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he aims of this essay are to analyse the use, purpose and consequence of non linear narrative in film. The research compiled in this essay from books, journals and textual analyses should illustrate the effectiveness of non linear structure in film.

Structure in narrative film can be thought of as the arrangement of scenes and sequences, however deconstructing sequences and re-ordering them can create a whole new theme and mood in a films sequence (Phillips 2005, p.150). It can effect character relations in a film, it can affect the role of the audience throughout a film and also can give film scenes more purpose for example in Citizen Kane (1941) the film begins with the death of the main character and then tells his life through flashbacks intercut with a journalists present-time investigation of Kanes life and his final dying word Rosebud (figure 1).

Figure 1 (Instead of a cigarette still). Rosebud; the last dying word of Charles Foster Kane.

Simple narratology states that a narrative plot is supposed to have a beginning, middle and an end. However non linear narrative has the power to re-model a films plot and create a new beginning, middle and end. Fabula and sujet are terms that describe narrative construction. Sujet is the employment of narrative and fabula is the order of retelling events, so the fabula of a text is the raw order in which events occurred, while sujet is defined as the way in which these events are depicted and reshaped in their deployment (Phillips 2005 p.272). Narrative structure and plot in film can be quite restricting and sometimes non linear narrative liberates the text. Very much like in novels when an author can launch a back-story to a character at

any given moment with a simple flashback/flash-forward. A novelist can stop a plot all together whenever they like, just to explain necessary motivations by dramatizing earlier actions and consequences. Whereas films do not possess this freedom that books have because audiences usually find it easier to focus on a progression of cause and effect relationships leading to a climax, following one central protagonist. Non linear narrative provides the same liberating sensation to film that an author does to its novels. Non linear narrative serves film texts an important purpose of telling a film in a different way and that is what is going to be explored in this essay; how a non linear narrative is used and the purpose it serves. Non linear film dates back to as near to the very beginning of the film form itself, Intolerance (1916) is considered one of the great masterpieces of the silent era and it displays four parallel stories from different ages in world history (this parallel narrative technique is also used similarly in The Godfather Part II (1974) when the film chronicles Michael Corelone in 1958 and his father Vito, in 1917). Further narrative experimentation was explored with the avant-garde Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog) (1929) by Luis Bunuel and Salvador Dali. The fantastical surrealist film features dream logic mixed with shock juxtapositions and fragmented narrative, left open for interpretation. The film sequence itself was out of order and often repeated but each repeated sequence different. The Power and the Glory (1933) uses flashbacks to tell the life of the central character who died in the first scene. This film influenced Citizen Kane structurally very much so which was released eight years later, and has since been labelled one of the greatest films of all-time. Since the 90s, innovative plots have emerged that have taken a more deconstructed approach. At the heart of the growth of non linear narrative form was director Quentin Tarantino who wrote and directed Reservoir Dogs (1992) and also directed and co-wrote Pulp Fiction (1994), two very influential non linear narrative films. Both films are notable for their recurring themes of violence, profanity, memorable dialogue, pop-culture references and nonlinearity. Reservoir Dogs portray events before and after a failed diamond heist. Its creative in the use of story as in the subject of the story is the diamond heist that went wrong however the films plot ignores that story and only shows the affects before and after. The plot also often intercuts to scenes of when characters meet Joe Cabot who organises the robbery initially, before the robbery takes place. Pulp Fictions plot is presented out of chronological sequence also. It is initially three storylines that are interrelated; the lives of the characters within the film interconnect, although each storyline focuses on a different series of events. Each separate plot begins with a title card that simply explains the beginning of each narrative sequence. A recently coined narrative technique in 2005 by Roger Ebert (famous film critic) - hyperlink cinema defined as when characters or actions reside in separate stories, but a

connection or influence between those stories is slowly revealed to the audience can describe this plot structure, however what makes Pulp Fiction different to other hyperlink cinema films is its non linear structure. Another film that interconnects characters lives in a non-linear format is 21 Grams (2003) by Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu.

