* ,y mo*ern so-ereignty, a&in to the -erte,rate mo*el of international or*er of (hich Appa*'rai spo&e. 4't it offers no effecti-e (ay of criti;'ing or challenging the more cell'lar con*ition of the ne( imperial so-ereignty of 0mpire, ,eca'se its -oca,'laries an* &ey concepts offer no meaningf'l alternati-e to the metho*s an* *esign of 0mpire. In this -ie(, then, postcolonialism has ,een ren*ere* ,an&r'pt ,y glo,alisation.

The engagement (ith glo,alisation in postcolonial st'*ies has ten*e* to ta&e at least three paths. +irst, some critics ha-e conteste* the claims ma*e ,y the li&es of :ar*t an* 6egri, especially their arg'ment that the mo*ern so-ereignty epitomise* ,y the nation!state has (ane* so spectac'larly an* the har*!(on free*oms of once! colonise* peoples ha-e ,een effecti-ely era*icate* in a ne( imperi'm (see, for e2ample, 4enita Parry, Postcolonial Studies! A ,aterialist Criti0ue, No'tle*ge, 299L, pp. 9 !19 #. /econ*, others ha-e calle* for an* attempte* to theorise ne( *emocratic forms of politics, *issi*ence an* ethics that are re;'ire* in a glo,alise* (orl* (here c'lt'res are interacting more an* more an* (here the e2perience of c'lt'ral *ifference > in the me*ia, at (or&, on the street, on the mo-e > is ,ecoming the norm an* not the no-elty of e-ery*ay life. A ne( glo,alise* (orl* re;'ires ne( (ays of thin&ing an* acting ethically. :o( can (e li-e together as part of a glo,al comm'nity (itho't necessarily s'pporting e2ploitation, an* ho( can (e act ethically an* responsi,ly in a (orl* (here *ifferent peoples ha-e mar&e*ly *ifferent -ie(s on ho( to li-e8 /ome of this (or& has ta&en place in the name of 'cosmopolitamism', a term that (as pre-io'sly 'se* pe?orati-ely to ,ear (itness to an elite class of the affl'ent an* internationally mo,ile ,'t is more an* more coming to name an ethical sit'ation in (hich, as P(ame Anthony Appiah s'ggests, (e ac&no(le*ge ,oth o'r general o,ligation to others 'nli&e o'rsel-es an* recognise the legitimacy of specific people's *ifferences. As Appiah conten*s, 'there (ill ,e times (hen these t(o i*eals > 'ni-ersal concern an* respect for legitimate *ifference > clash. There's a sense in (hich cosmopolitanism is the name not of the sol'tion ,'t of the challenge' (Cosmopolitanism! thics in a +orld of Strangers, Peng'in, 299", p. 2-iii#. Pa'l Filroy has also (ritten a,o't the nee* for a -ernac'lar form of cosmopolitanism (hich 'fin*s ci-ic an* ethical -al'e in the process of e2pos're to otherness. It glorifies in the or*inary -irt'es an* ironies > listening, loo&ing, *iscretion, frien*ship > that can ,e c'lti-ate* (hen m'n*ane enco'nters (ith *ifference ,ecome re(ar*ing' (After mpire! ,elancholia or Convivial Culture4 No'tle*ge, 299L, p. <5#. In e2periencing .forms of c'lt'ral e2perience ,eyon* one's imme*iate p'r-ie(, it ,ecomes m'ch har*er to thin& in a parochial or 'nethical fashion a,o't the li-es of others. /'ch i*eas ha-e le* Filroy to tal& of the nee* for a ne( form of planetary conscio'sness or 'planetary h'manism' (8etween Camps! #ations" Cultures and the Allure of )ace, Allen Aane, 2999, p. 5"# (hich gro'n*s a ne( ethics an* politics fit for the present an* (hich ta&es 's ,eyon* the encampe* an* entrenche* politics ,ase* on mo*ern concepts of race an* nation.

A thir* postcolonial response to glo,alisation has foc'se* on the relationships ,et(een postcolonial c'lt'ral en*ea-o'rs an* the glo,alise* mar&ets in (hich many postcolonial (riters in partic'lar ha-e prospere*. It has often ,een remar&e* 'pon that since /alman N'sh*ie's no-el ,idnight2s Children (19O1# (on that year's 4oo&er PriMe for fiction > one of 4ritain's most prestigio's literary a(ar*s > at the time of (riting the $an 4oo&er PriMe (as it is no( calle*# has ,een (on ,y a postcolonial (riter no less than thirteen times in t(enty!se-en years. This might mean that postcolonial (riting is effecti-ely transforming ho( certain rea*ers 'n*erstan* an* interact (ith the (orl* in in*'cting them into *ifferent c'lt'ral horiMons an* e2periences. Gr it might mean something else entirely: namely, that postcolonial literat're has ,ecome a ,ran*. Postcolonial literat're these *ays might ,e c'lt'rally -isi,le an* pop'lar, ,'t (ho is rea*ing these te2ts, an* (hy8 As No,ert +raser has pointe* o't, (hile the (or& of the t(ice!4oo&er (inner B.$. %oetMee seems to attract attention in '+irst 7orl*' co'ntries an* is pop'lar in this nati-e /o'th Africa, 'north of the =am,eMi it is har*ly &no(n' (8oo. -istory Through Postcolonial yes, No'tle*ge, 299O, p 1O"#. Is postcolonial literat're as it is 'n*erstoo* in the 7est act'ally rea* in postcolonial locations8 $ight this matter8 +'rthermore, (hat are '+irst 7orl*' rea*ers ma&ing of the postcolonial te2ts that ha-e pro-en so pop'lar an* s'ch ,ig money!spinners for certain p',lishing ho'ses8 Is it ,eca'se they in-ite rea*ers into (orl*s (hich they en?oy rea*ing a,o't simply ,eca'se they appear e2otic, safely sanitise* ,y the con-ersion of *ifference into am'sing *istraction8 Are colonialist ha,its of tho'ghts really changing8 These &in*s of ;'estions ha-e ,een e2plore* ,y Fraham :'ggan in his infl'ential st'*y The Postcolonial xotic! ,ar.eting the ,argins (No'tle*ge, 2991#, in (hich he e2plores the pop'larity of postcolonial st'*ies an* postcolonial c'lt'ral te2ts (ithin the conte2t of glo,al mar&ets, pointing o't that c'lt'ral *ifference is often a highly salea,le commo*ity an* ,ig ,'siness. In percei-ing of c'lt'ral o,?ects as e2otic an* commo*ifying then as s'ch for cheerf'l glo,al cons'mption, strategies of mar&eting effecti-ely ne'tralise their *isr'pti-e potential an* seiMe 'pon their c'lt'ral marginality as a 'ni;'e selling point. The res'lt is (hat :'ggan calls the postcolonial e2otic, (here the *issi*ent potential of postcolonial e2otic, (here the *issi*ent potential of postcolonial c'lt'res comes into conflict (ith glo,al mar&ets (hich see& to t'rn postcolonial te2ts into ,lan*, apolitical ciphers of c'lt'ral *i-ersity for their o(n financial gain:
The postcolonial e+otic, # have $een suggesting, occupies a site of discursive conflict $etween a local assem$lage of more or less related oppositional practices and a glo$al apparatus of assimilative A commercial codes. Bore specifically, it marks the intersection $etween contending regimes of value? one regime : postcolonialism : that posits itself as anti-colonial, and that works towards the dissolution of imperial epistemologies and institutional structures; and another : postcoloniality : that is more closely tied to the glo$al market, andthat capitalises $oth on the widespread circulation of ideas a$out cultural otherness and on the worldwide trafficking of culturally 'othered' artefacts and goods. %p. 0C).

:'ggan's point perhaps recalls :ar*t an* 6egri's in a *ifferent conte2t: that glo,alisation profits from the -ery things (hich postcolonialism hol*s *ear, namely a regar* for c'lt'ral specificity an* *ifference. :'ggan's sense of mar&et!*ri-en 'postcoloniality', (here strangeness sells, might ,e tho'ght to hol* the 'pper han* to*ay, as '+irst 7orl*' peoples rea* e2otic 4oo&er!(inning paper,ac&s an* -isit foreign climes as chaperone* to'rists in or*er to ha-e an e2otic e2perience (ith scant regar* for the peoples, places an* c'lt'res at sta&e. If this is the case, ho( can the &in*s of cosmopolitanism an* planetary h'manism a*-ocate* ,y Appiah an* Filroy e-er o,tain8 Postcoloniality an* e2oticism may act as a prophylactic to the &in*s of c'lt'ral enco'nters (hich postcolonialism often *eman*s as an ethical imperati-e. :'ggan is caref'l not to gi-e 'p on postcolonialism, ho(e-er, an* he maintains faith in the agency of postcolonial c'lt'ral te2ts to challenge the ne( imperi'm of glo,al mar&ets that characterise postcoloniality. :'ggan arg'es that postcolonial (riters might ,e tho'ght of as ha-ing the agency to inter-ene (ithin the glo,al commo*ifying en*ea-o'rs of contemporary capitalism an* 'se their e2otic an* fashiona,le stat's to engen*er critical, transformati-e tho'ght ,y 'manip'latJingK the e2otic to their o(n en*s' (p. 2#. In other (or*s, ass'mptions a,o't the e2oticism of other c'lt'res can ,e manip'late* an* *eploye* tactically ,y postcolonial (riters in or*er to contest the machinations of postcoloniality -ia a &in* of 'strategic e2oticism' (p. 2# that is conscio'sly chosen (:'ggan's term echoes /pi-a&'s 'strategic essentialism' (hich (e *isc'sse* in %hapter "#. Ai&e other critics, :'ggan *oes not pres'me that complicity al(ays lea*s to compliance. In*ee*, it is perhaps the ?o, of a committe* postcolonial scholar to e2pose ho( s',-ersi-e c'lt'res retain their agency an* transformati-e a,ilities in the mi*st of resi*'al, *ominant an* emergent str'ct'res of ine;'ality an* e2ploitation. Flo,alisation presents ne( challenges to postcolonialism, ,'t e-i*ence s'ggests that it is ,eginning to meet those challenges in important (ays that contin'e to reso'rce critical tho'ght.

STUD/ ,UIDE ,LORIA AN0ALDUA 12ORDERLANDS3LA 4RONTERA5 )loria 2. An*ald+a $FGB@#@AAB& was an acclaimed Chicana writer' poet' philosopher' and essayist. -he re%olutioni*ed the field of Chicana studies' cultural studies' Hueer studies and American studies by gi%ing %oice through her wor( to the li%es and conditions of Chicanas in the United -tates. -he was born in the ?io )rande Ialley and li%ed in the Me ican#6e as border. An*ald+a $a .asque last name inherited from -panish coloni*ers& suJered from a hormonal imbalance that made her sensiti%e to physical disability and female se uality from early childhood3 she died une pectedly of a diabetes complication. 6hroughout her life she became an independent scholar' school teacher' and creati%e writing professor. An*ald+a co#edited the groundbrea(ing %olume 6his .ridge Called My .ac(9 4ritings by ?adical 4omen of Color $FG8F& with Cherrie Moraga' a first anthology of 6hird 4orld women writers in the U-. -he also published childrenKs boo(s and numerous poems. Eer most well# (nown wor( is .orderlands5La 7rontera9 6he ,ew Mesti*a $FG8L& where she mi es literary genres to e press a new %ision of cultural identity based on hybridity' fragmentation and rebirth mainly related to her e perience of being a Chicana and a lesbian. 1t is probably one of the first wor(s to study the double coloni*ation of Chicanas as a subordinated ethnic group in the United -tates $culturally coloni*ed& and as oppressed women by white society and Chicano se ist and patriarchal culture. 6he wor( is postcolonial in that it un%eils the cultural coloni*ation of Chicanos5as in their own land by American imperialism' and also because it celebrates in %isionary terms the strength deri%ed from being placed in between two cultures. .orderlands5La 7rontera is diMcult to classify' being a memoir' a fictional wor(' historical essay' and including a long section de%oted to poetry3 it is also a philosophical wor( that presents new terms with which to describe self identity and world understanding' such as9 !borderlands identity'" !mesti*a consciousness'" !2l Mundo 0urdo'" !neplanta'" !the Coatlicue state." Nn the whole' it constitutes a hybrid wor( that mi es spirituality and postmodern thought' as well as interlingualism' using -panish' 2nglish and ,ahuatl in order to unsettle the reader. A glossary of the terms coined by An*ald+aKs cultural theory and thought' and a re%iew of the scope of the impact of her wor( internationally in Cultural studies' -e uality and Hueer studies' American studies' and recently' :isabilities studies' are found in 6he )loria An*ald+a ?eader' edited by Ana Louise Oeating $@AAG&.

TE6T COMMENTAR/ 9C )PT $ 6he actual physical borderland that 1Km dealing with in this boo( is the 6e as# U.- -outhwest5Me ican border. 6he psychological borderlands' the se ual borderlands and the spiritual borderlands are not particular to the -outhwest. 1n fact' the .orderlands are physically present where%er two or more cultures edge each other' where people of diJerent races occupy the same territory' where under' lower' middle and upper classes touch' where the space between two indi%iduals shrin(s with intimacy. 1 am a border woman. 1 grew up between two cultures' the Me ican $with a hea%y 1ndian inPuence& and the Anglo $as a member of a coloni*ed peopled in our own territory&. 1 ha%e been straddling that te/as#Me ican border' and others' all my life. 1tKs not comfortable territory to li%e in this place of contradictions.Eatred' anger and e ploitation are the prominent features of this landscape. $p. FG&

1' Rea t!e e9tract# an #ummariGe t!e main i ea# %oun in t!em' Floria AnMal*Ta, the a'thor of this ,oo&, is attempting to *efine the U6e( $estiMaV thro'gho't its contents an* *oes so ,y e2amining her self, her lan*, an* her lang'age. The *ictionary *efinition of a mestiMa is Ua J(omanK of mi2e* parentage, esp the offspring of a /panish American an* an American In*ianV. The U,or*erlan*sV she is a *escen*ant of are the familiar ,or*erlan*s ,et(een $e2ico an* the 5nite* /tates, specifically Te2as. :o(e-er, this is simply the tangi,le ,or*erlan* that she *isc'sses. The important co'nterpart to these physical ,or*erlan*s that she a**resses thro'gho't this ,oo& are UJtKhe psychological ,or*erlan*s, the se2'al ,or*erlan*s, an* the spirit'al ,or*erlan*s JthatK are not partic'lar to the /o'th(est.V (preface#. )' -!at i# t!e i3erence *et2een &*or er#( an #u++e#te *, AnGal Ha4 &Eor er#( &*or erlan #.( a#

Intro uction

1n the preface to the .orderlands )loria An*ald+a states9 !1 am a border woman" $An*ald+a' FG8L&. Although such declaration may seem simple at first glance3 to be sure' this standpoint entails a parta(ing in the social and cultural production of personal identity' since she is the one deciding what name she wants to be called. :efining herself as a border woman' implies that An*ald+a has decided to reside in a place of ambiguity where to be either with us or against us is no longer her predicament' where the command to choose a side and to compromise her loyalty to a group is already re/ected. Eowe%er' this declaration is also political inasmuch as it refuses to assert a blind' unquestioned adherence to the figure of the state and its institutions. 7urthermore' it implies that she has made a conscious decision not only on where to base her struggle but it also implies that she has already %isuali*ed what (ind of struggle needs to be fought and against whom it is to be directed. .eing a border woman also implies seeing the borders as e%er changing spaces that are not restricted to host power relations' but as also incorporating pro/ects of resistance and liberation. 6his feature of border spaces ma(es their study appealing since borders as social' geographical and political constructions can be shaped and reshaped according to the multiple inPuences from those who are related to them. 1n this conte t' borders in the contemporary world' are better described by both their contrasts and contradictions' their permissi%eness and restrictions' their control and disorder' their peace and %iolence' their /ustice and in/ustices and so on' but more than that' contemporary borders are characteri*ed by the dynamism that contributes enormously to the production of all (inds of (nowledge. According to )eorg -immel' !the border is not a spatial fact with a sociological impact' but a sociological fact that shapes spatiality" $)eorg -immel FGG@9 DGL' as quoted in :ittgen' FGGG9 FDL&.

1n this study' 1 see( to contribute to a better understanding of )loria An*ald+aKs notion of the borderlands in both its geographical and ideological dimensions. Eowe%er' for the purpose of this study it must be understood that the geographical borderlands is to be associated with the U-#Me ico borderlands $An*ald+a writes geographical borders with small b&' while the ideological dimension of the term is not associated with any particular cartographic space $ideological .orderlands is written with capital .&F but rather they can e ist e%erywhere. 1n addition to this clarification' another remar( is necessary gi%en that the wor( of )loria An*ald+a has inPuenced many important fields in the academy. 1n this regard' the name of )loria An*ald+a is mainly associated with academic disciplines such as feminism' Chicana5o studies' or queer theory as e pressed by Ana Louise Oeating who sees An*ald+a as representati%e of !American studies' Chicano5a studies' composition studies' cultural studies' ethnic studies' feminism' literary studies' critical pedagogy' womenKs studies' and queer theory" $Oeating' @AA59 C&. -imilarly' -onia -aldQ%ar#Eull e plains that .orderlands !continues to be studied and included on class syllabi in courses on feminist theory' contemporary American women writers' autobiography' Chicana5o and Latina5o literature' cultural studies' and e%en ma/or American authors" $-aldQ%ar#Eull' @AAL&. -ince the wor( of An*ald+a has been mainly approached from the feminist' queer' and nationalist $Chicano& prominent scholars'C the present study is engaged from political and postcolonial standpoints gi%en that it is in these disciplines where the wor( of An*ald+a has little representation. 6his study thus addresses An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory 5 as a pro/ect of resistance formulated as a set of processes aimed to guide the inner self of a coloni*ed person in its struggle to achie%e decoloni*ation and liberation. -imilarly' the study addresses the historical e%ents that informed the social production of .orders both in its uni%ersal and local conte ts as a way of establishing a bac(ground that allows us to identify the relations of domination that the .orderlands theory see(s to o%ercome. 7urthermore' this study interrogates the scope of the .orderlands theory from a political perspecti%e. 1n this logic' this thesis is structured in fi%e chapters dedicated to assess the colonial' spatial' ideological' and political perspecti%es of the .5borderlands. Accordingly' the first chapter contains a discussion of the colonial conte t that produced the concept of borders as boundaries of nation#states that ser%ed mainly as the mechanisms that created diJerence and e clusion. Eere 1 situate the concept of borders within the conte t of the disco%ery of the new world and subsequent coloni*ation of Me ico gi%en that the framewor( guiding this study is postcolonial theory. 6he second chapter consists of a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. A discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important insofar as it situates the present study in the specific historical and spatial conte t that informed the production of An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory. 6he third chapter depicts a map of the processes that shape An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory and e plains it in more detail' e amining what elements are integrated into the theory' and how they are related to one another. 1t should be specified that this chapter is more concerned in pro%iding a general picture of the theory than in interpreting its possibilities. 6he fourth chapter addresses the political implications of the .orderlands theory and interrogates its scope from a political perspecti%e. 6he discussion in this chapter /u taposes An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory to Eannah ArendtKs %iew of political freedom.

7inally' in chapter fi%e 1 conclude by gi%ing a brief o%er%iew of this study and rePecting about the possibilities for future research. Ea%ing introduced the thesisK organi*ation let us rePect about one of the main goals that inform the .orderlands theory' namely' the notion of change.

&Eor erlan #( 6his chapter pro%ides a selecti%e o%er%iew of the borderlands scholarship. More specifically' this section is constructed as a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete *one of borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. Although 1 would li(e to treat this section as a general o%er%iew of the borderlands' the spatial constraints of this chapter force me to draw certain limits in terms of what needs to be presented. 1n this regard' 1 will focus on re%iewing the borderlands literature that allows me to frame and produce criteria for my study. 1 decided to proceed in this way in the understanding that a full diagnosis of the concept of the borderlandsFC is not what this chapter stands for. ?ather' my interest is to build a conte t for the following chapters in which the .orderlands as a theory will ha%e particular focus. Eowe%er' ha%ing a discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important because it situates the present study in a specific historical and spatial conte t' which 1 argue informed the production of the .orderlands theory as an emancipatory and resistance pro/ect. Accordingly' the significance of this chapter rests in that it directly intersects the geographical borderlands with the ideology ad%anced by this term. 6he concepts of border and borderlands may be defined in geographical terms but' increasingly' its significance has been growing to encompass additional ideas that contain symbolic meanings. 1n consequence' the terms border and borderlands ha%e gained resonance in se%eral disciplines and sub disciplines' as diJerent authors ha%e noticed. Among them' <aul Outsche writes in his .orders and 7rontiers piece' !6he term borderland is ambiguous enough to encompass both boundaries and frontiers. 6his lac( of precision is con%enient' since borderland scholars are some times concerned with one and some times with other Rand' 1 would add' some times with both as in the case of the present studyS" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. Outsche e plains that the notion of boundaries is associated with the rise of ideas regarding the concept !of nation#state in modern 2urope' pertaining to the political and administrati%e so%ereignties /u taposed along an arbitrary but formally demar(ed line." 1n turn' frontier is an older term used to denote a *one of inPuence. According to this logic' !boundaries are precise while the width of frontiers is indefinite" $Outsche quoted in -toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. 1 want to call attention to this distinction' since the case that occupies us in this chapter is representati%e of both %iews. Nn the one hand' the Me ico# U.-. borderlands are constituted by the boundary that mar(s the limits of these two nations' and on the other' these borderlands e plain in part the inPuence of United -tates.

7ollowing this introduction' this chapter starts out with a discussion about the concept of borderlands in its historical and spatial conte t. My goal in this section is to trace the origin of the spatial composition of the borderlands through the wor( of a select number of historians who ma(e significant contributions to the establishment of what is meant by this term. ,e t' 1 briePy e plain some of the characteristics of the Me ican#Americans5Chicano FB groups associated with the -panish .orderlandsF5 and discuss current social dynamics in this area' using )loria An*ald+a as a way of establishing a conte t for the following chapter. 1 conclude by addressing some of the political implications de%ised from the geographical borderlands. 6his section is guided by the argument that An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory is a direct product of both historical and contemporary discriminatory practices aJecting minority groups along the U.-.#Me ico border such as the -panish origin population' ,ati%e# Americans' or blac(s. 1t is important to (eep in mind that the concept of borderlands has been the ob/ect of considerable scholarly rePection since it first appeared in print' to the e tent that its possibilities of e planation are numerous. 7or that reason' 1 wish to recall 2llwyn ?. -toddard words in the o%er%iew to the .orderlands -ourceboo(. 6here' he cautions us about the fact that !the U.-.# Me ico border region is not a single borderland but rather a composite of many. 4hat constitutes the entity %aries among diJerent academic disciplines' among the diJerent ethnic groups occupying the territory' and according to the perceptions and the eras of the people defining it" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 B&. Eence' with this premise as a point of departure' this chapter is mostly concerned with the geographical conte t of the borderlands %iewed from a national perspecti%e.

7' T!ink a*out t!e u#e o% *ilin+uali#m in t!e te9t' 1o2 oe# it make t!e rea er %eel4 -!at i# it# $ur$o#e4 4hile reading.orderlands' unless the reader is multi#lingual' you find some frustration while reading it. 6his frustration comes from the language not being 2nglish' and not being -panish' but an amalgamation of both. 6his frustration is ironic because An*ald+a describes this frustration felt ha%ing a confused language' and identity herself. 6his boo( is more powerful and real with the !-panglish" language and would not be the boo( it is and the boo( it is trying to be without it. 6he boo( is written in a way that it becomes an e tension of the author rather than /ust something the author has produced. 1t feels that way from the beginning and continues to the end. An*aludaKs multilingual methodology in%o(es what Mignolo calls !border thin(ing'" which embodies a double consciousness and employing multi# languaging to thin( from the border and oJer a new epistemology. As An*aldua describes it' border thin(ing creates a new mythos8!a change in the way we percei%e reality' the way we see oursel%es' and the ways we beha%e" $FA@&. 1n essence' from the border' An*aldua is creating another culture altogether' ! a new story to e plain the world and our participation in it' a new %alue system with images and symbols that connect us to each other and to the planet" $FAC&. 6he first step in !the Mesti*a way" is ta(ing in%entory of our own sel%es that ha%e been constructed by traceless historical processes. 6hen' we must put history !though a sie%e' winnow out the lies' loo(s at the forces that we as a race' as women' ha%e been part of" $FAB&. 6his process causes !conscious ruptures with all oppressi%e traditions of all cultures and religions. -he RthenS communicates that rupture' documents the struggle' and reinterprets history' and using new symbols' she shapes new myths" $FAB&. :econstruct in order to constructT

Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. :' -!at are t!e main c!aracteri#tic# o% t!e &ne2 me#tiGa con#ciou#ne##(4 As -onia -aldi%ar#Eull writes in the introduction to La Frontera, An*alduaKs reco%ery pro/ect !leads to the political' feminist' social awareness An*aldua calls ,ew Mesti*a Consiousness" $8&. As An*aldua e plains it' this consciousness entails a !shift out of habitual formations9 form con%ergent thn(ing' analytical reasoning that tends to use rationality to mo%e toward a single goal $a 4estern mode&' to di%ergent thin(ing' characteri*ed by mo%ement away from set patterns and goals toward a more whole perspecti%e' on ethat includes rather than e cludes" $FAF&. 5' Conte9tualiGe AnGal Ha"# t!eor, o% t!e Eor erlan # 2it!in $o#tcolonial i#cour#e' Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. In attempt to e2plain the psyche of those on the ,or*er, AnMal*'a e2plains that many on the ,or*er *e-elop la facultad>Uthe capacity to see in s'rface phenomena the meaning of *eeper realities to see the *eep str'ct're ,elo( the s'rface. It is an instant Usensing,V a ;'ic& perception arri-e* at (itho't conscio's reasoning. It is an ac'te a(areness me*iate* ,y the part of the psyche that *oes not spea&, that comm'nicates in images an* sym,ols (hich are the faces of feelings, that is ,ehin* (hich feelings resi*e.hi*eV ("9#.

EXCERPT 2 .orders are set up to define the places that are safe and unsafe' to distinguish us from them. A border is a di%iding line' a narrow strip along a steep edge. A borderland is a %ague and undetermined place created by the emotional residue of an unnatural boundary. 1t is in a constant state of transition. 6he prohibited and forbidden are its inhabitants. Los atra%esados li%e here9 the squint#eyed' the per%erse' the queer' the troublesome' the mongrel' the mulato' the half#breed' the half dead3 in short' those who cross o%er' pass o%er' or go through the confines of the !normal." )ringos in the U.-. -outhwest consider the inhabitants of the borderlands transgressors' aliens8 whether they possess documents or not' whether they are Chicanos' 1ndians or .lac(s. $p. @5&

1' Rea

t!e e9tract# an

#ummariGe t!e main i ea# %oun

in t!em'

T!e 1omelan . AGtian El otro MI9ico

1n the first chapter of .orderlands' >6he Eomeland' A*tlan'> )loria An*aldua traces the history of her people. Collecti%e and indi%idual aspects of se ual and racial oppression are e plored. As a Chicana' An*aldua is denied identity' power and land. -he describes the migration path of her A*tec 1ndian ancestors from the ,orthern United -tates to the present day -outhwest United -tates' then Central Me ico' and following this' their return to the U.-. -outhwest. -he e plains her childhood memories as a member of this history and shares the identity she has found while li%ing in two cultures. AnMal*'a thin&s that (e sho'l* em,race e-ery part of o'r heritage. Thro'gh a process, (hich she mo*els, e2amining o'r heritage an* reconstr'cting it, (e can *efine o'rsel-es on o'r o(n terms. AnMal*'a tells this history ,eca'se it is largely ignore* in the 5./. American c'lt're. I thin& it is an e2tremely *iffic'lt an* heart aching ?o'rney, (hich 'ltimately re-eals a past that still e2ists in the *ar&. :o(e-er, AnMal*'a ha* no choice ,'t to li,erate herself from silence ,y telling her story. AnMal*'a str'ct'res the paragraphs in this chapter (ith the hea*ings, 'The other $e2ico', 'The lost lan*,' an* 'Illegal crossing.' 0ach of these ,egins (ith a poem in /panish that *escri,es the iss'e she is going to *eal (ith in the follo(ing passage. These *eal (ith the ,or*erlan*s an* AMtlan, stolen lan*, an* force* illegal ,or*er crossing, respecti-ely. 5n*er the last hea*ing she 'n*erlines t(o s',!hea*ings, the crisis, an* the tra-esia. These s'm 'p the a'thorDs message a,o't the ,or*er. /he feels the $e2icans ha-e no alternati-es ,'t to cross illegally ,eca'se $e2ico *epen*ency on the 5./. ca'ses the peso to *ecline an* $e2icans to come north for employment. /he insists that the rea*er recogniMe that there has al(ays ,een a *epen*ency ,et(een 6orth an* /o'th America.

)' -!at i# t!e i3erence *et2een &*or er#( an #u++e#te *, AnGal Ha4 &Eor er#(

&*or erlan #.( a#

Intro uction

1n the preface to the .orderlands )loria An*ald+a states9 !1 am a border woman" $An*ald+a' FG8L&. Although such declaration may seem simple at first glance3 to be sure' this standpoint entails a parta(ing in the social and cultural production of personal identity' since she is the one deciding what name she wants to be called. :efining herself as a border woman' implies that An*ald+a has decided to reside in a place of ambiguity where to be either with us or against us is no longer her predicament' where the command to choose a side and to compromise her loyalty to a group is already re/ected. Eowe%er' this declaration is also political inasmuch as it refuses to assert a blind' unquestioned adherence to the figure of the state and its institutions. 7urthermore' it implies that she has made a conscious decision not only on where to base her struggle but it also implies that she has already %isuali*ed what (ind of struggle needs to be fought and against whom it is to be directed. .eing a border woman also implies seeing the borders as e%er changing spaces that are not restricted to host power relations' but as also incorporating pro/ects of resistance and liberation. 6his feature of border spaces ma(es their study appealing since borders as social' geographical and political constructions can be shaped and reshaped according to the multiple inPuences from those who are related to them. 1n this conte t' borders in the contemporary world' are better described by both their contrasts and contradictions' their permissi%eness and restrictions' their control and disorder' their peace and %iolence' their /ustice and in/ustices and so on' but more than that' contemporary borders are characteri*ed by the dynamism that contributes enormously to the production of all (inds of (nowledge. According to )eorg -immel' !the border is not a spatial fact with a sociological impact' but a sociological fact that shapes spatiality" $)eorg -immel FGG@9 DGL' as quoted in :ittgen' FGGG9 FDL&.

1n this study' 1 see( to contribute to a better understanding of )loria An*ald+aKs notion of the borderlands in both its geographical and ideological dimensions. Eowe%er' for the purpose of this study it must be understood that the geographical borderlands is to be associated with the U-#Me ico borderlands $An*ald+a writes geographical borders with small b&' while the ideological dimension of the term is not associated with any particular cartographic space $ideological .orderlands is written with capital .&F but rather they can e ist e%erywhere. 1n addition to this clarification' another remar( is necessary gi%en that the wor( of )loria An*ald+a has inPuenced many important fields in the academy. 1n this regard' the name of )loria An*ald+a is mainly associated with academic disciplines such as feminism' Chicana5o studies' or queer theory as e pressed by Ana Louise Oeating who sees An*ald+a as representati%e of !American studies' Chicano5a studies' composition studies' cultural studies' ethnic studies' feminism' literary studies' critical pedagogy' womenKs studies' and queer theory" $Oeating' @AA59 C&. -imilarly' -onia -aldQ%ar#Eull e plains that .orderlands !continues to be studied and included on class syllabi in courses on feminist theory' contemporary American women writers' autobiography' Chicana5o and Latina5o literature' cultural studies' and e%en ma/or American authors" $-aldQ%ar#Eull' @AAL&. -ince the wor( of An*ald+a has been mainly approached from the feminist' queer' and nationalist $Chicano& prominent scholars'C the present study is engaged from political and postcolonial standpoints gi%en that it is in these disciplines where the wor( of An*ald+a has little representation. 6his study thus addresses An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory 5 as a pro/ect of resistance formulated as a set of processes aimed to guide the inner self of a coloni*ed person in its struggle to achie%e decoloni*ation and liberation. -imilarly' the study addresses the historical e%ents that informed the social production of .orders both in its uni%ersal and local conte ts as a way of establishing a bac(ground that allows us to identify the relations of domination that the .orderlands theory see(s to o%ercome. 7urthermore' this study interrogates the scope of the .orderlands theory from a political perspecti%e. 1n this logic' this thesis is structured in fi%e chapters dedicated to assess the colonial' spatial' ideological' and political perspecti%es of the .5borderlands. Accordingly' the first chapter contains a discussion of the colonial conte t that produced the concept of borders as boundaries of nation#states that ser%ed mainly as the mechanisms that created diJerence and e clusion. Eere 1 situate the concept of borders within the conte t of the disco%ery of the new world and subsequent coloni*ation of Me ico gi%en that the framewor( guiding this study is postcolonial theory. 6he second chapter consists of a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. A discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important insofar as it situates the present study in the specific historical and spatial conte t that informed the production of An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory. 6he third chapter depicts a map of the processes that shape An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory and e plains it in more detail' e amining what elements are integrated into the theory' and how they are related to one another. 1t should be specified that this chapter is more concerned in pro%iding a general picture of the theory than in interpreting its possibilities. 6he fourth chapter addresses the political implications of the .orderlands theory and interrogates its scope from a political perspecti%e. 6he discussion in this chapter /u taposes An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory to Eannah ArendtKs %iew of political freedom.

7inally' in chapter fi%e 1 conclude by gi%ing a brief o%er%iew of this study and rePecting about the possibilities for future research. Ea%ing introduced the thesisK organi*ation let us rePect about one of the main goals that inform the .orderlands theory' namely' the notion of change.

&Eor erlan #( 6his chapter pro%ides a selecti%e o%er%iew of the borderlands scholarship. More specifically' this section is constructed as a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete *one of borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. Although 1 would li(e to treat this section as a general o%er%iew of the borderlands' the spatial constraints of this chapter force me to draw certain limits in terms of what needs to be presented. 1n this regard' 1 will focus on re%iewing the borderlands literature that allows me to frame and produce criteria for my study. 1 decided to proceed in this way in the understanding that a full diagnosis of the concept of the borderlandsFC is not what this chapter stands for. ?ather' my interest is to build a conte t for the following chapters in which the .orderlands as a theory will ha%e particular focus. Eowe%er' ha%ing a discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important because it situates the present study in a specific historical and spatial conte t' which 1 argue informed the production of the .orderlands theory as an emancipatory and resistance pro/ect. Accordingly' the significance of this chapter rests in that it directly intersects the geographical borderlands with the ideology ad%anced by this term. 6he concepts of border and borderlands may be defined in geographical terms but' increasingly' its significance has been growing to encompass additional ideas that contain symbolic meanings. 1n consequence' the terms border and borderlands ha%e gained resonance in se%eral disciplines and sub disciplines' as diJerent authors ha%e noticed. Among them' <aul Outsche writes in his .orders and 7rontiers piece' !6he term borderland is ambiguous enough to encompass both boundaries and frontiers. 6his lac( of precision is con%enient' since borderland scholars are some times concerned with one and some times with other Rand' 1 would add' some times with both as in the case of the present studyS" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. Outsche e plains that the notion of boundaries is associated with the rise of ideas regarding the concept !of nation#state in modern 2urope' pertaining to the political and administrati%e so%ereignties /u taposed along an arbitrary but formally demar(ed line." 1n turn' frontier is an older term used to denote a *one of inPuence. According to this logic' !boundaries are precise while the width of frontiers is indefinite" $Outsche quoted in -toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. 1 want to call attention to this distinction' since the case that occupies us in this chapter is representati%e of both %iews. Nn the one hand' the Me ico# U.-. borderlands are constituted by the boundary that mar(s the limits of these two nations' and on the other' these borderlands e plain in part the inPuence of United -tates.

7ollowing this introduction' this chapter starts out with a discussion about the concept of borderlands in its historical and spatial conte t. My goal in this section is to trace the origin of the spatial composition of the borderlands through the wor( of a select number of historians who ma(e significant contributions to the establishment of what is meant by this term. ,e t' 1 briePy e plain some of the characteristics of the Me ican#Americans5Chicano FB groups associated with the -panish .orderlandsF5 and discuss current social dynamics in this area' using )loria An*ald+a as a way of establishing a conte t for the following chapter. 1 conclude by addressing some of the political implications de%ised from the geographical borderlands. 6his section is guided by the argument that An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory is a direct product of both historical and contemporary discriminatory practices aJecting minority groups along the U.-.#Me ico border such as the -panish origin population' ,ati%e# Americans' or blac(s. 1t is important to (eep in mind that the concept of borderlands has been the ob/ect of considerable scholarly rePection since it first appeared in print' to the e tent that its possibilities of e planation are numerous. 7or that reason' 1 wish to recall 2llwyn ?. -toddard words in the o%er%iew to the .orderlands -ourceboo(. 6here' he cautions us about the fact that !the U.-.# Me ico border region is not a single borderland but rather a composite of many. 4hat constitutes the entity %aries among diJerent academic disciplines' among the diJerent ethnic groups occupying the territory' and according to the perceptions and the eras of the people defining it" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 B&. Eence' with this premise as a point of departure' this chapter is mostly concerned with the geographical conte t of the borderlands %iewed from a national perspecti%e.

7' T!ink a*out t!e u#e o% *ilin+uali#m in t!e te9t' 1o2 oe# it make t!e rea er %eel4 -!at i# it# $ur$o#e4 4hile reading.orderlands' unless the reader is multi#lingual' you find some frustration while reading it. 6his frustration comes from the language not being 2nglish' and not being -panish' but an amalgamation of both. 6his frustration is ironic because An*ald+a describes this frustration felt ha%ing a confused language' and identity herself. 6his boo( is more powerful and real with the !-panglish" language and would not be the boo( it is and the boo( it is trying to be without it. 6he boo( is written in a way that it becomes an e tension of the author rather than /ust something the author has produced. 1t feels that way from the beginning and continues to the end. An*aludaKs multilingual methodology in%o(es what Mignolo calls !border thin(ing'" which embodies a double consciousness and employing multi# languaging to thin( from the border and oJer a new epistemology. As An*aldua describes it' border thin(ing creates a new mythos8!a change in the way we percei%e reality' the way we see oursel%es' and the ways we beha%e" $FA@&. 1n essence' from the border' An*aldua is creating another culture altogether' ! a new story to e plain the world and our participation in it' a new %alue system with images and symbols that connect us to each other and to the planet" $FAC&. 6he first step in !the Mesti*a way" is ta(ing in%entory of our own sel%es that ha%e been constructed by traceless historical processes. 6hen' we must put history !though a sie%e' winnow out the lies' loo(s at the forces that we as a race' as women' ha%e been part of" $FAB&. 6his process causes !conscious ruptures with all oppressi%e traditions of all cultures and religions. -he RthenS communicates that rupture' documents the struggle' and reinterprets history' and using new symbols' she shapes new myths" $FAB&. :econstruct in order to constructT

Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. :' -!at are t!e main c!aracteri#tic# o% t!e &ne2 me#tiGa con#ciou#ne##(4 As -onia -aldi%ar#Eull writes in the introduction to La Frontera, An*alduaKs reco%ery pro/ect !leads to the political' feminist' social awareness An*aldua calls ,ew Mesti*a Consiousness" $8&. As An*aldua e plains it' this consciousness entails a !shift out of habitual formations9 form con%ergent thn(ing' analytical reasoning that tends to use rationality to mo%e toward a single goal $a 4estern mode&' to di%ergent thin(ing' characteri*ed by mo%ement away from set patterns and goals toward a more whole perspecti%e' on ethat includes rather than e cludes" $FAF&. 5' Conte9tualiGe AnGal Ha"# t!eor, o% t!e Eor erlan # 2it!in $o#tcolonial i#cour#e' Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. 1n attempt to e plain the psyche of those on the border' An*aldua e plains that many on the border de%elop la facultad8!the capacity to see in surface phenomena the meaning of deeper realities to see the deep structure below the surface. 1t is an instant !sensing'" a quic( perception arri%ed at without conscious reasoning. 1t is an acute awareness mediated by the part of the psyche that does not spea(' that communicates in images and symbols which are the faces of feelings' that is behind which feelings reside5hide" $DA&.

