You are on page 1of 134

GUIDE FOR THE DESIGN OF

CRANE-SUPPORTING STEEL STRUCTURES


SECOND EDITION
R.A. MACCRIMMON
NIAGARA FALLS, ONTARIO
CanadianInstituteoISteelConstruction
Institutcanadiendelaconstructionenacier
376014thAvenue,Suite200
Markham,OntarioL3R3T7
Copyright2009
by
CanadianInstituteoISteelConstruction
All rights reserved.
This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced
in any form without the written permission of the publisher.
Second Edition
First Printing, December 2007
Second Revised Printing, January 2009
Third Printing, August 2009
Fourth Revised Printing, February 2010
Fifth Revised Printing, July 2012
ISBN978-0-88811-132-6
PRINTEDINCANADA
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
PREFACETOTHESECONDEDITION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii
CHAPTER1-INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
CHAPTER2-LOADS
2.1General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2SymbolsandNotation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.3 Loads Specifc to Crane-Supporting Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3.1General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3.2VerticalLoads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3.3SideThrust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3.4TractionLoad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3.5BumperImpact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3.6Vibrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4 Load Combinations Specifc to Crane-Supporting Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4.1Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4.2UltimateLimitStatesoIStrengthandStability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
CHAPTER3-DESIGNFORREPEATEDLOADS
3.1General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2ExclusionIorLimitedNumberoICycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3DetailedLoad-InducedFatigueAssessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.1General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.2Palmgren-MinerRule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.3EquivalentStressRange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.4EquivalentNumberoICycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.3.5FatigueDesignProcedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4 Classifcation oI Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.4.1General.............................................. 12
3.4.2 Crane Service Classifcation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.4.3NumberoIFullLoadCyclesBasedonClassoICrane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.4FatigueLoadingCriteriaBasedonDutyCycleAnalysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.4.5PreparationoIDesignCriteriaDocumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.4.5.1FatigueCriteriaDocumentationBasedonDutyCycleAnalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
iv
3.4.5.2CriteriaDocumentationBasedonClassoICraneService(AbbreviatedProcedure) . . . 18
3.5ExamplesoIDutyCycleAnalyses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.5.1Crane-CarryingSteelStructuresStructuralClassoIServiceSA,SB,SC. . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.5.2Crane-CarryingSteelStructuresStructuralClassoIServiceSD,SE,SF. . . . . . . . . . . . 19
CHAPTER4-DESIGNANDCONSTRUCTIONMEASURESCHECKLIST
4.1General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.2CommentsontheChecklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
CHAPTER5-OTHERTOPICS
5.1General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.2Crane-StructureInteractioninMillorSimilarBuildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.3Clearances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.4MethodsoIAnalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.5NotionalLoads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.6SegmentedColumns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.7BuildingLongitudinalBracing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.8BuildingExpansionJoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.9Mono-symmetricCraneRunwayBeams,Lateral-TorsionalBuckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.9.1DesignMethod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.10BiaxialBending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.11HeavyConstruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.12IntermediateWebStiIIeners...................................... 37
5.13LinkstoCraneRunwayBeams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.14BottomFlangeBracing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.15Attachments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.16EndStops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.17UnequalDepthBeams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.18UnderslungCranesandMonorails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.19JibCranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.20TrussTypeCraneRunwaySupports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.21ColumnBasesandAnchorRods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.22DissimilarMaterials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.23Rails. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.24RailAttachments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.25OutdoorCraneRunways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
v
5.26SeismicDesign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.27StandardsIorWeldingIorStructuresSubjectedtoFatigue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.28ErectionTolerances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.29StandardsIorInspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.30MaintenanceandRepair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
CHAPTER6-REHABILITATIONANDUPGRADINGOFEXISTINGCRANE-CARRYINGSTEEL
STRUCTURES
6.1General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2Inspections,ConditionSurveys,Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.3Loads,LoadCombinations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.4StructuralModelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.5ReinIorcing,Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.5.1ReinIorcinganExistingRunwayBeam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.5.2ReinIorcinganExistingColumn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.5.3WeldingtoExistingStructures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
CHAPTER7-SUGGESTEDPROCEDUREFORDESIGNOFCRANERUNWAYBEAMS
7.1General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.2DesignCriteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.3DesignProcedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
FIGURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
APPENDIXA-DESIGNEXAMPLES
DesignExample1
IllustrationoIDesignoIaMono-symmetricSectionCraneRunwayBeam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
DesignExample2
IllustrationoIDesignoIaHeavy-DutyPlateGirderTypeCraneRunwayBeam. . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
vi
FOREWORD
TheCanadianInstituteoISteelConstructionisanationalindustryorganizationrepresentingthestructuralsteel,
open-web steel joist and steel plate Iabricating industries in Canada. Formed in 1930 and granted a Federal
charter in 1942, the CISC Iunctions as a nonproft organization promoting the eIfcient and economic use oI
Iabricatedsteelinconstruction.
AsamemberoItheCanadianSteelConstructionCouncil,theInstitutehasageneralinterestinallusesoIsteel
in construction. CISC works in close co-operation with the Steel Structures Education Foundation (SSEF) to
develop educational courses and programmes related to the design and construction oI steel structures. The
CISCsupportsandactivelyparticipatesintheworkoItheStandardsCounciloICanada,theCanadianStandards
Association,theCanadianCommissiononBuildingandFireCodesandnumerousotherorganizations,inCanada
andothercountries,involvedinresearchworkandthepreparationoIcodesandstandards.
PreparationoIengineeringplansisnotaIunctionoItheCISC.TheInstitutedoesprovidetechnicalinIormation
throughitsproIessionalengineeringstaII,throughthepreparationanddisseminationoIpublications,andthrough
themediumoIseminars,courses,meetings,videotapes,andcomputerprograms.Architects,engineersandothers
interestedinsteelconstructionareencouragedtomakeuseoICISCinIormationservices.
ThispublicationhasbeenpreparedandpublishedbytheCanadianInstituteoISteelConstruction.Itisanimportant
partoIacontinuingeIIorttoprovidecurrent,practical,inIormationtoassisteducators,designers,Iabricators,and
othersinterestedintheuseoIsteelinconstruction.
Although no eIIort has been spared in an attempt to ensure that all data in this book is Iactual and that the
numericalvaluesareaccuratetoadegreeconsistentwithcurrentstructuraldesignpractice,theCanadianInstitute
oISteelConstruction,theauthorandhisemployer,Hatch,donotassumeresponsibilityIorerrorsoroversights
resulting Irom the use oI the inIormation contained herein.Anyone making use oI the contents oI this book
assumesallliabilityarisingIromsuchuse.AllsuggestionsIorimprovementoIthispublicationwillreceiveIull
considerationIorIutureprintings.
CISCislocatedat
376014
th
Avenue,Suite200
Markham,Ontario,L3R3T7
andmayalsobecontactedviaoneormoreoItheIollowing:
Telephone:905-946-0864
Fax:905-946-8574
Email:inIocisc-icca.ca
Website:www.cisc-icca.ca
Revisions
ThisEditionoItheDesignGuidesupersedesallpreviousversionspostedontheCISCwebsite:www.cisc-icca.
ca.FuturerevisionstothisDesignGuidewillbepostedonthiswebsite.Usersareencouragedtovisitthiswebsite
periodicallyIorupdates.
vii
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
Since the frst printing oI this design guide in January 2005, the author has received many useIul and constructive
comments along with questions, answers to which could generate more inIormation Ior the designer oI these
structures.
Additionally, changes to the National Building Code oI Canada (NBCC) and refnements to the companion load
conceptuponwhichloadcombinationsarebasedhaveoccurred.CSAStandardS16,LimitStatesDesignoISteel
StructuresisbeingupdatedandnewprovisionsthataIIectthedesignoIthesestructuresarebeingintroduced.
The second edition refects the signifcant changes that are warranted due to the above inIormation and now
includesanindex.
The frst two chapters contain an introduction that explains the intent oI the publication (unchanged) and
inIormation on loads and load combinations. Important changes in this area are included, most notably in the