Non linear Techniques

Various techniques are frequently employed in non linear narratives, familiar techniques such as flashbacks, hallucinations, narration, twist endings, the bookend technique and reverse chronology etc. All these techniques are vital ingredients to making a non linear narrative work. Each technique possesses its own meaning and power and once applied, enforcing the plot in new directions. The classic Flashback technique was in fact invented by D.W. Griffith in his film Intolerance and as before-mentioned was used later in films such as The Power and the Glory and then Citizen Kane. The flashback is usually used to clarify plot and to create context or deliver exposition or even a back-story within a film, however it can be used to mislead the viewer as done in Akira Kurosawas Rashomon (1950) where it is used to tell unreliable testimonies in court. More recently used now is the flash-forward and this can involve such things as time-travel and memory lapse. Another familiar sight in non linear films is the use of hallucinations used mainly to interweave a characters life between fantasy and real. In a non linear format this technique can create audiences to wonder what is motivating a character in a film. In Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) the main characters Joel Barish (played by Jim Carrey) and Clementine Kruczynski (played by Kate Winslet) start a relationship together however Clementine soon regrets ever getting in a relationship with Joel and goes through a fictional targeted memory erasure procedure removal of unwanted and painful memories (figure 2).

Figure 2 (Listal still). A targeted memory erasure machine occupied by Joel in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind.

Upon learning about Clementines procedure and betrayal Joel also decides to have the procedure done. This is when Joel relives his happy memories with Clementine and falls in love with her again. Fantasy life and real life begin to collide; what Joel sees in his mind and whats happening in reality, for example Patrick (played by Elijah Wood), the doctor who performed the procedure on Clementine is now dating her, using Joels memories to try and make Clementine fall in love with him however the audience see Joel trying to protect Clementine from erasure inside his memories. The film was also assisted by non linear narration from Jim Carreys character, Joel. The film was critically acclaimed with its reverse memory structure and was awarded the 2004 Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Another successful film to interweave the fantasy with what is real was Pans Labyrinth (2006) where the main Character Ofelia lived in two parallel worlds; her miserable life with her poor, heavily-pregnant mother and fascist, military step-father and the weird and wonderful world that she is a lost princess of. At the 79th Academy Awards this film was nominated for Best Original Screenplay, eventually losing to Babel (2006), another film with interrelated situations and characters within a plot often out of sequence, by the same director of 21 Grams, as part of his Death Trilogy. Non linear narration or voice-over is often used as a plot device in non linear films, used as an insight to what the character is feeling and thinking and then usually portrayed on-screen. Sometimes it can carry a deeper meaning for example in Magnolia (1999) the narrator at the start of the film tells of

three coincidences and then at the end he urges audiences to re-think about those coincidences implying that the unlikely connections between characters in the film are similar to those connections in the short coincidental stories detailed in the intro. Twist endings usually offer a viewer an unexpected conclusion that causes them to reassess the narrative plot and/or characters. The twist ending can work in different ways, nonlinearly it works by revealing the plot out of sequential order and by holding back some important information, allowing the audience to piece together the film but not fully aware of the films situation and then near the climax of the film reveal that vital bit of information, showing the film in a new light to the audience. The technique was used in The Usual Suspects (1995) and The Sixth Sense (1999). Another non linear narrative technique is what is called the bookend technique which is when a films narrative begins and ends in a different time to what makes up the middle of the film. For example in Titanic (1997) the film begins with a treasure-hunting team exploring the wreck of RMS Titanic. Theyre looking for a necklace called the Heart of the Ocean however instead they find a sketch of a woman wearing it dated the night that RMS Titanic hit the iceberg that sank it; April 14th 1912. Elderly Rose learns of the find and contacts the team saying she is the lady in the sketch wearing the necklace. Rose and her granddaughter visit the team on their ship and there Rose retells the story of the night that RMS Titanic sank. It is then when the films transitions into 1912, boarding day for the RMS Titanic. Once Rose completes her story we return to present day, also during the telling of the story by Rose, the film often returns to present day for a reaction from those on the ship listening to Roses story. The bookend technique is used similarly for Saving Private Ryan (1998). The technique jumps between times in history and what it does is effectively convey a retelling of a story that has happened at a different time. Sometimes in non linear narrative films title cards are employed to explain the current position of the narrative as the plot jumps from one sequence to another. This is apparent in the film 500 Days of Summer (2009), the story is about a mans failed relationship with a woman. The relationship lasted 500 days and the films narrative jumps between different days of the relationship out of chronological order simply titling the day of the relationship e.g. 290 (figure 3).