EXCERPT 3 ?igidity means death. Nnly by remaining Pe ible is she able to stretch the psyche hori*ontally and %ertically. La mesti*a constantly has to shift out of habitual formations3 from con%ergent thin(ing' analytical reasoning that tends to use rationality to mo%e toward a single goal $a 4estern mode&' to di%ergent thin(ing' characteri*ed by mo%ement away from set patterns and goals and toward a more whole perspecti%e' one that includes rather than e cludes. 6he new mesti*a copes by de%eloping a tolerance for contradictions' a tolerance for ambiguity. -he learns to be an 1ndian in Me ican culture' to be Me ican from an Anglo point of %iew. -he learns to /uggle cultures. -he has a plural personality' she operates in a pluralistic mode8nothing is thrust out' the good the bad and the ugly' nothing re/ected' nothing abandoned. ,ot only does she sustain contradictions' she turns ambi%alence into something else. $p. FAF&

1' Rea t!e e9tract# an #ummariGe t!e main i ea# %oun in t!em' La conciencia e la me#tiGa JTo2ar # a ne2 con#ciou#ne## 6hroughout the duration of this course' we ha%e e plored many streams of feminist theory' some more historical pieces' and others more contemporary. )loria An*aldua' in particular' is among the many feminist theorists that mo%e into the realm o f addressing post#modern identities. 1n her articulation of a new emerging consciousness in La Conciencia de la Mesti*a9 6owards a ,ew Consciousness' An*aldua posits the construction of identities as multiple' hybrid' and more specifically created as a result of the .orderlands. 6his paper e plores An*alduaKs proposition of the new consciousness through discussions of the .orderlands and its implications for Uidentity'K mediating social relations' re%olutionary social change' and its wider rele%ance to feminist theory. !7rom this racial' ideological' cultural' and biological cross#pollini*ation' an UalienK consciousness is presently in the ma(ing 8 a new mesti*a consciousness' una conciencia de mu/er. 1t is a consciousness of the .orderlands. $An*aldua' FG8L9 B@A&" To ,egin to tease o't the i*eas inherent in this ;'ote from AnMal*'a, a *escription of the 4or*erlan*s is essential. The 4or*erlan* is not completely physical, an* not completely a,stract. It is any space (here m'ltiple i*entities, histories, an* c'lt'res o-erlap. $oreo-er, the 4or*erlan*s are any space (here those in the lo(er, mi**le, an* 'pper classes appro2imate each other, (here people of *ifferent races li-e together socially, an* (here c'lt'res merge. +'rthermore, it is (here c'lt'res c'rrently colli*e an* is the res'lt of the Ucoming together of t(o self!consistent ,'t ha,it'ally incompati,le frames of reference (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L21#.V AnMal*'a *escri,es la mestiMaDs internal conflict create* ,y the con-ergence of c'lt'res, am,ig'ity, an* str'ggle in the 4or*erlan*s. Gften torn ,et(een incompati,le c'lt'res, la mestiMa str'ggles to *isting'ish (hich collecti-ity that she ,elongs to. Torn some(here in the mi2 ,et(een t(o or more histories, c'lt'res, sets of -al'es, an* (ays of ,eing in the (orl*, at *ifferent moments in time, la mestiMa is force* to choose ,et(een them ,'t is ne-er ;'ite a part of either1 she is o'tsi*e of c'lt're. This choice not only ren*ers other parts of her i*entity an* c'lt're in-isi,le, it positions her in one ,o2, one category (*efine* ,y the *ominant c'lt're# into a *'alistic 7estern (ay of thin&ing1 either as oppresse* or oppressor, on the offense or *efense. As a res'lt of her gen*er, la mestiMa is place* in opposition to masc'linit. As a res'lt of her se2'al i*entity, she is place* in opposition to her racial i*entity. $oreo-er, her in*igeno's i*entity places her in contra*iction to her /panish i*entity. +or AnMal*'a, the ne( conscio'sness arising o't of this str'ggle o-er ,or*ers creates a non!*'alistic (ay of thin&ing an* ,eing. This ne( conscio'sness transcen*s the ,o'n*aries constr'cte* ,y 7estern myths s'ch as: s',?ect.o,?ect, (hite.colore*, male.female, heterose2'al.;'eer, etc, an* is th's hy,ri* (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#. AnMal*'aDs mention of i*entity as hy,ri* can ,e 'n*erstoo* as similar to 3onna :ara(ayDs (1991# metaphor of the cy,org for post!mo*ern i*entity. 4oth AnMal*'a an* :ara(ay arg'e for a cric'al recognition among feminists of those instances an* spaces (here the ,o'n*aries em,e**e* in ,inaries, esta,lishe* ,y *ominant 7estern myth, are transgresse* an* ,reache*. This is a rec'rring theoretical stance in post!mo*ern feminist (ritings: that re-ol'tionary social change (ill only

'nfol* thro'gh a Cmassi-e 'prooting of *'alistic thin&ing in the in*i-i*'al an* collecti-e conscio'sness. (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#. As (as pre-io'sly mentione*, the 4or*erlan* is a space (here c'lt'res colli*e, often (ith incompati,le -al'es, opposing histories, an* contra*ictory e2periences. It can ,e *iffic'lt to ,e an in*i-i*'al, or mem,er, of se-eral social, classe*, gen*ere*, racialiMe* gro'ps ,'t ne-er feeling ;'ite at home in either. An e2ample of the contra*ictions of (hich she spea&s is thro'gh a ,rief *isc'ssion of the i*entities of (omen of colo'r. +or instance, if an African!American (oman a*-ocates for (omenDs rights, *oes this mean that femininity an* the str'ggle against gen*er oppression ta&es prece*ence o-er her racial i*entity an* her str'ggle against coloniMation an* racial oppression8 The in-erse ;'estion can also ,e as&e*. If an African!American (oman of colo'r ta&es a political stance for the en* of her racial oppression, *oes this mean that she *e-al'es her e2perience as ,eing oppresse* ,y her gen*er i*entity8 AnMal*'a ma&es a plea to feminists to ,ri*ge i*entities an* to 'n*erstan* i*entities as al(ays ,eing constit'te* in the 4or*erlan*s. The sorting o't the contra*ictions em,e**e* ,et(een these social i*entities re;'ires a tolerance for am,ig'ity (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L21#. The ne( conscio'sness, thro'gh the transcen*ence of *'alistic thin&ing, is capa,le of em,racing these contra*ictions an* creating ne( c'lt're (ith Ca ne( -al'e system (ith images an* sym,ols that connect 's to each other an* the planet. (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#.D %reating this ne( c'lt're re;'ires a rethin&ing of the stances em,e**e* in the oppressor.oppresse* ,inary frame, that is, *e-eloping a conscio'sness (hich is neither against oppressi-e c'lt're (ith rage, or in a state of *efense in shame an* silence ,ro'ght on ,y the re?ection of oppressi-e c'lt're. $oreo-er, AnMal*'a proposes that (e all li-e in the 4or*erlan*s1 the space ,et(een ,eing insi*e or o'tsi*e of c'lt're. 4'tler (1999# (o'l* perhaps 'se the lang'age of not ha-ing to choose ,et(een ,eing intelligi,le or 'nintelligi,le, as either ,eing on the o'tsi*e or insi*e of c'lt're. AnMal*'a *isc'sses the importance of shifting from a con-ergent thin&ing that is al(ays attempting to mo-e for(ar* to(ar* a single, 'nifie*, political goal to *i-ergent thin&ing (hich em,races a (hole, incl'si-e perspecti-e (L21# The ne( conscio'sness, similar to :ara(ayDs artic'lation of the cy,org (1991#, is one (hich ,rea&s *o(n the con-ergent thin&ing of categories an* *'alisms an* instea* em,races *ifference, contra*iction an* partiality. This is (hat ma&es AnMal*'aDs arg'ment strong, incl'si-e, an* critical. It is incl'si-e insofar as it 'n*erstan*s i*entity as ,eing ,eyon* *'alisms an* 7estern ,inary constr'cts. 7e all li-e in the 4or*erlan*s an* instea* of respon*ing to the collision of c'lt're ,y ta&ing a stance on either si*e of the ,or*er, ren*ering 's part of these 7estern constr'cts, (e can incl'*e an* em,race o'r i*entities as contra*ictory, *ifferent, an* am,ig'o's. This s'perce*es the nee* to i*entify either as oppresse* or ta&e on the position of the oppressor. Ai&e :ara(ay, AnMal*'a goes against the c'rrent tra?ectory of feminism(s# an* her aim is to re*irect feminism. /he 'ses some of 4'tlerDs concepts an* lang'age of insi*e an* o'tsi*e of c'lt're to conte2t'aliMe the 4or*erlan*s as a space (here c'lt'res merge. $oreo-er, AnMal*'a ma&es a plea for the recognition of the post!mo*ern h'man. These feminist, post!mo*ernist an* post!str'ct'ralist theories are all (or&ing to(ar* re*irecting feminism to ma&e it more incl'si-e. They are incl'si-e in that they pinpoint or try to ma&e -isi,le a ne( conscio'sness that is free* from the po(er an* -al'e systems em,e**e* in 7estern myths an* constr'cts. +'rthermore, thro'gh la mestiMaDs Cc'lt'ral ,aggageD, AnMal*'a posits that a social re-ol'tion cannot emerge o't of a totaliMing force that 'nites all in*i-i*'als, ,'t only from a ne( conscio'sness pre*icate* on the 'n*erstan*ing of i*entities as partial, contra*ictory, an* capa,le of transcen*ing the rigi* c'lt'ral ,o'n*aries place*

s'perimpose* on them. AnMal*'a also ta&es 'p masc'linity as a fragmente* i*entity an* recogniMes that ne( masc'linities emerge o't of the transmission of c'lt'res in the 4or*erlan*s. $asc'linity is often essentially e;'ate* (ith men an* AnMal*'a *isagrees *'e to the fact that it essentialiMes all men an* pits them in ?'2taposition to (omen. $ore specifically, she artic'lates ho( ;'eer men ill'strate the e2tent to (hich the ,o'n*aries ,et(een male.female an* masc'line.feminine ha-e ,een transcen*e*. 4y em,racing the Cfeminine,D ;'eer men ill'minate the common pro,lematic propensity (ithin feminism to sit'ate an* categoriMe men an* masc'linity solely as oppressors or participating in a force of oppression. AnMal*'a also emphasiMes the nee* for all racialiMe* c'lt'res to ac&no(le*ge an* respect those (ho i*entify as ;'eer as there is ;'eer in all c'lt'res (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L2L#. AnMal*'aDs 'n*erstan*ing of i*entity as fl'i* an* contra*ictory (hile emphasiMing the intersections of race, class, gen*er (ithin an* ,et(een c'lt're thro'gh the 4or*erlan*s sho(s the e2tent to (hich her theory of a ne( conscio'sness is hea*ing in a more incl'si-e an* holistic *irection for feminism. $oreo-er, li&e 4'tler (1999# an* :ara(ay (1991#, she is ,latantly against the i*ea of an inner essence or an inner core i*entity an* arg'es for a *i-ergent (ay of thin&ing a,o't i*entity as ,eing constit'te* in a pl'rality of e2periences, histories, an* c'lt'res. I*entities, or people rather, learn to li-e in all c'lt'res an* in the 4or*erlan*s ,y not ha-ing to choose ,et(een c'lt'res. :er arg'ment is s'ch that the only (ay to re-ol'tioniMe an* create social change is if the in*i-i*'al an* collecti-e conscio'sness acti-ely ,rea&s *o(n an* 'proots *'alistic thin&ing (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#. As oppose* to either ,eing insi*e of oppressi-e c'lt're or on the constit'ti-e o'tsi*e, AnMal*'a 'n*erstan*s i*entity as ,eing completely immerse* in the 4or*erlan*s, the space (here c'lt'res not only merge an* colli*e ,'t also (here *ifference, *i-ersity, an* contra*iction is cele,rate*. The conscio'sness of the 4or*erlan*s neither &no(s or 'phol*s ,o'n*aries. 5ltimately, it is in a constant state of am,ig'ity, an* this am,ig'ity m'st ,e tolerate*. 0-en tho'gh AnMal*'a (rites from a *ifferent place than other theorists li&e :ara(ay an* 4'tler, it seems as tho'gh she infl'ences an* is infl'ence* ,y their post!mo*ern (ritings of i*entity. This realm of feminist theory attempts to not only mo-e feminism for(ar*, ,'t to re*irect it in a more incl'si-e *irection ,y a**ressing *ifference an* *ra(ing attention to the (ays in (hich i*entities ha-e shifte* in the late t(entieth cent'ry. 7ithin this sphere of feminist tho'ght, it is cr'cial for feminism(s# to em,race the contra*ictory i*entities an* c'lt'res that emerge from the 4or*erlan*s (hich are ma*e -isi,le only thro'gh seeing passe* the *ominant 7estern myths an* constr'cts p't in place ,y the per-asi-eness of mo*ernity. Gnly then can (e see a (ay o't of oppression thro'gh social re-ol'tion. It has to occ'r ,et(een people an* in*i-i*'al frames of conscio'sness1 ha-ing a conscio'sness of the 4or*erlan*s.

)' -!at i# t!e i3erence *et2een &*or er#( an #u++e#te *, AnGal Ha4 &Eor er#(

&*or erlan #.( a#

Intro uction

1n the preface to the .orderlands )loria An*ald+a states9 !1 am a border woman" $An*ald+a' FG8L&. Although such declaration may seem simple at first glance3 to be sure' this standpoint entails a parta(ing in the social and cultural production of personal identity' since she is the one deciding what name she wants to be called. :efining herself as a border woman' implies that An*ald+a has decided to reside in a place of ambiguity where to be either with us or against us is no longer her predicament' where the command to choose a side and to compromise her loyalty to a group is already re/ected. Eowe%er' this declaration is also political inasmuch as it refuses to assert a blind' unquestioned adherence to the figure of the state and its institutions. 7urthermore' it implies that she has made a conscious decision not only on where to base her struggle but it also implies that she has already %isuali*ed what (ind of struggle needs to be fought and against whom it is to be directed. .eing a border woman also implies seeing the borders as e%er changing spaces that are not restricted to host power relations' but as also incorporating pro/ects of resistance and liberation. 6his feature of border spaces ma(es their study appealing since borders as social' geographical and political constructions can be shaped and reshaped according to the multiple inPuences from those who are related to them. 1n this conte t' borders in the contemporary world' are better described by both their contrasts and contradictions' their permissi%eness and restrictions' their control and disorder' their peace and %iolence' their /ustice and in/ustices and so on' but more than that' contemporary borders are characteri*ed by the dynamism that contributes enormously to the production of all (inds of (nowledge. According to )eorg -immel' !the border is not a spatial fact with a sociological impact' but a sociological fact that shapes spatiality" $)eorg -immel FGG@9 DGL' as quoted in :ittgen' FGGG9 FDL&.

1n this study' 1 see( to contribute to a better understanding of )loria An*ald+aKs notion of the borderlands in both its geographical and ideological dimensions. Eowe%er' for the purpose of this study it must be understood that the geographical borderlands is to be associated with the U-#Me ico borderlands $An*ald+a writes geographical borders with small b&' while the ideological dimension of the term is not associated with any particular cartographic space $ideological .orderlands is written with capital .&F but rather they can e ist e%erywhere. 1n addition to this clarification' another remar( is necessary gi%en that the wor( of )loria An*ald+a has inPuenced many important fields in the academy. 1n this regard' the name of )loria An*ald+a is mainly associated with academic disciplines such as feminism' Chicana5o studies' or queer theory as e pressed by Ana Louise Oeating who sees An*ald+a as representati%e of !American studies' Chicano5a studies' composition studies' cultural studies' ethnic studies' feminism' literary studies' critical pedagogy' womenKs studies' and queer theory" $Oeating' @AA59 C&. -imilarly' -onia -aldQ%ar#Eull e plains that .orderlands !continues to be studied and included on class syllabi in courses on feminist theory' contemporary American women writers' autobiography' Chicana5o and Latina5o literature' cultural studies' and e%en ma/or American authors" $-aldQ%ar#Eull' @AAL&. -ince the wor( of An*ald+a has been mainly approached from the feminist' queer' and nationalist $Chicano& prominent scholars'C the present study is engaged from political and postcolonial standpoints gi%en that it is in these disciplines where the wor( of An*ald+a has little representation. 6his study thus addresses An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory 5 as a pro/ect of resistance formulated as a set of processes aimed to guide the inner self of a coloni*ed person in its struggle to achie%e decoloni*ation and liberation. -imilarly' the study addresses the historical e%ents that informed the social production of .orders both in its uni%ersal and local conte ts as a way of establishing a bac(ground that allows us to identify the relations of domination that the .orderlands theory see(s to o%ercome. 7urthermore' this study interrogates the scope of the .orderlands theory from a political perspecti%e. 1n this logic' this thesis is structured in fi%e chapters dedicated to assess the colonial' spatial' ideological' and political perspecti%es of the .5borderlands. Accordingly' the first chapter contains a discussion of the colonial conte t that produced the concept of borders as boundaries of nation#states that ser%ed mainly as the mechanisms that created diJerence and e clusion. Eere 1 situate the concept of borders within the conte t of the disco%ery of the new world and subsequent coloni*ation of Me ico gi%en that the framewor( guiding this study is postcolonial theory. 6he second chapter consists of a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. A discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important insofar as it situates the present study in the specific historical and spatial conte t that informed the production of An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory. 6he third chapter depicts a map of the processes that shape An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory and e plains it in more detail' e amining what elements are integrated into the theory' and how they are related to one another. 1t should be specified that this chapter is more concerned in pro%iding a general picture of the theory than in interpreting its possibilities. 6he fourth chapter addresses the political implications of the .orderlands theory and interrogates its scope from a political perspecti%e. 6he discussion in this chapter /u taposes An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory to Eannah ArendtKs %iew of political freedom.

7inally' in chapter fi%e 1 conclude by gi%ing a brief o%er%iew of this study and rePecting about the possibilities for future research. Ea%ing introduced the thesisK organi*ation let us rePect about one of the main goals that inform the .orderlands theory' namely' the notion of change.

&Eor erlan #( 6his chapter pro%ides a selecti%e o%er%iew of the borderlands scholarship. More specifically' this section is constructed as a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete *one of borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. Although 1 would li(e to treat this section as a general o%er%iew of the borderlands' the spatial constraints of this chapter force me to draw certain limits in terms of what needs to be presented. 1n this regard' 1 will focus on re%iewing the borderlands literature that allows me to frame and produce criteria for my study. 1 decided to proceed in this way in the understanding that a full diagnosis of the concept of the borderlandsFC is not what this chapter stands for. ?ather' my interest is to build a conte t for the following chapters in which the .orderlands as a theory will ha%e particular focus. Eowe%er' ha%ing a discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important because it situates the present study in a specific historical and spatial conte t' which 1 argue informed the production of the .orderlands theory as an emancipatory and resistance pro/ect. Accordingly' the significance of this chapter rests in that it directly intersects the geographical borderlands with the ideology ad%anced by this term. 6he concepts of border and borderlands may be defined in geographical terms but' increasingly' its significance has been growing to encompass additional ideas that contain symbolic meanings. 1n consequence' the terms border and borderlands ha%e gained resonance in se%eral disciplines and sub disciplines' as diJerent authors ha%e noticed. Among them' <aul Outsche writes in his .orders and 7rontiers piece' !6he term borderland is ambiguous enough to encompass both boundaries and frontiers. 6his lac( of precision is con%enient' since borderland scholars are some times concerned with one and some times with other Rand' 1 would add' some times with both as in the case of the present studyS" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. Outsche e plains that the notion of boundaries is associated with the rise of ideas regarding the concept !of nation#state in modern 2urope' pertaining to the political and administrati%e so%ereignties /u taposed along an arbitrary but formally demar(ed line." 1n turn' frontier is an older term used to denote a *one of inPuence. According to this logic' !boundaries are precise while the width of frontiers is indefinite" $Outsche quoted in -toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. 1 want to call attention to this distinction' since the case that occupies us in this chapter is representati%e of both %iews. Nn the one hand' the Me ico# U.-. borderlands are constituted by the boundary that mar(s the limits of these two nations' and on the other' these borderlands e plain in part the inPuence of United -tates.

7ollowing this introduction' this chapter starts out with a discussion about the concept of borderlands in its historical and spatial conte t. My goal in this section is to trace the origin of the spatial composition of the borderlands through the wor( of a select number of historians who ma(e significant contributions to the establishment of what is meant by this term. ,e t' 1 briePy e plain some of the characteristics of the Me ican#Americans5Chicano FB groups associated with the -panish .orderlandsF5 and discuss current social dynamics in this area' using )loria An*ald+a as a way of establishing a conte t for the following chapter. 1 conclude by addressing some of the political implications de%ised from the geographical borderlands. 6his section is guided by the argument that An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory is a direct product of both historical and contemporary discriminatory practices aJecting minority groups along the U.-.#Me ico border such as the -panish origin population' ,ati%e# Americans' or blac(s. 1t is important to (eep in mind that the concept of borderlands has been the ob/ect of considerable scholarly rePection since it first appeared in print' to the e tent that its possibilities of e planation are numerous. 7or that reason' 1 wish to recall 2llwyn ?. -toddard words in the o%er%iew to the .orderlands -ourceboo(. 6here' he cautions us about the fact that !the U.-.# Me ico border region is not a single borderland but rather a composite of many. 4hat constitutes the entity %aries among diJerent academic disciplines' among the diJerent ethnic groups occupying the territory' and according to the perceptions and the eras of the people defining it" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 B&. Eence' with this premise as a point of departure' this chapter is mostly concerned with the geographical conte t of the borderlands %iewed from a national perspecti%e.

7' T!ink a*out t!e u#e o% *ilin+uali#m in t!e te9t' 1o2 oe# it make t!e rea er %eel4 -!at i# it# $ur$o#e4 4hile reading.orderlands' unless the reader is multi#lingual' you find some frustration while reading it. 6his frustration comes from the language not being 2nglish' and not being -panish' but an amalgamation of both. 6his frustration is ironic because An*ald+a describes this frustration felt ha%ing a confused language' and identity herself. 6his boo( is more powerful and real with the !-panglish" language and would not be the boo( it is and the boo( it is trying to be without it. 6he boo( is written in a way that it becomes an e tension of the author rather than /ust something the author has produced. 1t feels that way from the beginning and continues to the end. An*aludaKs multilingual methodology in%o(es what Mignolo calls !border thin(ing'" which embodies a double consciousness and employing multi# languaging to thin( from the border and oJer a new epistemology. As An*aldua describes it' border thin(ing creates a new mythos8!a change in the way we percei%e reality' the way we see oursel%es' and the ways we beha%e" $FA@&. 1n essence' from the border' An*aldua is creating another culture altogether' ! a new story to e plain the world and our participation in it' a new %alue system with images and symbols that connect us to each other and to the planet" $FAC&. 6he first step in !the Mesti*a way" is ta(ing in%entory of our own sel%es that ha%e been constructed by traceless historical processes. 6hen' we must put history !though a sie%e' winnow out the lies' loo(s at the forces that we as a race' as women' ha%e been part of" $FAB&. 6his process causes !conscious ruptures with all oppressi%e traditions of all cultures and religions. -he RthenS communicates that rupture' documents the struggle' and reinterprets history' and using new symbols' she shapes new myths" $FAB&. :econstruct in order to constructT

Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. :' -!at are t!e main c!aracteri#tic# o% t!e &ne2 me#tiGa con#ciou#ne##(4 As -onia -aldi%ar#Eull writes in the introduction to La Frontera, An*alduaKs reco%ery pro/ect !leads to the political' feminist' social awareness An*aldua calls ,ew Mesti*a Consiousness" $8&. As An*aldua e plains it' this consciousness entails a !shift out of habitual formations9 form con%ergent thn(ing' analytical reasoning that tends to use rationality to mo%e toward a single goal $a 4estern mode&' to di%ergent thin(ing' characteri*ed by mo%ement away from set patterns and goals toward a more whole perspecti%e' on ethat includes rather than e cludes" $FAF&. 5' Conte9tualiGe AnGal Ha"# t!eor, o% t!e Eor erlan # 2it!in $o#tcolonial i#cour#e' Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. 1n attempt to e plain the psyche of those on the border' An*aldua e plains that many on the border de%elop la facultad8!the capacity to see in surface phenomena the meaning of deeper realities to see the deep structure below the surface. 1t is an instant !sensing'" a quic( perception arri%ed at without conscious reasoning. 1t is an acute awareness mediated by the part of the psyche that does not spea(' that communicates in images and symbols which are the faces of feelings' that is behind which feelings reside5hide" $DA&.

EXCERPT 2n pocas centurias' the future will belong to the mesti*a. .ecause the future depends on the brea(ing down of paradigms' it depends on the straddling two or more cultures. .y creating a new mythos8that is' a change in the way we percei%e reality' the way we see oursel%es' and the ways we beha%e8la mesti*a creates a new consciousness. 6he wor( of the mesti*a consciousness is to brea( down the sub/ect#ob/ect duality that (eeps her a prisoner and to show in the Pesh and through the images in her wor( how duality is transcended. 6he answer to the problem between the white race and the colored' between males and females' lies in healing the split that originates in the %ery foundation of our li%es' our culture' our languages' our thoughts. $p. FA@&

1' Rea t!e e9tract# an #ummariGe t!e main i ea# %oun in t!em' La conciencia e la me#tiGa JTo2ar # a ne2 con#ciou#ne## Premi#e rea in+ o% 0loria AnGal ua"# &La Conciencia Li%e in t!e Eor erlan # e la Me#tiGa(C

Thro'gho't the *'ration of this co'rse, (e ha-e e2plore* many streams of feminist theory, some more historical pieces, an* others more contemporary. Floria AnMal*'a, in partic'lar, is among the many feminist theorists that mo-e into the realm o f a**ressing post!mo*ern i*entities. In her artic'lation of a ne( emerging conscio'sness in Aa %onciencia *e la $estiMa: To(ar*s a 6e( %onscio'sness, AnMal*'a posits the constr'ction of i*entities as m'ltiple, hy,ri*, an* more specifically create* as a res'lt of the 4or*erlan*s. This paper e2plores AnMal*'aDs proposition of the ne( conscio'sness thro'gh *isc'ssions of the 4or*erlan*s an* its implications for Ci*entity,D me*iating social relations, re-ol'tionary social change, an* its (i*er rele-ance to feminist theory. U+rom this racial, i*eological, c'lt'ral, an* ,iological cross!polliniMation, an CalienD conscio'sness is presently in the ma&ing > a ne( mestiMa conscio'sness, 'na conciencia *e m'?er. It is a conscio'sness of the 4or*erlan*s. (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L29#V To ,egin to tease o't the i*eas inherent in this ;'ote from AnMal*'a, a *escription of the 4or*erlan*s is essential. The 4or*erlan* is not completely physical, an* not completely a,stract. It is any space (here m'ltiple i*entities, histories, an* c'lt'res o-erlap. $oreo-er, the 4or*erlan*s are any space (here those in the lo(er, mi**le, an* 'pper classes appro2imate each other, (here people of *ifferent races li-e together socially, an* (here c'lt'res merge. +'rthermore, it is (here c'lt'res c'rrently colli*e an* is the res'lt of the Ucoming together of t(o self!consistent ,'t ha,it'ally incompati,le frames of reference (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L21#.V AnMal*'a *escri,es la mestiMaDs internal conflict create* ,y the con-ergence of c'lt'res, am,ig'ity, an* str'ggle in the 4or*erlan*s. Gften torn ,et(een incompati,le c'lt'res, la mestiMa str'ggles to *isting'ish (hich collecti-ity that she ,elongs to. Torn some(here in the mi2 ,et(een t(o or more histories, c'lt'res, sets of -al'es, an* (ays of ,eing in the (orl*, at *ifferent moments in time, la mestiMa is force* to choose ,et(een them ,'t is ne-er ;'ite a part of either1 she is o'tsi*e of c'lt're. This choice not only ren*ers other parts of her i*entity an* c'lt're in-isi,le, it positions her in one ,o2, one category (*efine* ,y the *ominant c'lt're# into a *'alistic 7estern (ay of thin&ing1 either as oppresse* or oppressor, on the offense or *efense. As a res'lt of her gen*er, la mestiMa is place* in opposition to masc'linit. As a res'lt of her se2'al i*entity, she is place* in opposition to her racial i*entity. $oreo-er, her in*igeno's i*entity places her in contra*iction to her /panish i*entity. +or AnMal*'a, the ne( conscio'sness arising o't of this str'ggle o-er ,or*ers creates a non!*'alistic (ay of thin&ing an* ,eing. This ne( conscio'sness transcen*s the ,o'n*aries constr'cte* ,y 7estern myths s'ch as: s',?ect.o,?ect, (hite.colore*, male.female, heterose2'al.;'eer, etc, an* is th's hy,ri* (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#. AnMal*'aDs mention of i*entity as hy,ri* can ,e 'n*erstoo* as similar to 3onna :ara(ayDs (1991# metaphor of the cy,org for post!mo*ern i*entity. 4oth AnMal*'a an* :ara(ay arg'e for a cric'al recognition among feminists of those instances an* spaces (here the ,o'n*aries em,e**e* in ,inaries, esta,lishe* ,y *ominant 7estern myth, are transgresse* an* ,reache*. This is a rec'rring theoretical stance in post!mo*ern feminist (ritings: that re-ol'tionary social change (ill only 'nfol* thro'gh a Cmassi-e 'prooting of *'alistic thin&ing in the in*i-i*'al an* collecti-e

conscio'sness. (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#. As (as pre-io'sly mentione*, the 4or*erlan* is a space (here c'lt'res colli*e, often (ith incompati,le -al'es, opposing histories, an* contra*ictory e2periences. It can ,e *iffic'lt to ,e an in*i-i*'al, or mem,er, of se-eral social, classe*, gen*ere*, racialiMe* gro'ps ,'t ne-er feeling ;'ite at home in either. An e2ample of the contra*ictions of (hich she spea&s is thro'gh a ,rief *isc'ssion of the i*entities of (omen of colo'r. +or instance, if an African!American (oman a*-ocates for (omenDs rights, *oes this mean that femininity an* the str'ggle against gen*er oppression ta&es prece*ence o-er her racial i*entity an* her str'ggle against coloniMation an* racial oppression8 The in-erse ;'estion can also ,e as&e*. If an African!American (oman of colo'r ta&es a political stance for the en* of her racial oppression, *oes this mean that she *e-al'es her e2perience as ,eing oppresse* ,y her gen*er i*entity8 AnMal*'a ma&es a plea to feminists to ,ri*ge i*entities an* to 'n*erstan* i*entities as al(ays ,eing constit'te* in the 4or*erlan*s. The sorting o't the contra*ictions em,e**e* ,et(een these social i*entities re;'ires a tolerance for am,ig'ity (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L21#. The ne( conscio'sness, thro'gh the transcen*ence of *'alistic thin&ing, is capa,le of em,racing these contra*ictions an* creating ne( c'lt're (ith Ca ne( -al'e system (ith images an* sym,ols that connect 's to each other an* the planet. (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#.D %reating this ne( c'lt're re;'ires a rethin&ing of the stances em,e**e* in the oppressor.oppresse* ,inary frame, that is, *e-eloping a conscio'sness (hich is neither against oppressi-e c'lt're (ith rage, or in a state of *efense in shame an* silence ,ro'ght on ,y the re?ection of oppressi-e c'lt're. $oreo-er, AnMal*'a proposes that (e all li-e in the 4or*erlan*s1 the space ,et(een ,eing insi*e or o'tsi*e of c'lt're. 4'tler (1999# (o'l* perhaps 'se the lang'age of not ha-ing to choose ,et(een ,eing intelligi,le or 'nintelligi,le, as either ,eing on the o'tsi*e or insi*e of c'lt're. AnMal*'a *isc'sses the importance of shifting from a con-ergent thin&ing that is al(ays attempting to mo-e for(ar* to(ar* a single, 'nifie*, political goal to *i-ergent thin&ing (hich em,races a (hole, incl'si-e perspecti-e (L21# The ne( conscio'sness, similar to :ara(ayDs artic'lation of the cy,org (1991#, is one (hich ,rea&s *o(n the con-ergent thin&ing of categories an* *'alisms an* instea* em,races *ifference, contra*iction an* partiality. This is (hat ma&es AnMal*'aDs arg'ment strong, incl'si-e, an* critical. It is incl'si-e insofar as it 'n*erstan*s i*entity as ,eing ,eyon* *'alisms an* 7estern ,inary constr'cts. 7e all li-e in the 4or*erlan*s an* instea* of respon*ing to the collision of c'lt're ,y ta&ing a stance on either si*e of the ,or*er, ren*ering 's part of these 7estern constr'cts, (e can incl'*e an* em,race o'r i*entities as contra*ictory, *ifferent, an* am,ig'o's. This s'perce*es the nee* to i*entify either as oppresse* or ta&e on the position of the oppressor. Ai&e :ara(ay, AnMal*'a goes against the c'rrent tra?ectory of feminism(s# an* her aim is to re*irect feminism. /he 'ses some of 4'tlerDs concepts an* lang'age of insi*e an* o'tsi*e of c'lt're to conte2t'aliMe the 4or*erlan*s as a space (here c'lt'res merge. $oreo-er, AnMal*'a ma&es a plea for the recognition of the post!mo*ern h'man. These feminist, post!mo*ernist an* post!str'ct'ralist theories are all (or&ing to(ar* re*irecting feminism to ma&e it more incl'si-e. They are incl'si-e in that they pinpoint or try to ma&e -isi,le a ne( conscio'sness that is free* from the po(er an* -al'e systems em,e**e* in 7estern myths an* constr'cts. +'rthermore, thro'gh la mestiMaDs Cc'lt'ral ,aggageD, AnMal*'a posits that a social re-ol'tion cannot emerge o't of a totaliMing force that 'nites all in*i-i*'als, ,'t only from a ne( conscio'sness pre*icate* on the 'n*erstan*ing of i*entities as partial, contra*ictory, an* capa,le of transcen*ing the rigi* c'lt'ral ,o'n*aries place* s'perimpose* on them.

AnMal*'a also ta&es 'p masc'linity as a fragmente* i*entity an* recogniMes that ne( masc'linities emerge o't of the transmission of c'lt'res in the 4or*erlan*s. $asc'linity is often essentially e;'ate* (ith men an* AnMal*'a *isagrees *'e to the fact that it essentialiMes all men an* pits them in ?'2taposition to (omen. $ore specifically, she artic'lates ho( ;'eer men ill'strate the e2tent to (hich the ,o'n*aries ,et(een male.female an* masc'line.feminine ha-e ,een transcen*e*. 4y em,racing the Cfeminine,D ;'eer men ill'minate the common pro,lematic propensity (ithin feminism to sit'ate an* categoriMe men an* masc'linity solely as oppressors or participating in a force of oppression. AnMal*'a also emphasiMes the nee* for all racialiMe* c'lt'res to ac&no(le*ge an* respect those (ho i*entify as ;'eer as there is ;'eer in all c'lt'res (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L2L#. AnMal*'aDs 'n*erstan*ing of i*entity as fl'i* an* contra*ictory (hile emphasiMing the intersections of race, class, gen*er (ithin an* ,et(een c'lt're thro'gh the 4or*erlan*s sho(s the e2tent to (hich her theory of a ne( conscio'sness is hea*ing in a more incl'si-e an* holistic *irection for feminism. $oreo-er, li&e 4'tler (1999# an* :ara(ay (1991#, she is ,latantly against the i*ea of an inner essence or an inner core i*entity an* arg'es for a *i-ergent (ay of thin&ing a,o't i*entity as ,eing constit'te* in a pl'rality of e2periences, histories, an* c'lt'res. I*entities, or people rather, learn to li-e in all c'lt'res an* in the 4or*erlan*s ,y not ha-ing to choose ,et(een c'lt'res. :er arg'ment is s'ch that the only (ay to re-ol'tioniMe an* create social change is if the in*i-i*'al an* collecti-e conscio'sness acti-ely ,rea&s *o(n an* 'proots *'alistic thin&ing (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#. As oppose* to either ,eing insi*e of oppressi-e c'lt're or on the constit'ti-e o'tsi*e, AnMal*'a 'n*erstan*s i*entity as ,eing completely immerse* in the 4or*erlan*s, the space (here c'lt'res not only merge an* colli*e ,'t also (here *ifference, *i-ersity, an* contra*iction is cele,rate*. The conscio'sness of the 4or*erlan*s neither &no(s or 'phol*s ,o'n*aries. 5ltimately, it is in a constant state of am,ig'ity, an* this am,ig'ity m'st ,e tolerate*. 0-en tho'gh AnMal*'a (rites from a *ifferent place than other theorists li&e :ara(ay an* 4'tler, it seems as tho'gh she infl'ences an* is infl'ence* ,y their post!mo*ern (ritings of i*entity. This realm of feminist theory attempts to not only mo-e feminism for(ar*, ,'t to re*irect it in a more incl'si-e *irection ,y a**ressing *ifference an* *ra(ing attention to the (ays in (hich i*entities ha-e shifte* in the late t(entieth cent'ry. 7ithin this sphere of feminist tho'ght, it is cr'cial for feminism(s# to em,race the contra*ictory i*entities an* c'lt'res that emerge from the 4or*erlan*s (hich are ma*e -isi,le only thro'gh seeing passe* the *ominant 7estern myths an* constr'cts p't in place ,y the per-asi-eness of mo*ernity. Gnly then can (e see a (ay o't of oppression thro'gh social re-ol'tion. It has to occ'r ,et(een people an* in*i-i*'al frames of conscio'sness1 ha-ing a conscio'sness of the 4or*erlan*s.

)' -!at i# t!e i3erence *et2een &*or er#( an #u++e#te *, AnGal Ha4 &Eor er#(

&*or erlan #.( a#

Intro uction

1n the preface to the .orderlands )loria An*ald+a states9 !1 am a border woman" $An*ald+a' FG8L&. Although such declaration may seem simple at first glance3 to be sure' this standpoint entails a parta(ing in the social and cultural production of personal identity' since she is the one deciding what name she wants to be called. :efining herself as a border woman' implies that An*ald+a has decided to reside in a place of ambiguity where to be either with us or against us is no longer her predicament' where the command to choose a side and to compromise her loyalty to a group is already re/ected. Eowe%er' this declaration is also political inasmuch as it refuses to assert a blind' unquestioned adherence to the figure of the state and its institutions. 7urthermore' it implies that she has made a conscious decision not only on where to base her struggle but it also implies that she has already %isuali*ed what (ind of struggle needs to be fought and against whom it is to be directed. .eing a border woman also implies seeing the borders as e%er changing spaces that are not restricted to host power relations' but as also incorporating pro/ects of resistance and liberation. 6his feature of border spaces ma(es their study appealing since borders as social' geographical and political constructions can be shaped and reshaped according to the multiple inPuences from those who are related to them. 1n this conte t' borders in the contemporary world' are better described by both their contrasts and contradictions' their permissi%eness and restrictions' their control and disorder' their peace and %iolence' their /ustice and in/ustices and so on' but more than that' contemporary borders are characteri*ed by the dynamism that contributes enormously to the production of all (inds of (nowledge. According to )eorg -immel' !the border is not a spatial fact with a sociological impact' but a sociological fact that shapes spatiality" $)eorg -immel FGG@9 DGL' as quoted in :ittgen' FGGG9 FDL&.

1n this study' 1 see( to contribute to a better understanding of )loria An*ald+aKs notion of the borderlands in both its geographical and ideological dimensions. Eowe%er' for the purpose of this study it must be understood that the geographical borderlands is to be associated with the U-#Me ico borderlands $An*ald+a writes geographical borders with small b&' while the ideological dimension of the term is not associated with any particular cartographic space $ideological .orderlands is written with capital .&F but rather they can e ist e%erywhere. 1n addition to this clarification' another remar( is necessary gi%en that the wor( of )loria An*ald+a has inPuenced many important fields in the academy. 1n this regard' the name of )loria An*ald+a is mainly associated with academic disciplines such as feminism' Chicana5o studies' or queer theory as e pressed by Ana Louise Oeating who sees An*ald+a as representati%e of !American studies' Chicano5a studies' composition studies' cultural studies' ethnic studies' feminism' literary studies' critical pedagogy' womenKs studies' and queer theory" $Oeating' @AA59 C&. -imilarly' -onia -aldQ%ar#Eull e plains that .orderlands !continues to be studied and included on class syllabi in courses on feminist theory' contemporary American women writers' autobiography' Chicana5o and Latina5o literature' cultural studies' and e%en ma/or American authors" $-aldQ%ar#Eull' @AAL&. -ince the wor( of An*ald+a has been mainly approached from the feminist' queer' and nationalist $Chicano& prominent scholars'C the present study is engaged from political and postcolonial standpoints gi%en that it is in these disciplines where the wor( of An*ald+a has little representation. 6his study thus addresses An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory 5 as a pro/ect of resistance formulated as a set of processes aimed to guide the inner self of a coloni*ed person in its struggle to achie%e decoloni*ation and liberation. -imilarly' the study addresses the historical e%ents that informed the social production of .orders both in its uni%ersal and local conte ts as a way of establishing a bac(ground that allows us to identify the relations of domination that the .orderlands theory see(s to o%ercome. 7urthermore' this study interrogates the scope of the .orderlands theory from a political perspecti%e. 1n this logic' this thesis is structured in fi%e chapters dedicated to assess the colonial' spatial' ideological' and political perspecti%es of the .5borderlands. Accordingly' the first chapter contains a discussion of the colonial conte t that produced the concept of borders as boundaries of nation#states that ser%ed mainly as the mechanisms that created diJerence and e clusion. Eere 1 situate the concept of borders within the conte t of the disco%ery of the new world and subsequent coloni*ation of Me ico gi%en that the framewor( guiding this study is postcolonial theory. 6he second chapter consists of a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. A discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important insofar as it situates the present study in the specific historical and spatial conte t that informed the production of An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory. 6he third chapter depicts a map of the processes that shape An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory and e plains it in more detail' e amining what elements are integrated into the theory' and how they are related to one another. 1t should be specified that this chapter is more concerned in pro%iding a general picture of the theory than in interpreting its possibilities. 6he fourth chapter addresses the political implications of the .orderlands theory and interrogates its scope from a political perspecti%e. 6he discussion in this chapter /u taposes An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory to Eannah ArendtKs %iew of political freedom.