refnement oI the load combinations, section 2.4.2.
Chapter 3, Design Ior Repeated Loads, remains essentially unchanged, with a Iew clarifcations added.
Chapters4,5and6,DesignandConstructionMeasuresChecklist,OtherTopics,andRehabilitationandUpgrades
have been updated to refect comments and additional inIormation.
ReIerenceshavebeenaddedandupdated.
Several comments and questions related to the fgures and design examples have prompted revisions to some oI
the fgures and the two design examples.
The intent oI this publication remains to provide a reIerence Ior the practicing designer that refects Canadian and
NorthAmericanpractice.
Theauthorwishestothankallthosewhotookthetimetocommentandprovidesuggestions.Specialthanksto
thelateDavidRicker(reIerence27)whotookthetimetoconstructivelycommentindepth,providinganumber
oIsuggestionswhichhavebeenincorporatedintothisedition.
viii
1
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
This guide flls a long-standing need Ior technical inIormation Ior the design and construction oI crane-supporting
steelstructuresthatiscompatiblewithCanadiancodesandstandardswritteninLimitStatesIormat.Itisintended
tobeusedinconjunctionwiththeNationalBuildingCodeoICanada,2010(NBCC2010),andCanadianStandards
Association(CSA)StandardS16-09,LimitStatesDesignoISteelStructures(S16-09).PreviouseditionsoIthese
documents have not covered many loading and design issues oI crane-supporting steel structures in suIfcient
detail.
WhilemanyreIerencesareavailableasgivenherein,theydonotcoverloadsandloadcombinationsIorlimit
states design nor are they well correlated to the class oI cranes being supported. Classes oI cranes are defned
in CSA Standard B167 or in specifcations oI the Crane ManuIacturers Association oI America (CMAA). This
guideprovidesinIormationonhowtoapplythecurrentCanadianCodesandStandardstoaspectsoIdesignoI
crane-supportingstructuressuchasloads,loadcombinations,repeatedloads,notionalloads,mono-symmetrical
sections,analysisIortorsion,steppedcolumns,anddistortion-inducedIatigue.
ThepurposeoIthisdesignguideistwoIold:
1. ToprovidetheownerandthedesignerwithapracticalsetoIguidelines,designaids,andreIerencesthatcan
beappliedwhendesigningorassessingtheconditionoIcrane-supportingsteelstructures.
2. ToprovideexamplesoIdesignoIkeycomponentsoIcrane-supportingstructuresinaccordancewith:
(a)loadsandloadcombinationsthathaveproventobereliableandaregenerallyacceptedbytheindustry,
(b)therecommendationscontainedherein,includingNBCC2010limitstatesloadcombinations,
(c)theprovisionsoIthelatesteditionoIS16-09,and,
(d)dutycycleanalysis.
The scope oI this design guide includes crane-supporting steel structures regardless oI the type oI crane.The
interaction oI the crane and its supporting structure is addressed. The design oI the crane itselI, including jib
cranes, gantry cranes, ore bridges, and the like, is beyond the scope oI this Guide and is covered by specifcations
suchasthosepublishedbytheCMAA.
Design and construction oI Ioundations is beyond the scope oI this document but loads, load combinations,
tolerances and defections should be in accordance with the recommendations contained herein. For additional
inIormationseeFisher(2004).
In the use oI this guide, light-duty overhead cranes are defned as CMAA Classes A and B and in some cases, C. See
Table3.1.DesignIorIatigueisoItennotrequiredIorClassesAandBbutisnotexcludedIromconsideration.
The symbols and notations oI S16-09 are Iollowed unless otherwise noted.Welding symbols are generally in
accordancewithCSAW59-03.
TherecommendationsoIthisguidemaynotcoveralldesignmeasures.ItistheresponsibilityoIthedesigneroI
thecrane-supportingstructuretoconsidersuchmeasures.CommentsIorIutureeditionsarewelcome.
TheauthorwishestoacknowledgethehelpandadviceoIHatch,Iorcorporatesupportandindividualassistance
oIcolleaguestoonumeroustomentionindividually,allthosewhohaveoIIeredsuggestions,andspecialthanks
toGaryHodgson,MikeGilmorandLaurieKennedyIortheirencouragementandcontributions.
2
CHAPTER 2 - LOADS
2.1General
BecausecraneloadsdominatethedesignoImanystructuralelementsincrane-supportingstructures,thisguide
specifes and expands the loads and combinations that must be considered over those given in the NBCC 2010.
The crane loads are considered as separate loads Irom the other live loads due to use and occupancy and
environmentaleIIectssuchasrain,snow,wind,earthquakes,lateralloadsduetopressureoIsoilandwater,and
temperatureeIIectsbecausetheyareindependentIromthem.
OIallbuildingstructures,IatigueconsiderationsaremostimportantIorthosesupportingcranes.Bethatasitmay,
designers generally design frst Ior the ultimate limit states oI strength and stability that are likely to control and
thencheckIortheIatigueandserviceabilitylimitstates.Fortheultimatelimitstates,theIactoredresistancemay
allowyieldingoverportionsoIthecrosssectiondependingontheclassoIthecross-sectionasgiveninClause
13 oI S16-09. As given in Clause 26 oI S16-09, the Iatigue limit state is considered at the specifed load level
theloadthatislikelytobeappliedrepeatedly.TheIatigueresistancedependsverymuchontheparticulardetail
as Clause 26 shows. However, the detail can be modifed, relocated or even avoided such that Iatigue does not
control. Serviceability criteria such as defections are also satisfed at the specifed load level.
CraneloadshavemanyuniquecharacteristicsthatleadtotheIollowingconsiderations:
(a) AnimpactIactor,appliedtoverticalwheelloadstoaccountIorthedynamiceIIectsasthecranemovesand
Ior other eIIects such as snatching oI the load Irom the foor and Irom braking oI the hoist mechanism.
(b) For single cranes, the improbability oI some loads, some oI short duration, oI acting simultaneously is
considered.
(c) Formultiplecranesinoneaisleorcranesinseveralaisles,loadcombinationsarerestrictedtothosewitha
reasonableprobabilityoIoccurrence.
(d) LateralloadsareappliedtothecranerailtoaccountIorsucheIIectsasaccelerationandbrakingIorcesoI
the trolley and liIted load, skewing oI the travelling crane, rail misalignment, and not picking the load up
vertically.
(e) LongitudinalIorcesduetoaccelerationandbrakingoIthecranebridgeandnotpickingtheloadupvertically
areconsidered.
(I) CranerunwayendstopsaredesignedIorpossibleaccidentalimpactatIullbridgespeed.
(g) CertainspecializedclassesoIcranessuchasmagnetcranes,clamshellbucketcranes,craneswithrigidmasts
(suchasunderhungstackercranes)requirespecialconsideration.
ThisguidegenerallyIollowsacceptedNorthAmericanpracticethathasevolvedIromyearsoIexperienceinthe
design and construction oI light to moderate service and up to and including steel mill buildings that support
overhead travelling cranes (AISE 2003, Fisher 2004, Griggs and Innis 1978, Griggs 1976). Similar practices,
widelyusedIorothertypesoIcraneservices,suchasunderslungcranesandmonorails,haveservedwell(MBMA
2006).ThecompanionactionapproachIorloadcombinationsasusedintheNBCC2005,andsimilartothatin
ASCE(2002),isIollowed.
2.2SymbolsandNotation
TheIollowingsymbolsandnomenclature,basedonacceptedpracticeareexpandedtocoverloadsnotgivenin
Part4oItheNBCC2010.Thesymbol,L,isalltheliveloadsexcludingloadsduetocranes.ThesymbolCmeans
acraneload.
C
vs
-verticalloadduetoasinglecrane
C
vm
-verticalloadduetomultiplecranes
C
ss
-sidethrustduetoasinglecrane
C
sm
-sidethrustduetomultiplecranes
C
is
-impactduetoasinglecrane
3
C
im
-impactduetomultiplecranes
C
ls
-longitudinaltractionduetoasinglecraneinoneaisleonly
C
lm
-longitudinaltractionduetomultiplecranes
C
bs
-bumperimpactduetoasinglecrane
C
d
-deadloadoIallcranes,positionedIormaximumseismiceIIects
D -deadload
E -earthquakeload(seePart4,NBCC2010)
H -loadduetolateralpressureoIsoilandwaterinsoil
L - live load due to use and occupancy, including dust buildup (excludes crane loads defned above)
S -snowload(seePart4,NBCC2010)
T -SeePart4,NBCC2010,butmayalsoincludeIorcesinducedbyoperatingtemperatures
W -windload(seePart4,NBCC2010)
AdditionalinIormationonloadsIollowsinSection2.3.
2.3 Loads Specic to Crane-Supporting Structures
2.3.1 General
TheIollowingloadandloadcombinationsare,ingeneral,Iorstructuresthatsupportelectricallypowered,top
runningoverheadtravellingcranes,underslungcranes,andmonorails.ForexamplesoIseveraldiIIerenttypesoI
cranesandtheirsupportingstructures,seeWeaver(1985)andMBMA(2006).
Lateral Iorces due to cranes are highly variable. The crane duty cycle may be a well-defned series oI operations
suchasthepickupoIamaximumloadnearoneendoIthebridge,traversingtothecentreoIthebridgewhile
travellingalongthelengthoItherunway,releasingmostoItheloadandtravellingbackIoranotherload.Thisis
sometimesthecaseinsteelmillsandIoundries.Ontheotherhand,theoperationmayberandomasinwarehousing
operations.Weaver(1985)providesexamplesoIdutycycleanalysesalbeitmoreappropriateIorcraneselection
thanIorthesupportingstructure.
Crane-supporting structures are not usually designed Ior a specifc routine but use recommended Iactors Ior crane
loadingasshowninTable2.1.ThesearebasedonNorthAmericanpractice(Fisher2004,GriggsandInnis1978,
Rowswell1987).Otherjurisdictions,e.g.,Eurocodes,havesimilarbutdiIIerentIactors.Inadditiontothese,load
Iactors Ior the ultimate limit states as given in Section 2.4 are applied. A statistically signifcant number oI feld
observations are needed to refne these Iactors.
AISE(2003)notesthatsomeoItherecommendedcranerunwayloadingsmaybesomewhatconservative.This
isdeemedappropriateIornewmilltypebuildingdesignwherethecostoIconservatismshouldberelativelylow.
HoweverwhenassessingexistingstructuresascoveredinChapter6,engineeringjudgmentshouldbeapplied
judiciouslyasrenovationcostsaregenerallyhigher.SeeAISE(2003),CMAA(2010),Griggs(1976),Millman
(1991)andWeaver(1985)IormoreinIormation.
2.3.2 Vertical Loads
Impact,ordynamicloadallowance,isappliedonlytocraneverticalwheelloads,andisonlyconsideredinthe
designoIrunwaybeamsandtheirconnections.ImpactisIactoredasaliveload.AISEReportNo.13recommends
thatimpactbeincludedindesignIorIatigue,asitisdirectedtothedesignoImillbuildings.Formostapplications,
this is thought to be a conservative approach. Following Rowswell (1978) and Millman (1996) impact is not
includedindesignIorIatigue.
For certain applications such as liIting oI hydraulic gates, the liIted load can jamb and without load limiting
devices,thelinepullcanapproachthestallingtorqueoIthemotor,whichmaybetwotothreetimesthenominal
craneliItingcapacity.ThispossibilityshouldbemadeknowntothedesigneroIthestructure.
4
Table2.l
Crane Vertical Load, Side Thrust and Tractive Force
as Percentages of Respective Loads
Crane
Type
a
VerticalLoad
Including
Impact
Total Side Thrust - Greatest of:
Tractive
Force
i
Maximum
WheelLoad
b Lifted Load
c
Combined
Weight of
Lifted Load
c