Figure 3. (M. Webb, DVD). An example of a title card used in 500 Days of Summer.

In this film the technique was used to juxtapose different stages of the relationship between the two protagonists. As it would jump from different days of the relationship it would pair a good and a bad moment together. Title cards or intertitles are also used in Pulp Fiction but differently; to identify the seven narrative sequences of the three storylines in the film. The narrative of Pulp Fiction is episodic and sometimes the sequences overlap and the storylines interweave and so title cards are used to distinguish each sequence and storyline. Some storylines do not interweave but instead act in parallel. Usually in different years of history like in the before-mentioned films Intolerance and The Godfather II, but more recently in The Hours (2002). The Hours depict the lives of three women in different generations affected by the novel Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf. In the film action takes place within one day in three different years (1923, 1951 and 2001) and it alternates among each different year throughout the film with exception to the first and last scene of the film, the last scene being 1941 when Virginia Woolf (played by Nicole Kidman) commits suicide. A parallel narrative allows a films plot movement back and forth between different time periods creating a non-chronological line of events. An interesting non linear narrative was deployed in Watchmen (2009) consisting of a group of costumed heroes fighting crime in America at large in the 1930s and 40s, but the group soon broke up. Later a second group formalised and had a great effect on historical events in history such as the JFK assassination and the cold war. Time then jumps to 1985 when only three Watchmen remain. The films plot jumps back in time to explain preceding events creating an alternate history.

Plot Movement

Non linear narrative unravels events in films out of chronological order and in doing so this puts huge emphasis on plot direction. Every film tells a story, but how that film is told is the plot. Films with a non linear narrative have a freedom that linear films do not have; there are no rules for

constructing a non linear plot. However what makes a strong non linear plot is what holds the plot together; strong themes and characters. Sometimes when a non linear film withdraws information from its viewers, a strong theme or character is all that they have and that is why they are so important. Plot movement in non linear films depend on themes and characters to hold nonchronological sequences together. For instance, the German film Run Lola Run (1998) repeats sequences but with different outcomes and divergent futures. In the prologue of the film main character Lola answers a phone call from her desperate boyfriend Manni who has lost his bosss money after a criminal transaction, he needs to get 100,000 Deutschmark in twenty minutes and no less otherwise his boss will kill him for losing his money.

Figure 4 (T. Tykwer, DVD). Lola under pressure in Run Lola Run.

The film follows Lolas efforts of finding the money for Manni. Lola works through three complete narrative arcs of her own - each with its own self-contained plot development and differing final resolution (Bizzocchi, 2005, p.2). Also, associated directly with her three alternative narrative arcs are the various related stories and outcomes of the others in her life (Bizzocchi, 2005, p.2) as well as the Polaroid flash-forwards. The films plot is noteworthy for its structure being similar to that of a video game. Lola has a goal (find 100,000 Deutschemarks), a time limit (twenty minutes) and obstacles to overcome (title credits, dog in spiral stairwell, and the clock). After each run she fails (firstly she dies, secondly Manni dies) she restarts the sequence each time until she succeeds (the third run concludes with Manni retrieving his lost money and Lola winning 100,000 Deutschemark in a casino, they walk away with the winnings) much like that of video game play. After restarting each run she reacts differently to situations calling upon past experience in previous runs, likewise related characters she encounters also have variant futures. Presented in this film is the concept of free will, Lola has choice of her three different realities and this is a reflection of video game narrative, the

hero (or heroine in this case) figuring out how to defeat the level. Essentially this film is one story told three times-over, each with a different outcome, but what makes the films plot movement successful is the themes of free will/chance and interactions provoking further interactions combined with a video game structure and focus on central character Lola, keeping the plot focused. Plot movement is also very intriguing in Christopher Nolans Memento (2000), where the plot is split into two streams running in opposite temporal directions (Bizzocchi, 2005, p. 5). Chronological scenes are shown in black and white, colour scenes are in reverse chronological order (figure 5 & 6).

Figure 5 & 6 (C. Nolan, DVD). Two screenshots from Memento; one stream of narrative in black and white moving forward, the other in colour moving backwards.