7inally' in chapter fi%e 1 conclude by gi%ing a brief o%er%iew of this study and rePecting about the possibilities for future research. Ea%ing introduced the thesisK organi*ation let us rePect about one of the main goals that inform the .orderlands theory' namely' the notion of change.

&Eor erlan #( 6his chapter pro%ides a selecti%e o%er%iew of the borderlands scholarship. More specifically' this section is constructed as a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete *one of borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. Although 1 would li(e to treat this section as a general o%er%iew of the borderlands' the spatial constraints of this chapter force me to draw certain limits in terms of what needs to be presented. 1n this regard' 1 will focus on re%iewing the borderlands literature that allows me to frame and produce criteria for my study. 1 decided to proceed in this way in the understanding that a full diagnosis of the concept of the borderlandsFC is not what this chapter stands for. ?ather' my interest is to build a conte t for the following chapters in which the .orderlands as a theory will ha%e particular focus. Eowe%er' ha%ing a discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important because it situates the present study in a specific historical and spatial conte t' which 1 argue informed the production of the .orderlands theory as an emancipatory and resistance pro/ect. Accordingly' the significance of this chapter rests in that it directly intersects the geographical borderlands with the ideology ad%anced by this term. 6he concepts of border and borderlands may be defined in geographical terms but' increasingly' its significance has been growing to encompass additional ideas that contain symbolic meanings. 1n consequence' the terms border and borderlands ha%e gained resonance in se%eral disciplines and sub disciplines' as diJerent authors ha%e noticed. Among them' <aul Outsche writes in his .orders and 7rontiers piece' !6he term borderland is ambiguous enough to encompass both boundaries and frontiers. 6his lac( of precision is con%enient' since borderland scholars are some times concerned with one and some times with other Rand' 1 would add' some times with both as in the case of the present studyS" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. Outsche e plains that the notion of boundaries is associated with the rise of ideas regarding the concept !of nation#state in modern 2urope' pertaining to the political and administrati%e so%ereignties /u taposed along an arbitrary but formally demar(ed line." 1n turn' frontier is an older term used to denote a *one of inPuence. According to this logic' !boundaries are precise while the width of frontiers is indefinite" $Outsche quoted in -toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. 1 want to call attention to this distinction' since the case that occupies us in this chapter is representati%e of both %iews. Nn the one hand' the Me ico# U.-. borderlands are constituted by the boundary that mar(s the limits of these two nations' and on the other' these borderlands e plain in part the inPuence of United -tates.

7ollowing this introduction' this chapter starts out with a discussion about the concept of borderlands in its historical and spatial conte t. My goal in this section is to trace the origin of the spatial composition of the borderlands through the wor( of a select number of historians who ma(e significant contributions to the establishment of what is meant by this term. ,e t' 1 briePy e plain some of the characteristics of the Me ican#Americans5Chicano FB groups associated with the -panish .orderlandsF5 and discuss current social dynamics in this area' using )loria An*ald+a as a way of establishing a conte t for the following chapter. 1 conclude by addressing some of the political implications de%ised from the geographical borderlands. 6his section is guided by the argument that An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory is a direct product of both historical and contemporary discriminatory practices aJecting minority groups along the U.-.#Me ico border such as the -panish origin population' ,ati%e# Americans' or blac(s. 1t is important to (eep in mind that the concept of borderlands has been the ob/ect of considerable scholarly rePection since it first appeared in print' to the e tent that its possibilities of e planation are numerous. 7or that reason' 1 wish to recall 2llwyn ?. -toddard words in the o%er%iew to the .orderlands -ourceboo(. 6here' he cautions us about the fact that !the U.-.# Me ico border region is not a single borderland but rather a composite of many. 4hat constitutes the entity %aries among diJerent academic disciplines' among the diJerent ethnic groups occupying the territory' and according to the perceptions and the eras of the people defining it" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 B&. Eence' with this premise as a point of departure' this chapter is mostly concerned with the geographical conte t of the borderlands %iewed from a national perspecti%e.

7' T!ink a*out t!e u#e o% *ilin+uali#m in t!e te9t' 1o2 oe# it make t!e rea er %eel4 -!at i# it# $ur$o#e4 4hile reading.orderlands' unless the reader is multi#lingual' you find some frustration while reading it. 6his frustration comes from the language not being 2nglish' and not being -panish' but an amalgamation of both. 6his frustration is ironic because An*ald+a describes this frustration felt ha%ing a confused language' and identity herself. 6his boo( is more powerful and real with the !-panglish" language and would not be the boo( it is and the boo( it is trying to be without it. 6he boo( is written in a way that it becomes an e tension of the author rather than /ust something the author has produced. 1t feels that way from the beginning and continues to the end. An*aludaKs multilingual methodology in%o(es what Mignolo calls !border thin(ing'" which embodies a double consciousness and employing multi# languaging to thin( from the border and oJer a new epistemology. As An*aldua describes it' border thin(ing creates a new mythos8!a change in the way we percei%e reality' the way we see oursel%es' and the ways we beha%e" $FA@&. 1n essence' from the border' An*aldua is creating another culture altogether' ! a new story to e plain the world and our participation in it' a new %alue system with images and symbols that connect us to each other and to the planet" $FAC&. 6he first step in !the Mesti*a way" is ta(ing in%entory of our own sel%es that ha%e been constructed by traceless historical processes. 6hen' we must put history !though a sie%e' winnow out the lies' loo(s at the forces that we as a race' as women' ha%e been part of" $FAB&. 6his process causes !conscious ruptures with all oppressi%e traditions of all cultures and religions. -he RthenS communicates that rupture' documents the struggle' and reinterprets history' and using new symbols' she shapes new myths" $FAB&. :econstruct in order to constructT

Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. :' -!at are t!e main c!aracteri#tic# o% t!e &ne2 me#tiGa con#ciou#ne##(4 As -onia -aldi%ar#Eull writes in the introduction to La Frontera, An*alduaKs reco%ery pro/ect !leads to the political' feminist' social awareness An*aldua calls ,ew Mesti*a Consiousness" $8&. As An*aldua e plains it' this consciousness entails a !shift out of habitual formations9 form con%ergent thn(ing' analytical reasoning that tends to use rationality to mo%e toward a single goal $a 4estern mode&' to di%ergent thin(ing' characteri*ed by mo%ement away from set patterns and goals toward a more whole perspecti%e' on ethat includes rather than e cludes" $FAF&. 5' Conte9tualiGe AnGal Ha"# t!eor, o% t!e Eor erlan # 2it!in $o#tcolonial i#cour#e' Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. 1n attempt to e plain the psyche of those on the border' An*aldua e plains that many on the border de%elop la facultad8!the capacity to see in surface phenomena the meaning of deeper realities to see the deep structure below the surface. 1t is an instant !sensing'" a quic( perception arri%ed at without conscious reasoning. 1t is an acute awareness mediated by the part of the psyche that does not spea(' that communicates in images and symbols which are the faces of feelings' that is behind which feelings reside5hide" $DA&.

EXCERPT ! As mesti*a 1 ha%e no country' my homeland cast me out3 yet all countries are mine because 1 am e%ery womanKs sister or potential lo%er. $As a lesbian 1 ha%e no race' my own people disclaim me3 but 1 am all races because there is the queer of me in all races.& 1 am cultureless because' as a feminist' 1 challenge the collecti%e cultural5religious male#deri%ed beliefs of 1ndo# Eispanics and Anglos3 yet 1 am cultured because 1 am participating in the creation of yet another culture' a new story to e plain the world and our participation in it' new %alue system with images and symbols that connect us to each other and to the planet. -oy un amasamiento. 1 am an act of (neading' of uniting and /oining that not only has produced both a creature of dar(ness and a creature of light' but also a creature that questions the definitions of light and dar( and gi%es them new meanings $p. FAC&.

1' Rea

t!e e9tract# an

#ummariGe t!e main i ea# %oun

in t!em'

Premi#e rea in+ o% 0loria AnGal ua"# &La Conciencia Li%e in t!e Eor erlan #

e la Me#tiGa(C

Thro'gho't the *'ration of this co'rse, (e ha-e e2plore* many streams of feminist theory, some more historical pieces, an* others more contemporary. Floria AnMal*'a, in partic'lar, is among the many feminist theorists that mo-e into the realm o f a**ressing post!mo*ern i*entities. In her artic'lation of a ne( emerging conscio'sness in Aa %onciencia *e la $estiMa: To(ar*s a 6e( %onscio'sness, AnMal*'a posits the constr'ction of i*entities as m'ltiple, hy,ri*, an* more specifically create* as a res'lt of the 4or*erlan*s. This paper e2plores AnMal*'aDs proposition of the ne( conscio'sness thro'gh *isc'ssions of the 4or*erlan*s an* its implications for Ci*entity,D me*iating social relations, re-ol'tionary social change, an* its (i*er rele-ance to feminist theory. U+rom this racial, i*eological, c'lt'ral, an* ,iological cross!polliniMation, an CalienD conscio'sness is presently in the ma&ing > a ne( mestiMa conscio'sness, 'na conciencia *e m'?er. It is a conscio'sness of the 4or*erlan*s. (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L29#V To ,egin to tease o't the i*eas inherent in this ;'ote from AnMal*'a, a *escription of the 4or*erlan*s is essential. The 4or*erlan* is not completely physical, an* not completely a,stract. It is any space (here m'ltiple i*entities, histories, an* c'lt'res o-erlap. $oreo-er, the 4or*erlan*s are any space (here those in the lo(er, mi**le, an* 'pper classes appro2imate each other, (here people of *ifferent races li-e together socially, an* (here c'lt'res merge. +'rthermore, it is (here c'lt'res c'rrently colli*e an* is the res'lt of the Ucoming together of t(o self!consistent ,'t ha,it'ally incompati,le frames of reference (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L21#.V AnMal*'a *escri,es la mestiMaDs internal conflict create* ,y the con-ergence of c'lt'res, am,ig'ity, an* str'ggle in the 4or*erlan*s. Gften torn ,et(een incompati,le c'lt'res, la mestiMa str'ggles to *isting'ish (hich collecti-ity that she ,elongs to. Torn some(here in the mi2 ,et(een t(o or more histories, c'lt'res, sets of -al'es, an* (ays of ,eing in the (orl*, at *ifferent moments in time, la mestiMa is force* to choose ,et(een them ,'t is ne-er ;'ite a part of either1 she is o'tsi*e of c'lt're. This choice not only ren*ers other parts of her i*entity an* c'lt're in-isi,le, it positions her in one ,o2, one category (*efine* ,y the *ominant c'lt're# into a *'alistic 7estern (ay of thin&ing1 either as oppresse* or oppressor, on the offense or *efense. As a res'lt of her gen*er, la mestiMa is place* in opposition to masc'linit. As a res'lt of her se2'al i*entity, she is place* in opposition to her racial i*entity. $oreo-er, her in*igeno's i*entity places her in contra*iction to her /panish i*entity. +or AnMal*'a, the ne( conscio'sness arising o't of this str'ggle o-er ,or*ers creates a non!*'alistic (ay of thin&ing an* ,eing. This ne( conscio'sness transcen*s the ,o'n*aries constr'cte* ,y 7estern myths s'ch as: s',?ect.o,?ect, (hite.colore*, male.female, heterose2'al.;'eer, etc, an* is th's hy,ri* (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#. AnMal*'aDs mention of i*entity as hy,ri* can ,e 'n*erstoo* as similar to 3onna :ara(ayDs (1991# metaphor of the cy,org for post!mo*ern i*entity. 4oth AnMal*'a an* :ara(ay arg'e for a cric'al recognition among feminists of those instances an* spaces (here the ,o'n*aries em,e**e* in ,inaries, esta,lishe* ,y *ominant 7estern myth, are transgresse* an* ,reache*. This is a rec'rring theoretical stance in post!mo*ern feminist (ritings: that re-ol'tionary social change (ill only 'nfol* thro'gh a Cmassi-e 'prooting of *'alistic thin&ing in the in*i-i*'al an* collecti-e conscio'sness. (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#.

As (as pre-io'sly mentione*, the 4or*erlan* is a space (here c'lt'res colli*e, often (ith incompati,le -al'es, opposing histories, an* contra*ictory e2periences. It can ,e *iffic'lt to ,e an in*i-i*'al, or mem,er, of se-eral social, classe*, gen*ere*, racialiMe* gro'ps ,'t ne-er feeling ;'ite at home in either. An e2ample of the contra*ictions of (hich she spea&s is thro'gh a ,rief *isc'ssion of the i*entities of (omen of colo'r. +or instance, if an African!American (oman a*-ocates for (omenDs rights, *oes this mean that femininity an* the str'ggle against gen*er oppression ta&es prece*ence o-er her racial i*entity an* her str'ggle against coloniMation an* racial oppression8 The in-erse ;'estion can also ,e as&e*. If an African!American (oman of colo'r ta&es a political stance for the en* of her racial oppression, *oes this mean that she *e-al'es her e2perience as ,eing oppresse* ,y her gen*er i*entity8 AnMal*'a ma&es a plea to feminists to ,ri*ge i*entities an* to 'n*erstan* i*entities as al(ays ,eing constit'te* in the 4or*erlan*s. The sorting o't the contra*ictions em,e**e* ,et(een these social i*entities re;'ires a tolerance for am,ig'ity (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L21#. The ne( conscio'sness, thro'gh the transcen*ence of *'alistic thin&ing, is capa,le of em,racing these contra*ictions an* creating ne( c'lt're (ith Ca ne( -al'e system (ith images an* sym,ols that connect 's to each other an* the planet. (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#.D %reating this ne( c'lt're re;'ires a rethin&ing of the stances em,e**e* in the oppressor.oppresse* ,inary frame, that is, *e-eloping a conscio'sness (hich is neither against oppressi-e c'lt're (ith rage, or in a state of *efense in shame an* silence ,ro'ght on ,y the re?ection of oppressi-e c'lt're. $oreo-er, AnMal*'a proposes that (e all li-e in the 4or*erlan*s1 the space ,et(een ,eing insi*e or o'tsi*e of c'lt're. 4'tler (1999# (o'l* perhaps 'se the lang'age of not ha-ing to choose ,et(een ,eing intelligi,le or 'nintelligi,le, as either ,eing on the o'tsi*e or insi*e of c'lt're. AnMal*'a *isc'sses the importance of shifting from a con-ergent thin&ing that is al(ays attempting to mo-e for(ar* to(ar* a single, 'nifie*, political goal to *i-ergent thin&ing (hich em,races a (hole, incl'si-e perspecti-e (L21# The ne( conscio'sness, similar to :ara(ayDs artic'lation of the cy,org (1991#, is one (hich ,rea&s *o(n the con-ergent thin&ing of categories an* *'alisms an* instea* em,races *ifference, contra*iction an* partiality. This is (hat ma&es AnMal*'aDs arg'ment strong, incl'si-e, an* critical. It is incl'si-e insofar as it 'n*erstan*s i*entity as ,eing ,eyon* *'alisms an* 7estern ,inary constr'cts. 7e all li-e in the 4or*erlan*s an* instea* of respon*ing to the collision of c'lt're ,y ta&ing a stance on either si*e of the ,or*er, ren*ering 's part of these 7estern constr'cts, (e can incl'*e an* em,race o'r i*entities as contra*ictory, *ifferent, an* am,ig'o's. This s'perce*es the nee* to i*entify either as oppresse* or ta&e on the position of the oppressor. Ai&e :ara(ay, AnMal*'a goes against the c'rrent tra?ectory of feminism(s# an* her aim is to re*irect feminism. /he 'ses some of 4'tlerDs concepts an* lang'age of insi*e an* o'tsi*e of c'lt're to conte2t'aliMe the 4or*erlan*s as a space (here c'lt'res merge. $oreo-er, AnMal*'a ma&es a plea for the recognition of the post!mo*ern h'man. These feminist, post!mo*ernist an* post!str'ct'ralist theories are all (or&ing to(ar* re*irecting feminism to ma&e it more incl'si-e. They are incl'si-e in that they pinpoint or try to ma&e -isi,le a ne( conscio'sness that is free* from the po(er an* -al'e systems em,e**e* in 7estern myths an* constr'cts. +'rthermore, thro'gh la mestiMaDs Cc'lt'ral ,aggageD, AnMal*'a posits that a social re-ol'tion cannot emerge o't of a totaliMing force that 'nites all in*i-i*'als, ,'t only from a ne( conscio'sness pre*icate* on the 'n*erstan*ing of i*entities as partial, contra*ictory, an* capa,le of transcen*ing the rigi* c'lt'ral ,o'n*aries place* s'perimpose* on them. AnMal*'a also ta&es 'p masc'linity as a fragmente* i*entity an* recogniMes that ne( masc'linities

emerge o't of the transmission of c'lt'res in the 4or*erlan*s. $asc'linity is often essentially e;'ate* (ith men an* AnMal*'a *isagrees *'e to the fact that it essentialiMes all men an* pits them in ?'2taposition to (omen. $ore specifically, she artic'lates ho( ;'eer men ill'strate the e2tent to (hich the ,o'n*aries ,et(een male.female an* masc'line.feminine ha-e ,een transcen*e*. 4y em,racing the Cfeminine,D ;'eer men ill'minate the common pro,lematic propensity (ithin feminism to sit'ate an* categoriMe men an* masc'linity solely as oppressors or participating in a force of oppression. AnMal*'a also emphasiMes the nee* for all racialiMe* c'lt'res to ac&no(le*ge an* respect those (ho i*entify as ;'eer as there is ;'eer in all c'lt'res (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L2L#. AnMal*'aDs 'n*erstan*ing of i*entity as fl'i* an* contra*ictory (hile emphasiMing the intersections of race, class, gen*er (ithin an* ,et(een c'lt're thro'gh the 4or*erlan*s sho(s the e2tent to (hich her theory of a ne( conscio'sness is hea*ing in a more incl'si-e an* holistic *irection for feminism. $oreo-er, li&e 4'tler (1999# an* :ara(ay (1991#, she is ,latantly against the i*ea of an inner essence or an inner core i*entity an* arg'es for a *i-ergent (ay of thin&ing a,o't i*entity as ,eing constit'te* in a pl'rality of e2periences, histories, an* c'lt'res. I*entities, or people rather, learn to li-e in all c'lt'res an* in the 4or*erlan*s ,y not ha-ing to choose ,et(een c'lt'res. :er arg'ment is s'ch that the only (ay to re-ol'tioniMe an* create social change is if the in*i-i*'al an* collecti-e conscio'sness acti-ely ,rea&s *o(n an* 'proots *'alistic thin&ing (AnMal*'a, 19O<: L22#. As oppose* to either ,eing insi*e of oppressi-e c'lt're or on the constit'ti-e o'tsi*e, AnMal*'a 'n*erstan*s i*entity as ,eing completely immerse* in the 4or*erlan*s, the space (here c'lt'res not only merge an* colli*e ,'t also (here *ifference, *i-ersity, an* contra*iction is cele,rate*. The conscio'sness of the 4or*erlan*s neither &no(s or 'phol*s ,o'n*aries. 5ltimately, it is in a constant state of am,ig'ity, an* this am,ig'ity m'st ,e tolerate*. 0-en tho'gh AnMal*'a (rites from a *ifferent place than other theorists li&e :ara(ay an* 4'tler, it seems as tho'gh she infl'ences an* is infl'ence* ,y their post!mo*ern (ritings of i*entity. This realm of feminist theory attempts to not only mo-e feminism for(ar*, ,'t to re*irect it in a more incl'si-e *irection ,y a**ressing *ifference an* *ra(ing attention to the (ays in (hich i*entities ha-e shifte* in the late t(entieth cent'ry. 7ithin this sphere of feminist tho'ght, it is cr'cial for feminism(s# to em,race the contra*ictory i*entities an* c'lt'res that emerge from the 4or*erlan*s (hich are ma*e -isi,le only thro'gh seeing passe* the *ominant 7estern myths an* constr'cts p't in place ,y the per-asi-eness of mo*ernity. Gnly then can (e see a (ay o't of oppression thro'gh social re-ol'tion. It has to occ'r ,et(een people an* in*i-i*'al frames of conscio'sness1 ha-ing a conscio'sness of the 4or*erlan*s.

)' -!at i# t!e i3erence *et2een &*or er#( an #u++e#te *, AnGal Ha4 &Eor er#(

&*or erlan #.( a#

Intro uction

1n the preface to the .orderlands )loria An*ald+a states9 !1 am a border woman" $An*ald+a' FG8L&. Although such declaration may seem simple at first glance3 to be sure' this standpoint entails a parta(ing in the social and cultural production of personal identity' since she is the one deciding what name she wants to be called. :efining herself as a border woman' implies that An*ald+a has decided to reside in a place of ambiguity where to be either with us or against us is no longer her predicament' where the command to choose a side and to compromise her loyalty to a group is already re/ected. Eowe%er' this declaration is also political inasmuch as it refuses to assert a blind' unquestioned adherence to the figure of the state and its institutions. 7urthermore' it implies that she has made a conscious decision not only on where to base her struggle but it also implies that she has already %isuali*ed what (ind of struggle needs to be fought and against whom it is to be directed. .eing a border woman also implies seeing the borders as e%er changing spaces that are not restricted to host power relations' but as also incorporating pro/ects of resistance and liberation. 6his feature of border spaces ma(es their study appealing since borders as social' geographical and political constructions can be shaped and reshaped according to the multiple inPuences from those who are related to them. 1n this conte t' borders in the contemporary world' are better described by both their contrasts and contradictions' their permissi%eness and restrictions' their control and disorder' their peace and %iolence' their /ustice and in/ustices and so on' but more than that' contemporary borders are characteri*ed by the dynamism that contributes enormously to the production of all (inds of (nowledge. According to )eorg -immel' !the border is not a spatial fact with a sociological impact' but a sociological fact that shapes spatiality" $)eorg -immel FGG@9 DGL' as quoted in :ittgen' FGGG9 FDL&.

1n this study' 1 see( to contribute to a better understanding of )loria An*ald+aKs notion of the borderlands in both its geographical and ideological dimensions. Eowe%er' for the purpose of this study it must be understood that the geographical borderlands is to be associated with the U-#Me ico borderlands $An*ald+a writes geographical borders with small b&' while the ideological dimension of the term is not associated with any particular cartographic space $ideological .orderlands is written with capital .&F but rather they can e ist e%erywhere. 1n addition to this clarification' another remar( is necessary gi%en that the wor( of )loria An*ald+a has inPuenced many important fields in the academy. 1n this regard' the name of )loria An*ald+a is mainly associated with academic disciplines such as feminism' Chicana5o studies' or queer theory as e pressed by Ana Louise Oeating who sees An*ald+a as representati%e of !American studies' Chicano5a studies' composition studies' cultural studies' ethnic studies' feminism' literary studies' critical pedagogy' womenKs studies' and queer theory" $Oeating' @AA59 C&. -imilarly' -onia -aldQ%ar#Eull e plains that .orderlands !continues to be studied and included on class syllabi in courses on feminist theory' contemporary American women writers' autobiography' Chicana5o and Latina5o literature' cultural studies' and e%en ma/or American authors" $-aldQ%ar#Eull' @AAL&. -ince the wor( of An*ald+a has been mainly approached from the feminist' queer' and nationalist $Chicano& prominent scholars'C the present study is engaged from political and postcolonial standpoints gi%en that it is in these disciplines where the wor( of An*ald+a has little representation. 6his study thus addresses An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory 5 as a pro/ect of resistance formulated as a set of processes aimed to guide the inner self of a coloni*ed person in its struggle to achie%e decoloni*ation and liberation. -imilarly' the study addresses the historical e%ents that informed the social production of .orders both in its uni%ersal and local conte ts as a way of establishing a bac(ground that allows us to identify the relations of domination that the .orderlands theory see(s to o%ercome. 7urthermore' this study interrogates the scope of the .orderlands theory from a political perspecti%e. 1n this logic' this thesis is structured in fi%e chapters dedicated to assess the colonial' spatial' ideological' and political perspecti%es of the .5borderlands. Accordingly' the first chapter contains a discussion of the colonial conte t that produced the concept of borders as boundaries of nation#states that ser%ed mainly as the mechanisms that created diJerence and e clusion. Eere 1 situate the concept of borders within the conte t of the disco%ery of the new world and subsequent coloni*ation of Me ico gi%en that the framewor( guiding this study is postcolonial theory. 6he second chapter consists of a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. A discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important insofar as it situates the present study in the specific historical and spatial conte t that informed the production of An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory. 6he third chapter depicts a map of the processes that shape An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory and e plains it in more detail' e amining what elements are integrated into the theory' and how they are related to one another. 1t should be specified that this chapter is more concerned in pro%iding a general picture of the theory than in interpreting its possibilities. 6he fourth chapter addresses the political implications of the .orderlands theory and interrogates its scope from a political perspecti%e. 6he discussion in this chapter /u taposes An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory to Eannah ArendtKs %iew of political freedom.

7inally' in chapter fi%e 1 conclude by gi%ing a brief o%er%iew of this study and rePecting about the possibilities for future research. Ea%ing introduced the thesisK organi*ation let us rePect about one of the main goals that inform the .orderlands theory' namely' the notion of change.

&Eor erlan #( 6his chapter pro%ides a selecti%e o%er%iew of the borderlands scholarship. More specifically' this section is constructed as a literature re%iew regarding the geographical approach to the concrete *one of borderlands between Me ico and the United -tates. Although 1 would li(e to treat this section as a general o%er%iew of the borderlands' the spatial constraints of this chapter force me to draw certain limits in terms of what needs to be presented. 1n this regard' 1 will focus on re%iewing the borderlands literature that allows me to frame and produce criteria for my study. 1 decided to proceed in this way in the understanding that a full diagnosis of the concept of the borderlandsFC is not what this chapter stands for. ?ather' my interest is to build a conte t for the following chapters in which the .orderlands as a theory will ha%e particular focus. Eowe%er' ha%ing a discussion of the geographical dimension of the borderlands is important because it situates the present study in a specific historical and spatial conte t' which 1 argue informed the production of the .orderlands theory as an emancipatory and resistance pro/ect. Accordingly' the significance of this chapter rests in that it directly intersects the geographical borderlands with the ideology ad%anced by this term. 6he concepts of border and borderlands may be defined in geographical terms but' increasingly' its significance has been growing to encompass additional ideas that contain symbolic meanings. 1n consequence' the terms border and borderlands ha%e gained resonance in se%eral disciplines and sub disciplines' as diJerent authors ha%e noticed. Among them' <aul Outsche writes in his .orders and 7rontiers piece' !6he term borderland is ambiguous enough to encompass both boundaries and frontiers. 6his lac( of precision is con%enient' since borderland scholars are some times concerned with one and some times with other Rand' 1 would add' some times with both as in the case of the present studyS" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. Outsche e plains that the notion of boundaries is associated with the rise of ideas regarding the concept !of nation#state in modern 2urope' pertaining to the political and administrati%e so%ereignties /u taposed along an arbitrary but formally demar(ed line." 1n turn' frontier is an older term used to denote a *one of inPuence. According to this logic' !boundaries are precise while the width of frontiers is indefinite" $Outsche quoted in -toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 FD&. 1 want to call attention to this distinction' since the case that occupies us in this chapter is representati%e of both %iews. Nn the one hand' the Me ico# U.-. borderlands are constituted by the boundary that mar(s the limits of these two nations' and on the other' these borderlands e plain in part the inPuence of United -tates.

7ollowing this introduction' this chapter starts out with a discussion about the concept of borderlands in its historical and spatial conte t. My goal in this section is to trace the origin of the spatial composition of the borderlands through the wor( of a select number of historians who ma(e significant contributions to the establishment of what is meant by this term. ,e t' 1 briePy e plain some of the characteristics of the Me ican#Americans5Chicano FB groups associated with the -panish .orderlandsF5 and discuss current social dynamics in this area' using )loria An*ald+a as a way of establishing a conte t for the following chapter. 1 conclude by addressing some of the political implications de%ised from the geographical borderlands. 6his section is guided by the argument that An*ald+aKs .orderlands theory is a direct product of both historical and contemporary discriminatory practices aJecting minority groups along the U.-.#Me ico border such as the -panish origin population' ,ati%e# Americans' or blac(s. 1t is important to (eep in mind that the concept of borderlands has been the ob/ect of considerable scholarly rePection since it first appeared in print' to the e tent that its possibilities of e planation are numerous. 7or that reason' 1 wish to recall 2llwyn ?. -toddard words in the o%er%iew to the .orderlands -ourceboo(. 6here' he cautions us about the fact that !the U.-.# Me ico border region is not a single borderland but rather a composite of many. 4hat constitutes the entity %aries among diJerent academic disciplines' among the diJerent ethnic groups occupying the territory' and according to the perceptions and the eras of the people defining it" $-toddard' ,ostrand et al.' FG8C9 B&. Eence' with this premise as a point of departure' this chapter is mostly concerned with the geographical conte t of the borderlands %iewed from a national perspecti%e.

7' T!ink a*out t!e u#e o% *ilin+uali#m in t!e te9t' 1o2 oe# it make t!e rea er %eel4 -!at i# it# $ur$o#e4 4hile reading.orderlands' unless the reader is multi#lingual' you find some frustration while reading it. 6his frustration comes from the language not being 2nglish' and not being -panish' but an amalgamation of both. 6his frustration is ironic because An*ald+a describes this frustration felt ha%ing a confused language' and identity herself. 6his boo( is more powerful and real with the !-panglish" language and would not be the boo( it is and the boo( it is trying to be without it. 6he boo( is written in a way that it becomes an e tension of the author rather than /ust something the author has produced. 1t feels that way from the beginning and continues to the end. An*aludaKs multilingual methodology in%o(es what Mignolo calls !border thin(ing'" which embodies a double consciousness and employing multi# languaging to thin( from the border and oJer a new epistemology. As An*aldua describes it' border thin(ing creates a new mythos8!a change in the way we percei%e reality' the way we see oursel%es' and the ways we beha%e" $FA@&. 1n essence' from the border' An*aldua is creating another culture altogether' ! a new story to e plain the world and our participation in it' a new %alue system with images and symbols that connect us to each other and to the planet" $FAC&. 6he first step in !the Mesti*a way" is ta(ing in%entory of our own sel%es that ha%e been constructed by traceless historical processes. 6hen' we must put history !though a sie%e' winnow out the lies' loo(s at the forces that we as a race' as women' ha%e been part of" $FAB&. 6his process causes !conscious ruptures with all oppressi%e traditions of all cultures and religions. -he RthenS communicates that rupture' documents the struggle' and reinterprets history' and using new symbols' she shapes new myths" $FAB&. :econstruct in order to constructT

Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. :' -!at are t!e main c!aracteri#tic# o% t!e &ne2 me#tiGa con#ciou#ne##(4 As -onia -aldi%ar#Eull writes in the introduction to La Frontera, An*alduaKs reco%ery pro/ect !leads to the political' feminist' social awareness An*aldua calls ,ew Mesti*a Consiousness" $8&. As An*aldua e plains it' this consciousness entails a !shift out of habitual formations9 form con%ergent thn(ing' analytical reasoning that tends to use rationality to mo%e toward a single goal $a 4estern mode&' to di%ergent thin(ing' characteri*ed by mo%ement away from set patterns and goals toward a more whole perspecti%e' on ethat includes rather than e cludes" $FAF&. 5' Conte9tualiGe AnGal Ha"# t!eor, o% t!e Eor erlan # 2it!in $o#tcolonial i#cour#e' Part of this metho*ology that is so effecti-e is the personal acco'nts that AnMal*'a offers to *escri,e the psyche of those on the ,or*er. /he e2plains, for instance, that she ,o'ght into 7estern claims that In*ians are incapa,le of rationale tho'ght an* higher conscio'sness (59#. /he a*monishes 7estern intellect'al tho'ght for t'rning In*ians into o,?ects of st'*y an* ma&ing it shamef'l to spea& their o(n lang'age an* tr'st their o(n (ays of &no(ingWall of (hich are at the roots of -iolence. /he e2plains that ethnic i*entity is (rappe* 'p in lang'age1 th's, those on the ,or*er attempt to create a lang'age in (hich Uthey can create their o(n i*entity to, one capa,le of comm'nicating the realities an* -al'es tr'e to themsel-es>a lang'age (ith terms that are neither espanol ni ingles" ,'t ,oth. 7e spea& a patois, a for&e* tong'e, a -ariation of t(o lang'ageV (<"#. 1n attempt to e plain the psyche of those on the border' An*aldua e plains that many on the border de%elop la facultad8!the capacity to see in surface phenomena the meaning of deeper realities to see the deep structure below the surface. 1t is an instant !sensing'" a quic( perception arri%ed at without conscious reasoning. 1t is an acute awareness mediated by the part of the psyche that does not spea(' that communicates in images and symbols which are the faces of feelings' that is behind which feelings reside5hide" $DA&.

Some 0ui eline# %or Te9t Commentar, 1' Rea t!e e9tract# an #ummariGe t!e main i ea# %oun in t!em' )' -!at i# t!e i3erence *et2een &*or er#( an &*or erlan #.( a# #u++e#te *, AnGal Ha4 7' T!ink a*out t!e u#e o% *ilin+uali#m in t!e te9t' 1o2 oe# it make t!e rea er %eel4 -!at i# it# $ur$o#e4 :' -!at are t!e main c!aracteri#tic# o% t!e &ne2 me#tiGa con#ciou#ne##(4 5' Conte9tualiGe AnGal Ha"# t!eor, o% t!e Eor erlan # 2it!in $o#tcolonial i#cour#e'

STUD/ ,UIDE LESLIE MARMON SIL7O) SHERMAL ALE6IE .?127 1,6?N 6N 4N?O- A,: AU6EN?o Leslie Marmon -il(o $FGB8' Albuquerque' ,ew Me ico& is a Laguna <ueblo writer of ,ati%e#American' Anglo#American and Me ican#American descent. -he considers herself !half#breed"' and due to her mi ed#blood she was e cluded from some Laguna <ueblo rituals. 2%en so' she is considered part of the !,ati%e American ?enaissance" that started in the FGLAs' when an increasing number of ,ati%e American writers started publishing in the United -tates after the <ulit*er <ri*e was won by the first ,ati%e American author in history' -cott Momaday. -il(o' )erald Ii*enor and Momaday himself are considered to be a !7irst 4a%e" in the mo%ement' publishing in the FGLAs' while authors such as Voy Ear/o' Louise 2rdrich' and <aula )unn Allen belong to a !-econd 4a%e" of writers in the FG8As. Literary wor( such as -il(oKs helped e pand the ,ati%e American literary canon and focused on a historical re%ision of Anglo#American coloni*ation of their territory and culture' claiming a reco%ery of their heritage and the oral tradition narrati%e' as well as ,ati%e American mythology' fol(lore and spirituality. -il(o has paid particular attention to these issues through a postcolonial approach to the oppression and subordination e perienced by ,ati%e American tribal communities by the systematic domination and control of Anglo#American institutions' portraying the terrible consequences in their li%es of land e propriation' po%erty' alcoholism' educational control o%er their (ids $obliged to study in 2nglish&' and other (inds of social in/ustices li%ed by this community. A gender perspecti%e and the female e perience of these realities are recurrent themes in her stories' poems' essays and poems. -ome of her wor(s include9 Laguna 4oman $collection of short#stories and poems&3 Ceremony $FGLL&' her most acclaimed no%el3 -toryteller $FG8F&' another collection of stories and poems3 and Almanac for the :ead $FGGF& and Wellow 4oman and a .eauty of the -pirit $FGGL&. 6he story !Lullaby" belongs to the short#story collection -toryteller $FG8F&.

o -herman Ale ie $FGDD& is a ,ati%e American writer that belongs to the -po(ane tribe' located in the northwest of the United -tates between the states of 4ashington and 1daho. Ee is a poet' no%elist and filmma(er. As a baby he suJered from hydrocephalus and sur%i%ed miraculously' but health problems and physical stigma mar(ed his childhood and adolescence. At an early age he decided to access regular Anglo#American education away from the reser%ation' starting law and medicine at Uni%ersity' and finally choosing literary studies and creati%e writing. Ee was %ery much inPuenced by the boo( -ongs from 6his 2arth on 6urtleKs .ac( $FG8C& by Voseph .ruhac' and was encouraged to write fiction and poetry' winning soon literary pri*es for his wor( 6he .usiness of 7ancy :ancing9 -tories and <oems $FGG@&. Nthers wor(s by Ale ie are9 ?eser%ation .lues $FGGB&' 6he Lone ?anger and 6onto 7istfight in Eea%en $FGGC&' the short#story and poetry collection 6en Little 1ndians $@AAC&' or the young adult memoir 6he Absolutely 6rue :iary of a <art#6ime 1ndian $@AAL&' and the mo%ie -mo(e -ignals $@AA8&. Ale ie is an e ceptional poet with a %ery personal %oice that mi es determination' %ision' and mythical strength with e%ery#day small realities' humor and American pop culture. 6his postmodern blend ma(es him perhaps an e ample of what could be considered a !6hird 4a%e" of ,ati%e#American writers' not so much worried about claiming and remembering the past as to building a new hybrid and heterogeneous scenario for contemporary ,ati%e#American identity through the understanding of the comple ities of being a bicultural writer.