andTrolley
Combined
Weight of
Lifted Load
c

andCrane
Weight
Maximum
Loadon
Driven
Wheels
CabOperated
orRadio
Controlled
125 40
d
20
e
10
d
20
Clamshell
Bucketand
MagnetCranes
I
125 100 20 10 20
GuidedArm
Cranes,Stacker
Cranes
125 200 40
g
15 20
Maintenance
Cranes
120 30
d
20 10
d
20
Pendant
Controlled
Cranes
j
110 20 10 20
ChainOperated
Cranes
h
105 10 10
Monorails 115 10 10

Notes:
(a)CraneserviceasdistinctIromcranetypeisshowninSection3.4.2.
(b)OccurswithtrolleyhardovertooneendoIbridge.
(c)LiItedloadincludesthetotalweightliItedbythehoistmechanismbutunlessotherwisenoted,notincludingthecolumn,
ram,orothermaterialhandlingdevicewhichisrigidlyguidedinaverticaldirectionduringhoisting.
(d)Steelmillcraneservice(AISE2003).
(e)ThiscriterionhasprovidedsatisIactoryserviceIorlight(seeTable3.1)tomoderatedutyapplicationsandisconsistentwith
theminimumrequirementsoItheNBCC2010.
(I)SevereserviceasinscrapyardsanddoesnotincludemagnetcranesliItingproductssuchascoilsandplateinawarehousing
typeoperation.
(g)LiItedloadincludesrigidarm.Therigidarmcontributestosidethrust.
(h)BecauseoItheslownatureoItheoperation,dynamicIorcesarelessthanIorapendantcontrolledcranes.
(i)Themaximumloadonthedrivenwheelsisappliedtoeachrailsimultaneously.
(j)Forbridgespeedsnotexceeding0.8m/sec
5
In determining crane vertical loads, the dead weight oI the unloaded crane components by defnition is a dead
load.Historically,inIormationprovidedonweightsoIcranecomponents,particularlytrolleys,hasbeenrather
unreliableandthereIoreisnotnecessarilycoveredbythecommonlyuseddeadloadIactor.Cautionshouldbe
exercised and iI deemed necessary, the weight should be verifed by weighing.
Crane manuIacturers provide inIormation on maximum wheel loads. These loads may diIIer Irom wheel to
wheel,dependingontherelativepositionsoIthecranecomponentsandtheliItedload.Thedesignerusuallyhas
todeterminetheconcurrentwheelloadsontheoppositerailIromstatics,knowingthemassesoItheunloaded
crane,thetrolley,theliItedload,andtherangeoIthehook(s)(oItencalledhookapproach)Iromsidetoside.
SeeFigure4.Notethatminimumwheelloadscombinedwithotherloadssuchassidethrustmaygoverncertain
aspectsoIdesign.Foundationstabilityshouldbecheckedundertheseconditions.
2.3.3 Side Thrust
Crane side thrust is a horizontal Iorce oI short duration applied transversely by the crane wheels to the rails.
For top running cranes the thrust is applied at the top oI the runway rails, usually by double-fanged wheels.
II the wheels are not double-fanged, special provisions, not covered by this document, are required to ensure
satisIactory service and saIety. For more inIormation see CMAA (2010) and Weaver (1985). For underslung
cranes the load is applied at top oI the bottom fange. Side thrust arises Irom one or more oI:
accelerationorbrakingoIthecranetrolley(s)
trolleyimpactwiththeendstop
non-verticalhoistingaction
skewingorcrabbingoIthecraneasitmovesalongtherunway
misalignedcranerailsorbridgeendtrucks
TheeIIectoIthesidethrustIorcesarecombinedwithotherdesignloadsaspresentedsubsequently.Sidethrust
(totalsidethrustIromTable2.1)isdistributedtoeachsideoItherunwayinaccordancewiththerelativelateral
stiIInessoIthesupportingstructures.Fornewconstructionitisassumedthatthecranesandsupportingstructures
are within tolerances. Severe misalignment, as one may fnd in older or poorly maintained structures, can lead to
unaccounted-IorIorcesandconsequentialseriousdamage.
Side thrust Irom monorails is due only to non-vertical hoisting action and swinging; thereIore, the values in
Table2.1arelessthanthoseIorbridgecranes.
ThenumberoIcyclesoIsidethrustistakenasone-halIthenumberoIverticalloadcyclesbecausethethrustcan
beintwooppositedirections.
MoreinIormationcanbeIoundinAISE(2003),CMAA(2010),Fisher(2004),GriggsandInnis(1978),Griggs
(1976),Millman(1996),Rowswell(1987),andTremblayandLegault(1996).
2.3.4 Traction Load
LongitudinalcranetractiveIorceisoIshortduration,causedbycranebridgeaccelerationorbraking.Thelocations
oI driven wheels should be established beIore fnal design. II the number oI driven wheels is unknown, take the
tractiveIorceas10oIthetotalwheelloads.
2.3.5 Bumper Impact
ThisisalongitudinalIorceexertedonthecranerunwaybyamovingcranebridgestrikingtheendstop.TheNBCC
2010 does not specifcally cover this load case. Provincial regulations, including Ior industrial establishments,
shouldbereviewedbythestructuredesigner.FollowingAISE(2003),itisrecommendedthatitbebasedonthe
IullratedspeedoIthebridge,poweroII.Becauseitisanaccidentalevent,theloadIactoristakenas1.0.
2.3.6 Vibrations
Althoughrarelyaproblem,resonanceshouldbeavoided.AnimperIectioninatrolleyorbridgewheelcouldset
upundesirableIorcingIrequencies.
6
From Rowswell (1987), the probable amplifcation oI stress that may occur is given by the Iollowing magnifcation
Iactor:
2.4 Load Combinations Specic to Crane-Supporting Structures
ThestructuremustalsobedesignedIorloadcombinationswithoutcranes,inaccordancewiththeNBCC2010.
LoadcombinationscomprisingIewerloadsthanthoseshownbelowmaygovern.
Where multiple cranes or multiple aisles are involved, only load combinations that have a signifcant possibility
oI occurring need to be considered. Load combinations given in the NBCC 2010, including crane loads, are
presentedhere.
CraneloadcombinationsC
1
toC
7
showninTable2.2arecombinationsoIthecraneloadsgiveninSection2.2that
areusedintheindustry.FormoreinIormationseeAISE(2003),Fisher(2004),andMBMA(2006).
Forloadcombinationsinvolvingcolumn-mountedjibcranes,seeFisherandThomas(2002).
Table2.2
CraneLoadCombinations
C
1
C
vs
0.5C
ss
Fatigue
C
2
C
vs
(C
is
orC
ss
)C
ls
Singlecraneinasingleaisle.
C
3
C
vm
C
ss
C
ls
AnynumberoIcranesinsingleormultipleaisles.
C
4
C
vm
0.5C
sm
0.9C
lm
Two cranes in tandem in one aisle only. No more than two
needbeconsideredexceptinextraordinarycircumstances.
C
5
C
vm
0.5C
sm
C
im
0.5C
lm
Onecraneineachadjacentaisle.
C
6
C
vm
0.5C
sm
Maximum oI two cranes in each adjacent aisle, side thrust
Iromtwocranesinoneaisleonly.Nomorethantwoneedbe
consideredexceptinextraordinarycircumstances.
C
7
C
vs
C
is
C
bs
Bumperimpact
Magnification Factor
natural frequency
forcing frequency
1
1
2
=
-= G
7
2.4.1 Fatigue
ThecalculatedIatiguestressrangeatthedetailunderconsideration,tomeettherequirementsoIClause26oI
S16-09andasdescribedinChapter3oIthisdocument,willbetakenasthatduetoC
1
.
Note: Dead load is a steady state and does not contribute to the stress range. However, the dead load stress
may cause the stress range to be entirely in compression and therefore favourable or wholly or partly in
tension and therefore unfavourable.
2.4.2 Ultimate Limit States of Strength and Stability
In each oI the Iollowing inequalities, Ior load combinations with crane loads, the Iactored resistance, |R, and
theeIIectoIIactoredloadssuchas0.9D,areexpressedinconsistentunitsoIaxialIorce,shearIorceormoment
actingonthememberorelementoIconcern.ThemostunIavourablecombinationgoverns.
Case PrincipalLoads CompanionLoads
1. |R _ 1.4D