At the end of the film the two parallel stories collide in a climactic finish which reveals the characters full motivations and intentions. The film begins with Guy Pearce as Leonard Shelby murdering Teddy (played by Joe Pantoliano). Leonard has anterograde amnesia which is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long term memories from before the event remain intact. Leonard was hit over the head during an attack which resulted in his wife being raped and murdered. Since the attack Leonard has set out to exact revenge on the man who has done this to him. He helps himself

by writing notes, taking photographs and even tattooing himself with important notes and facts. He is victim to common abuse and inconvenience because of his brain injury and the audience wills Leonard on in his quest for the unknown attacker. However when the two separate narrative sequences meet during the climax of the film it becomes clear to the audience that Leonard is not so innocent after all. The audience discovers that Leonard wilfully ignores fact when it suits him. He can erase his own past in an act of outrageous audacity and will (Jump Cut 46, 2003). Teddy claims Leonard has confused parts of his own life and in fact his wife wasnt raped and murdered but it was Leonard who inadvertently murdered her. Teddy also accuses Leonard of deliberately creating an unsolvable puzzle to give himself purpose and that his search could go on indefinitely, he claims they had already killed the guy who committed the attack over a year ago they did it together. Leonard in a conscious, deliberate decision burns all collected evidence and writes a new note to get a tattooed fact of Teddys car licence plate, setting Teddy up as a new suspect, ultimately leading to his murder, shown at the beginning of the film. The films narrative initially sets up the audience to feel Leonards confusion and to sympathise with him because they are also unaware of the preceding events and are trying to discover the truth too, however a much more bitter feeling towards Leonard is created for the audience at the end of the film once true style of Leonards investigation is revealed. Mementos plot moves creatively to put the audience in a position of interest; they too want to know who the attacker was, and then they want Leonard to get the justice he deserves. Then in a dramatic twist at the end the audience understands the investigation and the events leading up to Teddys murder. The film offers a clear distinction between story and plot. The fabula is the chronological order of the story and the sujet is structured with two storylines and by having one story sequence in reverse chronological order thus making the two story sequences converge at the end creates the unveiling finish. The film was critically acclaimed and was nominated for the Academy Award in Best Original Screenplay and Best Editing.

Effects of Non Linear Narrative on Film

What a non linear narrative does is create more emphasis on characters and themes instead of goaldriven action like in linear films. Each segment of a nonlinear film needs to individually provide some action with a desired goal. The segments of a non linear film are built on the same principles of a linear plot; each segment will develop a driving action through conflict and climax it at the end of the

segment. These segments are like mini-plots (Cowgill, L. 2003). Action and conflict is still needed to focus the plot whether its linear or non linear, they are just presented in different ways. In Quentin Tarantinos Pulp Fiction the films plot includes repeated actions and parallel actions for example the film first focuses entirely on Ringo and Honey Bunny at the diner, at the beginning of the film, but the second time at the diner, at the end, it focuses on the couple, Vincent and Jules, but mainly from the latters viewpoint. The Vincent and Jules storyline binds the film into a cohesive whole for the audience. What Tarantino has done is a deep re-structuring of the normal relationship between story and plot, by driving action forward with one or two characters and by then jumping to a completely new scene and character/s. The non chronological plot of Pulp Fiction makes possible more exciting and engaging sequences as opposed to if the film was shown in chronological order; this is so because it requires the audience to concentrate more. It is said that Pulp Fiction is possibly one of the most complex films ever made. Despite non linear narrative being so elusive with regards to structure, there is structure. However it may just be background because it isnt the real energy of the film, instead the energy in sequences from Pulp Fiction comes from violence and dialogue; strong recurring Tarantino themes, for example when Jules and Vincent are going to execute someone for non-payment of drugs, what they talk about is their boss, food and experiences in Europe. They do not talk about the job at hand. Their gossip acts as a counterpoint to their intentions and consequently it creates tension and energy. These themes were evident throughout Pulp Fiction and these strong themes are what made each sequence interesting, by creating energy on-screen, because sequences out of order need to carry their own story and thats what Tarantino did in Pulp Fiction; a non linear film is held together by strong themes that recur throughout the films segments. Sometimes non linear narrative arranges a stories chronology into a more presentable manner for entertainment purposes from a directors point-of-view, like in Pulp Fiction but also in Memento. The way Memento is presented sets up the dramatic ending which wouldnt have been, had the film of been chronological. If the film had been in chronological order the audience would have been aware of Leonards anterograde amnesia and aware of the fact that he consciously, purposefully forgets his own evidence, to suit his needs, thus why Leonard kills Teddy. It really is a question of finding the most suitable order for releasing information to the audience and not feeling any responsibility to do it chronologically, just like we don't in life Christopher Nolan. (The Unknown Screenwriter, 2010)