TE6T COMMENTAR/ :L;LLA8<= 8< L SL* LA),5# 9C )PT $ 6he sun had gone down but the snow in the wind ga%e oJ its own light. 1t came in thic( tufts li(e new wool8washed before the wea%er spins it. Ayah reached out for it li(e her own babies had' and she smiled when she remembered how she had laughed at them. -he was an old woman now' and her life had become memories. -he sat down with her bac( against the wide cotton#wood tree' feeling the rough bar( on her bac( bones3 she faced east and listened to the wind and snow sing a high#pitched Weibechei song. Nut of the wind she felt warmer' and she could watch the wide PuJy snow fill in her trac(s' steadily' until the direction she had come from was gone. .y the light of the snow she could see the dar( outline of the big arroyo a few feet away. -he was sitting on the edge of Cebolleta Cree(' where in the springtime the thin cows would gra*e on grass already chewed Pat to the ground. 1n the wide deep cree( bed where only a tric(le of water Powed in the summer' the s(inny cows would wander' loo(ing for new grass along winding paths splashed with manure. Ayah pulled the old Army blan(et o%er her head li(e a shawl. VimmieKs blan(et 8the one he had sent to her. 6hat was a long time ago and the green wool was faded' and it was unra%eling on the edges. -he did not want to thin( about Vimmie. -o she thought about the wea%ing and the way her mother had done it. Nn the wall wooden loom set into the sand under a tamarac( tree for shade. -he could see it clearly. -he had been only a little girl when her grandma ga%e her the wooden combs to pull the twigs and burrs from the raw' freshly washed wool. And while she combed the wool' her grandma sat beside her' spinning a sil%ery strand of yarn around the smooth cedar spindle. Eer mother wor(ed at the loom with yarns dyed bright yellow and red and gold. -he watched them dye the yarn in boiling blac( pots full of beeweed petals' /uniper berries' and sage. 6he blan(ets her mother made were soft and wo%en so tight that rain rolled oJ them li(e birdsK feathers. Ayah remembered sleeping warm on cold windy nights' wrapped in her motherKs blan(ets on the hoganKs sandy Poor. RTS

:L;LLA8<= 8< L SL* LA),5# 9C )PT ( 1t wasnKt li(e Vimmie died. Ee /ust ne%er came bac(' and one day a dar( blue sedan with white writing on its doors pulled up in front of the bo car shac( where the rancher let the 1ndians li%e. A man in a (ha(i uniform trimmed in gold ga%e them a yellow piece of paper and told them that Vimmie was dead. Ee said the Army would try to get the body bac( and then it would be shipped to them3 but it wasnKt li(ely because the helicopter had burned after it crashed. All of this was told to Chato because he could understand 2nglish. -he stood inside the doorway holding the baby while Chato listened. Chato spo(e 2nglish li(e a white man and he spo(e -panish too. Ee was taller than the white man and he stood straighter too. Chato didnKt e plain why3 he /ust told the military man they could (eep the body if they found it. 6he white man loo(ed bewildered3 he nodded his head and he left. 6hen Chato loo(ed at her and shoo( his head' and then he told her' !Vimmie isnKt coming home anymore'" and when he spo(e' he used the words to spea( of the dead. -he didnKt cry then' but she hurt inside with anger. And she mourned him as the years passed' when a horse fell with Chato and bro(e his leg' and the white rancher told them he wouldnKt pay Chato until he could wor( again. -he mourned Vimmie because he would ha%e wor(ed for his father then3 he would ha%e saddled the big bay horse and ridden the fence lines each day' with wire cutters and hea%y glo%es' fi ing the brea(s in the barbed wire and putting the stray cattle bac( inside again. -he mourned him after the white doctors came to ta(e :anny and 2lla away. -he was at the shac( alone that day they came. 1t was bac( in the days before they hired ,a%a/o women to go with them as interpreters. -he recogni*ed one of the doctors. -he had seen him at the childrenKs clinic at CaXoncito about a month ago. 6hey were wearing (ha(i uniforms and they wa%ed papers at her and a blac( ball#point pen' trying to ma(e her understand their 2nglish words. -he was frightened by the way they loo(ed at the children' li(e the li*ard watches the Py. :anny was swinging on the tire swing on the elm tree behind the rancherKs house' and 2lla was toddling around the front door' dragging the broomstic( horse Chato made for her. Ayah could see they wanted her to sign the papers' and Chato had taught her to sign her name. 1t was something she was proud of. -he only wanted them to go' and to ta(e their eyes away from her children. -he too( the pen from the man without loo(ing at his face and she signed the papers in three diJerent places he pointed to. RTS

:L;LLA8<= 8< L SL* LA),5# 9C )PT > 1f Vimmie had been there he could ha%e read those papers and e plained to her what they said. Ayah would ha%e (nown then' ne%er to sign them. 6he doctors came bac( the ne t day and they brought a .1A policeman with them. 6hey told Chato they had her signature and that was all they needed. 2 cept for the (ids. -he listened to Chato sullenly3 she hated him when he told her it was the old woman who died in the winter' spitting blood3 it was her old grandma who had gi%en the children this disease. !6hey donKt spit blood'" she said coldly. !6he whites lie." -he held 2lla and :anny close to her' ready to run to the hills again. !1 want a medicine man first'" she said to Chato' not loo(ing at him. Ee shoo( his head. !1tKs too late now. 6he police#man is with them. Wou signed the paper." Eis %oice was gentle. 1t was worse than if they had died9 to lose the children and to (now that somewhere' in a place called Colorado' in a place full of sic( and dying strangers' her children were without her. 6here had been babies that died soon after they were born' and one that died before he could wal(. -he had carried them herself' up to the boulders and great pieces of the cliJ that long ago crashed down from Long Mesa3 she laid them in the cre%ices of sandstone and buried them in fine brown sand with round quart* pebbles that washed down the hills in the rain. -he had endured it because they had been with her. .ut she could not bear this pain. -he did not sleep for a long time after they too( her children. -he stayed on the hill where they had Ped the first time' and she slept rolled up in the blan(et Vimmie had sent her. -he carried the pain in her belly and it was fed by e%erything she saw9 the blue s(y of their last day together and the dust and pebbles they played with3 the swing in the elm tree and broomstic( horse cho(ed life from her. 6he pain filled her stomach and there was no room for food or for her lungs to fill with air. 6he air and the food would ha%e been theirs. -he hated Chato' not because he let the policeman and doctors put the screaming children in the go%ernment car' but because he had taught her to sign her name. .ecause it was li(e the old ones always told her about learning their language or any of their ways9 it endangered you. RTS

:L;LLA8<= 8< L SL* LA),5# 9C )PT ? -he felt satisfied that the men in the bar feared her. Maybe it was her face and the way she held her mouth with teeth clenching tight' li(e there was nothing anyone could do to her now. -he wal(ed north down the road' searching for the old man. -he did this because she had the blan(et' and there would be no place for him e cept with her and the blan(et in the old adobe barn near the arroyo. 6hey always slept there when they came to Cebolleta. 1f the money and the wine were gone' she would be relie%ed because then they could go home again3 bac( to the old hogan with a dirt roof and roc( walls where she herself had been born. And the ne t day the old man could go bac( to the few sheep they still had. RTS

:L;LLA8<= 8< L SL* LA),5# 9C )PT @

6he storm passed swiftly. 6he clouds mo%ed east. 6hey were massi%e and full' crowding together across the s(y. -he watched them with the feeling of horses 8steely blue#gray horses startled across the s(y. 6he powerful haunches pushed into the distances and the tail hairs streamed white mist behind them. 6he s(y cleared. Ayah saw that there was nothing between her and the stars. 6he light was crystalline. 6here was no shimmer' no distortion through earth ha*e. -he breathed the clarity of the night s(y3 she smelled the purity of the half moon and the stars. Ee was lying on his side with his (nees pulled up near his belly for warmth. Eis eyes were closed now' and in the light from the stars and the moon' he loo(ed young again. -he could see it descend out of the night s(y9 an icy stillness from the edge of the thin moon. -he recogni*ed the free*ing. 1t came gradually' sin(ing snowPa(e by snowPa(e until the crust was hea%y and deep. 1t had the strength of the stars in Nrion' and its /ourney was endless. Ayah (new that with the wine he would sleep. Ee would not feel it. -he tuc(ed the blan(et around him' remembering how it was when 2lla had been with her3 and she felt the rush so big inside her heart for the babies. And she sang the only song she (new to sing for babies. -he could not remember if she had e%er sung it to her children' but she (new that her grandmother had sung it and her mother had sung it9 6he earth is your mother' she holds you. 6he s(y is your father' he protects you. -leep' sleep. ?ainbow is your sister' she lo%es you. 6he winds are your brothers' they sing to you. -leep' sleep. 4e are together always 4e are together always 6here ne%er was a time when this was not so.

1' Rea eac! #!ort-#tor, care%ull,' Anal,Ge t!e main t!eme# *rou+!t u$ *, *ot! #torie#' T!ink a*out t!eir commonalitie# an i3erent a$$roac!e#' Stor,tellin+ The role of storytelling in 6ati-e American c'lt're is a theme central to all of /il&o's (or&. "A'lla,y"appears in a collection entitle* Storyteller" (hich is especially concerne* (ith (ays of translating the oral tra*ition of storytelling into a (ritten 0nglish format. Ayah, the ol* (oman (ho is the main character, *oes not tell a story *irectly to another person1 ho(e-er, the story is comprise* of her reminiscences, (hich f'nction as a form of internal storytelling. This (ritten story capt'res the str'ct're of an oral story, in that it (ea-es past memories an* present occ'rrences thro'gh a series of associations, rather than in a set chronological or*er.

Tradition and /hange


In all of her (riting, /il&o is concerne* (ith the (ays in (hich 6ati-e American tra*itions can ,e a*apte* to the contemporary circ'mstances of 6ati-e American life. :er characters are often ca'ght ,et(een a tra*itional an* a mo*ern (ay of life. In this story, Ayah recalls s'ch tra*itions as her mother (ea-ing ,lan&ets on a loom set o'tsi*e, (hile her gran*mother sp'n the yarn from (ool. This memory is e-o&e* ,y Ayah's 'se of the ol* army ,lan&et her son Bimmie ha* sent home from the (ar. Aoo&ing *o(n at her (orn shoes in the sno(, she recalls the (arm ,'c&s&in moccasins 6ati-e Americans ha* once (orn. At the point of her h's,an*'s *eath, Ayah falls ,ac& on the singing of a tra*itional l'lla,y s'ng ,y her gran*mother. The story s'ggests that, at s'ch a profo'n* e-ent as the *eath of a lo-e* one, s'ch tra*itions s'ch ser-e an important p'rpose, e-en in mo*ern life.

Batrilinear =elationships
/il&o's stories are often concerne* (ith the gran**a'ghter!gran*mother relationship as a lin& ,et(een mo*ern an* tra*itional 6ati-e American c'lt're. /il&o herself learne* m'ch a,o't her o(n tri,al tra*itions from her gran*mother an* ol*er female relati-es. In this story, Ayah, as an ol* (oman, recalls tra*itional forms of ,lan&et!(ea-ing, as practice* ,y her mother an* gran*mother. /he also recalls gi-ing ,irth to her first chil* (ith the ai* of her mother. 7hen her h's,an* is *ying, she t'rns to a tra*itional l'lla,y s'ng ,y her gran*mother in or*er to comfort him thro'gh the process of *eath.

Death and Eoss


Ayah's reminiscences foc's mainly on the ma?or losses in her life. The strong sense of nostalgia in the story e2presses a sa*ness o-er the loss of tra*itional c'lt're an* (ays of life, as (ell as pain an* ,itterness o-er the loss of all three of her chil*ren. Ayah ha* lost t(o infants alrea*y, ,'t only to nat'ral ca'ses, an* (as comforte* ,y ,'rying them in the lan* s'rro'n*ing her home. The loss of her other chil*ren to (hite a'thorities, ho(e-er, she fin*s more tra'matiMing. :er first chil*, Bimmie, *ies in a helicopter crash *'ring the (ar. /he learns that his ,o*y may ha-e ,een ,'rne*, so she *oes not ha-e the opport'nity to mo'rn his loss in a more tra*itional (ay. /he later loses her t(o yo'ng chil*ren, 3anny an* 0lla, to the (hite *octors (ho intimi*ate her into signing an agreement allo(ing them to ta&e the chil*ren to a sanitari'm. Ayah's final loss comes at the en* of

the story, (hen her h's,an* %hato lies *o(n in the sno(, an* she realiMes that he is *ying. In this story, /il&o is concerne* (ith the (ays in (hich storytelling can heal an* transform the e2perience of loss>,oth personal an* c'lt'ral.

=acial and /ultural Fppression


All of the ma?or trage*ies of Ayah's life are precipitate* ,y the intr'sion of (hite a'thorities into her home. The c'lt'ral oppression of 6ati-e Americans in general is in*icate* thro'gh the personal losses Ayah has s'ffere* at the han*s of (hite c'lt're. It is a (hite man (ho informs Ayah an* %hato of this loss, sym,oliMing the larger racial iss'e of 6ati-e Americans *ying in ser-ice to a nation that has oppresse* them. Ayah's coercion into signing a(ay her chil*ren also has m'ch *eeper implications in the conte2t of 6ati-e American history. The near!genoci*e of 6ati-e Americans ,y the 5./. go-ernment in the nineteenth cent'ry (as in part characteriMe* ,y the practice of tric&ing 6ati-e Americans into signing "treaties" that (or&e* to their *isa*-antage. +inally, the rancher (ho employs %hato is another sym,ol of oppressi-e (hite a'thority. 7hen %hato ,rea&s his leg on the ?o, from falling off a horse, the rancher ref'ses to pay him 'ntil he is a,le to (or& again. An* (hen he *etermines that %hato is too ol* to (or&, he fires him an* &ic&s the ol* co'ple o't of their home to ma&e room for ne( (or&ers. These actions a** class oppression onto the con*itions of racial oppression from (hich Ayah an* her family s'ffer.

Eanguage Garriers
The lang'age ,arrier ca'se* ,y her ina,ility to 'n*erstan* the 0nglish! or /panish!spea&ing (hite people a**s to Ayah's e2perience of ,eing ta&en a*-antage of ,y (hite people. 7hen a (hite man comes to the *oor to inform them that their son Bimmie has *ie* in the (ar, Ayah is 'na,le to 'n*erstan* him1 her h's,an* %hato has to translate for her. The (hite *octors ta&e a*-antage of Ayah's ina,ility to 'n*erstan* 0nglish ,y ,'llying her into signing a piece of paper that gi-es them permission to ta&e her chil*ren a(ay. Altho'gh the chil*ren are occasionally ,ro'ght ,ac& to -isit Ayah, they e-ent'ally forget their nati-e lang'age, an* can only spea& 0nglish. The loss of their nati-e lang'age signifies the complete alienation of the chil*ren from their tra*itional 6ati-e American c'lt're, as (ell as from their family.

)' Detain an look %or in%ormation a*out t!e Nati8e-American cultural i##ue# an ritual# %oun in t!e #torie# 5i'e' &1o+an.( &Yei*ec!ei #on+(. t!e u#e o% rituali#tic #on+#. etc'6' KT!e Men in t!e Ear Leare 1erKC T!e Po2er o% A,a! in Le#lie Marmon SilkoM# KLulla*,K "y Patrice #ollrah

Patrice Hollrah is the Director of the Writing Center at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and teaches for the Department of English. he is the a!thor of "#he $ld Lady #rill, the Victory %ell"& #he Po'er of Women in Native (merican Literat!re )Ne' %or*& +o!tledge, ,--./.

Eeslie Barmon Silko, who is of Eaguna !ue$lo, Be+ican, and white ancestry, states her political agenda? H# feel it is more effective to write a story like HEulla$yH than to rant and rave. # think it is more effective in reaching peopleH %Seyersted, Two #nterviews 08). #n the short story HEulla$y,H which is Hamong the most often reprinted stories in .merican #ndian literature,H Silko draws on 2avaIo %DinJ) characters % raulich &>). 6irst pu$lished in &>98 in $oth /hicago =eview and ;ard$ird =eader, HEulla$yH was later selected $y Bartha 6oley as one of twenty works for The Gest .merican Short Stories of &>9(. Silko then included it in Storyteller %&>C&). *riting outside of her own Eaguna !ue$lo tradition in HEulla$yH presents the challenge to the reader of having to $e aware of not only Silko's tri$al heritage $ut also that of the 2avaIo. #n HEulla$y,H .yah searches for her hus$and, /hato, as she walks in the falling snow to .,,ie's Gar where he has gone to $uy wine. During her walk, she reminisces a$out her life, remem$ering, among other things, scenes from her childhood, the loss of her son in the war, the removal of her two young children from her home, and /hato $eing fired from his cattle rancher's Io$. Silko Iu+taposes the past and the present to show $oth how .yah maintains her sense of tri$al identity in the face of change, disillusionment, and loss, and $y e+tension how pro$lems still e+ist today not Iust for the 2avaIo $ut for many .merican #ndians. The story ends on a dual note, one that implies death, $ut more importantly one that signifies continuity, survival, and hope. This essay e+amines how 2avaIo culture, specifically the concept of ho,ho and the 2avaIo deities /hanging *oman and Spider *oman, helps e+plain how .yah is also a powerful individual despite events that portray her only as a victim. Taking into account the 2avaIo historical and cultural conte+ts of HEulla$yH illuminates more fully the political ramifications of gender complementarity for the female protagonist, .yah. #n the ideology of gender complementarity, or tri$ally constructed gender roles, there is no hierarchy of genders $ut rather an equal regard for the roles and work of each. . patriarchal culture denotes a relationship with women in su$ordinate position to men, a relationship of unequal power. <owever, when men and women complement each K0L other in tri$al societies, the result is a certain degree of autonomy and independence from each other with the understanding that there also will $e generosity and sharing %.l$ers and Bedicine &C>). #n Eaura Tohe's %2avaIo) essay HThere #s 2o *ord for 6eminism in By Eanguage,H she writes a$out the cultural role of 2avaIo women in general as important mem$ers of the family and tri$e?

.s long as # can remem$er, the DinJ %or 2avaIo, as we are also referred to) women in my life have always shown courage, determination, strength, persistence, and endurance in their own special way. By female relatives lived their lives within the DinJ matrilineal culture that valued, honored, and respected them. These women passed on to their daughters not only their strength, $ut the e+pectation to assume responsi$ility for the family, and therefore were e+pected to act as leaders for the family and the tri$e. Despite five hundred years of *estern patriarchal intrusion, this practice continues. %&'7) Tohe's description of 2avaIo women serves as an introduction in how to regard .yah in the conte+t of her own family? her grandmother, mother, hus$and, and children. .lso, the way in which Tohe characteri,es the 2avaIo women certainly applies to .yah, the Hcourage, determination, strength, persistence, and enduranceH that she shows Hin 4her5 own special way,H in view of the hardships that she has endured. Silko's knowledge of 2avaIo culture comes from several different sources. .s a child, Silko heard family-related stories involving 2avaIos, which she fashions into new stories for her collection in Storyteller. #n one, Silko's randma .'mooh recounts how when she was a child, she heard the story of the hungry 2avaIos who stole a herd of Eaguna sheep. .'mooh's uncles and grandfather were among those who caught the 2avaIos and told them the ne+t time they were hungry they should ask for something to eat and the Eaguna people would feed them. Silko contends that today Eaguna homes always welcome 2avaIo people during 6east time %0&'). #n addition to the historical account of sheep raiding, this story's theme focuses on the tri$al characteristic of sharing, an important concept in a communal culture. #n another story from Storyteller, Silko's reat-grandpa Stagner hired -uana, an adult 2avaIo woman who as a child was kidnapped $y K7L slave hunters. -uana came to live with Silko's reat-grandmother <elen to help raise her children. .s a child, Silko along with her randma Eillie would place flowers on -uana's grave %CC-C>). .lthough Silko does not e+plain why -uana might $e well-suited to help in the raising of children, the 2avaIo concept of mothering might e+plain her propensity for this kind of work. This idea will $e dealt with in greater detail later in this essay. #n a third story from the collection, Silko writes a$out the 2avaIos who visited every year at Eaguna 6east time? H2avaIos used to Iam the hillsides with their wagons and horses. 4. . .5 By father made all of us kids come outside and watch the last wagon comeH %0'0). #n one anecdote, Silko relates how her grandfather $ecame good friends with one 2avaIo man? randpa <ank had a friend like that, an old man from .lamo. 1very year they were so glad to see each other, and the 2avaIo man would $ring randpa something in the gunny sack he carried---sometimes little apricots the old man grew or a mutton shoulder. 4. . .5 # remem$er the last time the old 2avaIo man came looking for my randpa. 4. . .5 we told him, H<enry passed away last winter.H The old 2avaIo man cried, and then he left. <e never came $ack anymore after that. %&C9) rowing up in pro+imity to the 2avaIos along with hearing stories a$out the relationships among them and the Eaguna people are Iust two of the ways in which Silko learned a$out her 2avaIo neigh$ors. The stories reveal details of intimate friendships, employer-employee relationships, historical events involving sheep raiding and kidnapping, traditional tri$al ceremonies, family customs, and other information a$out the Eaguna and 2avaIo lifestyles. 1vidently, these family stories of personal e+periences with the 2avaIo carry enough importance in Silko's life that she feels compelled to share them in her own storytelling, and she shows a deep a$iding respect for the role these 2avaIo people have played in her family's history. <aving this much personal information a$out the 2avaIo at her disposal would certainly e+plain Silko's

comfort with writing the short story HEulla$y.H Silko undou$tedly met more 2avaIos when she attended the University of 2ew Be+ico where she earned her G... in 1nglish in &>M> and afterward completed three semesters of law school. Eater, K8L Silko taught for appro+imately two years at the 2avaIo /ommunity /ollege in Tsaile, .ri,ona. #n an interview, Silko responds to a question a$out the character Getonie in her novel /eremony $y speaking a$out one 2avaIo friend in particular with whom she had long conversations? Getonie is partly $ased on things that # $egan to perceive from the two years # spent in 2avaIo country and from one 2avaIo man who was a friend of mine. *hat he told me in our long discussions was that he was constantly pro$ing the 2avaIo $eliefs he had grown up with. <e has this tremendous mind, and he's constantly e+amining and ree+amining $asic assumptions and presumptions. 2ot Iust in 2avaIo culture, $ut . . . he went to St. -ohn's /ollege in Santa 6e, and he studied reek. <e has an incisive mind. 6rom talking with him, # $egan to appreciate the kind of conservatism #'d $een taught to connect with 2avaIo culture, 2avaIo thought. %6it,gerald and <udak 77) Silko seems to have spent a su$stantial amount of time in the company of enough other 2avaIo people to assume that she acquired a degree of familiarity with 2avaIo culture. .fter leaving the 2avaIo reservation, Silko moved to "etchikan, .laska, in &>97, and, while living there, she wrote HEulla$yH %7'). .part from the personal contact that Silko has had with 2avaIo people, she has incorporated $oth the 2avaIo landscape and 2avaIo characters into her own creative work. Fne of the most o$vious references to the actual geographical location of 2avaIo reservations near Eaguna !ue$lo occurs in the reworking of a Eaguna traditional tri$al a$duction story H;ellow *oman.H Silko positions Silva, the narrator's lover, so he can see the 2avaIo reservation? H6rom here # can see the world.H <e stepped out on the edge. HThe 2avaIo reservation $egins over there.H <e pointed to the east. HThe !ue$lo $oundaries are over here.H <e looked $elow us to the south. %Storyteller (9-(C) K(L Silko also suggests that Silva might $e 2avaIo? H1ven $eside the horses he looked tall, and # asked him again if he wasn't 2avaIoH %M'). 6inally, when the narrator returns home, she decides to tell her family that Hsome 2avaIo had kidnapped 4her5H %M0). .. Ea@onne =uoff points out this Hallusion to the old 2avaIo practice of raiding !ue$lo settlements for food and womenH %H=itualH &7). The consequences of $oth the historical events and the physical pro+imity of the 2avaIo to the !ue$lo people lend themselves to the narrative structure of Silko's H;ellow *oman.H The short story HEulla$y,H a$out a 2avaIo family, is not an anomaly in Silko's writing. She has esta$lished a pattern of writing a$out 2avaIo characters $ased $oth on her personal history and the larger history of the two tri$es. Silko refers to the 2avaIo in several other places in Storyteller. #n the poem HStorytelling,H Silko inverts the usually gendered paradigm of the a$ductor-a$ductee relationship, and three 2avaIo men $ecome the kidnapped victims of four Eaguna women? H'*e couldn't escape them,' he told police later. A '*e tried, $ut there were four of them and A only three of us'H %>M). Eater in the same poem, the speaker accuses a 2avaIo of threatening her life? #t was that 2avaIo from .lamo, you know, the tall good-looking one. <e told me he'd kill me if # didn't go with him %>9->C) The historical influences of kidnapping as well as the mythical influence of ;ellow *oman's leaving the pue$lo and engaging in se+ual relationships permeate the poem. 2ot understanding Silko's larger personal and historical conte+ts for using the 2avaIo in so much of her work might lead to a misinterpretation of what at times on the surface appears to $e a negative although

humorous portrayal of them, and this reading, of course, would not $e correct. #n fact, having the women a$duct the men is a perfect e+ample of gender KML complementarity, in which the women are equally as strong, powerful, and capa$le of playing the role of kidnappers, as well as of acting as the se+ual aggressors. .s for the woman who claims that the 2avaIo man threatened her, she uses language to defend herself, to $lame him, when she most likely went willingly. .lso, two of the Eee <. Barmon photographs in Storyteller deal with 2avaIo su$Iects. 6or one landscape photograph, Silko provides a note that e+plains a 2avaIo legend? HThe 2avaIos say the $lack peaks in this valley are drops of $lood that fell from a dying monster which the Twin Grothers fought and fatally woundedH %n. &8, 09&). The second photograph from the early &>('s pictures 2avaIo wagons at the Eaguna 6iesta %n.&8, 09&). <er knowledge of the 2avaIo not only has come from the oral stories she heard growing up $ut also from the photographs that her father took. She saw for herself many of the o$Iects and events in the photographs, and had the pictures to remind her of those images. #n story and picture, Silko weaves the 2avaIo people, culture, and history throughout her work as if they form a natural part of her own intellectual landscape. .nother aspect of Silko's affinity for integrating the 2avaIo into her work comes from the similarities $etween the 2avaIo and Eaguna !ue$lo in terms of matriarchies or matrilineal societies. #n an interview, Silko e+plains the role of Eaguna !ue$lo women? #n a matrilineal society, in a matriarchy, and especially in this particular matriarchy, the women, as #'ve already said, control the houses, the lineage of the children, and a lot of the decisions a$out marriages and so forth. #n a sense, the women have called the shots pretty much in the world of relationships and the everyday world. *hile the !ue$lo women were kind of running the show, $uying and selling sheep, and of course the 2avaIos are the same way too, the women making many of the $usiness decisions, the !ue$lo men would $e taking care of ceremonial matters or may$e out hunting. %emphasis added, Garnes >M->9) Silko descri$es the Eaguna !ue$lo as a matrilineal, matriarchal, and matrilocal society, and she asserts that the H2avaIo are the same way.H #n reality, the 2avaIo Htri$e is matrilineal and matrilocal %preferred) with apparent high status for womenH %Shepardson &(>). Gased on K9L these similarities, that Silko would feel open to using 2avaIo characters in HEulla$y,H as well as in her other works, is understanda$le. She focuses on commonalities rather than any differences among the tri$es, and specifically, she considers issues of women's power and gender complementarity in matrifocal societies. The a$undance of evidence for Silko's use of 2avaIo material in her writing is necessary to defend against any critique of her choice to write a$out another culture outside of her own Eaguna !ue$lo tri$e. 2oted scholar 1li,a$eth /ook-Eynn %/row /reek Siou+) speaks to the current pro$lem of appropriation as she perceives it in .merican #ndian literary studies? . great deal of the work done in the mi+ed-$lood literary movement is personal, invented, appropriated, and irrelevant to 6irst 2ation status in the United States. #f that work $ecomes too far removed from what is really going on in #ndian enclaves, there will $e no way to engage in responsi$le intellectual strategies in an era when structures of e+ternal cultural power are more oppressive than ever. %&7') The appropriation of cultures other than the author's leads to the fear of misrepresentation of that culture. .merican #ndians resent cultural outsiders defining who they are. The evidence for Silko's knowledge of the 2avaIo and her sincerity in portraying them within their own cultural and historical conte+ts cannot $e denied. /ook-Eynn's concern, however, also speaks to whether the writing will address the most important issues necessary to the future survival of .merican #ndians?

Does this art give thoughtful consideration to the defense of our lands, resources, languages, childrenN #s anyone doing the intellectual work in and a$out #ndian communities that will help us understand our futureN *hile it is true that any indigenous story tells of death and $lood, it also tells of indigenous re$irth and hope, not as .mericans nor as some new ersat, race $ut as the indigenes of this continent. %&78) KCL #n telling .yah's story in HEulla$y,H Silko addresses those very issues of resources, language, and children. #n writing images that reflect the past and present of the 2avaIo, she tells a$out death, $ut taking into account 2avaIo mythology, she also offers continuity and survival for them. Silko portrays the 2avaIo woman .yah as a character who shares common e+periences with other .merican #ndian women. She has lived through a variety of historical and cultural changes and still retains an intact connection to her 2avaIo identity. Some historical information and general principles a$out 2avaIo culture offer a $etter understanding of .yah and what a 2avaIo woman's life entails. Fne maIor historical event is the 2avaIo *ar of &CM7-M8. Under the military leadership of eneral -ames <. /arleton and the command of /olonel "it /arson, federal and volunteer troops captured and killed 2avaIos, $urned their hogans, destroyed their crops, and sei,ed their herds %Gailey and Gailey >). #n .ugust &CM7, surviving groups of 2avaIo prisoners $egan the Eong *alk to Gosque =edondo, where almost C,('' 2avaIos were eventually imprisoned %&'). The Treaty of &CMC allowed the 2avaIo to return to their sacred homeland after having suffered for four years. /lyde "luckhohn and Dorothea Eeighton descri$e the lasting negative impact the effects of the war and su$sequent imprisonment have had on the 2avaIo? 6ort Sumner 4Gosque =edondo5 was a maIor calamity to The !eople; its full effects upon their imagination can hardly $e conveyed to white readers. . . . Fne can no more understand 2avaho attitudes . . . without knowing of 6ort Sumner than he can comprehend Southern attitudes without knowing of the /ivil *ar. %qtd. in Gailey and Gailey &'-&&) The plot structure of .yah remem$ering inIustices suffered in her past andwalking to find her hus$and recall the Eong *alk that her ancestors endured. That the 2avaIo returned, survived, and flourished also indicate a potentially positive reading of the end of HEulla$y.H Gased on her tri$al history, .yah could have negative feelings a$out the whites even $efore she e+periences personal inIuries $y them. . second important historical event that would color .yah's perceptions of whites would $e the United States government's &>7's stock reduction programs. The United States government and the 2avaIo $oth saw the pro$lems of erosion and the resulting damage to K>L the gra,ing lands from completely different perspectives? H#ndian Service officials saw the pro$lem as overgra,ing 4. . .5 and stock reduction as the only solutionH %Gailey and Gailey &C(). =uth =oessel and Groderick <. -ohnson, on the other hand, note that the 2avaIos Hperceived a different set of factors which produced the erosion--- namely, the reduction of stock 'caused the rain clouds to diminish,' which kept the grass from growing, and this in turn resulted in the erosionH %qtd. in Gailey and Gailey &C(- CM). Destroying thousands of animals to which the 2avaIos had comple+ and profound cultural and economic attachments did not make any sense to them. This key event of enforced herd reductions could color the way that .yah perceives .nglo-.mericans. Eanguage creates origins, and Silko knows that .yah's worldview $egins with a 2avaIo origin myth. Eike the Eaguna !ue$lo, the 2avaIo have an emergence myth. They $elieve that they have emerged through several worlds to the present one. !eter #verson offers a $rief summary of the emergence myth, which includes stories of the 6our *orlds, 6irst Ban and 6irst *oman, and the animals. <e goes on to descri$e how the world as the 2avaIos know it continued to $e shaped?

The stories tell of the first hogan $eing constructed, the first sweat $ath $eing taken, the four seasons $eing esta$lished, day and night $eing created, the stars $eing placed in the sky, and the sun and the moon coming into e+istence. The littering *orld encompasses $oth $eauty and difficulty. #n one episode after another, listeners hear the consequences of improper $ehavior, and learn a$out the difficulties that may ensue through carelessness or thoughtlessness. %>-&&) The 2avaIo find not only their relationship to this world and the land in their origin myth $ut also their identity. The central idea in 2avaIo religious thinking, called ho,ho, Htranslates as $alance or harmony, and they strive to maintain this harmonyH %To$ert and !itt 78)? 4#5t is not something that occurs only in ritual song and prayer; it is referred to frequently in everyday speech. . 2avaIo uses this concept to e+press his happiness, his health, the $eauty of his land, and the K&'Lharmony of his relations with others. #t is used in reminding people to $e careful and deli$erate, and when he says good-$ye to someone leaving, he will say 4. . .5 %Hmay you walk or go a$out according to ho,hoH). %*itherspoon, Eanguage &C) Traditional 2avaIo elders /hauncy and Dorothy 2e$oyia summari,e the 2avaIo philosophy in the following way? HThe earth is our mother; she sustains us. Those who give $irth nurse their young. #t is the same with the earth. Eiving and working well will $ring a good life and a good reputationH %Seasons). 2avaIo worldview encompasses life in a holistic way; the people, environment, work, and spirituality are interconnected at all times, and this worldview is omnipresent in HEulla$y.H Therefore, an understanding of 2avaIo cultural and historical conte+ts opens up the reading of HEulla$yH in a necessary way that no other approach offers. The 2avaIo practice three general kinds of ritual to maintain, insure, or restoreho,ho? Glessingway rites, <olyway rites, and 1vilway rites %*itherspoon, Eanguage78-7(). The opening paragraph of HEulla$yH contains a wealth of information that hints at 2avaIo culture, including a reference to ceremony? The sun had gone down $ut the snow in the wind gave off its own light. #t came in thick tufts like new wool---washed $efore the weaver spins it. .yah reached out for it like her own $a$ies had, and she smiled when she remem$ered how she had laughed at them. She was an old woman now, and her life had $ecome memories. She sat down with her $ack against the wide cottonwood tree, feeling the rough $ark on her $ack $ones; she faced east and listened to the wind and snow sing a high-pitched ;ei$echei song. %Storyteller 87)& Teams of masked dancers perform the ;ei$echei songs during the last two evenings of the 2ightway ceremony, a healing ritual. They are Hwidely known as the most dramatic of 2avaIo songsH and have $een descri$ed as $eing Hpiercingly powerful,H having Hhypnotic power,H and Hdisplaying almost acro$atic feats of $ounding $ack and forth $etween octaves.H 4. . .5 .ll these differences are intentional K&&Lfor it is the voices of the gods that are heard 4. . .5 and they should not sound like ordinary singing. %Bc.llester and Bitchell M'>) /learly, Silko references the ;ei$echei song to allude to the healing and ritual nature of the story that follows, an attempt to restore ho,ho---Heverything that is good, harmonious, orderly, happy, and $eautiful,H the opposite of hocho---Hthe evil, the disorderly, and the uglyH %*itherspoon, Eanguage 78). #n light of the negative events in .yah's life, she would need to concentrate on a healing ceremony to restore ho,ho. #n addition to the introduction of the protagonist, the ceremonial nature of the story, and the seasonal time in the opening paragraph, there are other conventional elements of the short story? the setting, style, and indication of plot. Unsurprisingly, a detailed description of the natural environment coincides with the worldview of ho,ho, one of harmony and $alance with

surroundings? Hsnow,H Hwind,H Hnew wool,H Hcottonwood tree,H H$ark,H Heast,H Harroyo,H H/e$olleta /reek,H Hgrass,H Htrickle of water,H Hskinny cows,H Hwinding paths,H and Hmanure.H 1laine -ahner calls this Silko's Hsignature opening move, the use of nature descriptions to refer to psychological and cosmic temporalityH %('7). Silko presents a seasonal panorama that illustrates the close connection $etween the landscape and .yah, the importance of water in an arid Southwest geographical location, and a glimpse of the gendered economic enterprises of the 2avaIo. 1ven the direction Heast,H that of the rising sun, $alances the implied direction of west in the opening line, HThe sun had gone down.H The HeastH also resonates with the 2avaIo cultural practice of constructing the door to face the east in the hogan, the 2avaIo word for house, which has now come to mean the traditional eight-sided log house with a domed, earth-covered roof. . close reading of the introductory paragraph reveals a setting that supports the 2avaIo worldview. The gendered economic enterprises alluded to in the first paragraph are weaving for women and herding for men. The traditional roles of the 2avaIo women center around the maintenance of the home, the care of the children, and the spinning, carding, dyeing, and weaving of the wool. Eater, when .yah wants to $lock out memories of -immie's death, she comforts herself with thoughts of her mother and grandmother working with the wool? K&0L She did not want to think a$out -immie. So she thought a$out the weaving and the way her mother had done it. Fn the tall wooden loom set into the sand under a tamarack tree for shade. She could see it clearly. She had $een only a little girl when her grandma gave her the wooden com$s to pull the twigs and $urrs from the raw, freshly washed wool. .nd while she com$ed the wool, her grandma sat $eside her, spinning a silvery strand of yarn around the smooth cedar spindle. %Storyteller 87) Silko provides insights into how the process of weaving has $een a maIor force in shaping .yah's life. .s a traditional activity, it $inds her to her mother and grandmother, emotionally and culturally. The memories sustain her and provide solace during times of great emotional pain and grief. Therefore, the weaving $ecomes therapeutic $eyond the actual act. 2ot only do the 2avaIo $lankets serve a utilitarian function for the family, $ut they also most likely would serve an economic purpose? *ith the unemployment percentage for 2avaIo adults e+ceeding M' percent %in &>97) and with many of the limited Io$s $eing seasonal and uncertain, such as fighting forest fires, working on the railroads, and farm la$or, the role of women in weaving to provide a relia$le source of food and clothing is of e+treme importance to the e+istence of 2avaIo family life. The 2avaIo have always $een matrilineal with women holding a position of prestige in 2avaIo culture, and weaving helps assure the continuation of this position for women. %=oessel (>() Thus, in addition to memories that keep her connected to her people, weaving in .yah's life represents an economic means of survival for the women and their families in her tri$e. Tohe points out, DinJ women have always worked to help support the family, even $efore the reservation system was esta$lished. Eater, when the white man esta$lished trading posts on the reservation, the women wove K&7Land sold $lankets in e+change for food and supplies. %&'8) Unlike the women, however, 2avaIo men did not always fare so well. Tohe adds, H*hile the male roles diminished as protectors and providers for the family, the women's roles persisted and, in many instances, the women adapted more easilyH %&'8). #n HEulla$y,H through all the set$acks that /hato and .yah e+perience, .yah fares $etter than /hato. 6or 2avaIo men, herding sheep and cattle, gathering and cutting firewood, and helping the elders act to complement the roles of women. .yah knows that /hato misses the wage la$or he used to do? HShe knew he did not like walking $ehind old ewes when for so many years he

rode $ig quarter horses and worked with cattleH %Storyteller ('). The plot revolves around .yah's memories of her past, specific things that have changed, seen in the metaphorical snowfall? Hshe could watch the wide fluffy snow fill in her tracks, steadily, until the direction she had come from was goneH %87). Though the HdirectionH seems to have vanished, as /harlene Taylor 1vans notes, HThe reader can e+perience the fluidity of time; the past is omnipresentH %&9M). Silko, however, does not necessarily lament the changes that have occurred, $ecause, in Iu+taposing images of the past and present, she again demonstrates adaptation and continuity, lessening the nostalgic effects. #ndeed, she intends a political statement a$out some of these changes, $ut one needs to keep the idea of ho,ho, or $alance, in mind in the following e+amples of the past and present? her mother's woven $lankets and -immy's .rmy $lanket; high $uckskin leggings wrapped over elkhide moccasins and $lack overshoes with metal $uckles; the traditional hogan and the $o+car shack; a traditional medicine man and the children's clinic at /aOoncito; and traditional 2avaIo names and 1nglish names. ;es, contemporary versions have replaced traditional items and customs, $ut one aspect of the story preserves and privileges the traditional way of life. #ronically, the 1nglish language of HEulla$yH will keep the traditional 2avaIo way of life alive for future generations to read a$out, so the past lives on despite change. This sentiment can $e found in Silko's dedication in Storyteller? HThis $ook is dedicated to the storytellers as far $ack as memory goes and to the telling which continues and through which they all live and we with themH %title page). Fther elements in the opening paragraph of HEulla$yH allude to /hanging *oman. The story's season is winter, and .yah is Han old K&8L womanH %87). .n important principal female deity, /hanging *oman was raised $y 6irst Ban and 6irst *oman. She sym$oli,es nature and the mystery of $irth; cyclic, she never dies $ut grows old in the winter and is forever young again in the spring. .nthropologist Bary Shepardson discusses the implications of /hanging *oman for 2avaIo women? !u$erty rites are cele$rated for girls, not for $oys. . great goddess in 2avaIo mythology is /hanging *oman, who created the 2avaIo and the four original clans. She was the first to $e honored with "inaaldP, the girl's pu$erty rite. She was the mother of the hero twins, who rid the world of monsters. She sym$oli,es, through changes from youth to age and return to youth, the four seasons of the year. She is the 1arth Bother. .ll these factors mean high status for 2avaIo women. %&M') Silko mentions two other seasons in the opening paragraph, HspringtimeH and Hsummer.H Setting the story during winter, noting the cyclic nature of the seasons that will follow, and placing .yah in old age generate a wealth of conte+tual $ackground for anyone who understands the influential role of /hanging *oman in 2avaIo culture. <er presence is felt during the later telling of the $irth of .yah's son, -immy, and in the implied death of /hato at the end of the story. "nowing, however, that /hanging *oman connotes a cyclic return---a re$irth---the focus on the otherwise tragic ending softens, and a positive note of continuity and survival appears. .dditionally, knowing the high status that /hanging *oman provides 2avaIo women, .yah is not necessarily seen as a powerless figure, $uffeted a$out $y events perpetrated $y the dominant culture. Eaura Tohe writes with great respect a$out /hanging *oman and confirms the findings of anthropologist Shepardson? /hanging *oman, sometimes known as *hite Shell *oman, is the principal mythological deity in the DinJ culture. She gave to the DinJ the first clans and the guidelines of how the DinJ should live their lives. She $irthed the Twin <eroes who destroyed the monsters that were ravaging the people. She underwent the first "inaaldP ceremony, the pu$ertyK&(L ceremony for

young women. Through her, the matriarchal system of the DinJ was esta$lished. %Tohe &'8) .lthough in the story .yah does not interact with mem$ers of her community other than her kinship-$ased residence group, within that environment she would have a degree of standing and integrity that outsiders might not reali,e, and /hanging *oman is, in part, to $e credited with that status. The positive valence of .yah's role as a mother appears in the opening paragraph as she recalls laughing at her $a$ies reaching for snowflakes, warm memories in contrast to the cold snow that surrounds her, another e+ample of $alance. .yah comes from a culture that values women for their a$ility to $ear children, a natural physiological function and part of the life cycle. Tohe claims that the 2avaIo woman His groomed for motherhood, which carries a different connotation in DinJ culture than in *estern cultureH %&'(). Gased on .yah's affectionate memories of her children, she o$viously takes great satisfaction in her role as a mother. *hile the premature loss of children most certainly always $rings sadness, the fact that motherhood carries such power in 2avaIo culture seems to add even more poignancy in view of .yah's loss. Silko offers an additional indication of the importance of the role of motherhood in 2avaIo culture $y descri$ing .yah's memories of the $irth of her son -immie? She felt peaceful remem$ering. She didn't feel cold anymore. -immie's $lanket seemed warmer than it had ever $een. .nd she could remem$er the morning he was $orn. She could remem$er whispering to her mother, who was sleeping on the other side of the hogan, to tell her it was time now. She did not want to wake the others. The second time she called to her, her mother stood up and pulled on her shoes; she knew. They walked to the old stone hogan together, .yah walking a step $ehind her mother. She waited alone, learning the rhythms of the pains while her mother went to call the old woman to help them. The morning was already warm even $efore dawn, and .yah smelled the $ee flowers $looming and the young willow growing at K&ML the springs. She could remem$er that so clearly, $ut his $irth merged into the $irths of the other children and to her it $ecame all the same $irth. They named him for the summer morning and in 1nglish they called him -immie. %Storyteller 88) This passage presents the customs associated with giving $irth? the use of a separate hogan for la$or and delivery, the assistance of a midwife, and the presence of the mother. .lso, elements of the natural landscape intimately entwine with .yah's physical sensations of painful contractions? the time of day, the warm temperature of the summer morning, the fragrant smell of the flowers, and the willow situated near the water. The landscape creates $alance and harmony with the work and pain associated with giving $irth, an e+ample of the 2avaIo worldview, ho,ho. These details of the surrounding environment ingrain themselves in .yah's memories of her physical sensations, and in keeping with circular time, -immie's $irth $ecomes much like the $irths of all her children, as equally important and memora$le. 6inally, the dou$le naming, $oth in 2avaIo and 1nglish, comments on the 2avaIo people's mediation $etween $oth cultures through language, a maIor theme in HEulla$y.H To $alance the memory of -immie's $irth, .yah also remem$ers receiving the news of his death. <er recollections suggest that -immie died during the @ietnam *ar, her feelings regarding -immie's service to the United States armed forces, and 2avaIo customs surrounding death? #t wasn't like -immie died. <e Iust never came $ack, and one day a dark $lue sedan with white writing on its doors pulled up in front of the $o+-car shack where the rancher let the #ndians live. . man in a khaki uniform trimmed in gold gave them a yellow piece of paper and told them that -immie was dead. <e said the .rmy would try to get the $ody $ack and then it would $e shipped to them; $ut it wasn't likely $ecause the helicopter had $urned after it crashed. %88)