2. |R _ (1.25Dor0.9D)(1.5C1.0L) 1.0Sor0.4W
3. |R _ (1.25Dor0.9D)(1.5L1.0C) 0.5Sor0.4W
4. |R _ (1.25Dor0.9D)1.5S (1.0C0.5L)
5. |R _ (1.25Dor0.9D)1.4W (1.0C0.5L) SeeNote8.
6. |R _ (1.25Dor0.9D)1.0C
7
7. |R _ 1.0D1.0E 1.0C
d
0.5L0.25S
8. |R _ 1.0DC
1
whereCisanyoneoIthecraneloadcombinationsC
2
toC
6
IromTable2.2.
Loads D, L, S, W and E are loads defned in the National Building Code oI Canada (NBCC) issued by the
CanadianCommissiononBuildingandFireCodeswiththeexceptionthattheloadLisalltheliveloadsexcluding
loadsduetocranes.Notes(1)through(9)oItable4.1.3.2.BoIthe2010NBCCshallapplytotheIactoredload
combinations.
Notes:
1) The combinations above cover the whole steel structure. For design of the crane runway beams in an
enclosed structure for instance, S and W would not normally apply.
2) Crane runway columns and occasionally crane runway beams support other areas with live loads.
3) The effects of factored imposed deformation, 1.25T, lateral earth pressure, 1.5H, factored pre-stress, 1.0P,
shall be considered where they affect structural safety.
4) The earthquake load, E, includes earthquake-induced horizontal earth pressures.
5) Crane wheel loads are positioned for the maximum effect on the element of the structure being considered.
6) The basic NBCC load factors shown above are in accordance with information available at the time of
publication of this document. The designer should check for updates.
7) Note that the NBCC requires that for storage areas the companion load factor must be increased to 1.0.
8) Side thrust due to cranes need not be combined with full wind load.
8
CHAPTER 3 - DESIGN FOR REPEATED LOADS
3.1General
The most signifcant diIIerence between ordinary industrial buildings and those structures that support cranes is
therepetitiveloadingcausedbycranes.Steelstructuresthatsupportcranesandhoistsrequirespecialattention
tothedesignandthedetailsoIconstructioninordertoprovidesaIeandserviceablestructures,particularlyas
relatedtoIatigue.TheIatigueliIeoIastructurecanbedescribedasthenumberoIcyclesoIloadingrequired
to initiate and propagate a Iatigue crack to fnal Iracture. For more detailed inIormation, see Demo and Fisher
(1976), Kulak and Grondin (2009), Fisher, Kulak and Smith (1997), Fisher and Van de Pas (2002), Millman
(1996),ReemsnyderandDemo(1998)andRicker(1982).
The vast majority oI crane runway beam problems, whether welded or bolted, are caused by Iatigue cracking
oIwelds,boltsandparentmetal.Problemshavenotbeenrestrictedtothecranerunwaybeams,however.For
example, trusses or joists that are not designed Ior repeated loads Irom monorails or underslung cranes have
Iailed due to unaccounted-Ior Iatigue loading. For all crane service classifcations, the designer must examine the
structuralcomponentsanddetailsthataresubjectedtorepeatedloadstoensurethestructurehasadequateIatigue
resistance.MemberstobecheckedIorIatiguearememberswhoselossduetoIatiguedamagewouldadversely
aIIecttheintegrityoIthestructuralsystem.
AsgiveninS16-09,Clause26,theprincipalIactorsaIIectingtheIatigueperIormanceoIastructuraldetailare
consideredtobethenatureoIthedetail,therangeoIstresstowhichthedetailissubjected,andthenumberoI
cyclesoIaload.ThesusceptibilityoIdetailstoIatiguevariesand,Iorconvenience,Clause26,incommonwith
Iatigue requirements in standards worldwide, specifes a limited number oI detail categories. For each category
therelationshipbetweentheallowableIatiguestressrangeoIconstantamplitudeandthenumberoIcyclesoI
loadingisgiven.ThesearetheS-N(stressvs.numberoIcycles)curves.
Two methods oI assessing crane-supporting structures Ior Iatigue have developed. Historically, at least Ior
structures with relatively heavy crane service, the frst oI these was to classiIy the structure by 'loading condition
asrelatedtothecraneservice.Section3.4.1coversthis.Whilethishasworkedreasonablywell,thisapproachhas
twoshortcomings.First,thenumberoIcycles,bypigeon-holingthestructure,maybesetsomewhattoohighas
relatedtotheserviceliIeoIthestructureinquestion,andsecond,onlythemaximumstressrangeisconsidered.
Thesecond,morerecent,approachistoassessthevariousrangesoIstressandcorrespondingnumbersoIcycles
towhichthedetailissubjectedandtotrytodeterminethecumulativeeIIectusingthePalmgren-Minerruleas
giveninSection3.3.2.Thiscanbeadvantageous,especiallyinexaminingexistingstructures.
TheassessmentoIthenumberoIcyclesnNrequirescareasanelementoIthestructuremaybeexposedtoIewer
or more repetitions than the number oI crane liIts or traverses along the runway. For example, iI out-oI-plane
bending is exerted on a crane runway beam web at its junction with the top fange by a rail which is oII-centre,
a signifcant repetitive load occurs at every wheel passage and the number oI cycles is 'n times the number oI
cranepassagesNwherenisthenumberoIwheelsontherail,percrane.Also,Iorshort-spancranerunway
beamsdependingonthedistancesbetweenthecranewheels,onepassoIthecranecanresultinmorethanone
loadingcycleonthebeam,particularlyiIcantileversareinvolved.Ontheotherhand,whenthecraneliItsand
traverses are distributed among several bays, a particular runway beam will have Iewer repetitions than the
numberoIliIts.ForadditionaldiscussionoIcrane-structureinteraction,seeSection5.2.
Theprovisionshereapplytostructuressupportingelectricallyoperated,toprunning,overheadtravellingcranes
(commonlyreIerredtoasEOTs),underslungcranes,andmonorails.Light-dutycranesupportstructures,where
componentsaresubjectedtonotmorethan20000cyclesoIrepeatedloadandwherehighrangesoIstressin
Iatiguesusceptibledetailsarenotpresent,neednotbedesignedIorIatigue.
ItisnecessarytoevaluatetheeIIectoIrepeatedcraneloadingsbeIoreconcludingthatIewerthan20000cyclesoI
loadingwilloccur.ReIerringtoTable3.3and3.4,andSection3.4.3,evensupportingstructuresIorCraneService
Classifcation A could require consideration oI somewhat more than 20 000 Iull cycles oI repeated load.
3.2 Exclusion for Limited Number of Cycles
Clause26.3.5oIS16-09presentsthesituationwhenthenumberoIstressrangecyclesoIloadingislimitedand
IatigueisthereIorenotlikelytobeaproblem.First,Iatigue-sensitivedetailswithhighstressranges,likelywith
9
stressreversals,areexcludedIromtheseprovisionsandshouldbeinvestigatedIorIatigueinanycase.Second,the
requirementsoIClause26.1thatthememberandconnectionbedesigned,detailed,andIabricatedtominimize
stressconcentrationsandabruptchangesincrosssectionaretobemet.Onlythen,iIthenumberoIcyclesisless
thanthegreateroItwocriteria,20000or f
sr
3
c isnoIatiguecheckrequired.Thedetailcategorymaydetermine
thelimit.Forexample,IordetailcategoryE,IromTable10,theIatigueliIeconstant,J 36110
9
MPaand,
say,calculationsgiveaIatiguestressrange,
sr
210MPa.HencethesecondcriterionyieldsalimitoI39000
cycles.ThereIore,thelimitoI39000cyclescontrolsandiIthedetailissubjecttoIewerthan39000cycles,no
Iatiguecheckisnecessary.
3.3 Detailed Load-Induced Fatigue Assessment
3.3.1 General
Clause26.3.2oIS16-09givesthedesigncriterionIorload-inducedIatigueasIollows:
F
sr
_ ]
sr
where