Christopher Nolans comments on non linear narrative structure exemplifies that there are no rules to non linear narrative and that structure can be remodelled for the story to be the best that it can be. After all, it is claimed that our minds dont work in linear ways, theyre said to work associatively. Non linear narrative reflects the way we actually experience thought and imagination. This is shown in 500 days of Summer, the film employs a non linear, memory-driven look at a failed relationship from the account of the male protagonist Tom. 500 Days of Summer begins and ends the same way it would of done had it of been chronological but the majority of the film is told by jumping from one memory to another. Had this film been linear it would have been a story about Tom meeting Summer, having a relationship with her, that relationship ending and then Tom meeting a new girl called Autumn. It loses its entire dramatic feel when the plot is linear; however as a non linear narrative this film provides a much more emotional story from the protagonists point-of-view which is much more effective. Like other non linear narrative films, the film possesses the ability to set up intense character situations by simply jumping forward or backward in the stories timeline. What 500 Days of Summer does is uses Toms memory to connect montages that express falling in love or breaking up that create tension. A films theme defines a films tone and in a non linear narrative, the more the sequence is shuffled up and reconstructed, the more the film relies on its theme to hold each segment together, done correctly it is a rewarding sense of storytelling.


So non linear narrative is a storytelling technique wherein events are portrayed out of chronological order and within the storytelling technique itself are various devices to enforce the technique in a specific way. These devices have a specific effect on a films narrative and each devices effect differs; its just a differentiation between the presentations of the texts. All the techniques create movement within the films plot and this movement is with a purpose; to create dramatic effect. A director and/or writer of a non linear narrative have the power to present the films story in whichever way he/she pleases. The director or writer would choose the best way that they think the story is pieced together and would join these pieces together with strong themes that are so important in connecting each segment of a non linear narrative film. A film is unique to the director, the way they see the world and how they communicate is down to their own particular perspective (Barnwell J. 2008 p. 33). When thinking about narrative structure, decisions have to be made as to how the story should unfold. A non linear structure should enhance a story. The use of non linear


structure in Run Lola Run enhances the dramatic impacts of the story and the three possible outcomes promote a sense of suspense. Three alternative responses to the premise result in three possible conclusions. The structure and the story work together to create a cohesive sense of what would happen should Lola choose a particular course of action (Barnwell J. 2008 p. 38). All the techniques before-mentioned in this essay are also used in many other films, not just the ones used as examples here. Non linear narrative is a vast database of films that convey a wide variety of stories. These techniques help shape the structure and a films final look with the audience in mind; to tell a meaning and entertaining story. A dramatic twist ending can provide an audience a thrilling end to a suspenseful story and a title card can effectively guide an audience along the way of a story without confusion. Chopping up a story and putting sequences in nonchronological order can complicate film plots and thus some non linear devices are necessary. However, putting film sequences out of order can make a film better, an improvement upon the linear story, had it of been told, making non linear film narrative very interesting and enjoyable for audiences to watch. Non linear narrative allows audiences to travel through time, forwards and backwards, and come back again. It allows them to see things first before theyve even happened. Non linear narrative is an effecting way of storytelling in film because it puts the audience in a powerful position which is the most enjoyable aspect of watching a film. Non linear narrative is an innovative form of film storytelling and is now a contemporary style of film narrative. Non linear narrative has propelled itself into being a conventional method of storytelling in films. The amount of successful non linear narrative films proves that. Initially being experimented with by early soviet filmmakers like Sergei Eisenstein and Vsevolad Pudovkin, later being pushed into mainstream society in the 1990s by Quentin Tarantino. Now there are directors who frequently return to making non-linear narrative films such as Christopher Nolan, Steven Soderbergh and Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu. Non linear narrative in film can be cited as a move towards postmodernism in film today. The storytelling style moves away from old, used-before, classic formats and presents a story cinematically in a revolutionary way, in what is a new art-form anyway when you compare it to age-old art forms like novels and paintings. Apart from video games, film is the newest art form to emerge and non linearity in film is the newest way of presentation for film. To conclude, non linear narrative in film is a new expression that embellishes a films story. It elevates a films meaning by stringing together sequences with purposeful themes and thus interests an audience more so. A films narrative is liberated under non-linear structure compared to its oppressive counter-part; linear narrative. Non linear narrative is impulsive and captivating to watch