-immie's death $y helicopter crash strongly suggests that he dies sometime during the @ietnam 1ra, from the &>M's to the early &>9's. Bore importantly, however, is the am$iguity that Silko creates $y not K&9L specifying the time period. The resulting anachronistic quality more appropriately fits the .merican #ndian sense of time and removes the story from any one specific time period. Silko would want all 2avaIo war veterans honored and memoriali,ed. #n fact, part of .yah's anger upon hearing the news of her son's death might $e attri$uted to her scorn for the white society's treatment of 2avaIo veterans upon returning home from *orld *ar ##. *hile enlisted, many .merican #ndians for the first time e+perienced respect from whites. Then, when they were discharged, they received the same kind of sha$$y treatment they had $efore entering the service? .merican society had never $efore conferred such respect upon #ndian people, and native servicemen and women came to like the resulting feelings of self-worth and national worth. *hen the war ended, however, and the uniforms came off, #ndians found that .merica's respect had vanished as well. #ndian people, even the most Hassimilated,H would seemingly always $e second-class citi,ens, kept in their places $y $oth the su$tle snu$ and the sign reading H2o Dogs or #ndians .llowed.H .fter the li$erating e+perience of wartime, .merica's return to prewar discrimination proved dou$ly humiliating for many #ndians and raised the level of frustration in #ndian country to new heights. %Deloria, HThe TwentiethH 809) 2ot only did returning war veterans face poor treatment from .merican citi,ens $ut they also had to worry a$out finding employment. 6or the 2avaIos, *orld *ar ## followed on the heels of the stock reduction programs, from which some herds never recovered? H=eturning 2avaIos discovered that their herds and farms could not support their families even at $are su$sistence, and that opportunities for wage la$or were minimalH %Gailey and Gailey 00'). Silko heard veterans talk a$out their war e+periences and sympathi,ed with the employment pro$lems they faced? H*hen # was really small, # listened to *orld *ar ## and "orean *ar veterans. They had drinking pro$lems and lacked regular Io$s, $ut they had good souls and spiritsH %Goos 087). Thus, to understand .yah's anger at hearing the news of -immie's death, the history of veterans returning home to the 2avaIo reservation from previous wars must $e considered.0 K&CL "nowing how the 2avaIo think of the dead clarifies why /hato tells the .rmy official to keep -immie's $ody and not return it %Storyteller 8(). Traditionally, the 2avaIo guard against any unnecessary or unwise contact with the dead? The an+ieties and e+traordinary precautions concerning death, $urial, and the visits of ghosts were greatly rela+ed when it was an infant or a very old person who died. .n infant could not have developed animosities, it was thought, and an aged person who had lived out his life fully was considered $eyond rancor. #t was the person who dies with his promise and hopes unfulfilled who was to $e feared. %Fpler 79C) .n e+ample of no an+ieties a$out the death and $urial of infants occurs when .yah gives an account of her own $a$ies that died and how she $uried them? There had $een $a$ies that died soon after they were $orn, and one that died $efore he could walk. She had carried them herself, up to the $oulders and great pieces of the cliff that long ago crashed down from Eong Besa; she laid them in crevices of sandstone and $uried them in fine $rown sand with round quart, pe$$les that washed down the hills in the rain. She had endured it $ecause they had $een with her. %Storyteller89) Fn one level .yah has no pro$lem dealing with the death and $urial of her young $a$ies, and once again, Silko grounds even death and $urial in a descriptive conte+t of the natural environment. *ith -immie's death, however, he has not had an opportunity to live a full life. <is

death is one that must $e feared and handled with precautions Hin order to prevent unnatural illness and premature deathH %*itherspoon, HEanguage and =ealityH (9&). <ence, /hato and .yah do not care if the .rmy recovers his $ody. They do not want to deal with it. The implied death of /hato at the end of HEulla$yH presents a more comple+ situation. <as /hato lived long enough to release any $itterness, so death would not create any an+iety for anyone left $ehindN #n light of his unemployment, the resulting alcoholism, and K&>L the loss of children, he pro$a$ly has not. ;et, Silko's reference to the ;ei$echei song at the $eginning of the story---the implied healing nature of this telling---and the lulla$y at the end of the story should help to counter$alance any hostility that /hato still feels. Boreover, H4f5or the 2avaIo death from old age is considered to $e $oth natural and highly desira$le,H and H4t5he goal of 2avaIo life in this world is to live to maturity in the condition descri$ed as hQ,hQ, to die of old age, the end result of which incorporates one in the universal $eauty, harmony, and happiness 4. . .5H %*itherspoon, Eanguage &>, 0(). Therefore, rather than a tragic ending to the story that plays into the myth of the vanishing .merican #ndian, the possi$ility of /hato's death signifies sadness not $ecause death in itself is a negative event $ut $ecause it might $e a premature death due to alcoholism. Silko seems to attri$ute /hato's drinking, which did not $egin until after losing his Io$, to Hthe dislocations of acculturation and social changeH %"unit, and Eevy ().7 The rate of alcohol-related deaths is ten times greater for .merican #ndians than the non-#ndian population %6or$es 8'). /hato's alcoholism, its causes and effects in his life, is the tragedy, one that would not incorporate his death Hin the universal $eauty, harmony, and happiness.H That .yah does not $ecome alcoholic might $e attri$uted to Silko keeping her more connected to the traditional aspects of 2avaIo women. .lthough .yah accompanies /hato, she does not leave the reservation to find wage la$or like he does. Unlike /hato, .yah manages to maintain a degree of standing afforded 2avaIo women. Shepardson lists the following considerations as indicators of the gender status of 2avaIo women? clan affiliation, kinship-$ased residence group, social rights to divorce and custody of children, pu$erty rites, and inheritance rights. The 2avaIo women are H$orn intoH their mother's clan and H$orn forH their father's clan. This kinship structure provides the Hnetwork of relations of responsi$ility and e+pectation of helpfulnessH %Shepardson &M'). #n HEulla$y,H Silko illustrates that the mother's clan is of chief importance $y focusing on the female protagonist and her family line? her children, her mother, and her grandmother. .s .yah thinks of -immie's death, she reveals the importance of his role in the family? .nd she mourned him as the years passed, when a horse fell with /hato and $roke his leg, and the white rancher told them he wouldn't pay /hato until he could work again. She mourned -immie $ecause he K0'Lwould have worked for his father then; he would have saddled the $ig $ay horse and ridden the fence lines each day, with wire cutters and heavy gloves, fi+ing the $reaks in the $ar$ed wire and putting the stray cattle $ack inside again. %Storyteller 8() That -immie would have worked for his inIured father means more than Iust a good- natured son willing to help his family. #n truth, the child's role in the family involves a kind of solidarity? k'J is characteri,ed $y love and unsystematic sharing, while nonkinship solidarity is characteri,ed $y reciprocity or systematic e+change %*itherspoon, Eanguage C8-C(). The latter descri$es the hus$and-wife $ond while the former descri$es the mother-child $ond. ary *itherspoon notes, HThe mother-child $ond involves what might $e called cognatic or kinship solidarity. The giving of life and the sharing of sustenance is considered to $e the most powerful, the most intense, and the most enduring of these two $onds, and is considered to $e the ideal pattern or code for all social interactionH %C(). Understanding this kind of family dynamic in which the mother-child $ond takes precedence over all other relationships sheds light on .yah's e+pectation of helpfulness from -immie. The intense degree of regard in the mother- child relationship also contri$utes to

understanding her deep and lengthy mourning of his death. .lthough Silko privileges .yah's perspective in HEulla$y,H this point of view should not $e interpreted as a diminishment of the hus$and's role for two reasons. 6irst, telling .yah's story from the third-person limited point of view draws attention to the fact that she does not speak 1nglish; she cannot tell her story from the first-person point of view unless the reader speaks 2avaIo. Silko resists the oppressor's language, 1nglish, $y not writing the story in the firstperson; in one sense, she makes the telling from the third-person a political act to privilege .yah's native tongue. Second, Silko does not diminish the hus$and's role $ecause the primary $ond of nonkinship solidarity in 2avaIo culture is found in the hus$and-wife relationship. <ence, this relationship does not carry the same import as the mother-child relationship. *itherspoon e+plains 2avaIo custom provides for easy divorce if the hus$and or wife feels the union does not satisfy the needs of either party? 4*5hen a hus$and is irresponsi$le or immoral, a wife usually sends him away. #f a wife is $arren, a K0&L hus$and usually goes elsewhere. #n other words, if either sees the relationship as without merit to himself or herself, it will likely $e dissolved. The relationship is supposed to $e advantageous to $oth parties through mutual o$ligations. %H2avaIo SocialH (0() iven that Ha woman could divorce her spouse simply $y leaving his personal possessions outside the door,H %Tohe &'C), .yah could have dissolved her relationship with /hato at anytime. F$viously, .yah has fulfilled her duties in that she has given $irth to numerous children, even though those children either have died or $een removed from her home. /hato, on the other hand, has $ehaved irresponsi$ly in .yah's eyes. She $lames him for the papers she signs in 1nglish, ena$ling the white doctors and Gureau of #ndian .ffairs %G#.) policeman to take away her young children, Danny and 1lla. Thus, again the story critiques the 1nglish language and how poorly it has served, at least in this case, .merican #ndian peoples. .t first, .yah takes pride in having learned how to write her name, an act that the dominant culture values? H/hato had taught her to sign her name. #t was something she was proud ofH %Storyteller 8(). Eater, .yah resents /hato for teaching her anything to do with the 1nglish language, causing the loss of her children? HShe hated /hato, not $ecause he let the policeman and doctors put the screaming children in the government car, $ut $ecause he had taught her to sign her name. Gecause it was like the old ones always told her a$out learning their language or any of their ways? it endangered youH %89). Gy critici,ing literacy, Silko privileges the oral tradition. She esteems the elders' advice, favors the 2avaIo language, and calls attention to a history of treaties among the United States government and .merican #ndian tri$es, legal agreements in which tri$al mem$ers often unknowingly signed away land and other rights. Similar to tactics often used $y the United States government officials, the authorities must know that .yah does not understand the repercussions of signing the papers? She was at the shack alone that day they came. #t was $ack in the days $efore they hired 2avaIo women to go with them as interpreters. She recogni,ed one of the doctors. She had seen him at the children's clinic at /aOoncito a$out a month ago. K00L They were wearing khaki uniforms and they waved papers at her and a $lack $all-point pen, trying to make her understand their 1nglish words. She was frightened $y the way they looked at the children, like the li,ard watches the fly. %8() .lone and afraid, .yah has no defenses against the intruders. The officials do not consider .yah's lack of knowledge of the 1nglish language, nor do they offer to $ring someone who can translate for them. This episode marks another reason that .yah regrets -immie's death? H#f -immie had $een there he could have read those papers and e+plained to her what they said. .yah would have known then, never to sign themH %8M). Silko associates not speaking 1nglish

with .yah's traditional ways, which have a positive valence; she then associates 1nglish as a second language with /hato and -immie, one an unemployed alcoholic and the other a dead serviceman respectively, which have negative valences. Silko seems to reconcile the am$ivalent attitude toward the adoption of 1nglish $y using it to tell stories that resist the United States' history of oppression and marginali,ation of 2ative peoples. The doctors and G#. policeman claim that they have to remove .yah's children from her home $ecause of the threat of tu$erculosis? Hit was the old woman who died in the winter, spitting $lood; it was her old grandma who had given the children this diseaseH %8M). .merican #ndians e+perience a rate of tu$erculosis that is 9.8 times greater than in the non-#ndian population %6or$es 8'). #n addition to the officials refusing to honor .yah's request for a tri$al medicine man to treat her children, they offer no consideration of her feelings in how they remove her young ones. #n fact, the #ndian /hild *elfare .ct of &>9C resulted as a response to authorities removing .merican #ndian children from their tri$al homes without any regard for the $reakup of families and the damaging results to the children? The law requires state courts, adoption agencies and anyone else placing #ndian children to first notify the child's tri$e or tri$es. #n most cases it gives tri$al courts Iurisdiction over the child's placement and requires those courts to give priority to mem$ers of the family, mem$ers of the tri$e and other #ndians who want to adopt the child. %Smith 8'7) K07L ranted, no$ody adopts .yah's children, and supposedly she has signed papers giving permission for them to go to /olorado. 2evertheless, the children suffer a great loss---their language---as .yah can see when they return to visit. During the first visit, HDanny had $een shy and hid $ehind the thin white woman who $rought them. .nd the $a$y had not known her until .yah took her into her arms 4. . .5H %Storyteller 8>). Gy the end of that first visit, the children were HIa$$ering e+citedlyH in 2avaIo %8>). They have not completely lost their language yet, $ut .yah reali,es as she watches them leave that they soon will lose their culture? H.yah watched the government car disappear down the road and she knew they were already $eing weaned from these lava hills and from this skyH %8>). .yah clearly understands the image of the land nourishing the people with their identity and the children losing their cultural identity $ecause of the loss of their language and displacement from their home. Gy the last visit, .yah knows that she has lost them for good? 1lla stared at her 4. . .5. .yah did not try to pick her up; she smiled at her instead and spoke cheerfully to Danny. *hen he tried to answer her, he could not seem to remem$er and he spoke 1nglish words with the 2avaIo. Gut he gave her a scrap of paper that he had found somewhere and carried in his pocket; it was folded in half, and he shyly looked up at her and said it was a $ird. She asked /hato if they were home for good this time. <e spoke to the white woman and she shook her head. H<ow much longerNH he asked, and she said she didn't know; $ut /hato saw how she stared at the $o+car shack. .yah turned away then. She did not say good-$ye. %8>) Silko alludes to more than Iust removing .merican #ndian children from their tri$al homes $ecause of illness. She e+poses how well-meaning federal authorities can destroy culture and o$literate family structures, all in the name of acculturation and assimilation. Silko calls attention to another issue that involves removing .merican #ndian children from their tri$al homelands---off-reservation $oarding schools. The historical reason for parents' resistance to sending children to distant schools arises from the treaty of &CMC? HThe compulsory school attendance provision of the peace treaty of &CMC further alienated 2avaIo parents who tried to protect their children from K08Lmeddlesome #ndian agents $ent on sending children off the reservation to far away schoolsH %1merson M(>). 1dith Glicksilver does not even credit the removal of .yah's children to medical reasons $ut attri$utes their removal to the off-reservation

$oarding school. She writes? H.yah recalls 4. . .5 the snatching of her remaining two small children $y .nglo educators. .fter their time in the white man's school they return only $riefly and feel uncomforta$le in what now seems to them her alien and culturally $ackward worldH %&('). !erhaps $ecause the children speak 1nglish when they return for a visit home, Glicksilver attri$utes their removal to the influence of the off-reservation $oarding school rather than to the doctors. =egardless, the language issue speaks to the effects of the United States government's assimilationist education policies. To attain the United States government's goals, that the children learn 1nglish and $e assimilated into the dominant culture, they must attend school. .$out the history of offreservation $oarding schools, Silko writes? *hen the United States government $egan to forci$ly remove !ue$lo children to distant $oarding schools in the &C>'s, the !ue$lo people faced a great crisis. Eike the slaughter of the $uffalo, the removal of 2ative .merican children to $oarding schools was a calculated act of cultural genocide. <ow would the children hear and see, how would the children learn and remem$er what !ue$lo people, what 2ative .mericans for thousands of years had known and remem$ered togetherN %6oreword 9) Silko rightly questions the negative impact of the off-reservation $oarding school e+perience on the future generations of .merican #ndians. HEulla$yH clearly shows what happens to the children who lose their language, identity, and connection to the land. They $ecome detri$ali,ed, strangers to their heritage. .fter Danny and 1lla are gone, .yah could leave /hato if she wants; yet she stays with him. <aving lost her children, .yah in one sense replaces them with /hato; he $ecomes like a child for whom she must care. ranted, her change of heart toward him does not come immediately, $ut she does assume the role of caretaker for her sick hus$and? K0(L She slept alone on the hill until the middle of 2ovem$er when the first snows came. Then she made a $ed for herself where the children had slept. She did not lie down $eside /hato again until many years later, when he was sick and shivering and only her $ody could keep him warm. The illness came after the white rancher told /hato he was too old to work for him anymore, and /hato and his old woman should $e out of the shack $y the ne+t afternoon $ecause the rancher had hired new people to work there. That had satisfied her. To see how the white man repaid /hato's years of loyalty and work. .ll of /hato's fine-sounding 1nglish talk didn't change things. %Storyteller 89) .yah's anger prevents her from sleeping with her hus$and, $ut perhaps she has another reason for reIecting him. Bay$e she cannot $ear the possi$ility of $ecoming pregnant again only to lose another child. .lthough she feels vindicated in her contempt of the 1nglish language when it does not assure /hato that he will remain employed, she does not turn her $ack on him when he $ecomes ill. She nurses him in much the same way that she would a sick child. Fnce .yah's children no longer comprise part of her everyday life, she merely transfers her mothering to /hato, not only tending him during his illness $ut also watching over him as he repeats a cycle of spending government welfare checks on alcohol and passing out at .,,ie's Gar %Storyteller 8C). .yah continues to care for /hato when no$ody else will, looking for him when he $ecomes into+icated? HShe walked north down the road, searching for the old man. She did this $ecause she had the $lanket, and there would $e no other place for him e+cept with her and the $lanket in the old ado$e $arn near the arroyoH %8>). =egardless of how .yah has felt toward /hato or treated him in the past, she will not allow him to pass out and suffer e+posure to the cold; she will protect him. .yah displays k'e, which Hincludes love, compassion, kindness, cooperativeness, friendliness, and peacefulnessH; it is

H4t5he ideal mode of all social relationsH %*itherspoon, Eanguage &>8). .yah's caring for /hato should not $e confused with loving him as a hus$and. The narrator says that .yah thinks of /hato as a stranger? Hfor forty years she had smiled at him and cooked his food, $ut he remained a strangerH %Storyteller 8C). 6or that reason, .yah's wifely duties might $e compared to the same kind of treatment that she might K0ML give a dependent child. *itherspoon notes how this kind of relationship can e+ist $etween individuals other than mother and child? The solidarity of mother and child sym$oli,ed in patterns of giving life and sharing items which sustain life, is proIected in 2avaIo culture as the ideal relationship $etween and among all people. .ll one's kinsmen are simply differentiated kinds of mothers; and, since everyone is treated and addressed as a kinsman, all people are $ound together $y the $ond ofk'e. 4. . .5 the k'e that e+ists $etween mother and child provides the foundational concepts and forms for all relationships in 2avaIo social life. %2avaIo "inship &0(-0M) /onsequently, .yah chooses to remain with /hato and to worry a$out him despite her anger and resentment. #n her 2avaIo worldview, .yah would consider sustaining /hato's life more important than her own feelings of $itterness and disappointment. =eturning to Shepardson's list of indicators of the gender status of 2avaIo women, the social rights to custody of children, inheritance rights, and kinship-$ased residence group also must $e considered. .lready mentioned, the matrilineal nature of the social structure of the 2avaIo accounts for the women's social rights to custody of the children and inheritance rights. The last indicator of kinship-$ased residence group speaks to .yah's right to use land for settling, cultivating, and gra,ing livestock? !refera$ly, the groom on marriage comes to live in the $ride's residence group. *omen share in the work of gra,ing, agriculture, and crafts, all of which makes a su$stantial contri$ution to the su$sistence economy and is valued. They own their own stock and control the disposal of their own handicraft products. %Shepardson &M') Silko acknowledges .yah's kinship-$ased residence group when she descri$es .yah's desire to return home? #f the money and the wine were gone, she would $e relieved $ecause then they could go home again; K09L $ack to the old hogan with a dirt roof and rock walls where she herself had $een $orn. .nd the ne+t day the old man could go $ack to the few sheep they still had, to follow along $ehind them, guiding them, into dry sandy arroyos where sparse grass grew. %Storyteller 8>) .yah still lives in the same hogan where she was $orn, an indication that she has inherited the home. She also owns the few sheep that they still tend and has rights to use the Hdry sandy arroyosH for gra,ing. The small num$er of sheep might $e an allusion to .yah's family never really having recovered from the enforced herd reductions of the &>7's. 2evertheless, even though /hato no longer has his Io$ or housing provided $y the cattle rancher, .yah owns a home and livestock, $oth of which add to their meager economic resources. .yah's lack of sympathy for /hato's plight comes as no surprise in view of her low opinion of the whites and what she has suffered $ecause of them. /onversely, /hato's effort to assimilate into the dominant mainstream society $y speaking 1nglish and working as a wage la$orer does not represent an anomaly. #f .yah's children no longer make up part of her resident e+tended family, then there are no other mem$ers to help with the support of the $asic social unit. #f herding on the reservation could no longer supply even $asic su$sistence needs for .yah and /hato, then naturally he would have to look elsewhere for employment.

Despite events that might portray .yah as a victim, someone marginali,ed $y the dominant mainstream society, she, in fact, transcends loss and disappointment in her life to emerge as a powerful figure. @iewing .yah in the conte+t of gender complementarity helps e+plain the resulting image of a strong woman. /onsidering the role, status, and autonomy of .yah in the narrative sheds light on how this character survives. She has displayed autonomy in terms of how she functions in the marriage, choosing when she will sleep with /hato? she has control over her own $ody. She has retained ownership of her hogan and livestock. She has kept her tri$al identity alive with her connections to the land and memories of family. <aving a structure of $alanced reciprocity $etween women and men contri$utes to .yah's sense that she can capa$ly do anything. Silko has voiced this same philosophy a$out the a$ility of women? K0CL # never thought that women weren't as strong as men, as a$le as men or as valid as men. # was pretty old $efore # really started running into mainstream culture's attitudes a$out women. .nd $ecause # never internali,ed the oppressor's attitude, # never $ehaved in a passive, helpless way. #nstead of $eing crushed $y se+ism, # was sort of amused or enraged, $ut never cowed. %!erry 7&>) #n much the same way, Silko does not allow .yah to feel HcowedH $y the dominant culture's male authority. Fn the contrary, when .yah reali,es that the authorities want to take her children, she does not hesitate to protect them? She moved suddenly and gra$$ed 1lla into her arms; the child squirmed, trying to get $ack to her toys. .yah ran with the $a$y toward Danny; she screamed for him to run and then she gra$$ed him around his chest and carried him too. She ran south into the foothills of Iuniper trees and $lack lava rock. Gehind her she heard the doctors running, $ut they had $een taken $y surprise, and as the hills $ecame steeper and the cholla cactus were thicker, they stopped. %Storyteller 8(-8M) .yah responds to danger like a $rave female warrior, never thinking for a moment that she does not have the strength, courage, or conviction to succeed in escaping those who want to a$duct her children. "nowledge of the landscape also aids .yah in her getaway. She knows the terrain and is accustomed to traveling it, $ut the authorities do not know how to maneuver among the steep hills and cholla cactus. They are at a disadvantage and soon cannot continue the chase. *hile her act of resistance might seem only to delay the inevita$le, that .yah should even attempt the flight signals a woman who feels empowered to change the course of events. #n terms of .yah's strength, the most telling moment of the story occurs during her search for /hato in .,,ie's Gar when she faces the discrimination of the $ar owner. "nowing that the $ar owner does not want her on his property does not prevent her from entering. She does not fear him? K0>L The $ar owner didn't like #ndians in there, especially 2avaIos, $ut he let /hato come in $ecause he could talk Spanish like he was one of them. 4. . .5 She held herself straight and walked across the room slowly, searching the room with every step. 4. . .5 She felt calm. #n past years they would have told her to get out. Gut her hair was white now and her face was wrinkled. They looked at her like she was a spider crawling slowly across the room. They were afraid; she could feel the fear. 4. . .5 She felt satisfied that the men in the $ar feared her. Bay$e it was her face and the way she held her mouth with teeth clenched tight, like there was nothing anyone could do to her now. %8C8>) *hat would make men fear an old womanN .s a 2avaIo woman, .yah knows who she is, where she comes from, and where she $elongs. The narrator's comparison of .yah to a HspiderH

alludes to one of the 2avaIo <oly !eople, Spider *oman, who taught the 2avaIo how to weave %Shepardson &9&). /omparing .yah to the spider implies that she has the power to weave her own story. Einda E. Danielson agrees and sees the connection $etween .yah and Spider *oman as one in which .yah has control over her life, certainly a powerful image? *e$ imagery reinforces the structural statement in the story HEulla$yH as the old 2avaIo woman, .yah, spins a narrative of the end of her and her hus$and's lives. Fne could see her as a victim. <er children have $een taken $y white people who Hknow $est.H <er hus$and's loyalty to any employer has $een rewarded $y callous dismissal and eviction. The hus$and, /hato, is evidently drinking himself into discouraged o$livion. Gut the structural conte+t of the spider we$, com$ined with the story's imagery, associates .yah with Spider *oman, and thus with control over the making of her life. %77() That .yah walks proudly, determined not to let anyone keep her from her mission of finding her hus$and, e+emplifies taking control of the K7'L situation. Such an act of overt confrontation $y an old 2avaIo woman makes a strong political statement. 2o$ody in the mainstream culture can intimidate her or prevent her from carrying out her intentions. .s .yah has control of her life at other times and in other places, at this particular moment in the world of .,,ie's Gar, a place where she is not wanted, .yah is a powerful woman who controls the making of her life. That Silko uses the image of the spider is not surprising $ecause for the Eaguna !ue$lo, Spider *oman is another name for Thought *oman, who $rought everything in the universe into creation $y thinking it. Silko $egins her novel /eremony with this creation myth? HThought*oman, the spider, A named things and A as she named them A they appearedH %&). Thus, the significance of the HspiderH allusion for $oth author and .yah connotes one of great power, one of creation in language andAor weaving, one which $y association gives .yah an aura of power that the men in the $ar can sense and fear. .s noted earlier, Silko $elieves that the #ndians of the Southwest Hshared cosmologies, and oral narratives a$out 4. . .5 their grandmother, Spider *omanH %;ellow *oman &07). #ncluding what the spider signifies to Silko in reading HEulla$y,H however, is an inappropriate strategy $ecause it com$ines deities from different tri$es that mean different things to different people. To conflate the Eaguna !ue$lo and 2avaIo meanings of the spider is a mistake that should $e avoided. .yah's sense of survival humor also displays her strength. <ow does a person successfully cope with loss of children, unemployment, poverty, alcoholism, illness, and deathN #n keeping with her worldview of ho,ho, a sense of $alance and harmony, .yah must have laughter in her life. HThe more desperate the pro$lem,H writes @ine Deloria, -r., Hthe more humor is directed to descri$e itH %/uster &89). /hato's drunken, disheveled appearance, in which he Hsmelled strong of woodsmoke and urineH and his delusional ram$lings, signs of mental deterioration due to alcohol, certainly qualify as a man with a desperate pro$lem, and Silko directs humor to it? H4<5e walked on determined, limping on the leg that had $een crushed many years $efore. 4. . . .5 The rags made his feet look like little animals up to their ears in snow. She laughed at his feet; the snow muffled the sound of her laughH %Storyteller ('). That .yah can find humor in and laugh at the sad physical state of her hus$and might ama,e someone who does not understand survival humor. Deloria e+plains, however, that laughter in these circumstances is necessary? H*hen a people can laugh at themselves and laugh at others and hold all aspects of life together K7&L without letting any$ody drive them to e+tremes, then it seems to me that that people can surviveH %/uster &M9). .yah laughs; /hato drinks. The one holds her life together, and the other chooses the e+treme path of alcohol. .yah survives through humor and maintains ho,ho. Silko agrees, Hin order to have perfect $alance or harmony you have to have humorH %!erry 77M). Through humor,

.yah finds her strength. The concluding lulla$y that .yah sings at the end of the story offers one more e+ample of her strength. She understands that /hato might free,e to death? HShe recogni,ed the free,ing. #t came gradually, sinking snowflake $y snowflake until the crust was heavy and deep. #t had the strength of the stars in Frion, and its Iourney was endless. .yah knew that with the wine he would sleep. <e would not feel itH %Storyteller (&). .lcohol would make /hato feel warm, giving him a false sense of security and preventing him from reali,ing the dangerously cold temperatures. !erhaps .yah acts $enevolently, knowing that /hato's death will $e painless. .yah has no evil intentions, however, even though she understands the possi$ility that /hato might die. .s already e+plained, this reading does not fit with .yah's cultural worldview of sustaining life and avoiding unnecessary contact with the dead. /ontrary to one of the alternative readings that 1laine -ahner posits, .yah does not methodically plot Hto murder her sick hus$and $y getting him drunk and then watching and singing while he free,es in the coldH %('(). The only evidence of .yah planning their stop occurs during the snowstorm when she suggests, HEet's rest awhileH %Storyteller ('). HThe Storm passed swiftly,H and while waiting, /hato falls asleep %(&). #n fact, in Tohe's description of the strength of 2avaIo women, she relates a similar situation in which she knows her own mother would not let any harm come to her and her si$lings in a snowstorm? H# grew up knowing that my mother, who divorced my father several years $efore, would drive us through the thirty miles of muddy reservation road to get groceries. # never dou$ted that she would get us through the di,,ying snowstorm that fell on the deserted dirt road alone with my $rothers and me in the $ack seatH %&'>). 2avaIo women know how to take care of their families in severe circumstances. Bore than likely, .yah has reached the end of her story, accomplished the healing that she set out to do, let go of her resentments, and merely sees that perhaps the time is right if /hato should peacefully pass away in his sleep. =ather than see his free,ing to death $ecause of alcohol, she might feel that to look death in the face and to accept it at this point in her life simply acknowledge that she has K70L reached the 2avaIo goal of living to old age. Death is the natural and inevita$le ne+t step, $ut the actual dying is only implied and not the most important part of the ending. .s already noted, Silko is comforta$le with incorporating the 2avaIo as su$Iects in her writing. Bi+ing Silko's personal views with traditional 2avaIo views, however, can result in contradictions. /hato's death from free,ing in an alcoholic sleep does not necessarily coincide with the revered 2avaIo goal of death from old age or Silko's view that death is part of something sacred %Garnes >>-&''). .yah, a woman associated with the 2avaIo Spider *oman and the Eaguna Spider *oman, cannot truly $e an empowered 2avaIo woman living an autonomous life when, in fact, she loses her children. #nconsistencies $egin to appear if only the 2avaIo cultural and historical conte+ts are used to understand HEulla$y.H Similarly, using Iust the Eaguna cultural and historical conte+ts fails to offer a consistent reading. Using $oth 2avaIo and Eaguna cultural readings also poses pro$lems. Therefore, Silko's use of the 2avaIo characters to tell her story creates pro$lems that she might not otherwise encounter if she were to limit herself to a purely Eaguna !ue$lo conte+t. .merican #ndian tri$al cultures are specific and unique; they do not always smoothly overlap, no matter how similar they might appear to $e on the surface. Silko eliminates any previous pro$lems of inconsistency $y having .yah sing the lulla$y at the end of the story. #n 2avaIo style, the lulla$y speaks a$out two of the most important 2avaIo deities, Bother 1arth and 6ather Sky, in addition to other elements of the natural environment. #n discussing a prayer from the 2avaIo 2ight /hant, or 2ightway, a healing ritual designed to cure

an individual's illness in mind and $ody, =uoff offers an insightful description that equally applies to Silko's lulla$y? The prayer illustrates the emphasis on physical and spiritual harmony and on the sacredness of place so much a part of .merican #ndian oral literatures. .mong the elements of the prayer that are common in these literatures are the following? repetition, movement in time and location, progression from physical well-$eing to spiritual peace to a$ility to speak, and the comprehensiveness of the allusions to aspects of nature. %#ntroduction 0&) K77L *hile Silko offers a short lulla$y that has varying degrees of these aspects, it completes the cyclic nature of life, $irth and death, in a conte+t that is connected to the people, land, and mythic time? The earth is your !other, she holds you$ The s%y is your ather, he protects you$ Sleep, sleep$ &ain"ow is your sister, she loves you$ The winds are your "rothers, they sing to you$ Sleep, sleep$ We are together always We are together always There never was a ti!e when this was not so$ /oncluding with the lulla$y connects .yah not only to her deceased children $ut also to her grandmother and mother who sang the song, and it emphasi,es the continuity of tradition. .lthough .yah cannot Hremem$er whether she had ever sung it to her childrenH %(&), now that she has told the story, the song will endure through Silko's voice. The positive theme of eternity in the lulla$y creates a note of survival and hope for .yah and her people. 6or Silko, the political is involved in the very telling of her stories. loria Gird %Spokane) o$serves, HThat we are still here as native women in itself is a political statement,H and -oy <arIo %Buscogee /reek) adds, H*e are still here, still telling stories, still singing whether it $e in our native languages or in the 'enemy' tongueH %<arIo 7', 7&). #ndeed, .yah's story is a political statement narrated in the Henemy tongue.H <owever, her story also testifies not only to the ongoing survival of the 2avaIo woman $ut also to the survival of all 2ative women. Tohe writes how 2avaIo women have continued to survive despite any Hstory a$out 'those poor' #ndian women who were assimilated, coloni,ed, /hristiani,ed, or victimi,edH? K78L This is a story a$out how these women cling to the roots of their female lineage despite the many institutional forces imposed on #ndian communities and how they continue to survive despite five hundred years of colonialism. The DinJ women continue to possess the qualities of leadership and strength and continue to endure and ultimately to pass on those qualities to their daughters, even though there is no word for feminism in the DinJ languageH %&'8). .yah's power arises, in part, from the paradigm of gender complementarity, a vision of self as an equally important mem$er in the communal tri$al structure. .yah never loses her sense of

herself as an important part of the marriage relationship. <er role of caring for her hus$and and children, while she had them, carries as much weight as /hato's role of working for the rancher or cashing the welfare checks. She never complains a$out her domestic contri$utions to the partnership $ecause she values who she is and what she does, as does her tri$al community. .yah remem$ers her past and in doing so keeps the traditions alive in the telling. .lthough she will not have the opportunity to help her daughter give $irth or to pass on the skill of weaving to grandchildren, $y remem$ering and telling the story, she keeps the connection to her tri$al identity alive. <er act of remem$ering the traditions of the past creates a future with her story that can $e retold, a story of unemployment, government welfare checks, and alcoholism, $ut also a life of continuity, adaptation, and survival.

N$#E & Eeslie Barmon Silko, HEulla$y,H Storyteller %2ew ;ork? .rcade, &>C&) 87. .ll quotations from HEulla$yH are taken from this edition and are referenced $y page num$er in the te+t. 0 Silko's novel /eremony %2ew ;ork? @iking, &>>9) deals in more detail with the issues of *orld *ar ## veterans. Tayo, a Eaguna !ue$lo K7(L mi+ed-$lood veteran, returns home to his reservation and has trou$le dealing with the memories of his wartime e+periences. Tayo suffers guilt due to a num$er of factors? he could not prevent the death of his cousin, =ocky, with whom he enlisted and served in the !hilippines; his uncle -osiah dies while he is away, and -osiah's cattle wander off; his .untie Thelma will not let him forget that his mother was a prostitute and he is of mi+ed-$lood heritage; and the drought from which 2ew Be+ico suffers must $e due to his praying for the rain to cease while he was in the !hilippines. Tayo's other veteran friends deal with their pro$lems through alcohol, se+ual promiscuity, violent acts, and $raggadocio. Tayo has not found healing through the veterans' hospitals or the Eaguna medicine man. <e $egins to recover when he visits a 2avaIo healer who $elieves that traditional practices must adapt and include modern techniques. Tayo $egins to take responsi$ility for his own healing and reconnects with Eaguna spirituality through Ts'eh, a female connected with Bt. Taylor and the sacredness of the land. 7 Stephen -. "unit,, and -errold 1. Eevy, et al., Drinking /areers? . Twenty-6ive-;ear Study of Three 2avaIo !opulations %2ew <aven? ;ale U!, &>>8) (. The authors argue that the results of their original study caused them to question the then-reigning e+planation of a$usive drinking $y #ndians, which Silko seems to suggest. #nstead they argued? H.s the livestock economy was destroyed $y the government in the &>7's and as people were paid cash for the stock they had lost, $everage alcohol $ecame easier to purchase. Boreover, during *orld *ar ## many 2avaIos were in the army or employed off the reservation and learned to drink in those settings. .fter the war, roads improved, and motor vehicles $ecame more availa$le. The result was that alcohol was more accessi$le to more 2avaIos. 6rom an item of high prestige availa$le primarily to the wealthy and their dependents, $y the mid-&>M's---only a generation later---alcohol had $ecome accessi$le to virtually everyone. Thus, more people could drink in the highly visi$le groups that had $een one characteristic pattern of the traditional 2avaIo styleH %7-8).

7' Pa, attention an anal,Ge t!e im$ortance o% oral tra ition a# $ortra,e in t!e #torie#' In relation to t!i#. make a com$arati8e anal,#i# o% t!e i3erent narrati8e 8oice# an tone# u#e *, t!e aut!or# in *ot!' St,le

2arrative
"A'lla,y" is tol* from the thir*!person!restricte* point of -ie(. That means that, altho'gh the narrator is not a character in the story, the perspecti-e of the story is entirely from that of the main character, Ayah. An ol* (oman in the present tense of the story, Ayah thin&s ,ac& on &ey e-ents in her life. The story th's inter(ea-es the present time of the ol* (oman sitting o'tsi*e, then going to loo& for her h's,an* at the local ,ar, (ith her memories from chil*hoo* thro'gh ol* age. The story is tol* in non!chronological or*er, ?'mping from one time perio* or inci*ent to another an* ,ac& again, repro*'cing the ol* (oman's tho'ght patterns rather than a stan*ar* narrati-e flo( of e-ents from ,eginning to en*.

The Fral Tradition


In all of her (or&, /il&o is intereste* in representing the storytelling style of the 6ati-e American oral tra*ition in the form of (ritten 0nglish. /il&o's narrati-e style of inter(ea-ing the ol* (oman's memories of the past (ith her present circ'mstances creates a non!linear narrati-e, in (hich tho'ghts an* memories circle ,ac& on one another. /il&o also represents elements of the oral tra*ition in the story's en*ing1 (hen she percei-es that her h's,an* %hato, lying c'rle* 'p in the sno(, is *ying, Ayah sings a l'lla,y that her gran*mother 'se* to sing to her. This is an important element of the story, ,eca'se /il&o is partic'larly intereste* in the (ays in (hich the oral tra*ition is passe* on from gran*mother to gran**a'ghter.

=ecurring Botif
A motif is a minor theme or element that rec'rs thro'gho't the story, gathering significance (ith each ne( appearance. The ,lan&et is a &ey motif in this story, as it lin&s Ayah (ith her gran*mother an* her *ea* son Bimmie, in a**ition to associations (ith ,oth life an* *eath thro'gho't her life. The ,lan&et also remin*s Ayah of happier times, sitting o'tsi*e (hile her mother (o-e ,lan&ets on a ,ig loom an* her gran*mother sp'n the yarn from ra( (ool. :ere, the tra*itional han*(o-en ,lan&et ma*e from scratch ,y the (omen in the family ser-es as a metaphor for the passing of the oral tra*ition ,et(een generations of (omen>?'st as her mother an* gran*mother (o-e ,lan&ets in a tra*itional (ay, so Ayah carries on the tra*ition of (ea-ing a tale in the style of the oral tra*ition. The ol* army ,lan&et ,ecomes e-en more significant at the en* of the story, (hen Ayah (raps it aro'n* her h's,an* as he lies c'rle* 'p to *ie in the sno(. The motif of the ,lan&et is an important element of this story ,eca'se it e2presses /il&o's concern (ith the (ays in (hich 6ati-e Americans can com,ine tra*itional (ith contemporary c'lt're in or*er to create meaning in their li-es.