sr
calculatedstressrangeatthedetailduetopassageoItheIatigueload
F
sr
Iatigueresistance
F
/
srt
1 3
$ =
h
c
M
e o
J IatigueliIeconstant,seeClause26.3.4
K = numberoIstressrangecyclesatgivendetailIoreachapplicationoIload
N numberoIapplicationsoIload
F
srt
= constantamplitudethresholdstressrange,seeClauses26.3.3and26.3.4.
AbovetheconstantamplitudeIatiguethresholdstressrange,theIatigueresistance(intermsoIstressrange)is
consideredtovaryinverselyasthenumberoIstressrangecyclestothe1/3power.RearrangingtheexpressionIor
theIatigueresistance,thenumberoIcyclestoIailureis:
N F
sr
3
= h c
Accordingly the number oI cycles to Iailure varies inversely as the stress range to the third power. Below the
constantamplitudeIatiguethresholdstressrange,thenumberoIcyclestoIailurevariesinverselyasthestress
range to the fIth power.
TheeIIectoIlowstressrangecycleswillusuallybesmalloncrane-supportingstructuresbutshouldbeinvestigated
nonetheless.ItrequirestheadditionoIasecondtermtotheequivalentstressrange(seeSection3.3.3)wherethe
valueoImis5Iortherelevantlowstressrangecycles.
AsstatedinSection2.4,adeadloadisasteadystateanddoesnotcontributetostressrange.However,thedead
loadstressmaycausethestressrangetobeentirelyincompressionandthereIoreIavourableorwhollyorpartly
intensionandthereIoreunIavourable.Inthisregard,webmembersoItrussessubjectedtoliveloadcompressive
stressesmaycycleintensionwhenthedeadloadstressistensile.Thisconditionmayalsoapplytocantileverand
continuousbeams.Ontheotherhand,thecompressivestressesduetodeadloadincolumnsmayoverridethe
tensilestressesduetobendingmoments.
ForadditionalinIormationonanalysisoIstresshistorieswherecomplexstressvariationsareinvolved,seeFisher,
KulakandSmith(1997),andKulakandGrondin(2009).
10
3.3.2 Palmgren -Miner Rule
ThetotalorcumulativedamagethatresultsIromIatigueloading,notappliedatconstantamplitude,byS16-09
mustsatisIythePalmgren-MinerRule:
.
N
N
1 0
fi
i
#
h _ i
> H
!
where:
N
i
h _ i numberoIexpectedstressrangecyclesatstressrangeleveli.
N

numberoIcyclesthatwouldcauseIailureatstressrangei.
Inatypicalexample,thenumberoIcyclesatloadlevel1is208000andthenumberoIcyclestocauseIailure
atloadlevel1is591000.ThenumberoIcyclesatloadlevel2is104000andthenumberoIcyclestocause
Iailureatloadlevel2is372000.ThetotaleIIectordamageoIthetwodiIIerentstressrangesis
3.3.3 Equivalent Stress Range
ThePalmgren-Minerrulemayalsobeexpressedasanequivalentstressrange.

e i i
m
1
m
= v a v D D 8 B !

where:

e
v D theequivalentstressrange

i
a =
N
fi
i
hM _ i

i
v D thestressrangeleveli.
m 3Iorstressrangesatorabovetheconstantamplitudethresholdstressrange.Forstressranges
belowthethreshold,m5.
For example, iI the stress range at level 1 in the above example is 188 MPa and the stress range at level 2 is
219MPa,thentheequivalentstressrangeis
MPa
312 000
208 000
188
312 000
104 000
219 200
3 3
1
3
. + c
^
c
^
m
h
m
h
< F
AcalculationoIthenumberoIcyclestoIailure(seeSection3.3.1)andwhereJ = 393010
9
gives491000cycles.
SincetheactualnumberoIcyclesis312000,thepercentageoIliIeexpended(damage)is(312000/491000)
10064.Thisisessentiallythesameresultasin3.3.2(equivalentstressrangewasroundedoII).
. < . OK
591000
208 000
372 000
104 000
0 63 1 0 + =
11
3.3.4 Equivalent Number of Cycles
For a particular detail on a specifc crane runway beam, the cumulative Iatigue damage ratio can be assessed
consideringthat:
(1) thedetailhasauniqueIatigueliIeconstantaslistedinTable10oIS16-09,
(2) thestressrangeisproportionaltotheload,
(3) thenumberoIcyclesatthedetail,nN,isproportionaltothenumberoIcyclesoIloadonthecrane
runwaybeam,N,
(4) aboveandbelowtheconstantamplitudeIatiguethresholdstressrangethenumberoIcyclestoIailure
variesinverselyasthestressrangetothe3
rd
and5
th
power,respectively.
TheequivalentnumberoIcyclesatthehigheststressrangelevel,N
e
,whereN
m
isthenumberatthehigheststress
rangelevel,IorcyclesabovetheconstantamplitudeIatiguethresholdstressrange,is
/ N N C C
m i i m
3
+ ^ h 8 B
!
whereC
m
andC
i
aretherespectiveproportionalconstantsoIthestressrangesatthemaximumstressrangelevel
andthestressrangelevel,respectively,tothecrane-inducedload.ForcyclesbelowtheconstantamplitudeIatigue
threshold stress range, similar terms are developed based on the fatter, 1/5 slope oI the S-N diagram. Many cycles
belowtheconstantamplitudeIatiguethresholdstressrangedocauseIatiguedamage,albeitatareducedrate.
FortheexampleinSection3.3.3,theequivalentnumberoIcyclesatthehigheststressrangelevelis
104000208000(188/219)
3
104000131584235584cycles
AcalculationoIthenumberoIcyclestoIailure(seeSection3.3.1)andwhere393010
9
gives374160cycles.
The percentage oI liIe expended (damage) is (235 584 / 374 160) 100 63. This is the same result as in
Section3.3.2.
This approach is useIul Ior relating duty cycle inIormation to class oI service and can be used to simpliIy
calculationsasshowninSection3.5andAppendixA,DesignExample2.
3.3.5 Fatigue Design Procedure
TherecommendedprocedureIordesignIorIatigueisasIollows:
ChoosedetailsthatarenotsusceptibletoIatigue.
Minimize defections and distortions within limits oI costs and practicability.
Avoidunaccounted-Iorrestraints.
Avoidabruptchangesincrosssection.
MinimizerangeoIstresswherepracticable.
AccountIoreccentricitiesoIloadssuchasmisalignmentoIcranerails.
ExaminecomponentsanddetermineIatiguecategories.
CalculatestressrangesIoreachdetail.
CalculateIatiguelivesIoreachdetail.
Compare the Iatigue liIe oI the details to the results obtained Irom the detailed load-induced Iatigue
assessment.
AdjustthedesignasnecessarytoprovideadequateresistancetoIatigue
12
3.4 Classication of Structure
3.4.1 General
To provide an appropriate design oI the crane-supporting structure, the Owner must provide suIfciently detailed
inIormation, usually in the Iorm oI a duty cycle analysis or results thereoI. While the structure designer may
provide input to a duty cycle analysis, the basic time and motion analysis should be done by plant operations
personnel.AdutycycleanalysisoIinteresttothestructuredesignershouldyieldthespectrumoIloadingcycles
Iorthestructuretakingintoaccountsuchitemsas:
numbers oI cranes, including Iuture use,
total number oI cycles Ior each crane, by load level,
the distribution oI the above cycles Ior each crane over the length oI the runway and along the length oI the
bridgeoIthecrane(s).
ThenumberoIcyclesoIloading,byloadlevel,canthereIorebedeterminedIorthecriticallocationandIorall
otherelementsoIthestructure.
InthepastitwassomewhatcommonIordesignerstoclassiIythestructurebasedonrangesoInumberoIcycles
atIullload.InsomereIerences(Fisher2004,AISE2003,CMAA2010,MBMA2006)thiswasassociatedwith
a"loadingcondition".SomeoIthesereIerences(Fisher2004,FisherandVandePas2002,andMBMA2006)
provideinIormationonrelatingtheloadingconditiontoclassoIcraneservice.Adutycycleanalysiswasdoneto
theextentrequiredtoassesswhichoIseveralloadingconditionswasmostsuitable.
New Iatigue provisions are based on working with actual numbers oI cycles and require consideration oI
cumulativeIatiguedamage.ThereIoretheloadingconditionconceptisnolongerrecommended,andisusedonly
IorreIerence.
InorderthatthedesignercandetermineqNIorallstructuralelementssubjecttoIatigueassessment,thedesign
criteriashouldcontainastatementtotheeIIectthatcyclesreIerstocraneloadingcyclesN.
Unless otherwise specifed by the owner, Clause 26.1 oI S16-09 gives a liIe oI 50 years. It is now common Ior
ownerstospeciIyaserviceliIespanoIlessthan50years.
ThissectionoItheguideprovidesmethodsoIclassiIyingthecrane-supportingstructure,describespreparationoI
thestructuredesigncriteriaIorIatigue,anddescribesIatiguedesignprocedure.
&UDQH6HUYLFH&ODVVLFDWLRQ
Crane service classifcations as given in CSA B167-96 closely resemble the same classifcations oI the Crane
ManuIacturer`s Association oI America (CMAA). LiIting capacity is not restricted in any classifcation and there
is a wide variation in duty cycles within each classifcation. For instance, number oI liIts per hour does not
necessarily suggest continuous duty and may be more relevant to rating oI electrical gear than to structural
design.Weaver (1985) provides additional inIormation on the operation oI several types oI crane service and
notes that the service classifcation may diIIer Ior the diIIerent components oI a crane. The main hoist, auxiliary
hoist, and bridge may have three diIIerent classifcations.
BridgespeedsvaryIrom0.2m/sec(usuallymassivecranesinpowerhouses)to2m/sec(usuallylowercapacity
cab-operatedindustrialcranes),toasmuchormorethan5m/secinsomeautomatedinstallations.
TherearemanymorecranesoIClassesAandB,usedIorlighterduty,thanheavy-dutycranesoIClassesD,Eand
F.ClassCcranesoImoderateservicemayinsomecasesbeincludedinthislighterdutycategory.Foradditional
inIormation,seeTable3.1.
Lighter duty cranes may be pendant, cab, or radio controlled.While Iatigue must be considered, many oI the
problemsassociatedwiththeirsupportingstructuresareduetopoordesigndetails,looseconstructiontolerances
and unaccounted-Ior Iorces and defections. Examples oI poor details are welding runway beams to columns and
brackets and inappropriate use oI standard beam connections. ReIer to the fgures Ior other examples. Regarding
Table2.1,thedesignermustdecide,aIterassessingthedesigncriteria(seeChapter7),whichoIthethreelighter
dutycranetypesshouldapply.
For chain-operated cranes, because oI the slow (usually less than 1 m/sec hoisting, trolley and bridge speed)
nature oI the operation the number oI cycles expected are not suIfcient to warrant design Ior Iatigue.
13
Portions oI the classifcations relevant to the supporting structure are given here. The service classifcation is
basedontheIrequencyoIuseoIthecraneandthepercentageoItheliItsatornearratedcapacity.
Class A (Standby or Infrequent Service)
Thiscoverscranesusedininstallationssuchaspowerhouses,publicutilities,turbinerooms,motorrooms,
andtransIormerstations,whereprecisehandlingoIequipmentatslowspeedswithlong,idleperiodsbetween
liIts is required. Hoisting at the rated capacity may be done Ior initial installation oI equipment and Ior
inIrequentmaintenance.
Class B (Light Service)
Thiscoverscranesusedinrepairshops,lightassemblyoperations,servicebuildings,lightwarehousing,or
similarduty,whereservicerequirementsarelightandthespeedisslow.LoadsmayvaryIromnoloadto
occasionalIull-ratedloads,with2-5liItsperhour.
Class C (Moderate Service)
This covers cranes used in machine shops or paper mill machine rooms, or similar duty, where service
requirementsaremoderate.Thecraneswillhandleloadsthataverage50oItheratedcapacity,with5-10
liIts/hour,withnotover50oItheliItsatratedcapacity.
Class D (Heavy Service)
Thiscoverscranesthatmaybeusedinheavymachineshops,Ioundries,Iabricatingplants,steelwarehouses,
containeryards,lumbermills,orsimilarduty,andstandard-dutybucketandmagnetoperationswhereheavy-
dutyproductionisrequired.Loadsapproaching50oItheratedcapacityarehandledconstantlyduringthe
workingperiod.HighspeedsaredesirableIorthistypeoIservice,with10-20liIts/hour,withnotover65
oItheliItsatratedcapacity.
Class E (Severe Service)
This requires cranes capable oI handling loads approaching the rated capacity throughout their liIe.
Applicationsmayincludemagnet,bucket,andmagnet/bucketcombinationcranesIorscrapyards,cement
mills,lumbermills,Iertilizerplants,containerhandling,orsimilarduty,with20ormoreliIts/houratornear
theratedcapacity.
Class F (Continuous Severe Service)
ThisrequirescranescapableoIhandlingloadsapproachingratedcapacitycontinuouslyundersevereservice
conditions throughout their liIe. Applications may include custom-designed specialty cranes essential to
perIorming the critical work tasks aIIecting the total production Iacility. These cranes must provide the
highestreliability,withspecialattentiontoease-oI-maintenanceIeatures.
The load spectrum, refecting the actual or anticipated crane service conditions as closely as possible, may be
used to establish the crane service classifcation. The load spectrum (CMAA 2010) leads to a mean eIIective load
Iactor applied to the equipment at a specifed Irequency. Properly sized crane components are selected based on
themeaneIIectiveloadIactoranduseasgiveninTable3.1adaptedIromCMAA(2010).
Fromtheloadspectrum(CMAA2010),themeaneIIectiveloadIactoris:
k W P
i i
3
3
= !