and although we mustnt forget the glory of linear narrative, non linear narrative has a more intriguing approach to film storytelling that has massive appeal. Non linear narrative subverts traditional storytelling of cause-and-effect play and instead provides numerous story leads with multiple devices which intrinsically relates to todays society that needs entertainment to emulate its multi-tracking natures. Non linear narrative proves to be successful more and more with films being bestowed numerous accolades especially in the screenplay department. Finally, non linear narrative films provide structures with an infinite time space and the possibilities for non linear narrative are endless.



Films: 21 Grams (2003) Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu (DVD) Focus Features 500 Days of Summer (2009) Marc Webb (DVD) Fox Searchlight Pictures Babel (2006) Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu (DVD) Paramount Citizen Kane (1941) Orson Welles (DVD) Universal Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) Michel Gondry (DVD) Focus Features Godfather Part II, the (1974) Francis Ford Coppola (DVD) Paramount Hours, the (2002) Stephen Daldry (DVD) Miramax Films Intolerance (1916) D.W. Griffith (DVD) Image Entertainment Magnolia (1999) Paul Thomas Anderson (DVD) New Line Cinema Memento (2000) Christopher Nolan (DVD) Pathe Pans Labyrinth (2006) Guillermo Del Toro (DVD) New Line Cinema Power and the Glory, the (1933) William K. Howard Pulp Fiction (1994) Quentin Tarantino (DVD) Touchstone Rashomon (1950) Akira Kurosawa (DVD) Optimum Reservoir Dogs (1992) Quentin Tarantino (DVD) Lionsgate Run Lola Run (1998) Tom Tykwer (DVD) Sony Pictures Classics Saving Private Ryan (1998) Steven Spielberg (DVD) DreamWorks Sixth Sense, the (1999) M. Night Shyamalan (DVD) Hollywood Pictures Un Chien Andalou (1929) [online]. [Accessed 18 November 2010]. Available at: < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJexaTmCVfI> Usual Suspects, the (1995) Bryan Singer (DVD) Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer


Watchman (2009) Zack Snyder (DVD) Paramount Pictures

Books: Barnwell J. (2008) The Fundamentals of Film-Making, AVA Publishing, Lausanne. Field S. (2003) The Definitive Guide to Screen Writing, Ebury Press, London. Mckee R. (1999) Story, Methuen, London. Nelmes J. (2003) An Introduction to Film Studies, Third Edition, Routledge, London. Nelmes J. (2007) Introduction to Film Studies, Fourth Edition, Routledge, London. Phillips W.H. (2005) Film: an Introduction, Third Edition, Bedford/St. Martins, Boston. Pramaggiore M. & Willis T. (2008) Film: A Critical Introduction, Second Edition, Laurence King, London.

Web Journals/addresses: Cowgill, L. (2003) Non-Linear Narratives: The Ultimate in Time Travel. [Accessed: 20 November 2010]. Available at: <http://www.plotsinc.com/sitenew/column_art_02.html> Bizzocchi, J. (2005) Run Lola Run Film as a Narrative Database (online). Accessed: 2nd December 2010. Available at: <http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/mit4/papers/bizzocchi.pdf> The Unknown Screenwriter (2010) Screenwriting Structure Part Four: Memento & Pulp Fiction NonLinear Storytelling (online). [Accessed: 1 December 2010]. Available at: http://www.movieoutline.com/articles/screenwriting-structure-series-part-4-memento-and-pulpfiction-non-linear-story-telling.html Jump Cut 46 (2003) A Review of Contemporary Media. [Accessed: 1 December 2010]. Available at: <http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/jc46.2003/eig.mindfilms/mind2.html>