The Eulla$y
The l'lla,y that len*s the story its title, an* en*s it, is central to the story itself. The l'lla,y represents the passing of oral tra*ition from generation to generation of (omen in the 6ati-e American family: "/he co'l* not remem,er if she ha* e-er s'ng it to her chil*ren, ,'t she &ne( that her gran*mother ha* s'ng it an* her mother ha* s'ng it." 7hen her h's,an* is *ying, this l'lla,y is the first thing that comes to her min* to sing to him as a means of comfort. The l'lla,y itself com,ines images of nat're an* family to affirm ,oth in eternal 'nity.

:' Anal,Ge t!e common t!ematic i##ue o% c!il ren an #ickne## in t!e #torie#' -!at o c!il ren #,m*oliGe4 -!at o t!e An+lo-American e ucationalJ!ealt! #,#tem# #,m*oliGe4 C!aracter# Ayah Ayah is the main character an* narrator. In the present tense of the story, Ayah is an ol* (oman reflecting on her personal history: memories of her gran*mother (ea-ing o'tsi*e, the ,irth of her first chil*, the *eath of her chil* Bimmie in (ar, an* the loss of her t(o yo'ng chil*ren, (ho (ere ta&en a(ay ,y (hite *octors. Ayah also recalls her h's,an*, %hato, (ho, ,eca'se he co'l* spea& 0nglish, ser-e* as the go!,et(een in many of her significant interactions (ith (hite a'thorities. In the present time of the story, Ayah goes o't to loo& for %hato, (ho has not yet come home for the e-ening. /he loo&s for him at the ,ar, (here he can 's'ally ,e fo'n* on the *ays he recei-es an* cashes their small assistance chec&, ,'t he is not there. Aea-ing the ,ar, she e-ent'ally comes 'pon him (al&ing home. They stop to rest, an* %hato lies *o(n in the sno(. /eeing that he is a,o't to *ie, Ayah (raps a ,lan&et aro'n* him an* sings him a l'lla,y she learne* from her gran*mother. %hato %hato is the h's,an* of the story's narrator, Ayah. 4eca'se he spea&s 0nglish an* she *oes not, %hato ser-es the role of go!,et(een in the family's interactions (ith (hite a'thority fig'res. 7hen (hite people come to the *oor to inform them that their son, Bimmie, has *ie* in the (ar, it is %hato (ho m'st translate the *e-astating ne(s to Ayah. %hato (or&s for the (hite rancher, (ho sho(s no sympathy (hen his leg is in?'re* on the ?o,. 7hen the (hite *octors, an* then the 4IA police, come to ta&e their t(o yo'ng chil*ren a(ay from them, it is again %hato (ho m'st comm'nicate to Ayah that she has 'n&no(ingly signe* the chil*ren a(ay to the (hite people. 4eca'se she ,lames him for the loss of their chil*ren, Ayah no longer sleeps (ith her h's,an* after that point. As an ol* man, *'ring the present tense of the story, %hato sometimes ,ecomes conf'se*, an* she fin*s him (al&ing to(ar* the ranch, as if they still nee*e* him to (or& there. Gn the *ays (hen their assistance chec& arri-es, %hato cashes it an* hea*s straight for the ,ar. After Ayah fin*s him (al&ing in the sno(, %hato lays *o(n to rest. :e *ies, as Ayah sings him a l'lla,y. 3anny 3anny is Ayah an* %hato's yo'ng son (ho is ta&en a(ay from them ,y the (hite *octors. The 3octors The (hite *octors come to ta&e Ayah an* %hato's chil*ren a(ay from them, ,eca'se they ha-e contracte* t',erc'losis from their gran*mother. The *octors intimi*ate Ayah into signing a piece of paper (hich gi-es them permission to ta&e the chil*ren a(ay fore-er. Altho'gh she has no i*ea (hat she is signing, she *oes so ,eca'se she is afrai* of them an* (ants them to go a(ay. 7hen they try to ta&e the chil*ren, she gra,s them an* r'ns for the hills. They gi-e 'p on chasing her, ,'t come ,ac& later (ith a police officer an* ta&e the chil*ren, after (hich she rarely sees them again. 0lla 0lla is Ayah an* %hato's yo'ng *a'ghter (ho is ta&en a(ay from them ,y the (hite *octors.

Fran*mother Ayah's gran*mother *oes not appear in the present time of the story, ,'t only in Ayah's reminiscences. Ayah recalls her gran*mother spinning yarn from (ool an* passing on tra*itional songs. The gran*mother is significant as the generational lin& in the matrilinear c'lt're (here,y (omen pass on tra*ition in the form of stories. 7hen %hato is *ying, Ayah sings him a l'lla,y her gran*mother ha* s'ng to her. Bimmie Bimmie (as Ayah's first!,orn chil*. 7hen he *ie* in a helicopter crash in the (ar, a (hite man came to the *oor to inform the family. The army ,lan&et Ayah (raps aro'n* herself at the ,eginning of the story, an* her *ying h's,an* %hato at the en* of the story, ha* ,een sent to her ,y Bimmie (hile he (as in com,at. The Policeman The 4.I.A. (4'rea' of In*ian Affairs# policeman appears the secon* time the (hite *octors come to claim Ayah an* %hato's chil*ren. This character is significant in that he represents the 6ati-e American (ho helps the (hite a'thorities in the oppression an* e2ploitation of other 6ati-e Americans. The Nancher The (hite rancher is %hato's employer. The rancher is another fig're of (hite a'thority (ho contri,'tes to the most tragic e-ents in Ayah's life. 7hen %hato in?'res his leg on the ?o,, the rancher *oes not pay him. 7hen he *etermines that %hato is too ol* to (or&, he e-icts them from their ho'se. 7hite 7omen Gn the fe( occasions (hen Ayah's chil*ren are ,ro'ght ,ac& to -isit her, they are accompanie* ,y (hite (omen, pres'ma,ly teachers or social!(or&er! type fig'res. Gn the first -isit, there is a ,lon*e (hite (oman an* a thin (hite (oman. They ,oth seem to Ayah to ,e an2io's an* ner-o's in her home, an* appear to ,e ?'*ging it as an 'nfit en-ironment for raising the chil*ren. The (hite (omen also seem pert'r,e* (hen Ayah's chil*ren spea& to her in their nati-e lang'age.

5' I enti%, an t!e #torie#' Settin+

anal,Ge com$arati8el, t!e u#e o% #$ace an

location in

UA'lla,yV first appeare* in /toryteller (19O1#, a ,oo& in (hich /il&o inter(ea-es a'to,iographical reminiscences, short stories, poetry, photographs of her family (ta&en ,y her father# an* tra*itional songs. The ,oo& as a (hole is concerne* (ith the oral tra*ition of storytelling in 6ati-e American c'lt're. Thro'gh a -ariety of formats, /il&o attempts to repro*'ce the effect of oral storytelling in a (ritten 0nglish form. /he is also concerne* (ith the transformati-e po(er of storytelling in the li-es of her characters an* the role of storytelling in maintaining c'lt'ral tra*itions an* intergenerational ties, partic'larly in a matrilineal line from gran*mother to gran**a'ghter. 4eca'se of this foc's, the physical s'rro'n*ings of the action of UA'lla,yV are not central to its narrati-e. The story ,egins (ith Ayah, an ol* 6ati-e American (oman, leaning against a tree near a stream, reminiscing a,o't some of the most tragic e-ents of her life, as (ell as a,o't the role of her gran*mother in some of the most happy e-ents of her life: U/he (as an ol* (oman no(, an* her life ha* ,ecome memories.V /he recalls (atching her mother (ea-ing o'tsi*e on a ,ig loom, (hile her gran*mother sp'n (ool into yarn. /he remem,ers her mother an* the ol* (oman (ho helpe* her gi-e ,irth to her first chil*, Bimmie. Eet she also recalls the time the (hite man came to her *oor to anno'nce that Bimmie ha* *ie* in a helicopter crash in the (ar. 4eca'se Ayah co'l* not spea& 0nglish, her h's,an*, %hato, ha* to translate the tragic ne(s to her. As Ayah reminisces a,o't her life, incl'*ing the loss of her chil*ren, the e-ent'al rift ,et(een her h's,an* an* herself, an* other tragic losses, the narrati-e slo(ly catches 'p to the present. In recent years, Ayah an* %hato ha-e ,eg'n recei-ing fe*eral assistance chec&s in or*er to s'r-i-e!%hato (o'l* imme*iately cash the chec& an* go spen* it at the ,ar. In the present tense of the story, Ayah goes there to loo& for him. 7hen she *oes not fin* him there, she goes o't in the sno( to search for him, an* comes 'pon him (al&ing to(ar* home. 7hen they stop to rest, he lies *o(n in the sno(, an* she realiMes that he is *ying. /he t'c&s a ,lan&et aro'n* him an* ,egins to sing a l'lla,y her gran*mother ha* s'ng (hen she (as little: UAn* she sang the only song she &ne( ho( to sing for ,a,ies. /he co'l* not remem,er if she ha* e-er s'ng it to her chil*ren, ,'t she &ne( that her gran*mother ha* s'ng it an* her mother ha* s'ng it.V

@' Anal,Ge t!e u#e o% +en er in t!e #torie#'

A comparison of gender roles in Leslie Marmon -il(o=s !Lullaby" and U.ro(ebac( Mountain" by Annie <roul .
In this essay I will discuss and compare gender roles in the short stories Lullaby by Leslie Marmon Silko and Brokeback Mountain by Annie Proulx I will base this on the Lo!e Laws "rom Arundhati #oy$s %he &od o" Small %hings' which describes who should be lo!ed and how And how much ()' p )*+ Both o" the short stories are set in the southern states o" the ,nited States o" America during the *-./s to the *-0/s %his tells us a great deal about what the gender roles in general would ha!e been at that time Men would do most o" the work and pro!ide "or the "amily' while the women stayed at home and cared "or the children and did housework %he 1ati!e Americans on the other hand had a di2erent culture and society than the Americans and the gender roles would di2er slightly "rom the Americans I ha!e landed on this speci3c time period as a result o" these e!ents4 %he son o" the main character in Lullaby died in a helicopter crash (*+' most likely during the 5ietnam 6ar' and the story in Brokeback Mountain begins to un"old in *-.) In the short story Lullaby' the main character' Ayah' is a 1a!a7o Indian %he 1a!a7os ha!e a matriarchal culture' where the women are the ones to recei!e inheritance' own the land and the li!estock %he men marry into their bride$s clan and mo!e into her dwelling %he society o" the 1a!a7os is separated by gender through speci3c gender roles %hese roles are seen in e!erything "rom artwork to anything "amily8 related %he women would do wea!ing and sculpting' childcare' cooking' "arming and tend to the animals %he men would deal with politics' herd' hunt and "ashion 7ewellery %he "ew things both genders do is telling stories and attend ceremonies (9+

Ayah$s husband' :hato' also a 1a!a7o' is working on a ranch herding cattle and other kinds o" li!estock ;e en7oys the hard work' but at a later point in the story :hato "alls o2 a horse and is in7ured 6ith no means o" earning money' as a result o" his in7ury' he starts to succumb into a dark state o" mind ;e starts drinking alcohol to suppress his yearning "or working again and is lost in himsel" ha!ing been thrown o2 his role in li"e %hrough all o" this Ayah is there by his side' caring "or him and being a motherly 3gure %hroughout the story Ayah is waiting "or her husband :hato' who is in the local pub drinking away his sorrows 6hile waiting "or him' she looks back on her li"e and remembers !arious e!ents and memories' both good and bad She remembers the loss o" her children and other "amily members She remembers her culture and heritage' e!erything that has made her who she is at the present time in the story Ayah is a strong woman4 no matter what kinds o" trouble comes her way' she 3nds her way through it and comes out on the other side e!en stronger %he most important thing to her' the bonds she has to her "amily' her mother and grandmother' her children' keeps her going %he memories o" them gi!es her something to hold on to I" she had been a part o" another society or had a di2erent cultural background' things might ha!e had a di2erent outcome Ayah could ha!e been the one to gi!e in to the hardships o" li"e and end up drinking like her husband In Brokeback Mountain the gender roles are that o" the white people in Lullaby %he men are the ones pro!iding "or their "amily' the ones recei!ing inheritance and owning the land %he gender roles o" the men and the women does not di2er "rom the gender roles in Lullaby all that much' but because o" the culture o" the society' they are slightly di2erent Men were meant to be Andr< 5=ge &7erde masculine and hard8working 6omen were meant to be "eminine and stay at home with the children ;owe!er' the women "ollow the men as opposed to the men "ollowing the women in ULullaby A "ew years a"ter ha!ing met' the main characters' >nnis ?el Mar and @ack %wist' are married and work to pro!ide "or their "amily %hey ha!e children and li!e with their "amilies

;owe!er' they are homosexual %his is considered as a taboo by the society as a whole in the story' and it is con3rmed when a man that is suspected o" being homosexual is killed (A' pp )//8)/*+ %he "act that they co!er it up by li!ing like other people would' says something about how gender roles were considered to be at that point in time %owards the end o" the story' @ack %wist is killed "or the same reasons as the man earlier in the story4 "or being a homosexual (A' p )**+ %he wi!es o" >nnis and @ack are working women' e!en so' that does not change the gender roles I ha!e discussed earlier in this essay %hey were the ones to take care o" the children %hey were the ones to cook dinner and prepare the young ones "or bed' wash the clothes and wash the dishes %he wi!es o" the main characters shares the same heterosexual !iew as the rest o" society' they want their men to lo!e them and not each other %o conclude' I would say that the gender roles seem to be the same in both stories Men are meant to work' while the women stay at home %he men are meant to lo!e the women' the women are meant to lo!e the men' and at the same time' women are meant to care "or the children ;owe!er' society does not en7oy these gender role lines being crossed' and pain and sorrow is thrown in the way o" whoe!er crosses them >!en though the characters o" the stories ha!e di2erent cultures and heritage' the gender roles are similar

D' -!at are t!e meanin+# im$lie in t!e title# o% t!e #torie#4 Pa, attention to t!e interte9tualit, re%erre to in Ale9ie"# title. a #!ortene 8er#ion o% t!at o% D,lan T!oma#" cele*rate $oem &Do Not 0o 0entle into t!at 0oo Ni+!t('

#he L!lla0y
The l'lla,y that len*s the story its title, an* en*s it, is central to the story itself. The l'lla,y represents the passing of oral tra*ition from generation to generation of (omen in the 6ati-e American family: "/he co'l* not remem,er if she ha* e-er s'ng it to her chil*ren, ,'t she &ne( that her gran*mother ha* s'ng it an* her mother ha* s'ng it." 7hen her h's,an* is *ying, this l'lla,y is the first thing that comes to her min* to sing to him as a means of comfort. The l'lla,y itself com,ines images of nat're an* family to affirm ,oth in eternal 'nity.

:D5 #5T 65 6 #TL = 8< S- ),A# AL 9* 9C )PT $ My wife and 1 didnKt (now Mr. )rief in person until our baby boy got his face stuc( between his mattress and crib and suJocated himself blue. Ee died three times that day' Mr. )rief squee*ing his lungs tight' but the muscular doctors and nurses battled that suJocating monster man and brought our boy bac( to life three times. Ee was our little blue baby Vesus. 1Km lying. Nur baby wasnKt Vesus. Nur baby was ali%e only a little bit. Mostly he was dead and slept his way through a coma. 1n ChildrenKs Eospital' our baby was hoo(ed up to a million dollarsK worth of machines that breathed' pissed' and pooped for him. 1 bet you could line up all of my wifeKs and my grandmothers and grandfathers and aunts and uncles and brothers and sisters and mothers and fathers and first' second' and third cousins' and rob their wallets and purses' and maybe youKd collect about Y 5F@. Mr. )rief was a billionaire. Ee could aJord to chec( on our baby e%ery si hours' but e%ery si hours' my wife and 1 cussed him out and sent him running. My wife is beautiful and powerful and only twenty#fi%e years old' but she is magic li(e grandmother' and 1ndian grandmothers arenKt afraid of a little man li(e Mr. )rief. RTS

:D5 #5T 65 6 #TL = 8< S- ),A# AL 9* 9C )PT ( My wife and 1 didnKt e%en name our baby. 4e were 1ndians and didnKt want to carry around too much hope. Eope eats your Pesh li(e spider bite. .ut my wife and 1 lo%ed our little .aby Z and too( turns sitting beside his bed and singing to him. 6he nurses and doctors let us bring in our hand drums' so we sang powwow songs to our baby. 1Km a pretty good singer' and my wife is the best there is' and crowds always gathered to listen to us' and that made us feel good. 1t was great to feel good about something' because my wife and 1 were all the way grie%ing. 4e too( turns singing honor songs and falling asleep. Mr. )rief is a wi*ard who puts sleep spells on you. My wife spent more time sleeping that 1 did. 1 figure she was sadder because she had carried our baby inside the womb and had memori*ed the way he mo%ed. RTS

:D5 #5T 65 6 #TL = 8< S- ),A# AL 9* 9C )PT > Nf course' all the doctors and nurses and mothers and fathers were half stunned by that %ibrator. And it was a strange and diMcult thing. 1t was se that made our dying babies' and here was a huge old piece of bu**ing se 1 was trying to cast spells with. 1 wa%ed it o%er our baby and ran around the room wa%ing it o%er the other sic( babies. 1 was laughing and hooting' and other fol(s were laughing and hooting' and a few others didnKt (now what the hell to do. .ut pretty soon e%erybody was ta(ing their turn casting spells with Chocolate 6hunder. Maybe it was blasphemous' and maybe it was stupid and useless' but we all were sic( and tired of waiting for our babies to die. 4e wanted our babies to li%e' and we were ready to try anything to help them li%e. Maybe some people can get by with quiet prayers' but 1 wanted to shout and scream and %ibrate. -o did plenty of other fathers and mothers in that sic(#room. 1t was my wife who grabbed Chocolate 6hunder and used it li(e a drumstic( to pound her hand drum. -he sang a band#new song that echoed up and down the hallways of ChildrenKs Eospital. 2%ery sic( and dying and ali%e and dead (id heard it' and they were happy and good in their hearts. My wife sang the most beautiful song anybody e%er heard in that place. -he sang li(e ten thousand 1ndian grandmothers rolled into one mother. All the while' Chocolate 6hunder sang with her and turned the whole thing into a healing duet. 4e humans are too simpleminded. 4e all li(e to thin( each person' place' or thing is only itself. A %ibrator is a %ibrator is a %ibrator' right; .ut thatKs not true at all. 2%erything is stuJed to the brim with ideas and lo%e and hope and magic and dreams. 1 brought Chocolate 6hunder bac( to the hospital' but it was my magical and faithful wife who truly belie%ed it was going to bring our baby bac( to us. -he wanted it to bring e%ery baby bac( to life. N%er the ne t wee(' my wife sat beside our babyKs bed and held that %ibrator in her two hands and sang and prayed along with its bu**ing. -he used up the energy of two batteries' and maybe our baby would ha%e wo(en up anyway' and a few other babies ne%er did wa(e up at all' but my wife still belie%es our son heard the magic call of Chocolate 6hunder and couldnKt resist it. Nur beautiful' beautiful boy opened his eyes and smiled' e%en if he was too young to smile' but 1 thin( sic( (ids get old and wise and funny %ery fast. And so my wife and 1 named him Abraham and carried him home and lay him in his crib and hung Chocolate 6hunder from the ceiling abo%e him li(e a cra*y mobile and laughed and laughed with the /oy of it. 4e deported Mr. )rief bac( to his awful country. Nur baby boy was going to li%e a long and good life. 4e wondered aloud what we would tell our Abraham about the wondrous world when he was old enough to wonder about it.

1' Rea eac! #!ort-#tor, care%ull,' Anal,Ge t!e main t!eme# *rou+!t u$ *, *ot! #torie#' T!ink a*out t!eir commonalitie# an i3erent a$$roac!e#' KDo Not 0o 0entleK Summar, The 'nname* narrator of this -ery short story tells a h'moro's tale (ith an ironic t(ist a,o't ho( a *il*o ! com,ine* (ith In*ian songs, chants an* prayers ! ,rings his infant son o't of a coma at %hil*ren's :ospital in /eattle. :e *escri,es ho( his son gets st'c& ,et(een his mattress an* cri, an* "s'ffocate* himself ,l'e." The ,oy falls into a coma, *ies three times an* is re-i-e* three times (ith the 'se of -ery e2pensi-e me*ical e;'ipment that &eeps "$r. Frief" a(ay. Afrai* to ,ecome too hopef'l a,o't the ,a,y, the In*ian narrator an* his In*ian (ife *on't choose a name ,eca'se "hope eats yo'r flesh li&e a spi*er ,ite." The narrator thin&s he sees $r. Frief ,ehin* his (ife's eyes an* yells at her. :is (ife ,elie-es she enco'nters $r. Frief in the corri*ors of the hospital an* attac&s him "li&e she (as $'hamma* Ali." 7hile passe* o't from e2ha'stion in the ,athroom, the narrator ,ecomes a(are of t(o men *isc'ssing their sic& chil*ren an* *eci*es to go shopping for ,a,y toys. :e goes into a store calle* Toys in 4a,elan*, thin&ing it's a ,a,y s'pply store, only to *isco-er that it sells se2 toys an* paraphernalia. :e enco'nters a -i,rator calle* %hocolate Th'n*er (hich is "*ar& ,ro(n an* 15 inches long an* nee*e* a nine!-olt ,attery." The narrator ,'ys the *il*o, r'ns to the fo'rth!floor I%5 an* (a-es %hocolate Th'n*er in the air li&e some &in* of magic (an*. :e r'ns aro'n* the 'nit (a-ing %hocolate Th'n*er o-er his son an* o-er other ,a,ies, la'ghing an* hooting, an* soon other parents also are la'ghing an* hooting. Then his (ife ta&es %hocolate Th'n*er an* 'ses it to po'n* her In*ian tri,al *r'm, an* she sings an In*ian song to the accompaniment of the ,'MMing *il*o. The song echoes 'p an* *o(n the hall(ays an* is hear* ,y e-eryone ! a &in* of "healing *'et." +or the ne2t t(o (ee&s, the narrator's (ife sings an* prays o-er their son (ith the -i,rator in her han*s. The chil* respon*s, opens his eyes an* is finally sent home. The parents name him A,raham an* hang %hocolate Th'n*er o-er his cri, li&e a magic mo,ile talisman.

HDo 2ot

entleH .nalysis

The rational, scientific (orl* of me*icine an* (estern healing is ?'2tapose* (ith the shamanic, tri,al c'stoms of 6ati-e Americans (ith sometimes hilario's, sometimes poignant effect. As the narrator an* his (ife face "$r. Frief" (hen their infant son nearly s'ffocates in his cri,, they in-o&e ancient tri,al c'stoms of *r'mming, chanting an* prayer (hile the chil* is hoo&e* 'p to an e2pensi-e, high!tech life s'pport system in the hospital. After a,o't a (ee& of this ro'tine, as the parents fall into a state of e2ha'stion, the narrator father goes loo&ing for a toy in /eattle an* mista&enly en*s 'p in a se2 toy shop (here he ,'ys a h'ge -i,rating *il*o, "%hocolate Th'n*er." 7hen he ,rings the *il*o ,ac& to the hospital, the parents 'se it, (ith m'ch hilarity, as another part of their In*ian rit'al ! ,eating *r'ms (ith it an* (a-ing it in the air. 7hen their son reco-ers, they place the *il*o o-er his cri, at home. The rea*er (on*ers (hether the irrational, spirit'al, playf'l aspects of fol& me*icine aren't ?'st as po(erf'l as mo*ern technology in healing an* preser-ing life. The incantations of the In*ian parents (ith the %hocolate Th'n*er as a sym,ol of se2 an* repro*'ction an* life seem to s'ggest the *eep!roote* po(er of this tri,al approach to healing.

)' Detain an look %or in%ormation a*out t!e Nati8e-American cultural i##ue# an ritual# %oun in t!e #torie# 5i'e' &1o+an.( &Yei*ec!ei #on+(. t!e u#e o% rituali#tic #on+#. etc'6'

R#ndiannessS and #dentity in the 2ovels and Short Stories of Sherman .le+ie
!resented at the '6raming the Self? .n+ieties of #dentity in Eiterature' conference at the University of !ortsmouth, 0&st Bay 0'&'.

!reface
The term R#ndianS, as used to descri$e the indigenous peoples of the .mericas fell out of favour with the emergence of the =ed !ower political movement of the &>M's when it was felt to have peIorative connotations. The term R2ative .mericanS was su$sequently introduced $y government officials, $ecoming the favoured term of progressive .merican academics and replacing R#ndianS in middle-class white vernacular. The maIority of 2ative people, however, now reIect R2ative .mericanS as $eing artificial and generic, referring to themselves as R.merican #ndianS or simply R#ndianS &, or T in mi+ed company T $y their tri$al affiliation. The Spokane writer Sherman .le+ie has stated quite clearly that he prefers R#ndianS, and this is the term # will use in discussing his work. #he 1!est for 2dentity The quest for identity is the overriding theme in the work of almost all 2ative writers. 6our centuries of colonisation, during which children, mi+ed and full-$lood, were taken from their homes and RcivilisedS have scoured away nearly all remnants of traditional #ndian identity. Sent to $oarding schools such as that in /arlisle, !ennsylvania whose motto was R"ill the #ndian, Save the manS, these children were no longer permitted to speak their own languages, wear their own clothes, or pray to their own gods. #mperfectly assimilated, they lost their voices and their histories, and found themselves $alanced $etween two opposing worlds? the old world where they no longer $elonged, and the new world in which they would $e no more than immigrants, always foreign, always seeking acceptance.

6indings for the &>>( /ensus Gureau Survey indicated that 8>U of 2ative people preferred to $e called A!erican Indian, while 79U preferred Native A!erican.

Vuestions of R#ndiannessS dominate .le+ieSs stories, and race is a concern shared $y nearly all of his characters. #n the early $ooks, in particular, the reader is never allowed to ignore the issue of race nor to identify with his characters simply as people. *hen # first came to .le+ieSs $ooks, # found references to race and ethnicity to $e so frequent that # carried out a $rief survey, a practice # have continued. Selecting forty pages at random, # count all direct references, including tri$al affiliation, $lood quantum, and slang. Using this method, # found an average of 0.0 direct references to race per page in The 'one &anger (ist ight in #eaven %&>>7), 7.( in &eservation )lues %&>>(), 8.7 in The Toughest Indian %0''&), 7.> in Ten 'ittle Indians %0''8), 0.M in (light %0''9), and &.M in The A"solutely True Diary o a Part-Ti!e Indian %0''9)$ Fver the course of his career, .le+ieSs representation of #ndian identity has changed dramatically, moving from the fervent and angry tri$alism of his reservation stories, to a sense of otherness in an ur$an environment, and on to a more pan-#ndian and polycultural0 stance. This paper will e+plore the traIectory of racial identity in .le+ieSs work and show how his early focus on ethnicity has given way to more universal themes since the terrorist attacks of Septem$er &&, 0''&. 3lood 1!ant!m Glood Vuantum is used $y the U.S. government to measure a personSs 2ative ancestry for the purpose of defining their ethnic inheritance and esta$lishing their entitlement to treaty $enefits. Bany tri$es have adopted this system to determine eligi$ility for tri$al mem$ership, requiring a /ertificate of Degree of #ndian Glood %/#GD), issued $y the Gureau of #ndian .ffairs. Tri$es, however, are a$le to set their own minimum requirements so the necessary quanta differ from one nation to another? for some tri$es including the 1astern Gand of /herokees, as little as &A&Mth tri$al ancestry is needed, while others require as much as W. .mong the 2ative population, there is a great deal of de$ate a$out this issue, particularly as it allows an outside $ody to decide oneSs ethnic identity. .ccording to US /ensus Gureau statistics, appro+imately 0.( million people are full-$lood .merican #ndian or .laska 2ative, with a further &.M million $eing of mi+ed 2ative and non2ative decent.7

The term polyculturalism was coined $y @iIay !rashad in *very"ody Was +ung (u (ighting %0''&) as an alternative to multiculturalism which he $elieves is divisive and leads to racism. 5nite* /tates %ens's 4'rea' JonlineK a-aila,le at: http:..(((.cens's.go-.pro*.2992p',s.c2&,r91!15.p*f accesse* 1" $ay 2919.

Throughout .le+ieSs work, he poses the question? *hat is #ndianN #s one #ndian $y simple fact of ancestryN /an one truly $e #ndian if they donSt speak the language of their forefathers or practice traditional $eliefsN /an one $e a real #ndian away from the reservationN +eservation 3l!es #n .le+ieSs first novel, &eservation )lues %&>>(), the legendary $lues guitarist =o$ert -ohnson arrives at the Spokane #ndian reservation in search of healing from the seemingly immortal spiritual matriarch Gig Bom, a musical genius who taught 1lvis, -anis -oplin and -imi <endri+. -ohnson leaves his guitar, an instrument that has $een possessed since he made his pact with the devil, with Thomas Guilds-the-6ire. The guitar speaks to Thomas, telling him to form a $and with his friends, @ictor and -unior. Thus -ohnsonSs 6austian contract is transferred to the new $and, R/oyote SpringsS. *ith more than a little help from -ohnsonSs guitar, the $and quickly gains a following, including two white groupies, #ndian wanna$es Getty and @eronica. .s /oyote SpringsS reputation grows, they are invited to play at the 6lathead #ndian =eservation in Bontana. There, they meet /hess and /heckers *arm *ater who Ioin the $and to sing $acking vocals. Eater, when /hess catches @ictor and -unior having se+ with the white women, she accuses them of $etraying their D2. %pp. C&-C0). The de$ate a$out interracial relationships and mi+ed$lood inheritance is one which .le+ie returns to time after time. .fter two e+ecutives from /avalry =ecords arrive at the reservation to hear /oyote Springs play, the $and is invited to 2ew ;ork to audition for the record company $oss. #ndians are enIoying a wave of popularity in the music $usiness and /avalry =ecords is eager to cash in on the trend with an all-#ndian act. -ohnsonSs guitar, however, the force $ehind the $andSs rise, no longer performs and when they fail the audition, the $and implodes. Getty and @eronica, however, have also $een approached $y the record la$el on the strength of $eing one-quarter #ndian. "nowing that their #ndian connections are tenuous at $est, @eronica protests, telling the record company e+ecutive, R*e ainSt that much #ndian.S *ith a nod to $lood-quantum laws, she is told R;ouSre #ndian enough, rightN # mean, all it takes is a little $it, rightN *hoSs to say youSre not #ndian enoughNS %p. 090).

Towards the end of the $ook, /hess, who is concerned a$out the dilution of #ndian $lood from mi+ed-relationships, takes the opposite view. Seeing a white woman with a mi+ed$lood son, she tells her? R;our son will $e $eaten $ecause heSs a half-$reed....2o matter what he does, heSll never $e #ndian enoughS %p. 0C7). /hess wants to protect the child, $ut more than that she wants to protect the tri$e from the growing num$er of Rquarter-$loods and eighth-$loods 4who5 get all the #ndian Io$s, all the #ndian chances, $ecause they look whiteS %i$id). Bi+ed-$loods are viewed $oth as victim, and villain, undesira$le and damaging to the tri$e. #n his own life, .le+ie %who is X #ndian) claims to have Rmade a conscious decision to marry a fellow 425ative .mericanS and has stated that he would prefer that his children do the same %/amp$ell, 0''7). #o!ghest 2ndian The nine stories in The Toughest Indian in the World %0''&) move off the reservation into the ur$an environments of Spokane and Seattle. The Rur$an #ndiansS at the heart of these stories are educated, middle class and so$er, and outwardly at least, they are fully integrated into the dominant white society. 6or most, however, race is Ra constant presenceS %p. &8), and whether they are involved in mi+ed relationships or not, they find themselves caught $etween two worlds in which they can never fully $elong. Class #n R/lassS, 1dgar 1agle =unner, a lawyer, meets and marries Susan BcDermott. <er white family $oycott the wedding, $ut his Rdark-skinned motherS is RoverIoyedS $y his choice of $ride? She,d always wanted !e to !arry a white wo!an and "eget hal -"reed children who would !arry white people who would "eget -uarter-"loods, and so on and so on, until si!ple !athe!atics %illed the Indian in us$ %p. 8') rassian suggests that this desire for pale-skinned descendants is evidence of 1dgarSs motherSs self-loathing %p. &M7), $ut # would argue that it is simply an acknowledgement that life would $e easier if these children were seen %and saw themselves) as white. R4*5hen # think a$out #ndians,S .le+ie has said, Rall # think a$out is suffering. By first measure of any #ndian is painS %2ygren, 0''8).

*hen 1dgar discovers that his wife has had an affair, he $egins to patronise prostitutes whenever he is away on $usiness. #n San 6rancisco, he phones an escort agency and asks if they have an #ndian woman. Gy this time he has slept with seventeen prostitutes, Rall of them %like his wife) $lond and $lue-eyedS $ut admits that heSd never had se+ with an #ndian woman %.le+i, p. 87). *hen a white woman wearing a long $lack wig shows up at his hotel room he declares that she is his last prostitute. #n another attempt to reconnect with his #ndian roots and find a community where he truly $elongs, 1dgar visits a $ar frequented $y #ndians. There, he argues with a man and accepts a challenge to fight. <e is desperate to prove himself worthy and Iustifies entering into a $rawl he knows he cannot win $ecause R4d5eep in the heart of the heart of every #ndian manSs heart, he $elieves he is /ra,y <orseS %p. (7). <e wakes in the $ackroom of the $ar as Sissy, the #ndian $artender, washes $lood from his face. Still an+ious to $e accepted $y another #ndian, he makes a pass at her, $ut she quickly reproaches him. Sissy realises what 1dgar does not? though they are $oth #ndian, they are from different worlds. #en Little 2ndians Ten 'ittle Indians %0''8) is the first collection to $e written after Septem$er &&, 0''&, and in numerous interviews, .le+ie has discussed the way the events of that day changed the focus of his work. *here many of his earlier stories were tainted with an antagonistic Rthem and usS tri$alism which e+amined the minutiae of 2ative .merican adversity, the stories produced after that date incorporate a $roader, more universal view of the human condition. *hile his protagonists are still almost e+clusively #ndian, their personal traumas are not defined $y, nor the result of their ethnicity. They are human $eings first, and #ndian $y accident of $irth. #t is this $reaking down of old tri$al affiliations T affiliations that encourage an unwavering sense of righteousness T that sets this collection apart from .le+ieSs previous $ooks. #he earch Engine #n The Search *ngine, nineteen-year-old /orliss sees herself as $eing different from the other mem$ers of her tri$e. She is solitary and $ookish in a communal society of $lue-

collar sensi$ilities. .fter straying across a $ook of poems $y <arlan .twater, a previously unheard-of Spokane #ndian, she sets off on what -ennifer Eadino descri$es as a modernday vision quest, in search of the author and her own identity %Eadino, 0''>). *hat she finds, of course, is not what she e+pects, for .twater who was adopted out of the tri$e and raised $y white parents, is #ndian in D2. only. .t the end, $oth are left struggling with the question R*hat is #ndianNS Two stories, Can I .et a Witness and (light Patterns, deal e+plicitly with the after-effects of >A&&. #n the former, an unnamed middle-class Spokane #ndian woman is having lunch in a Seattle restaurant when a suicide $om$er walks in off the street and detonates the $om$ strapped to his chest. .t its centre, the story criticises .mericaSs indulgence in what .le+ie descri$es as Rgrief pornS %p. >&) which flowed from the media after the >A&& tragedy, and questions the way that those who died were treated as heroes. *hen the woman suggests that some of those killed may have deserved to die and that somewhere a wife or a daughter Rthanks od or .llah or the devil for FsamaSs rageS her rescuer repeatedly says R# donSt want to hear itS %p. >7). Since Septem$er &&, 0''&, .le+ie has frequently spoken a$out the dangers of tri$alism and how his position with regards to his own tri$al identity has changed. #t was tri$alism which caused men to crash planes into the Twin Towers and it was tri$alism which prevented .mericans from asking why people would do such a thing. *hen eorge *. Gush said to the world, R;ouSre either with us or against usS he not only stifled de$ate, $ut also set in place the rules for mem$ership of his particular tri$e of patriotic .mericans. Gy refusing to consider the womanSs argument, that some who died in the Twin Towers were themselves guilty of heinous acts, the man in the story is protecting his place within the tri$e. (0sol!tely #r!e Diary Bany of .le+ieSs stories contain thinly veiled references to his own e+periences. #n the young adult novel The A"solutely True Diary o a Part-Ti!e Indian %0''9), fourteen-yearold -unior, was T like .le+ie T $orn with hydrocephalus, and T like .le+ie T witnessed numerous family tragedies while growing up on the Spokane #ndian =eservation. .lso like .le+ie, -unior finds his motherSs name printed inside a school te+t$ook. This e+perience spurs them $oth into seeking a $etter education at a school in the white farming

community of =eardan, *ashington, twenty-two miles away. Descri$ing the transition from the reservation school to =eardan, -unior says? I wo%e up on the reservation as an Indian, and so!ewhere on the road to &eardan, I "eca!e so!ething less than Indian$ And once I arrived at &eardan, I "eca!e so!ething less than less than less than Indian$ %p. C7) -unior realises that there is no hope for him on the reservation, and that if he is to have a chance at a $etter life, he must find a place for himself in the white world %p. 0&9). !laced chronologically in real time, this story marks .le+ieSs own early search for identity. Drawing heavily on his own childhood e+periences, $ut written after >A&&, we see how .le+ieSs idea of identity has e+panded to include more than ethnicity. .s -unior reflects on who and what he is, a new type of tri$alism $egins to emerge, tri$es $ased on shared humanity rather than fundamentalism? I reali/ed that, sure, I was a Spo%ane Indian$ I "elonged to that tri"e$ )ut I also "elonged to the tri"e o A!erican i!!igrants$ 0 And to the tri"e o "as%et"all players$ And to the tri"e o "oo%wor!s$ And the tri"e o cartoonists$ And the tri"e o chronic !astur"ators$ And the tri"e o teenage "oys$ And the tri"e o s!all-town %ids$ And the tri"e o Paci ic Northwesterners$ And the tri"e o tortilla chips-and-salsa lovers$ And the tri"e o poverty$ And the tri"e o uneral-goers$ And the tri"e o "eloved sons$ And the tri"e o "oys who really !issed their "est riends$ %p. 0&9)
L

Ale2ie *escri,es the (ay that 6ati-e Americans, to*ay, are ,eing assimilate* into contemporary American society W thro'gh pop'lar c'lt're an* 'r,anisation W as similar to the e2perience of foreign immigrants.

War Dances The shift in .le+ieSs perspective of identity $ecomes dramatically evident in War Dances %0''>), his latest collection of stories and poems. #n it, references to race plummet to Iust '.M per page T a startling change and evidence of .le+ieSs transformation into something more than an #ndian writer. 6or the first time, there are two stories in which the protagonistSs ethnic origins remain entirely unstated T an acknowledgement that there are universal themes which rise a$ove culture and race. That is not to say, however, that $eing #ndian is no longer important. #n the title story, the narrator e+periences an ine+plica$le deafness in one ear, and worries that his childhood hydrocephalus may $e returning, or that a tumour is growing inside his $rain. .s he contemplates his own mortality he remem$ers the death of his father from dia$etes and alcoholism. =ecalling an incident during his fatherSs last stay in hospital, the narrator ponders the role which nostalgia plays in #ndian society, dismissing it at first as a Rfalse idolS %p. 79) that provides only a Rthin $lanketS of comfort %i$id).( .s he goes in search of a literal $lanket, to keep his ailing father warm, he meets a Eummi man whose daughter is a$out to give $irth. The soon-to-$e grandfather has created a Rnew traditionS %p. 7() and performs a naming ceremony for he un$orn child. .s he gives the narrator a !endleton $lanket, the Eummi man insists on $lessing it with a healing song. The narrator thinks little of the old manSs spiritual power, $ut when his own father $reaks into a healing song for himself, he feels compelled to Ioin in. The song, he knows will give only temporary comfort, $ut he realises now that temporary is Rsometimes good enoughS %p. 8'). *ith this collection, .le+ie has left $ehind his fundamentalist e+pressions of identity and replaced them with universal e+periences of grief and hope and love and fear. =egardless of race, religion, or any of the other tri$es which human $eings have devised to separate us from each other, there is still a common humanity which $inds us together. .t last, it seems that the answer to .le+ieSs question T what is an Indian1 2 has $een answered? an #ndian is a human $eing.
5

The i*ea that nostalgia has a corrosi-e an* *ea*ly affect (as pre-io'sly -oice* ,y Preacher in C7hat 0-er :appene* to +ran& /na&e %h'rchD in Ten Little *ndians, p. 22O.

7' Pa, attention an anal,Ge t!e im$ortance o% oral tra ition a# $ortra,e in t!e #torie#' In relation to t!i#. make a com$arati8e anal,#i# o% t!e i3erent narrati8e 8oice# an tone# u#e *, t!e aut!or# in *ot!' KDo Not 0o 0entleK Summar, The 'nname* narrator of this -ery short story tells a h'moro's tale (ith an ironic t(ist a,o't ho( a *il*o ! com,ine* (ith In*ian songs, chants an* prayers ! ,rings his infant son o't of a coma at %hil*ren's :ospital in /eattle. :e *escri,es ho( his son gets st'c& ,et(een his mattress an* cri, an* "s'ffocate* himself ,l'e." The ,oy falls into a coma, *ies three times an* is re-i-e* three times (ith the 'se of -ery e2pensi-e me*ical e;'ipment that &eeps "$r. Frief" a(ay. Afrai* to ,ecome too hopef'l a,o't the ,a,y, the In*ian narrator an* his In*ian (ife *on't choose a name ,eca'se "hope eats yo'r flesh li&e a spi*er ,ite." The narrator thin&s he sees $r. Frief ,ehin* his (ife's eyes an* yells at her. :is (ife ,elie-es she enco'nters $r. Frief in the corri*ors of the hospital an* attac&s him "li&e she (as $'hamma* Ali." 7hile passe* o't from e2ha'stion in the ,athroom, the narrator ,ecomes a(are of t(o men *isc'ssing their sic& chil*ren an* *eci*es to go shopping for ,a,y toys. :e goes into a store calle* Toys in 4a,elan*, thin&ing it's a ,a,y s'pply store, only to *isco-er that it sells se2 toys an* paraphernalia. :e enco'nters a -i,rator calle* %hocolate Th'n*er (hich is "*ar& ,ro(n an* 15 inches long an* nee*e* a nine!-olt ,attery." The narrator ,'ys the *il*o, r'ns to the fo'rth!floor I%5 an* (a-es %hocolate Th'n*er in the air li&e some &in* of magic (an*. :e r'ns aro'n* the 'nit (a-ing %hocolate Th'n*er o-er his son an* o-er other ,a,ies, la'ghing an* hooting, an* soon other parents also are la'ghing an* hooting. Then his (ife ta&es %hocolate Th'n*er an* 'ses it to po'n* her In*ian tri,al *r'm, an* she sings an In*ian song to the accompaniment of the ,'MMing *il*o. The song echoes 'p an* *o(n the hall(ays an* is hear* ,y e-eryone ! a &in* of "healing *'et." +or the ne2t t(o (ee&s, the narrator's (ife sings an* prays o-er their son (ith the -i,rator in her han*s. The chil* respon*s, opens his eyes an* is finally sent home. The parents name him A,raham an* hang %hocolate Th'n*er o-er his cri, li&e a magic mo,ile talisman.

:' Anal,Ge t!e common t!ematic i##ue o% c!il ren an #ickne## in t!e #torie#' -!at o c!il ren #,m*oliGe4 -!at o t!e An+lo-American e ucationalJ!ealt! #,#tem# #,m*oliGe4 T!e Narrator in KDo Not 0o 0entleK Altho'gh ne-er i*entifie* ,y name or ethnicity, the rea*er &no(s that the narrator is an American In*ian ,y cl'es (ithin the story, s'ch as references to han* *r'ms, honor songs an* the nasty, *imin'ti-e $r. Frief (ho l'r&s o'tsi*e his ne(,orn son's room at %hil*ren's :ospital, (here the infant lies in a coma. 7hen the narrator ,'ys a ,ro(n *il*o &no(n as %hocolate Th'n*er, it ,ecomes a healing totem for his son, as he an* his (ife (a-e it o-er their chil*. The narrator is fille* (ith ?oy an* gratit'*e for %hocolate Th'n*er ha-ing *ispatche* $r. Frief an* sa-e* his son's life. C!ocolate T!un er %hocolate Th'n*er is the name of a -i,rating *il*o p'rchase* ,y the father of a ,oy in a coma in "3o 6ot Fo Fentle." The *il*o ,ecomes a &in* of talisman to ,ring the chil* ,ac& to health.

5' I enti%, an t!e #torie#'

anal,Ge com$arati8el, t!e u#e o% #$ace an

location in

KDo Not 0o 0entleK Summar, The 'nname* narrator of this -ery short story tells a h'moro's tale (ith an ironic t(ist a,o't ho( a *il*o ! com,ine* (ith In*ian songs, chants an* prayers ! ,rings his infant son o't of a coma at %hil*ren's :ospital in /eattle. :e *escri,es ho( his son gets st'c& ,et(een his mattress an* cri, an* "s'ffocate* himself ,l'e." The ,oy falls into a coma, *ies three times an* is re-i-e* three times (ith the 'se of -ery e2pensi-e me*ical e;'ipment that &eeps "$r. Frief" a(ay.

@' Anal,Ge t!e u#e o% +en er in t!e #torie#' -oman!oo . -omen an Lemale 0en er I entit, in S!erman Ale9ie"# Ten Little Indians In the short story UThe Aife an* Times of 0stelle 7al&s A,o-eV from one of his more recent (or&s, Ten Little *ndians, specific attention is pai* to the representation an* presentation of the mo*ern 6ati-e (oman, female!ness, (omanhoo* an* 'n*erstan*ing of feminine gen*er i*entity. 0stelle is presente* to Ale2ieDs rea*ers thro'gh her sonDs *escriptions an* *oc'menting, an* she allo(s 's Jthe %ana*ian 'ni-ersity st'*entK an 'n*erstan*ing of (ho the Une(V 6ati-e (oman is in mo*ern Jnon!reMK society. The yo'ng 6ati-e college st'*ent %orliss from U/earch 0ngineV also pro-i*es e2amples for another type of portrayal of Une( 6ati-e (omanhoo*V (hich Ale2ie is presenting to his rea*ers in comparison an* in contrast to 0stelle an* to /herman Ale2ieDs *ifferent 'n*erstan*ings of U(omanV. To s'pport my arg'ment I (ill ,e *isc'ssing the follo(ing terms: (omanhoo*, gen*er!i*entity, racial an* gen*er stereotyping, the UgaMeV an* the UotherV. Ue2oticV (hich I (ill *efine 'sing the follo(ing three c'lt'ral st'*ies te2ts: 0*gar an* /e*g(ic&Ds Cultural Theory The Aey Concepts, GD4rien an* /MemanDs Popular Culture A ;serBs 6uide an* /t'r&en an* %art(rightDs Practices of Loo.ing! an introduction to visual culture. This essay (ill ,oth consi*er an* ans(er the follo(ing ;'estions: :o( *oes Ale2ie present the (omen (ho are ,oth tra*itional an* mo*ern an* ho( *oes he *efine these t(o 'n*erstan*ings of (oman in his (or&s8 +'rthermore, in 'n*erstan*ing that Ale2ie gi-es his rea*ers the Ulife an* timesV of 0stelle thro'gh a male gaMe an* -oice, it is important to consi*er (hether or not he is contin'ing to f'el the patriarchal system an* history of colonialism that has an* contin'es to place 6ati-e (omen on the margins. Also, ta&ing into consi*eration that the /po&ane tri,e, of (hich Ale2ie is a part, hol*s a $atriarchal social system, ho( might a female rea*er interpret the constant portrayal of (omen thro'gh UmenDs eyesV or thro'gh the masc'line perspecti-e8 Also, (hat is the effect of pro-i*ing (omen an* men as ,inary opposites, for Ale2ie1 ho( might this ,e -ie(e* as pro,lematic for the rea*er8 This essay see&s therefore, to *isc'ss 6ati-e (omen an* female gen*er i*entity in /herman Ale2ieDs (or&s.

0stelle 7al&s A,o-e is *escri,e* to the rea*er thro'gh her son an* in relation to their connection as mother an* son. In the first 2 pages of this short story, the son reco'nts that 0stelle U(as s'per smart JXK ,orn smart on the /po&ane In*ian Neser-ation an* st'*ie* her (ay into the 5ni-ersity of 7ashington *'ring a time (hen she (as pretty m'ch the only In*ian on camp'sV (Ale2ie 12"#. :e esta,lishes that his mother (as UheroicV an* self!s'fficient1 Ushe *i* it all ,y herself, (ith one han* hol*ing a te2t,oo& an* the other han* hol*ing a s;'ealing ,a,y to her ,reastV (12"#. In these fe( sentences, Ale2ie has pro-i*e* an 'n*erstan*ing of (ho the (oman 0stelle is ,oth in society an* the home, an* in the eyes of her son. /lo(ly, /herman Ale2ie (or&s to create an i*entity for 0stelle thro'gh her /onDs perspecti-e (hich gi-es his rea*ers an 'n*erstan*ing of the 6ati-e (oman off of the reser-ation. It is important therefore to *isc'ss the (or& that Ale2ie is *oing to pro-i*e 's (ith an 'n*erstan*ing of 6ati-e (omen, their i*entity an* iss'es s'rro'n*ing 7estern gen*er norms. As s'ch, it is rele-ant to *isc'ss the follo(ing *efinition of Ugen*erV in Cultural Theory Aey Concepts: Uthe concept of Cgen*erD is place* in opposition to the concept of Cse2D Jfemale.maleK an* JXK may ,e ta&en therefore to refer to learne* patterns of ,eha-io'r an* action, as their femininity an* men e2press their masc'linity -aries from c'lt're to that are stereotypically attri,'te* to (omen an* men in as greater emotional e2pression in (omen1 greater are seen as gen*er.V (0*gar an* /e*g(ic& 1 9# oppose* to that (hich is ,iologically *etermine*. JThereforeK the precise (ays in (hich (omen e2press c'lt're. Th's, ;'alities contemporary 7estern c'lt're (s'ch

ten*encies to -iolence an* aggression in men#

Thro'gh this (or&ing *efinition, the rea*er (ill ,e a,le to 'n*erstan* that Ale2ie is p'shing for constr'ction of femininity or female gen*er norms in 0stelle to ,e ,eyon* or co'nter to tra*itional norms (hich incl'*e: passi-ity, a connection to nat're, sensi,ility an* s',?ecti-e positions of po(er (0*gar an* /e*g(ic& 19 #. Nather, thro'gh the son, Ale2ie gi-es 's 0stelleDs co'nter!normati-e gen*er i*entity (herein he refers to her as Ufierce an* protecti-e, open an* permissi-eV (1 9#. Thro'gh this i*ea of (omanhoo* or asserti-e female i*entity, Ale2ie is sho(ing his rea*ers that e-en the most historically an* colonially marginaliMe* s',?ect! the 6ati-e (oman! can em,o*y a sense of self an* po(er (hich places her JperhapsK a,o-e (hite an* 6ati-e i*entity altogether ,'t places her Ua,o-eV.

Along (ith 0stelle, Ale2ie gi-es his rea*ers the story U/earch 0ngineV in (hich he presents the character %orliss an* thro'gh her a sense of another type of (omanhoo*! the 6ati-e female college st'*ent. Thro'gh her, Ale2ie is a,le to another 6ati-e (oman s'ccee* against the ,aggage she is force* to carry as smart, 6ati-e, an* a (omen. In 0stelleDs short story, the son cites that UitDs to'gh to ,e a smart girl any(here ,'t itDs (ay to'gh on the reMV an* li&e 0stelle, %orliss too m'st face this iss'e (hich 'nfort'nately lea*s of her off of the reser-ation (Ale2ie 12"#. In the short story, %orliss *escri,es herself as Ua poor &i*, an* a mi**le!class In*ian, JXK *estine* for a minim'm!(age life JXK ,'t she (ante* a ma2im'm life, an original a,original life, so she ha* fo'ght her (ay o't of her 'n*erf'n*e* p',lic high school into an 'n*erf'n*e* p',lic collegeV (Ale2ie 5#. Thro'gh her, the 'ni-ersity st'*ent rea*er fin*s that Ale2ie is promoting strength, intelligence an* self propelle* (or& s&ills in 21st cent'ry (omanhoo* for yo'ng 6ati-e (omen in the 5/ an* allo(ing a more positi-e perspecti-e of (omen for themsel-es an* the f't're. At the same time ho(e-er, Ale2ie remin*s his rea*ers of the challenging colonial! therefore racial an* stereotypical! history that 6ati-e (omen are still s',?ecte* to (ith the yo'ng man in the coffee shop. :is perspecti-e of %orliss is *isplaye* p'rposef'lly an* (or&s to circ'late the i*ea of Ue2oticismV an* Use2'aliMe* otherV that is in-ol-e* (ith the territory of the historical colonial s',?ecti-ity of 6ati-e (omen in regar*s to (hite. 0'ropean men.

To contin'e in this *irection, it is important to consi*er J,rieflyK the *efinitions of the follo(ing terms: UcolonialismV, Uthe gaMeV, Ue2oticismV an* UotherV. The term U%olonialismV as 0*gar an* /e*g(ic& pro-i*e, comes to e2cl'si-ely signify Uthe forci,le in-asion, occ'pation an* a*ministration of non!7estern c'lt'res an* nations ,y 0'ropean an* 6orth American forcesV (59#. +'rthermore, GD4rien an* /Meman cite that U%olonialism (as not ?'st an economic an* political 'n*erta&ing in (hich 0'ropean nations compete * for *ominance thro'gh the e2ploitation an* settlement of o-erseas colonies J,'tK (as also a c'lt'ral pro?ect, in (hich these nations so'ght to e2ten* JXK the concept of ci-iliMationV (2 9#. As a res'lt, the Ucolonial -ision of 'ni-ersalityV faile* its inten*e* p'rpose *'e to the increasing pop'larity of Uli-e performances ,y colonials JXK poetry rea*ings ,y A,original %ana*ian Pa'line Bohnson (Te&ahion(a&e# Jan*K si*esho( *isplays of n'*e or partially clothe* African (omen Jie.K /aarti 4artman (nic&name* U:ottentot Hen'sV#, Jf'nctioningK to some e2tent as performances of stereotypical otherness, the colonials offering a'*iences Cprimiti-eD (sa-age an*.or innocent# reflections of their Cci-iliMe*D 0'ropean sel-es (GD4rien an* /Meman 2 9#. In relation, colonial *isco'rse in its pro*'ction of &no(le*ge an* (ays of tal&ing a,o't Uthe otherV has sec're* the i*entity of the imperial UselfV (GD4rien an* /Meman 2L9#. Therefore, there is a *ifferentiation of non!(estern c'lt'res an* peoples from 7estern an*.or 0'ropean people (hich then ren*ers them as UotherV. This 'n*erstan*ing le* 7estern c'lt're into an o,session (ith UothernessV, creating an eroticisation of that (hich is *eeme* UotherV, la,elling it as Ue2oticV. /t'r&en an* %art(right pro-i*e an 'n*erstan*ing of this o,session (ith Uthe otherV ,y loo&ing at Aa'ra $'l-eyDs concept of Uthe gaMeV1 Uthe act of loo&ing is commonly tho'ght as a(ar*ing more po(er to the person (ho is loo&ing than to the person (ho is the o,?ect of the loo& Jth'sK representing co*es of *ominance an* s',?'gation, *ifference an* othernessV (199#. Aa'ra $'l-ey e2plains that Uthe acti-ity of loo&ing, it its contra*ictory narcissistic an* -oye'ristic aspects, is co*e* male, (hile (oman, connoting Cto-1e-loo.ed-at-ness"B is consigne* to the role of o,?ect of the gaMeV (GD4rien an* /Meman 91#. Thro'gh the 'n*erstan*ing of these concepts, (e can see the importance of U/earch 0ngineV character %orliss as a mo*el for a type of Une( 6ati-e (omanhoo*V. Ale2ie gi-es his rea*er %orliss as she is seen ,y the (hite male UgaMeV or -ie(point (hich (or&s to a**ress her in racialiMe* se2'aliMe* lang'age th's o,?ectifying her: Uhe st'*ie* her. /he (as -ery short, a fe( inches 'n*er fi-e feet, may,e thirty po'n*s o-er(eight, an* plain!feat're*. 4't her s&in (as clear an* *ar& ,ro(n (li&e goo* coffeeS#, an* her long ,lac& hair h'ng *o(n past her (aist. An* she (ore re* co(,oy an* her ,reasts (ere large, an* she &ne( a,o't A'*en, an* she (as confi*ent approach strangers, so may,e her ,ea'ty (as eccentric, e-en e2otic. An* to fin* in P'llman, 7ashingtonV. (L# ,oots, eno'gh to e2oticism (as har*

Altho'gh he attri,'tes %orliss as the yo'nger more asserti-e an* self!s'fficient Jtho'gh i*entity crisis!e*K 6ati-e (oman, Ten Little *ndians has characters em,racing their stereotypes to gain po(er from f'lfilling social an* c'lt'ral e2pectations. %orliss em,races her 6ati-e i*entity, 'sing her UothernessV or Ue2otic i*entityV as a means to ,oth shiel* an* re-eal herself in the light of society. /he is therefore place* ,oth in comparison an* contrast to 0stelle in Ale2ieDs h'nt for *efining or re*efining U6ati-e (omanhoo*V. Ale2ie pro-i*es the important 'n*erstan*ing of Une( 6ati-e (omanhoo*V thro'gh 0stelle 7al&s A,o-e (hen the character *eci*es to ,ecome a Uprogressi-e an* (hole (omanV (1 1#. Tho'gh her son a*mits to s'pporting her *ecision, he reflects that it (o'l* ha-e ,een less challenging for him as Ua refle2i-e an* crac&e* teenage ,oy JXK if 0stelle ha* p'rs'e* her (holeness ,y herselfV (1 1#. This mother an* son are ma*e, ,y Ale2ie, to ,ecome ,est frien*s ,'t that places their relationship as 'ncommon in 7estern society. Their a,ility to ha-e open *isc'ssions a,o't se2 an* se2'ality only (or&s to promote (hat I feel Ale2ie is aiming for, the concept of a Uprogressi-e an* (holeV (omanhoo*1 Uthe (hole (oman em,races an* cele,rates her se2'alityV (1 2#. 7hile this is a positi-e image for Ale2ie to sen* to ,oth his female an* male rea*ers, it is necessary to 'n*erstan* that life, in relation to se2'ality has ,een pro,lematic for 6ati-e (omen since %oloniMation. In her ,oo& entitle* Con0uest! Sexual 7iolence and American *ndian 6enocide, a'thor An*rea /mith pro-i*es the *irect reality that 6ati-e (omen in the 5/ face *aily in regar*s to a *ysf'nctional 7estern patriarchal social system. B'*ith P. 7ithero(, in her re-ie( of /mithDs ,oo& pro-i*es that the ,oo& highlights Utr'ths (hich are relate* to the s',?ect of Ucon;'estV, to the process of *econstr'cti-e peoples, an* *econstr'cting 6ati-e (omen to ,e of less stat're an* -al'e then othersV (7ithero( L<#. +'rthermore, 7ithero( cites that Uas a 6ati-e (oman, yo' can al(ays co'nt on someone Clittle la*yingD yo', or treating yo' li&e a no-elty JthereforeK there is no (ay to ,'il* a real mo-ement for ?'stice an* peace, (hether ,et(een people, or ,et(een peoples an* the lan*, (itho't challenging the -iolence of historical an* contemporary colonialismV (L<#. An*rea /mith (rites a,o't Use2'al -iolence as a tool for genoci*e, ,oar*ing school a,'se, rape of the lan*, the coloniMation of 6ati-e (omenDs repro*'cti-e health, me*ical e2perimentation, spirit'al appropriation as se2'al -iolence, an* anti!colonial responses to gen*er -iolence (hich (ill fill in the gaps omitte* in other (or&sV (7ithero( L9#. B'*ith 7ithero( therefore presents the arg'ment that, thro'gh /mith, all has not ,e forgotten or altere* as of yet for 6ati-e (omen an* se2'ality, an* so perhaps it is incorrect to simply rea* 0stelle an* thin& that Ale2ie is sho(ing rea*ers a c'rrent state or type of (omen (ho is positi-ely ena,le* an* not hin*ere* in her se2'ality or stat's as a (oman (ithin society.

In UThe Aife an* Times of 0stelle 7al&s A,o-eV, an important moment occ'rs for ,oth Ale2ie an* the rea*er (hen the son *escri,es his mother physically an* then a*mits that his motherDs importance or rele-ance to society is attri,'te* to li-ing in the city. Therein, he maintains that (omen on the reser-ation are 'na,le to *o (hat his mother has *one in transforming herself into a Uprogressi-e an* (hole (omanV (Ale2ie 1 1!1 #. It can ,e -ie(e* that Ale2ie is therefore pro-i*ing a critic of life ,oth on an* off the UreMV an* the space for (omen to change themsel-es in ,oth societies. The son tells the rea*ers that Uif (e li-e* on the reser-ation, (eD* ,e only t(o more In*ians JXK ,'t (e li-e* in the city, so nat'rally, (e ha* a lot of (hite frien*sV an* this allo(s his mother to spen* time (ith (hite (omen (ho Uas (omen, theyD* ,een Csa-e*D ,y other (omen, an* no( they (ere preaching an* (itnessing: C:ear me roa*, I am (omanSDV(Ale2ie 1 !1 L#. :ere, Ale2ie remin*s his rea*ers of the importance of soli*arity ,et(een (omen that goes ,eyon* racial mar&ers ,'t maintains the traits of c'lt'ral stereotyping an* UotheringV that occ'rs there as (ell. 0stelle changes her real last name from $iller to 7al&s A,o-e ,eca'se, as her son states, Umy motherDs (hole (hite frien*s lo-e* ho( In*ian (e (ere, an* my mother ,ecame more In*ian in their presenceV (Ale2ie 1 5#. Thro'gh 0stelle, Ale2ie pro-i*es an 'n*erstan*ing of ho( life is or co'l* ,e for a 6ati-e (oman in the city -ers's Uon the reM, J(hereK she (as that smart an* strange girl (ho (as al(ays preparing to lea-e, an* (as lo-e* ,y many an* respecte* ,y most, ,'t J(hoK ,ecame a (ise (oman in the presence of her (hite frien*sV (1 "#. 0stelleDs relationship (ith her U(hite *isciplesV ,ecomes pro,lematiMe* ,y the pain an* memory of the colonise* history, the -iolence an* a,'se of her people an* ethnocentric eroticisation of 6ati-e people ,y mo*ern (ay (hite people (Ale2ie 1 "#. The son reco'nts that U*espite my motherDs sarcasm an* racism, most of her frien*s are li,eral (hite (omenS An* most of my frien*s are li,eral (hite menS $y mother I are the hostages of colonial contra*ictionsV (1L9#. Ale2ie remin*s his rea*ers that the 6ati-e (omanhoo* of 0stelle, m'ch li&e that of %orliss, places her in a strangely *islocate* space in literat're, society an* c'lt're1 she has no choice ,'t to transcen* the stereotype ,y accepting or em,racing it, an* m'st carry her painf'l history as c'm,ersome ,aggage on her ,ac& (hile hol*ing the han*s of the f't're ,'t 7al&JingK A,o-e the 6ati-e an* the 7estern i*entity, c'lt're an* life.

/herman Ale2ieDs Ten Little *ndians allo(s him the space in (hich to (or& thro'gh the challenges of 6ati-e (omanhoo* an* female i*entity. :e allo(s the follo(ing *epictions of 6ati-e (omanhoo*: the yo'nger generationDs college 6ati-e (oman, str'ggling (ith i*entity an* c'lt'ral.social conflicts in %orliss along (ith Agn's from The 8usiness of /ancy Dancing an* $arie Polat&in in *ndian Ailler. Thro'gh them Ale2ie is (or&ing to *e-elop his o(n feelings in relation to the Umo*ern e*'cate* 6ati-e (omanV, (hile comparati-ely an* in contrast to the type of (omanhoo* that he gi-es (ithin 0stelle 7al&s A,o-e. 7hile he is a(are of the *o',le marginality of 6ati-e (omen in society, he (or&s to gi-e them a -oice as m'ch as possi,le thro'gh UromanticV U*reamerV, hopef'lly fig'res of the mother, the college st'*ent an* the tra*itional gran*mother, mo-ing a(ay from the Uromantic -ictimV ,'t rather sho(ing ho( one sho'l* han*le oneDs self in JaK comm'nity ((hiche-er that may ,e#. As pre-io'sly *isc'sse* in relation to %orliss, the female characters thro'gho't Ten Little *ndians em,race their stereotypes an* gain po(er from f'lfilling the e2pectations place* on them c'lt'rally. As a res'lt ho(e-er, Ale2ie p'shes the rea*er ,ac& to(ar*s e2oticism an* remem,ers the (oman as the Jor anK o,?ect for e2oticisation an* colonisation (ith the (omen *epicte* as mothers, poor, marginaliMe*, as ho'se(i-es an* as se2'al ,eings, healers an* teachers. /herman Ale2ie (or&s to ,rea& the stereotypes an* ha-e his female characters ,e li&e anyone an* e-eryone else, an* to fit them into the general category, a(ay from the sole category of UIn*ianV.

D' -!at are t!e meanin+# im$lie in t!e title# o% t!e #torie#4 Pa, attention to t!e interte9tualit, re%erre to in Ale9ie"# title. a #!ortene 8er#ion o% t!at o% D,lan T!oma#" cele*rate $oem &Do Not 0o 0entle into t!at 0oo Ni+!t(' >:o not go gentle into that good night> is a %illanelle written by 4elsh poet :ylan 6homas $FGFB[FG5C&' considered to be one of his finest wor(s. Nriginally published in the /ournal "otte#$e %scure in FG5F'RFS it also appeared as part of his FG5@ collection &n Countr' Slee( and ot$er (oems) 7ritten for his *ying father, it is one of Thomas's most pop'lar an* accessi,le poems.J2K The poem has no title other than its first line, "3o not go gentle into that goo* night", a line (hich appears as a refrain thro'gho't. The poem's other e;'ally famo's refrain is "Nage, rage against the *ying of the light". The poem (as the inspiration for three paintings ,y /(ansea!,orn painter an* print!ma&er %eri Nichar*s.J K The poem (as recite* ,y the character Thornton $elon, playe* ,y No*ney 3angerfiel*, in the 19O" film 8ac. to School (here his 0nglish professor has him recite the poem to inspire him to complete an e2am.

Sherman .le+ie? HDo 2ot

entleH

This (as act'ally a real goo* story an* the most relata,le story I ha-e rea* in the co'rse pac&et so far. It state* o't tal&ing a,o't the co'ples ,a,y (ho s'ffocate* (hen his face got st'c& ,et(een his mattress an* cri,, no( I *ont really 'n*erstan* or cant -is'aliMe ho( that (o'l* act'ally happen. 4't, they sai* he *ie* times that *ay. 6o( my first initial tho'ght of $r. Frief (as that he (as act'ally trying to sa-e the ,a,y life an* ?'st co'l*n't *o it right a(ay. They *escri,e* ho( their ,a,y (as hoo&e* 'p to machines (orths millions of *ollars that helpe* him ,reathe, pee, an* poop. I can't imagine alone ha-ing a chil* in a colma an* not &no(ing if they are going to ma&e it an* on top of that to ,e (orrie* a,o't f'n*s to ma&e s're (e can affor* to pay for the healthcare. I *on't e-en &no( many people (ho (o'l* stay sane *'ring a time li&e this. $r. Frief chec&e* on the ,a,y ,'t the (ife an* him *i*n't see eye to eye an* she c'sse* him o't a lot. /he e-en fo'ght him. I lo-e* the (ay this story ha* so man life lessons in it that yo' co'l* 'se any time. It sai* "(hen yo'r h'rting it feels goo* to h'rt some,o*y else. 4't yo' ha-e to ,e caref'l. If yo' get a**icte* to the pain!ca'sing then yo' start h'rting people (ho *ont nee* h'rting". This is sooooo tr'e. The actions in the ,oo& are eno'gh ,'t yo' can also 'se as an e2ample (hen yo' are 'pset (ith something that may ha-e happene* on yo'r ?o, an* to ease that pain yo' start an arg'ment (ith someone at home, ,eca'se it helps release some of that anger an* hostility. :o(e-er yo' are ?'st h'rting someone (ho *i* nothing to yo', instea* of facing the tr'e pro,lem that occ're*. Another e2ample is (hen yo' are cheate* on, (hen yo' feel all that pain an* all the ;'estions of "(hy" yo' get the 'rge to in?ect re-enge 'pon yo'r lo-er. 6o( sleeping (ith someone else may ease the pain for that ;'ic& time *'ring intercorse, ho(e-er the person yo' co'l* ,e sleeping (ith co'l* ha-e feelings for yo' or feel a certain (ay a,o't yo' that yo' aren't e-en open to ,eca'se yo'r too ,'sy trying to get re-enge. 6o( e-en tho'gh it (as *one t(o *ifferent (ays, the same (ay yo' got h'rt an* *i*n't *eser-e it, yo' *i* the same thing to them. 4ac& to the story, the co'ple *i*n't e-en ha-e a chance to name their ,a,y. They sai* they (ere in*ians an* *i*n't (ant to carry aro'n* to m'ch hope. 7hich is tr'e, sometimes (e can *o that an* it's really false hope that *istracts 's from accepting the reality of (hate-er is going on. Gne lesson that the father learne* in the story (as to ,asically pic& his self 'p. 7hen he hear* the t(o men tal&ing a,o't ho( ,a* the (oman (hose chil* (as *ying ha* loo&e* he realiMe* the ?oy he sho'l* ha-e. Another goo* ;'ote 'se* (as " If yo' let yo'rself get 'gly on the o'tsi*e, yo''re going to feel (orse on the insi*e". Hery tr'e, e-en (hen it comes to yo'r self esteem or confi*ence a,o't yo'rself. If yo' fi2 yo'rself 'p an* get *resse* nice yo' get a certain feeling of confi*ence, pri*e an* ?oy a,o't yo'rself that no one co'l* ta&e a(ay from yo'.

To(ar*s the en* of the story (hen the father (ent an* ,o'ght the ,ig -i,rator %hocolate Th'n*er. I tho'ght that (as craMy at first. Act'ally I ha* to re rea* it ,eca'se I &no( (e (ere ?'st tal&ing a,o't a ,a,y an* ho( *i* (e ?'mp to a -i,rator. 4't, li&e he sai* they (ere *esperate an* (illing to try e-erything. 6o( altho'gh I *i*n't 'n*erstan* e-ery significant *etail a,o't ho( he 'se* the -i,rator I &no( it ga-e them moti-ation an* a p'rpose. They felt li&e they (ere act'ally fighting for their chil*'s life no(. 7hat he sai* a,o't h'mans ,eing too simplemin*e* (as tr'e. A lot of times (e ha-e ans(ers an* sol'tions to o'r pro,lems ,'t (e *on't thin& eno'gh of (ays o'tsi*e of the ,o2 to sol-e them. :o(e-er, this co'ple is proof that yo' can an* it (ill pay off since they (ere a,le to ta&e their ,a,y ,oy A4NA:A$ home an* healthy.

Some *uidelines for Te+t Commentar' F. ?ead each short#story carefully. Analy*e the main themes brought up by both stories. 6hin( about their commonalities and diJerent approaches. @. :etain and loo( for information about the ,ati%e#American cultural issues and rituals found in the stories $i.e. !Eogan'" !Weibechei song"' the use of ritualistic songs' etc.&. C. <ay attention and analy*e the importance of oral tradition as portrayed in the stories. 1n relation to this' ma(e a comparati%e analysis of the diJerent narrati%e %oices and tones used by the authors in both. B. Analy*e the common thematic issue of children and sic(ness in the stories. 4hat do children symboli*e; 4hat do the Anglo#American educational5health systems symboli*e; 5. 1dentify and analy*e comparati%ely the use of space and location in the stories. D. Analy*e the use of gender in the stories. L. 4hat are the meanings implied in the titles of the stories; <ay attention to the interte tuality referred to in Ale ieKs title' a shortened %ersion of that of :ylan 6homasK celebrated poem !:o ,ot )o )entle into that )ood ,ight".

STUD/ ,UIDE 2EN8AMIN 0EPHANIAH .?127 1,6?N 6N 4N?O- A,: AU6EN?o .en/amin Nbadiah 1qbal 0ephaniah $FG58#& is a .ritish#born' second# generation poet' playwright' and performer. Ee is one of the most recogni*ed popular poets of the 1sles. Eis wor( has been placed in a number of categories. Eowe%er' he is generally referred to as a !:ub <oet." :espite5or due to his multi#cultural bac(ground and the fact that he spent his childhood years between Vamaica' his parentsK country' and )reat .ritain' in the introduction to one of his most successful collections of poems entitled 6oo .lac(' 6oo -trong $@AAF& he clearly states that he understands himself to be thoroughly .ritish. Eis poetry manifests his complete lac( of an iety about declaring his .ritishness and his enthusiasm to embrace that identity. o 1t is this reality that he sets out to e plore through his poetry' and his contemporary' contro%ersial and accessible means of doing so' that ha%e made him so popular amongst readers of all races and social classes. .en/amin 0ephaniah frequently collaborates with the .ritish Council and other organi*ations and is the first to ac(nowledge that' than(s to many institutions' he is able to spea( his mind' !ranting' praising' and criticising e%erything that ma(es me who 1 am' but that is what .ritain can do. 1tKs probably one of the only places that can ta(e an angry' illiterate' uneducated e #hustler' rebellious ?astafarian and gi%e him the opportunity to represent the country." o 0ephaniah' one of ten children' was born in .irmingham' 2ngland' in FG58 to Nswald $a post#oMce manager& and Ialerie $a nurse&. Ee attended 4ard 2nd Eall Comprehensi%e -chool and .roadway Comprehensi%e -chool from which he was e pelled for %andalism at age thirteen. 1n and out of trouble with the police' he was sent a year later to a borstal.F 1n his later teens' he began to establish his particular characteristics as a performer. Ee had a good memory and en/oyed performing and being in the limelight. Although he recei%ed no formal uni%ersity education' he was awarded honorary doctorates from the Uni%ersity of ,orth London and the Uni%ersity of 4est 2ngland in FG88 and FGGG' respecti%ely. o 1n the FGLAs' 0ephaniah became in%ol%ed in performance poetry' and in FG8A he published his first collection of poems on paper' <en ?hythm. 7rom the %ery beginning of his career' he defended the purpose of his wor(. Eis !mission'" he claimed in a later inter%iew' was !to populari*e poetry [ many wor(ing#class people in .ritain and worldwide belie%e that poetry is an art of the middle#class. 6o redress this' 1 ma(e a great eJort to perform anywhere on the planet' always try to (eep my publications to a low purchase price and write around issues that concern wor(ing#class people. Iery concerned about the idea of a ,ew 4orld Nrder. 4ho ordered it;" o :uring the FG8As' there was a fusion of poetry and music which was to mar( the second wa%e of performance poetry in .ritain' and 0ephaniahKs performances began to gain rele%ance on the cultural front. Eis album ?asta was to be e pected then' after an e tensi%e series of performances in the United Oingdom and on the continent in FG8@. 1t was to be one of nearly a do*en albums3 Us an :em $FGGA& and .elly of de .east $FGGD& are probably the most rele%ant of them all.

o :ub poetry' /ust as :ub music' is based on orality. 1t emphasi*es the spo(en word and is accompanied by reggae rhythm' and thus hea%ily inspired by the Vamaican music of .ob Marley $FGB5#FG8F&.@ Another e tremely significant figure of what is also coined !<erformance <oetry" is Linton Owesi Vohnson $FG5@#' Vamaica&'C considered by many to be the worldKs first reggae poet. Ee' li(e his contemporary' 0ephaniah' spea(s of the oppression and struggle of .lac(s li%ing in the UO through %erse and within the framewor( of reggae rhythm and the ?astafarian culture' to which he is perhaps more committed than his fellow :ub poet. Vean U.intaK .ree*e $FG5@#' Vamaica& is the first woman to write and interpret :ub poetry with wor(s li(e ?yddim ?a%ings $FG88& and her more recent 6he Arri%al of .righteye and Nther <oems $@AAA&. 6oronto' Canada has the second largest group of :ub poets' after Vamaica and 2ngland. Lillian Allen' Afua Cooper and Ahdri 0hina are the most outstanding figures of the genre in this country [ all three are women. o 1n :ub poetry' the relationship of the poet with his5her audience is essential to the results of the performance. 1n fact' it was not until City <salms $FGG@& and <ropa <ropaganda $FGGB& that 0ephaniah established a reputation for himself on page $although his first collection of poems' <en ?hythm was published in FG8A' followed by numerous others&. 4ithin this framewor(' 0ephaniah addresses western oppression' white dominance' racism' police brutality' life in the ghetto' the importance of education $he has published se%eral %olumes of poetry for children and two no%els for adolescents' always with a didactic and political intent&' and current social and political e%ents. o City Limits' a London alternati%e maga*ine' declared him !<oet of the Wear" in both FG8C and FG85. 6he :read AJair9 Collected <oems $FG85& contains a number of pieces which attac( the .ritish legal system' a theme which he pic(ed up on later during his tenure as <oet in ?esidence at the Chambers of London with barrister Michael Mansfield.B 1n FG88 he was short#listed for the position of N ford <rofessor of <oetry' losing to the future ,obel <ri*e winner' -eamus Eeaney. 1n FGGA' the same year he married a theatre administrator' he published the prose wor( entitled ?asta 6ime in <alestine' inspired by a %isit to the <alestinian occupied territories' in which he includes poetry and a type of tra%el log. 0ephaniahKs fourth boo( of poems' City <salms' came out in FGG@. !:is <oetry" is one of his most celebrated poems' and is both a declaration of intentions and a %i%id e planation of the essence of his wor(. 6al(ing 6ur(eys' a %olume of poetry addressed to children' was published two years later. Compassion' humour and wit are present in all of these poems. 6his collection had to go into an emergency reprint /ust si wee(s after it appeared in the boo(stores. 1t was on the best#sellerKs list for childrenKs literature for months' prompting him to write more poetry for children' despite his belief that there is no such thing as childrenKs and adultKs poetry. <ropa <ropaganda $FGGB& deals with more !adult" issues' as is the case of !6he :eath of Voy )ardner'" which tells the story of the arrest of an illegal immigrant who died in front of her son after ha%ing been a %ictim of police brutality.

o FGGD saw the publication of 7un(y Chic(ens' a second %olume of childrenKs poetry' and -choolKs Nut9 <oems ,ot for -chool' which is directed to a more general audience while focusing on the importance of education and the way in which educational institutions can be oppressi%e and subordinating. 6he tone of many of these poems can be decei%ing as it is playful and witty' but throughout them 0ephaniah ne%er ceases to challenge those who discriminate against and e ploit the powerless. 7i%e years went by before 0ephaniah was to put together another collection of poems. 6oo .lac(' 6oo -trong !addresses the struggles of blac( .ritain more forcefully than all his pre%ious boo(s'" according to the te t on the bac( co%er. 6he poetKs own introduction entitled' !4hat Am 1 )oing on About" is especially interesting' since he discusses multi#cultural )reat .ritain' and shares his rePections on identity' and being .lac( in this country. o 0ephaniah is such a prolific and %ersatile writer that the year @AAF witnessed the appearance of a no%el addressed to teenagers' the abo%e#mentioned %olume of poetry' and 4e Are .ritain' a collection of poems written for and about children' a celebration of cultural di%ersity in )reat .ritain. 2ach of the twel%e poems is about a child li%ing in the United Oingdom and his5her cultural en%ironment. 0ephaniah challenges traditional perceptions of the way children li%e while pointing out that' despite their diJerences' they basically share the same concerns and interests. o )angsta ?ap $@AAB& was the third of his %ery successful no%els for young people after 7ace $FGGG& and ?efugee .oy $@AAF&. 1t was short#listed for the Manchester .oo( Award. Apart from writing' he spends a large amount of his time %isiting schools' youth clubs and prisons' tal(ing to adolescents who ha%e been classified li(e he himself was as a teenager9 !uncontrollable' rebellious" and' as one of his teachers put it' !a born failure."

TE6T COMMENTAR/ 1DIS POETR/5 4ROM CITY PSALMS

D#s Poe$r& (-& 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a")


3is poetry is li&e a ri**im *at *rops 3e tong'e fires a ri**im *at shoots li&e shots 3is poetry is *esigne* fe rantin 3ance hall style, ,ig mo'th chanting, 3is poetry nar p't y' to sleep Preaching follo( me Ai&e y' is ,lin* sheep, 3is poetry is not Party Political 6ot *esigne* fe *ose (ho are critical. 3is poetry is (i* me (hen I g' to me ,e* It gets into me *rea*loc&s It lingers aro'n* me hea* 3is poetry goes (i* me as I pe*al me ,i&e IY-e trie* /ha&espeare, respect *'e *ere 4't *i* is *e st'ff I li&e.

:is poetry is not afraid of going ina boo( -till dis poetry need ears fe hear an eyes fe ha% a loo( :is poetry is Ierbal ?iddim' no big words in%ol%ed An if 1 ha% a problem de riddim gets it sol%ed' 1\%e tried to be more romantic' it does nu good for me -o 1 te( a ?eggae ?iddim an build me poetry' 1 could try be more personal .ut you\%e heard it all before' <ages of written words not needed .rain has many words in store' Wu could call dis poetry :ub ?anting :e tongue plays a beat :e body starts s(an(ing' :is poetry is quic( an childish :is poetry is fe de wise an foolish' Anybody can do it fe free' :is poetry is fe yu an me' :on\t stretch yu imagination :is poetry is fe de good of de ,ation' Chant' 1n de morning 1 chant 1n de night 1 chant 1n de dar(ness An under de spotlight' 1 pass thru Uni%ersity 1 pass thru -ociology An den 1 got a dread degree 1n :readfull )hettology. :is poetry stays wid me when 1 run or wal( An when 1 am tal(ing to meself in poetry 1 tal(' :is poetry is wid me' .elow me an abo%e' :is poetry=s from inside me 1t goes to yu 41: LUI.

1' Li#ten to &Di# Poetr,( an comment on !o2 !earin+ it $er%orme contri*ute# to t!e o8erall e3ect 2!ic! it $ro uce# on t!e li#tenerJrea er' 3', poetry is a form of performance poetry of 7est In*ian origin,J1K (hich e-ol-e* o't of *', m'sic consisting of spo&en (or* o-er reggae rhythms in Bamaica in the 19<9s. 5nli&e *ee ?aying (also &no(n as toasting#, (hich also feat'res the 'se of the spo&en (or*, the *', poet's performance is normally prepare*, rather than the e2temporiMe* chat of the *ancehall *ee ?ay. In m'sical setting, the *', poet 's'ally appears on stage (ith a ,an* performing m'sic specifically (ritten to accompany each poem, rather than simply perform o-er the top of *', plates, or ri**ims, in the *ancehall fashion. $'sicality is ,'ilt into *', poems, yet, *', poets generally perform (itho't ,ac&ing m'sic, *eli-ering chante* speech (ith prono'nce* rhythmic accent'ation an* *ramatic styliMation of gest're. /ometimes *', m'sic effects, e.g. echo, re-er,, are *',,e* spontaneo'sly ,y a poet into li-e -ersions of a poem. $any *', poets also employ call!an*! response *e-ices to engage a'*iences. 7' Pa, attention to t!e mo#t rele8ant r!etorical e8ice#. an t!e inte+ration *et2een #u*?ect an %orm. in *ot! $oem#' Paro*y is one of =ephaniahDs tra*emar& *e-ices. In his collection Propa Proaganda (199"# CTerri,le 7orl*D plays on Ao'is ArmstrongDs C7on*erf'l 7orl*D, an* opens (ith the (or*s: CID-e seen streets of ,loo* XD. C:ec&ling $iss Ao'D on the other han* presents a playf'l *ialog'e (ith the pioneering performance poet Ao'ise 4ennett. If s'ch poems seem to tri-ialiMe politics, this is arg'a,ly to neglect =ephaniahDs sense of the political. :e has sai* that CJiKtDs a har* life ,eing la,elle* "political". It seems that ,eca'se IDm constantly ranting a,o't the ills of the (orl* IDm e2pecte* to ha-e all the ans(ers, ,'t I *onDt, an* ID-e ne-er claime* to, ,esi*es IDm not a politician. 7hat interests me is people.D The political f'nction of la'ghter in ,ringing *ifferent people together cannot ,e o-erestimate* (ithin this conte2t. :' Di#cu## t!e com*ination o% 2or # an I( Co(:ersa$#o( w#$" 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a" mu#ic in Ne$!ania!"# $oem#'

A"me e. Eo'r f'll name is 4en?amin G,a*iah I;,al =ephaniah. %an yo' please e2plain the presence of G,a*iah I;,al in yo'r name for o'r rea*ers8 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". Altho'gh I (as ,orn in 0nglan* my family tra*ition on the Bamaican.African si*e (as one that (o'l* gi-e a ,a,y a temporary name 'ntil the yo'ng girl or ,oy ,egan to sho( some in*i-i*'al character traits. Gnce aspects of the yo'ng persons character (as apparent a name (o'l* ,e gi-en to s'it the chil*. It (as sai* of me that I (as -ery c'rio's an* intereste* in religion, not so m'ch in ,eing religio's ,'t more intereste* in ho( the religions came a,o't. /o it (as agree* that the name that (o'l* s'it me (as one that (as $'slim, %hristian an* Be(ish. There co'l* ha-e ,een many more a**e* ,'t the people aro'n* me (ere most familiar (ith the A,rahamic tra*ition, still I al(ays say I ha-e the 3rea*loc& (or Bata# of Aor* /hi-a an* I lo-e the st'*y of Theology. I no( ,elie-e in Fo* (itho't religion, I thin& that religion has gi-en go* a ,a* name an* that the (hole i*ea of go* as a "man" in the "s&y", (atching ho( (e eat an* (ash etc is one that man ha* constr'cte* himself. Fo* is greater than that. A"me e. 7ere yo' shoc&e* (hen yo' (ere offere* Gfficer of the Gr*er of the 4ritish 0mpire ((hich yo' so famo'sly re?ecte*#8 Gne of yo'r poems ((hich I really li&e*# "4o'ght an* /ol*" e-en criticises contemporaries (ho compromise their (or& ,y accepting hono'rs8

2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". The poem of mine calle* "4ro'ght an* /ol*" ma&es it a,sol'tely clear that I am critical of anyone (especially creati-e people an* intellect'als# (ho accept s'ch honors, an* therefore it sho'l* ,e o,-io's to anyone that I (o'l* ne-er accept one. The article I (rote (in the F'ar*ian# a,o't my re?ection states clearly my reasons, so I normally *ecline from tal&ing a,o't this episo*e in inter-ie(s ,eca'se I thin& it *etracts from all the other (or& that I am *oing. +or me it (as a ma?or incon-enience. I ha* to postpone the p',lication of a ,oo& an* the release of a m'sic %3 ,eca'se I *i*n't (ant to ,e seen as capitalising on the p',licity the re?ection ca'se*. The fact that Tony 4lair ha* offere* me an G40 tells 's that he *oesn't really rea* my ,oo&s. I met him once an* he tol* me that he has some of my ,oo&s, (ell if he *oes I *on't ,elie-e that he rea*s them, an* if he rea*s them he m'st rea* them -ery s'perficially. 6o this (hole thing (as a,o't the 6e( la,o'r pro?ect trying to ,e cool, it is them trying to sho( that they *on't hate $'slims an* ,lac&s ,eca'se they gi-e (some# $'slims an* ,lac& G40s. :a-e no *o',t a,o't it, if I ha* an G40 in my han* no( an* Tony 4lair (as in front of me, I (o'l* fee* it *o(n his mo'th, an* as he s(allo(e* I (o'l* say, that's for Ira;. A"me e. 7ill yo' please share yo'r rea*ing of /o'th Asian (riters (ith 's8 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". I'm not s're (hat yo' mean ,y this ;'estion, if yo'r ;'estion is a,o't (hich so'th Asian (riters *o I li&e then I ha-e to ,e honest an* say I *onZr;'ote t &no( that many. The ones I &no( ten* to ,e the ones (ith higher profiles (ho ha-e ,een translate* into 0nglish. I lo-e Pamala 3as, her con-ersion s'rprise* me, an* I ha-e ne-er met her, ,'t I *i* ha-e a phone con-ersation (ith her once (hen I (as in Perala, an* I ha-e to say she e-en spo&e poetry. I thin& /hashi Tharoor's "The Freat In*ian 6o-el" is a classic, an* I thin& Hi&ram /eth &eeps (riting classics. I &no( she's a no-elist ,'t I lo-e Ar'n*hati Noy as an intellect'al, as an acti-ist an* political thin&er I thin& that she is one of the greatest min*s of o'r times alongsi*e /i-anan*an an* 6oam %homs&y. G&, I &no( he's not Asian. There is a hospital in 7est Aon*on that has name* a (ar* after me, the (ar* ne2t to the 4en?amin =ephaniah 7ar* is the Tagore 7ar*, (hich I thin& is fitting ,eca'se I al(ays lo-e* his poetry an* one of my reasons for really (ante* to -isit 4angla*esh (as to ,e amongst his people. Another poet I respect from 4angla*esh is 4imal F'ha, his poetry is so con-ersational, an* he is also -ery passionate a,o't the poetry of 4angla*esh. A"me e. :as the (orl* really change* after the attac& on 9.11 an* Aon*on ,om,ing8 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". The (orl* changes e-ery*ay, it's ?'st that *ifferent changes mean *ifferent things to *ifferent people. 9.11 (as a *ay that ma*e (some# people in the 5/A see the (orl* *ifferently, ,'t the *ay /hatila ref'gee camp in Ae,anon (as ,om,e* change* the li-es of many Ae,anese an* Palestinains, the in-asion a Frena*a ,y the 5/A (ill ne-er ,e forgotten ,y some, nor (ill the *ropping of Atomic ,om,s in Bapan, or the poisoning of tho'san*s of people in 4hopal. 7e all ha-e o'r e;'i-alents to 9.11, ,'t (e *onZr;'ote t all ha-e a s'perpo(er to go see& "re-enge", or ,roa*cast to the (orl* that yo' are either (ith 's or against 's.

A"me e. Ne?ecting the "hono'rs" again1 (hile re?ecting the G40, yo' sai* to the ['een that this remin*e* yo' of "tho'san*s of years of ,r'tality ! it remin*s me of ho( my foremothers (ere rape* an* my forefathers ,r'talise*". 4't yo' still (rite in 0nglish, the lang'age of the oppressors an* the colonisers (at least the r'les of synta2 of yo'r lang'age is 0nglish 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". I *on't see (hat the re?ection of an honor from the ;'een an* Tony 4lair has to *o (ith the re?ection of the G40. I (as ,orn in 0nglan*, the only lang'age that I &no( is 0nglish, (hich is act'ally a mi2t're of other lang'ages. If I (ere ,orn in Bamaica my first lang'age (o'l* still ,e 0nglish ,eca'se they ,eat all traces of o'r Africaness o't of 's. 4't 0nglish *oes not ?'st ,elong to the 0nglish, it ,orro(s from the tong'es of many people an* so there is nothing (rong (ith many people spea&ing it. It is a highly fle2i,le lang'age, (hich is (hy some of the ,est 'sage of 0nglish is no( ,eing *one ,y Asian an* African people. 7e 'se 0nglish in o'r o(n rhythms. If I (ere ,orn into a tri,e in Africa that ha* its o(n lang'age it (o'l* ,e nat'ral for me to 'se the lang'age of that tri,e to e2press myself, if I (ante* to criticise the el*ers of that tri,e I (o'l*n't ha-e to learn another lang'age, in fact &no(ing the lang'age of my oppressor (o'l* gi-e me an a*-antage.

5' Conte9tualiGe Ne$!ania!"# $oem# 2it!in $o#tcolonial mainl, a# e9am$le# o% tran#cultural 2ritin+'

i#cour#e.

4en?amin =ephaniahDs ,ac&gro'n* seems 'nli&ely for a poet: a *ysle2ic (ho left school 'na,le to properly rea* an* (rite1 a ,lac& 4ritish 4r'mmie (hose teenage years of petty crime c'lminate* in a prison spell.
:o(e-er, =ephaniah has en*e* 'p the peopleDs poet. To*ay he hol*s a han*f'l of honorary *egrees. In 299O he appeare* in The Times list of top 59 post!(ar (riters. =ephaniahDs (or& is often *escri,e* as *', poetry, a form of oral performance poetry that is sometimes stage* to m'sic an* (hich typically *ra(s on the rhythms of reggae an* the rhetoric of Nastafarianism. :is poems are often inspire* ,y political ca'ses. =ephaniah has sai* that he Cli-es in t(o places, 4ritain an* the (orl*D, an* his collections highlight *omestic iss'es from instit'tional racism (Too 8lac." Too Strong" 2991# an* the m'r*er of /tephen Aa(rence to con*itions in (ar!torn 4osnia, the plight of occ'pie* Palestine ()asta Time in Palestine" 1999# an* glo,al en-ironmental iss'es (see, for e2ample, Tal.ing Tur.eys" 199L#. 5ne2pecte*ly perhaps, for a poet associate* (ith protest literat're, many of =ephaniahDs poems are tempere* ,y hope, h'mo'r an* la'ghter. +or e2ample CI ha-e a /chemeD, a paro*y of $artin A'ther PingDs famo's %i-il Nights speech of 19" , *reams of a (orl* '7hen all people, regar*less of colo'r or class, (ill ha-e at least one 4arry $anilo( recor*'. Paro*y is one of =ephaniahDs tra*emar& *e-ices. In his collection Propa Proaganda (199"# CTerri,le 7orl*D plays on Ao'is ArmstrongDs C7on*erf'l 7orl*D, an* opens (ith the (or*s: CID-e seen streets of ,loo* XD. C:ec&ling $iss Ao'D on the other han* presents a playf'l *ialog'e (ith the pioneering performance poet Ao'ise 4ennett. If s'ch poems seem to tri-ialiMe politics, this is arg'a,ly to neglect =ephaniahDs sense of the political. :e has sai* that CJiKtDs a har* life ,eing la,elle* "political". It seems that ,eca'se IDm constantly ranting a,o't the ills of the (orl* IDm e2pecte* to ha-e all the ans(ers, ,'t I *onDt, an* ID-e ne-er claime* to, ,esi*es IDm not a politician. 7hat interests me is people.D The political f'nction of la'ghter in ,ringing *ifferent people together cannot ,e o-erestimate* (ithin this conte2t. $any of =ephaniahDs poetry collections are (ritten specifically for chil*ren (Tal.ing Tur.eys an* /un.y Chic.ens" 199"#, an* he has recently (ritten a n'm,er of -ery s'ccessf'l no-els for yo'ng people. /ace (1999# is a set in Aon*onDs m'ltic'lt'ral 0ast 0n*, ,'t its foc's is on a (hite character, an* of one ,oy's str'ggles to face his ,a*ly *isfig're* ,o*y follo(ing an acci*ent. $artin is largely in*ifferent to the ,lac& c'lt're that s'rro'n*s him on the streets of the city, ,'t after getting ca'ght 'p in a ?oy ri*ing acci*ent that ca'ses terri,le ,'rns to his face, he starts to see the (orl* *ifferently. As $artin ,ecomes sensitiMe* to the pre?'*ices of others, an* fin*s himself othere*, he starts to connect afresh (ith those aro'n* him, ,lac& an* (hite. The ,oo& (as inspire* ,y an inci*ent (hen =ephaniah came face!to!face (ith /imon 7eston, a -eteran of the +al&lan*s (ho (as facially!*isfig're* *'ring the (ar:

'I (as so ta&en a,ac& ,y his face. I remem,er staring an* feeling g'ilty after(ar*s ! I &no( (hat it's li&e if I go to some -illages aro'n* 4ritain (here they *on't see that many ,lac& people. I (al& into a shop an* people loo& at me, or I (al& in the par& an* get three or fo'r &i*s ga(ping. I tho'ght I sho'l* &no( ,etter. I (asn't ,eing nasty to him, it (as ?'st seeing some,o*y (ho loo&e* so *ifferent.' In his highly regar*e* secon* no-el, )efugee 8oy (2991#, =ephaniah tac&les the theme of political asyl'm. Alem, the no-elDs 0thiopian protagonist, thin&s he is ta&ing a ,rief holi*ay (ith his father in Aon*on. 0-erything is magical in the capital 'ntil he (a&es 'p one *ay an* *isco-ers his *a* has *eserte* him. Fra*'ally, thro'gh a series of letters, he learns they are not on -acation at all, ,'t fleeing the political sit'ation in 0thiopia. In his ne2t ,oo&, 6angsta )ap (299L# (e follo( the *o(n(ar* tra?ectory of Nay, a *isaffecte* teenager (ho falls o't (ith his family, an* is e2cl'*e* from school ,efore fin*ing fame an* fort'ne in a rap ,an*. If NayDs life seems to ha-e change* immeas'ra,ly for the ,etter, it is not long ,efore his pro,lems res'rface an* he is ca'ght 'p in shootings, an* gang ri-alry: an 'nsa-o'ry 'n*er(orl* of male -iolence that e-ent'ally claims the life of his girlfrien*. $ale -iolence, an* its -ictims, are also the central theme of =ephaniahDs latest no-el, TeacherBs Dead (299<#. TeacherBs Dead e2plores the *iffic'lt topic of a teacher ,eing &ille*, a narrati-e tol* thro'gh the sensiti-e eyes of a 15 year ol* ,oy, Bac&son Bones. Ai&e 6angsta )ap, TeacherBs Dead offers an anatomy of -iolence for to*ayDs yo'th, re-ealing its comple2 ca'ses in (ays that tro',le the ,o'n*aries ,et(een criminals an* -ictims. $ore ,roa*ly tho'gh, an* (hat characterises all of =ephaniahDs (riting to *ate, is its stress on the re*empti-e forces of lo-e, la'ghter, an* peace. 3r Bames Procter, 2919

1TERRI2LE ;ORLD5 4ROM PROPA PROPAGANDA

;"a$ a $err#-le worl


I':e see( s$ree$s of -loo re a $"a( re $"ere wa< (o l+: 9+s$ -o #es ea a( I $"#(= $o m&self ;"a$ a $err#-le worl I':e see( p#mps a( pr#es$s well #($erf+se e(&#(% pea'e $o $"e =# s $"e& a-+se a( I $"#(= $o m&self ;"a$ a $err#-le worl T"e =#ller w"o's $"e "ero $"e rap#s$ w"o's #( oors $"e $ra e #( "+ma( 'ar%o a( ea poe$s o( $o+rs I':e see( fr#e( s p+$ #( 9a#l for (o$ -e#(% r#'" a( mass %ra:es ma e from a foo$-all p#$'" I':e see( -a-#es s'ream No-o & 'are C#:#l#a(s s$ar:e w"#ls$ $roops are prepare a( I $"#(= $o m&self ;"a$ a $err#-le worl /es I $"#(= $o m&self ;"a$ a $err#-le worl

)' &Terri*le -orl ( i# a #u*8er#i8e re2ritin+ o% a 2ell-kno2n Loui# Arm#tron+ #on+' Can ,ou i enti%, it4 -!at e3ect o ,ou t!ink Ne$!ania! 2ant# to ac!ie8e t!rou+! t!i# #ur$ri#in+ 8er#ion4 Ee li(es to parody # =6errible 4orld= is a parody of Louis Armstrong=s 4onderful 4orld $with a footnote declaring his admiration for the original&. .en/aminKs .ritain I am often as&e* a,o't the poetry scene in 4ritain an* I ne-er ;'ite &no( (here to start, the tr'th is there are many poetry scenes in this green an* pleasant lan*. IDm ;'ite fle2i,le (ith (hat I mean ,y the (or* scene, ,'t I can *o that, ,eca'se I ha-e poetic licence. 6o( let me gi-e yo' an e2ample of a (ell!esta,lishe* poetry scene. There is a scene of poets (mainly men# (ho are -ery rarely seen in p',lic, they -ery rarely (if e-er# see each other, an* the general p',lic -ery rarely hear of them. They may seem rather lonely ,'t their o(n importance &eeps them company. They are highly e*'cate* an* (rite solely for the p'rpose of sho(ing their highly e*'cate* frien*s ho( e*'cate* they are. They (rite -ol'mes ,eca'se they ha-e the time, an* they ,elie-e that the (orl* (o'l* ,e a terri,le place if e-eryone ha* an interest in poetry, an* e-en (orse if e-eryone 'n*erstoo* it. ThatDs them. I *onDt li&e ?'*ging or criticising any poets or their scenes, I thin& theyDre all goo*1 I (ant them to ,e (hat they (ant to ,e. Poets come in all shapes an* siMes, (ith all &in*s of ;'ir&s an* i*iosyncrasies, (hich is (hy I &eep saying that (e are all ,raches of the same tree. 4't the scene of ho'se,o'n* poets is not my scene. 7hat fascinates me is the Cperformance poetryD scene (here come*y, politics, lo-e an* anger sit si*e ,y si*e, an* yo'ng things come to fee* their min*s ,efore going o't for a night of *ancing. This is the poetry scene that I (o'l* li&e to ,ring to yo'r attention. These poets *o not simply ,elie-e in art for artDs sa&e, they (rite (ith con-iction, they ha-e a p'rpose1 they ,elie-e it is their *'ty to connect (ith their a'*ience. After Alan Fins,erg an* Bac& Pero'ac fronte* the 4eat Poetry mo-ement in the fifties an* si2ties, 4ritain replie* (ith the $ersey 4eat Poets, fronte* ,y No*ger $cFo'gh, 4rian Pattern, an* the late A*rian :enri. 4rian Pattern is still a prolific (riter an* performer, (ho has (ritten some great poetry for chil*ren, ,'t No*ger is the most -isi,le of the t(o, he is constantly p',lishing ,oo&s an* reciting for the faithf'l. :e has seen it all ha-ing ,een on the performance scene for o-er thirty years. Bohn %ooper %lar&e (B%%# on the other han* first appeare* on the scene in the late se-enties, he (as the first tr'e P'n& Poet, these (ere (hite (or&ing class poets (ho rante* a,o't the har*ships of li-e on %o'ncil 0states. B%% em,ellishe* his stories (ith his e-en stranger imagination. 7hen B%% (as *oing his thing, Ainton Pe(si Bohnson (APB # (as emerging o't of the reggae m'sic scene, (ith people li&e me at his si*e. :e (as poetically charting the progress, or lac& of it, of the ,lac& comm'nity. APB is easier to listen than he is to rea*, he spea&s an* performs (ith strong Bamaican accent an* *ialect, (hich he tries to capt're on the page. 7e (ere all telling as it (as, o'r comm'nities ha* no -oice, the politicians (ere not representing 's, so (e the poets playe* a cr'cial part in raising the concerns of o'r families an* neigh,o'rs. Aro'n* the same time a g'y calle* Bohn :eagly appeare* on the scene. :e (as p're silly, in the most intelligent (ay. 7hen he performe* there (as a ,oyish, ;'estioning innocence in his eyes. I ha-e seen him *eli-er poetry that has ha* the a'*ience falling o-er (ith la'ghter, (hilst he remaine* stony face*. I remem,er once listening to him perform for an ho'r an* e-ery poem (as a,o't his glasses, he someho( *i* this (itho't ,eing ,oring or repeating himself. It (as then my

*'ty to follo( him, an* all I *i* (as spen* an ho'r performing anti aparthei* poems. BohnDs poems can only ,e performe* ,y Bohn, or a -ery, -ery goo* actor playing Bohn. There really is no one li&e him. As the Asian comm'nity gre( in confi*ence many Asian (riters ,egan appearing on o'r stages. $'ch of this (riting (as concerne* (ith, migration, faile* family e2pectations an* i*entity. Altho'gh $oniMa Al-i (rote more ,roa*ly a,o't the h'man con*ition she also (rote a,o't i*entity, ,'t she *i* it in a -ery personal (ay. /he as&e* the ;'estions that (e all as& an* *i*nDt limit herself to (riting Cstr'ggle poemsD, or the &in* of poetry that comes o't of the *iffic'lties of filling in the ethnicity ;'estion on a cens's form. /hamsha* Phan also (rites a,o't i*entity, ,'t she lin&s i*entity an* politics in a (ay that is rele-ant to a yo'nger generation of Asian yo'th in 4ritain to*ay. /he is at the forefront of a mo-ement of $oslem (omen (ho ha-e to *eal (ith the 's'al pro,lems of an ethnic minority, an* (hat (e no( call Islamapho,ia. /hamsha* comes from the city of $anchester (here she is one the most acti-e poets on the circ'it. These (ere the poets that I first starte* performing (ith, (e (ante* to gi-e poetry a ne( lease of li-e, an* ,ring m'sic to it. The great thing a,o't the performance scene is that it c'ts o't the people in!,et(een, the mi**lemen, the p',lishers, the critics, an* e-en the printers, lea-ing the poets to ha-e a *irect relationship (ith the a'*ience. This allo(s for all sorts of -oices, all the poet has to *o is stan* an* *eli-er. $ichael Nosen for e2ample can get as silly as Bohn :eagly or as serio's as APB, ,'t for many years he has also ,een a ho'sehol* name to listeners of 44% ra*io, an* the &in* of poet that can entertain chil*ren at a chil*renDs party. /till he ta&es his politics serio'sly, an* I am con-ince* that heDs ,een on e-ery political *emonstration that ID-e ,een on. %arol Ann 3'ffy pro,a,ly (o'l*nDt li&e ,eing incl'*e* on my list of great 4ritons, she *oesnDt li&e lists, she *oesnDt li&e leag'e ta,les, an* she *oesnDt (ant to ,e poet la'reate. In my -ie( (hat I spea& of is more than a scene, it is a contin'ation of the oral tra*ition. I ,elie-e that (hat (e *o is relate* to 4eo('lf or the (or& of :omer, (e too (ant to challenge the min* an* stir the ,loo*. Tony :arrison *oes that for s're, I fin* him irresisti,le. :ere (e ha-e a man of great i*eas, a re-ol'tionary an* a scholar (ho mo-es (ith ease from classical literat're to the e-ery*ay lang'age of mo*ern Eor&shire. :is e*'cation has ne-er Cgone to his hea*D1 his themes really mean something to 's all, (hich is (hy many of his poems ha-e ta&en 'p many col'mn inches in o'r national ne(spapers. +rom ,alla*s to lyric poetry, from come*ic -erse to Neggae, an* from narrati-e poetry to Nap poetry, (e *o it li-e an* *irect. 7e may p',lish ,oo&s, (e may also p't poetry on the Internet, ,'t the most important thing for 's is that (e p',lish o'r (or&s in peopleDs hearts.

7' Pa, attention to t!e mo#t rele8ant r!etorical e8ice#. an t!e inte+ration *et2een #u*?ect an %orm. in *ot! $oem#' Paro*y is one of =ephaniahDs tra*emar& *e-ices. In his collection Propa Proaganda (199"# CTerri,le 7orl*D plays on Ao'is ArmstrongDs C7on*erf'l 7orl*D, an* opens (ith the (or*s: CID-e seen streets of ,loo* XD. C:ec&ling $iss Ao'D on the other han* presents a playf'l *ialog'e (ith the pioneering performance poet Ao'ise 4ennett. If s'ch poems seem to tri-ialiMe politics, this is arg'a,ly to neglect =ephaniahDs sense of the political. :e has sai* that CJiKtDs a har* life ,eing la,elle* "political". It seems that ,eca'se IDm constantly ranting a,o't the ills of the (orl* IDm e2pecte* to ha-e all the ans(ers, ,'t I *onDt, an* ID-e ne-er claime* to, ,esi*es IDm not a politician. 7hat interests me is people.D The political f'nction of la'ghter in ,ringing *ifferent people together cannot ,e o-erestimate* (ithin this conte2t. :' Di#cu## t!e com*ination o% 2or # an I( Co(:ersa$#o( w#$" 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a" mu#ic in Ne$!ania!"# $oem#'

A"me e. Eo'r f'll name is 4en?amin G,a*iah I;,al =ephaniah. %an yo' please e2plain the presence of G,a*iah I;,al in yo'r name for o'r rea*ers8 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". Altho'gh I (as ,orn in 0nglan* my family tra*ition on the Bamaican.African si*e (as one that (o'l* gi-e a ,a,y a temporary name 'ntil the yo'ng girl or ,oy ,egan to sho( some in*i-i*'al character traits. Gnce aspects of the yo'ng persons character (as apparent a name (o'l* ,e gi-en to s'it the chil*. It (as sai* of me that I (as -ery c'rio's an* intereste* in religion, not so m'ch in ,eing religio's ,'t more intereste* in ho( the religions came a,o't. /o it (as agree* that the name that (o'l* s'it me (as one that (as $'slim, %hristian an* Be(ish. There co'l* ha-e ,een many more a**e* ,'t the people aro'n* me (ere most familiar (ith the A,rahamic tra*ition, still I al(ays say I ha-e the 3rea*loc& (or Bata# of Aor* /hi-a an* I lo-e the st'*y of Theology. I no( ,elie-e in Fo* (itho't religion, I thin& that religion has gi-en go* a ,a* name an* that the (hole i*ea of go* as a "man" in the "s&y", (atching ho( (e eat an* (ash etc is one that man ha* constr'cte* himself. Fo* is greater than that. A"me e. 7ere yo' shoc&e* (hen yo' (ere offere* Gfficer of the Gr*er of the 4ritish 0mpire ((hich yo' so famo'sly re?ecte*#8 Gne of yo'r poems ((hich I really li&e*# "4o'ght an* /ol*" e-en criticises contemporaries (ho compromise their (or& ,y accepting hono'rs8 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". The poem of mine calle* "4ro'ght an* /ol*" ma&es it a,sol'tely clear that I am critical of anyone (especially creati-e people an* intellect'als# (ho accept s'ch honors, an* therefore it sho'l* ,e o,-io's to anyone that I (o'l* ne-er accept one. The article I (rote (in the F'ar*ian# a,o't my re?ection states clearly my reasons, so I normally *ecline from tal&ing a,o't this episo*e in inter-ie(s ,eca'se I thin& it *etracts from all the other (or& that I am *oing. +or me it (as a ma?or incon-enience. I ha* to postpone the p',lication of a ,oo& an* the release of a m'sic %3 ,eca'se I *i*n't (ant to ,e seen as capitalising on the p',licity the re?ection ca'se*. The fact that Tony 4lair ha* offere* me an G40 tells 's that he *oesn't really rea* my ,oo&s. I met him once an* he tol* me that he has some of my ,oo&s, (ell if he *oes I *on't ,elie-e that he rea*s them, an* if he rea*s them he m'st rea* them -ery s'perficially. 6o this (hole thing (as a,o't the 6e( la,o'r pro?ect trying to ,e cool, it is them trying to sho( that they *on't hate $'slims an* ,lac&s ,eca'se they gi-e (some# $'slims an* ,lac& G40s. :a-e no *o',t a,o't it, if I ha* an G40 in my

han* no( an* Tony 4lair (as in front of me, I (o'l* fee* it *o(n his mo'th, an* as he s(allo(e* I (o'l* say, that's for Ira;. A"me e. 7ill yo' please share yo'r rea*ing of /o'th Asian (riters (ith 's8 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". I'm not s're (hat yo' mean ,y this ;'estion, if yo'r ;'estion is a,o't (hich so'th Asian (riters *o I li&e then I ha-e to ,e honest an* say I *onZr;'ote t &no( that many. The ones I &no( ten* to ,e the ones (ith higher profiles (ho ha-e ,een translate* into 0nglish. I lo-e Pamala 3as, her con-ersion s'rprise* me, an* I ha-e ne-er met her, ,'t I *i* ha-e a phone con-ersation (ith her once (hen I (as in Perala, an* I ha-e to say she e-en spo&e poetry. I thin& /hashi Tharoor's "The Freat In*ian 6o-el" is a classic, an* I thin& Hi&ram /eth &eeps (riting classics. I &no( she's a no-elist ,'t I lo-e Ar'n*hati Noy as an intellect'al, as an acti-ist an* political thin&er I thin& that she is one of the greatest min*s of o'r times alongsi*e /i-anan*an an* 6oam %homs&y. G&, I &no( he's not Asian. There is a hospital in 7est Aon*on that has name* a (ar* after me, the (ar* ne2t to the 4en?amin =ephaniah 7ar* is the Tagore 7ar*, (hich I thin& is fitting ,eca'se I al(ays lo-e* his poetry an* one of my reasons for really (ante* to -isit 4angla*esh (as to ,e amongst his people. Another poet I respect from 4angla*esh is 4imal F'ha, his poetry is so con-ersational, an* he is also -ery passionate a,o't the poetry of 4angla*esh. A"me e. :as the (orl* really change* after the attac& on 9.11 an* Aon*on ,om,ing8 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". The (orl* changes e-ery*ay, it's ?'st that *ifferent changes mean *ifferent things to *ifferent people. 9.11 (as a *ay that ma*e (some# people in the 5/A see the (orl* *ifferently, ,'t the *ay /hatila ref'gee camp in Ae,anon (as ,om,e* change* the li-es of many Ae,anese an* Palestinains, the in-asion a Frena*a ,y the 5/A (ill ne-er ,e forgotten ,y some, nor (ill the *ropping of Atomic ,om,s in Bapan, or the poisoning of tho'san*s of people in 4hopal. 7e all ha-e o'r e;'i-alents to 9.11, ,'t (e *onZr;'ote t all ha-e a s'perpo(er to go see& "re-enge", or ,roa*cast to the (orl* that yo' are either (ith 's or against 's.

A"me e. Ne?ecting the "hono'rs" again1 (hile re?ecting the G40, yo' sai* to the ['een that this remin*e* yo' of "tho'san*s of years of ,r'tality ! it remin*s me of ho( my foremothers (ere rape* an* my forefathers ,r'talise*". 4't yo' still (rite in 0nglish, the lang'age of the oppressors an* the colonisers (at least the r'les of synta2 of yo'r lang'age is 0nglish 2e(9am#( 0ep"a(#a". I *on't see (hat the re?ection of an honor from the ;'een an* Tony 4lair has to *o (ith the re?ection of the G40. I (as ,orn in 0nglan*, the only lang'age that I &no( is 0nglish, (hich is act'ally a mi2t're of other lang'ages. If I (ere ,orn in Bamaica my first lang'age (o'l* still ,e 0nglish ,eca'se they ,eat all traces of o'r Africaness o't of 's. 4't 0nglish *oes not ?'st ,elong to the 0nglish, it ,orro(s from the tong'es of many people an* so there is nothing (rong (ith many people spea&ing it. It is a highly fle2i,le lang'age, (hich is (hy some of the ,est 'sage of 0nglish is no( ,eing *one ,y Asian an* African people. 7e 'se 0nglish in o'r o(n rhythms. If I (ere ,orn into a tri,e in Africa that ha* its o(n lang'age it (o'l* ,e nat'ral for me to 'se the lang'age of that tri,e to e2press myself, if I (ante* to criticise the el*ers of that tri,e I (o'l*n't ha-e to learn another lang'age, in fact &no(ing the lang'age of my oppressor (o'l* gi-e me an a*-antage.

5' Conte9tualiGe Ne$!ania!"# $oem# 2it!in $o#tcolonial mainl, a# e9am$le# o% tran#cultural 2ritin+'

i#cour#e.

4en?amin =ephaniahDs ,ac&gro'n* seems 'nli&ely for a poet: a *ysle2ic (ho left school 'na,le to properly rea* an* (rite1 a ,lac& 4ritish 4r'mmie (hose teenage years of petty crime c'lminate* in a prison spell.
:o(e-er, =ephaniah has en*e* 'p the peopleDs poet. To*ay he hol*s a han*f'l of honorary *egrees. In 299O he appeare* in The Times list of top 59 post!(ar (riters. =ephaniahDs (or& is often *escri,e* as *', poetry, a form of oral performance poetry that is sometimes stage* to m'sic an* (hich typically *ra(s on the rhythms of reggae an* the rhetoric of Nastafarianism. :is poems are often inspire* ,y political ca'ses. =ephaniah has sai* that he Cli-es in t(o places, 4ritain an* the (orl*D, an* his collections highlight *omestic iss'es from instit'tional racism (Too 8lac." Too Strong" 2991# an* the m'r*er of /tephen Aa(rence to con*itions in (ar!torn 4osnia, the plight of occ'pie* Palestine ()asta Time in Palestine" 1999# an* glo,al en-ironmental iss'es (see, for e2ample, Tal.ing Tur.eys" 199L#. 5ne2pecte*ly perhaps, for a poet associate* (ith protest literat're, many of =ephaniahDs poems are tempere* ,y hope, h'mo'r an* la'ghter. +or e2ample CI ha-e a /chemeD, a paro*y of $artin A'ther PingDs famo's %i-il Nights speech of 19" , *reams of a (orl* '7hen all people, regar*less of colo'r or class, (ill ha-e at least one 4arry $anilo( recor*'. Paro*y is one of =ephaniahDs tra*emar& *e-ices. In his collection Propa Proaganda (199"# CTerri,le 7orl*D plays on Ao'is ArmstrongDs C7on*erf'l 7orl*D, an* opens (ith the (or*s: CID-e seen streets of ,loo* XD. C:ec&ling $iss Ao'D on the other han* presents a playf'l *ialog'e (ith the pioneering performance poet Ao'ise 4ennett. If s'ch poems seem to tri-ialiMe politics, this is arg'a,ly to neglect =ephaniahDs sense of the political. :e has sai* that CJiKtDs a har* life ,eing la,elle* "political". It seems that ,eca'se IDm constantly ranting a,o't the ills of the (orl* IDm e2pecte* to ha-e all the ans(ers, ,'t I *onDt, an* ID-e ne-er claime* to, ,esi*es IDm not a politician. 7hat interests me is people.D The political f'nction of la'ghter in ,ringing *ifferent people together cannot ,e o-erestimate* (ithin this conte2t. $any of =ephaniahDs poetry collections are (ritten specifically for chil*ren (Tal.ing Tur.eys an* /un.y Chic.ens" 199"#, an* he has recently (ritten a n'm,er of -ery s'ccessf'l no-els for yo'ng people. /ace (1999# is a set in Aon*onDs m'ltic'lt'ral 0ast 0n*, ,'t its foc's is on a (hite character, an* of one ,oy's str'ggles to face his ,a*ly *isfig're* ,o*y follo(ing an acci*ent. $artin is largely in*ifferent to the ,lac& c'lt're that s'rro'n*s him on the streets of the city, ,'t after getting ca'ght 'p in a ?oy ri*ing acci*ent that ca'ses terri,le ,'rns to his face, he starts to see the (orl* *ifferently. As $artin ,ecomes sensitiMe* to the pre?'*ices of others, an* fin*s himself othere*, he starts to connect afresh (ith those aro'n* him, ,lac& an* (hite. The ,oo& (as inspire* ,y an inci*ent (hen =ephaniah came face!to!face (ith /imon 7eston, a -eteran of the +al&lan*s (ho (as facially!*isfig're* *'ring the (ar:

'I (as so ta&en a,ac& ,y his face. I remem,er staring an* feeling g'ilty after(ar*s ! I &no( (hat it's li&e if I go to some -illages aro'n* 4ritain (here they *on't see that many ,lac& people. I (al& into a shop an* people loo& at me, or I (al& in the par& an* get three or fo'r &i*s ga(ping. I tho'ght I sho'l* &no( ,etter. I (asn't ,eing nasty to him, it (as ?'st seeing some,o*y (ho loo&e* so *ifferent.' In his highly regar*e* secon* no-el, )efugee 8oy (2991#, =ephaniah tac&les the theme of political asyl'm. Alem, the no-elDs 0thiopian protagonist, thin&s he is ta&ing a ,rief holi*ay (ith his father in Aon*on. 0-erything is magical in the capital 'ntil he (a&es 'p one *ay an* *isco-ers his *a* has *eserte* him. Fra*'ally, thro'gh a series of letters, he learns they are not on -acation at all, ,'t fleeing the political sit'ation in 0thiopia. In his ne2t ,oo&, 6angsta )ap (299L# (e follo( the *o(n(ar* tra?ectory of Nay, a *isaffecte* teenager (ho falls o't (ith his family, an* is e2cl'*e* from school ,efore fin*ing fame an* fort'ne in a rap ,an*. If NayDs life seems to ha-e change* immeas'ra,ly for the ,etter, it is not long ,efore his pro,lems res'rface an* he is ca'ght 'p in shootings, an* gang ri-alry: an 'nsa-o'ry 'n*er(orl* of male -iolence that e-ent'ally claims the life of his girlfrien*. $ale -iolence, an* its -ictims, are also the central theme of =ephaniahDs latest no-el, TeacherBs Dead (299<#. TeacherBs Dead e2plores the *iffic'lt topic of a teacher ,eing &ille*, a narrati-e tol* thro'gh the sensiti-e eyes of a 15 year ol* ,oy, Bac&son Bones. Ai&e 6angsta )ap, TeacherBs Dead offers an anatomy of -iolence for to*ayDs yo'th, re-ealing its comple2 ca'ses in (ays that tro',le the ,o'n*aries ,et(een criminals an* -ictims. $ore ,roa*ly tho'gh, an* (hat characterises all of =ephaniahDs (riting to *ate, is its stress on the re*empti-e forces of lo-e, la'ghter, an* peace. 3r Bames Procter, 2919

-ome )uidelines for 6e t Commentary F. Listen to !:is <oetry" and comment on how hearing it performed contributes to the o%erall eJect which it produces on the listener5reader. @. !6errible 4orld" is a sub%ersi%e rewriting of a well#(nown Louis Armstrong song. Can you identify it; 4hat eJect do you thin( 0ephaniah wants to achie%e through this surprising %ersion; C. <ay attention to the most rele%ant rhetorical de%ices' and the integration between sub/ect and form' in both poems. B. :iscuss the combination of words and music in 0ephaniahKs poems. 5. Conte tuali*e 0ephaniahKs poems within postcolonial discourse' mainly as e amples of transcultural writing.