where:
k MeaneIIectiveloadIactor(usedtoestablishcraneserviceclassonly).
W
i
Loadmagnitude;expressedasaratiooItheliItloadtotheratedcapacity.LiItsoIthehoisting
gearwithouttheliItedloadmustbeincluded.
P
i
The ratio oI cycles under the liIt load magnitude condition to the total number oI cycles.
P
i
1.0
14
Forexample,iIIrom100000liIts,10000areatIullcapacity,70000areat30oIcapacity,and20000areat
10oIcapacity,then:
. . . . . . . k 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 7 0 1 0 2 0 492
3 3 3
3
# # # = + + =
Table 3.1 shows a defnition oI Crane Service Class in terms oI Load Class and use. Note that this table does not
necessarilydescribethecrane-carryingstructure.
Table3.1
Crane Service Classication based on k.
k Mean Effective
LoadFactor
Use
Irregular
occasional
use followed
by long idle
periods
Regular use
of
intermittent
operation
Regular use
in
continuous
operation
Regular use
insevere
continuous
operation
_ 0.53 A* B* C D
0.531k _ 0.67 B* C* D E
0.671k _ 0.85 C D D F
0.85k _ 1.00 D E F F
* Generally fts the light-duty category oI service.
3.4.3 Number of Full Load Cycles Based on Class of Crane
ThenumberoIIullloadcyclesIromtheCMAAIatiguecriteriaIorcranedesignislistedinTable3.2.
Thesecriteriacannotbeapplieddirectlytoasupportingstructure.Issuesthatmustbeconsideredare:
(a)spanlengthsoIthesupportingstructurecomparedtothecranewheelspacing.
(b)thenumberoIspansoverwhichthecraneoperates.Forinstance,iIthecraneoperatesrandomlyoverx
spans,theequivalentnumberoIIullloadcyclesIoreachspanmightbemorelikethenumberoIcycles
above,dividedbyx.Ontheotherhand,inaproductiontypeoperation,eachspanononesideoIthe
runwaymaybesubjectedtoalmostthesamenumberoIIullloadcyclesasthecraneisdesignedIoriIthe
cranetravelsthelengthoItherunwayIullyloadedeachtime.
(c)thenumberoIcranes.
(d)overorunderutilizationoIthecranewithrespecttoitsclass.
15
For Class oI Crane ServiceA, B, or C where the liIting operation is randomly distributed along the length oI
therunwaybeamsandacrossthecranebridge,itissuggestedthatthenumberoIcyclesoIloadingoIvarying
amplitudeIorcomponentsoIthecrane-supportingstructurecanbeestimatedasthenumberoIIullloadcyclesIor
theclassoIcranedividedbythenumberoIspansandmultipliedbythenumberoIcranes,Iurtherprovidedthat
theliIeoItherunwayisthesameastheliIeoIthecrane.
Table3.2
CMAA Number of Full Load Cycles by Class of Crane
Class of Crane Number of Thousands of Full Load Cycles
A 100
B 200
C 500
D 800
E 2000
F ~2000
Table3.3
Ranges of Existing Suggestions for Cycles for Design of Crane-supporting Structures
Class of Crane Number of Thousands of Full Load Cycles
A 0to100
B 20to100
C 20to500
D 100to2000
E 500to2000
F Greaterthan2000
ThebasisoIselectingthesenumbersisnotexplainednorisitevidentwhetherthesearethetotalnumberoIcyclesorthe
equivalentnumberoIIullcycles(seeSection3.3.3).
16
Forinstance,therunwayIoranewClassCcrane,5spans,wouldbedesignedIor100000cycles.
ThesuggestednumbersoIcyclesIorthedesignoIthecrane-supportingstructureasaIunctionoItheclassoI
cranevarywidelyamongthesources.ThebasisoItherecommendationsisnotclear.Fisher(2004),Fisherand
VandePas(2001),andMBMA(2006)givethevaluesshowninTable3.3.
Table3.4presentstherecommendednumberoIcyclesIorthedesignoIthecrane-supportingstructurebasedon
the structural class oI service, itselI derived Irom the crane service classifcation. The numbers were determined
bydutycycleanalysesaspresentedinSection3.4.4.ExamplesoItheanalysesaregiveninSection3.5.Nis
defned as Iull load cycles. Each Iull load cycle can exert nN cycles on the supporting structure. To diIIerentiate
Irom the crane, the class oI service Ior the crane-supporting structure will be prefxed with S.
BycomparingtherecommendednumberoIcyclesinTable3.4tothenumberoIcyclesIorthecraneinTable3.2,
it appears that Ior this approach to structural classifcation, the structural class oI service should be 20 oI the
IullloadcyclesIorcraneClassesA,BandC,and50IorcraneClassesD,EandF.
The inIormation inTable 3.4 is not meant to take the place oI a duty cycle analysis Ior the installation being
investigated.
3.4.4 Fatigue Loading Criteria Based on Duty Cycle Analysis
AsdiscussedinSections3.4.1and3.4.3,adutycycleanalysisIoroneormorecraneswillyieldthespectrum
oIloadingcyclesIorthecrane-supportingstructure.NotethatonlytheresultsoIthedutycycleanalysisthatare
oI interest to the structure designer are shown herein.To determine the location oI the critical element oI the
structureanditsloadingspectrumrequiresatimeandmotionstudybeyondthescopeoIthisdocument.Weaver
(1985)andMillman(1996)provideexamplesoIdutycycleanalyses.
Table3.4
Recommended Number of Cycles for Design of the Crane-supporting Structure
Structural Class
of Service
Recommended
a
Number of Thousands of Full Load Cycles, N
SA 20
SB 40
SC 100
SD 400
SE 1000
SF Greaterthan2000
b
a UsedasacalibrationoIthesupportingstructure(StructuralClassoIService)toclassoIcraneserviceinChapter4.Asisthe
caseIorthecrane,thesupportingstructurewillwithstandmanymorecyclesoIvaryingamplitudeloading.
b Due to the unlimited Iatigue liIe oI the crane, a duty cycle and analysis is required to defne the Iatigue design criteria.
17
AIter identiIying the critical component oI the structure and the equivalent number oI Iull loading cycles, the
IatiguedesigncriteriaIorthestructurecanbeprepared.
ThisisthemostaccurateandisthepreIerredmethodoIdeterminingtheIatiguedesigncriteria.
3.4.5 Preparation of Design Criteria Documentation
ThestructuralclassoIserviceIorentryintoChecklistTable4.1isdeterminedIromthedutycycleinIormationor
Irompreviousproceduresrelatedtocraneserviceclass.
ReIeralsotoChapter7IorotherinIormationthatshouldbeobtainedIorpreparationoIthedesigncriteria.
3.4.5.1 Fatigue Criteria Documentation Based on Duty Cycle Analysis
ComputeN,theequivalentnumberoIIullloadingcyclesIorthelocationdeemedmostcritical.Thisisthelower
limitoINtobeusedinTable4.1.Forexample,iINiscalculatedtobe500000cycles,gotoStructuralClassoI
ServiceSD.UsetheactualnumbersoIcyclesoIloadingIromthatpointon.ThespectrumoIloadingcyclesIor
thecriticalelementsoIthestructureshouldbeincludedinthedesigncriteria.
ThedesigncriteriastatementIorIatiguedesignmightappearasIollows:
The supporting structure will be designed for cyclic loading due to cranes for the loads as follows:
Load Level, % of Maximum
Wheel Loads
Number of Thousands of Cycles, N*
100 10
75 50
52 100
25 200
* Means number of passes of cranes.
Design for cyclic side thrust loading will be for 50% of each number of cycles above with the corresponding percentage of side
thrust for cyclic loading.
18
3.4.5.2 Criteria Documentation Based on Class of Crane Service (Abbreviated Procedure)
ThedesigncriteriastatementIorIatiguedesignmightappearasIollows:
The supporting structure will be designed for cyclic loading due to cranes for the following loads.
Load Level, % of Maximum
Wheel Loads
Number of Cycles, N*
100 40 000
* Means number of passes of cranes
Design for cyclic side thrust loading will be for 50% of the number of cycles above with the corresponding
percentage of side thrust for cyclic loading.
3.5 Examples of Duty Cycle Analyses
3.5.1 Crane-Carrying Steel Structures Structural Class Of Service SA, SB, SC
A Class C crane operates over several spans (say 5 or 6). In accordance with the CMAA standards, the crane
is designed Ior 500 000 cycles oI Iull load, but only 50 oI the liIts are at Iull capacity.The liIts are evenly
distributedacrossthespanoIthecranebridge.TheoperationalongthelengthoItherunwayhasbeenstudied
andtheconclusionisthatnoonespanoIthesupportingstructureissubjectedtomorethan250000cyclesoIa
cranewithloadand250000cyclesoIanunloadedcrane.TheloadingspectrumIorthecriticalmemberoIthe
supportingstructureisshowninTable3.5.
Table 3.5 - Example Loading Spectrum for Class SA, SB & SC
Percent of Maximum
WheelLoads
Number of Cycles, N Description
100 62500 Fullyloadedcrane
80 62500 *
60 62500 *
40 62500 *
30 250000 Unloadedcrane
*Loadsandtrolleypositionsvary.
19
TheequivalentnumberoIcyclesatIullwheelloadsiscalculatedasIollows:

. . . .
cycles
N 62 500 62 500 0 8 0 6 0 4 250 000 0 3
62 500 49 500 6 750 118 750
3 3 3 3
# = + + + +
= + + =
^ h
ThesupportingstructureshouldbedesignedIor,say,120000Iullcycles.
118750cyclesis24oIthenumberoIcyclesthatthecraneisdesignedIor.
TheabovedutycycleisprobablymoreseverethanmostIortheseclassesoIcranesandthistypeoIoperation,
souse20asthecriterion.ThisshouldserveasaconservativeassessmentIormostapplications.
3.5.2 Crane-Carrying Steel Structures Structural Class of Service SD, SE, SF
A Class D or E crane operates in a well defned production mode over several spans. The crane is designed Ior
2000000cyclesoIIullload.Inadditiontotheloadedcycles,thesupportingstructurewillbesubjectedtoan
equal number oI unloaded cycles. The operation has been studied, the critical member is identifed, and the
conclusionisthattheloadingspectrumIorthecriticalmemberoIthesupportingstructureisasIollows:
TheequivalentnumberoIcyclesatIullwheelloadsiscalculatedasshowninTable3.6.

. . . .
cycles
N 500 000 500 000 0 8 0 6 0 4 2 000 000 0 3
500 000 396 000 54 000 950 000
3 3 3 3
# = + + + +
= + + =
^ h
ThesupportingstructureshouldbedesignedIor,say,1000000Iullcycles.
950000cyclesis48oIthenumberoIcyclesthatthecraneisdesignedIor.
TheabovedutycycleisprobablymoreseverethanmostIortheseclassesoIcranesandthistypeoIoperation.Use
50asthecriterion.ThisshouldserveasaconservativeassessmentIormostapplications.
Table 3.6 - Example Loading Spectrum for Class SD, SE & SF
Percent of Maximum
WheelLoads
Number of Cycles, N Description
100 500000 Fullyloadedcrane
80 500000 *
60 500000 *
40 500000 *
30 2000000 Unloadedcrane
*Loadsandtrolleypositionsvary.
20
CHAPTER 4 - DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION MEASURES CHECKLIST
4.1General
The checklist inTable 4.1, calibrated to structural class oI service (see Section 3.4.3), has been prepared as a
guide Ior the design criteria and construction specifcations. Other sections oI this design guide provide additional
recommendations. Runway beam reIers to the runway beam or girder. Items that may be Iatigue related
have been identifed with an (I), thereIore parts oI the structures subjected to less than 20 000 cycles are not
necessarilyoIconcern.Itemsdesignated"*"arenotusuallyrequired.Thosedesignated are recommended.
ThosedesignatedrarerequiredinordertoprovideastructurethatcanreasonablybeexpectedtoperIormin
a satisIactory manner.A checklist prepared by other engineers experienced in the design oI crane-supporting
structuresmaydiIIer.
Paralleling the requirements oI Clause 4 oI S16-09, it is suggested that beIore fnal design, a design criteria
document should be prepared by the designer oI the structure Ior approval by the owner.As a minimum, this
document should defne the codes and standards, the materials oI construction, the expected liIe oI the structure,
crane service classifcations, loads and load combinations, criteria Ior design Ior Iatigue, and a record oI the
designandconstructionmeasuresselected.Foundationconditionsandlimitationsshouldalsobeincluded.
Table4.1
Design Checklist for Crane-Supporting Steel Structures
Description
Structural Class of Service
OneCraneOnly
SA SB SC SD SE SF
Thousands of Full Loading Cycles
Lower Limit 'N`
20 40 100 400 1000
N
o
t

D
e

n
e
d
Items1to41aregenerallyrelated,butnotlimitedto,analysisanddesign
1. Designdrawingsshouldshowcraneclearances,crane
load criteria including numbers, relative positions,
liIting capacity, dead load oI bridge, trolley and
liItingdevices,maximumwheelloads,bridgespeed,
bumperimpactloadsattheendsoItherunway,and
Iatigue loading criteria Ior vertical and horizontal
crane-induced loads by the criteria determined in
accordancewithSections3.4.5.1or3.4.5.2.
r r r r r r
2. Use oI continuous and cantilevered runway beams
is not recommended without careIul evaluation
oI possible problems due to uneven settlement oI
supports, upliIt, Iatigue, and diIfculty in reinIorcing
orreplacing.
r r r r
21
Table 4.1 continued
Description
Structural Class of Service
OneCraneOnly
SA SB SC SD SE SF
Thousands of Full Loading Cycles
Lower Limit 'N`
20 40 100 400 1000
N
o
t

D
e

n
e
d
3. Brackets should not be used to support crane
beams with unIactored reactions greater than about
250kN.
r r r r r r
4. BuildingandcranesupportcolumnsmadeupoItwo
or more column sections should be tied together to
actintegrally.(I)
* * *
r r r
5. Wherecranecolumnsandbuildingsupportcolumns
arenottiedrigidly,theaxialshorteningoIthecrane-
carryingcolumnsshouldbeaccountedIor.(I).
* *
r r r
6. Where building bents share crane-induced lateral
loads,acontinuoushorizontalbracingsystemshould
beprovidedatorabovethecranerunwaylevel.(I)
r r r r r r
7. Use oI diaphragm action oI rooI deck Ior crane-
induced load sharing between bents not advisable.
(I)
r r r r r r
8. Use oI girts Ior lateral support Ior crane-carrying
columns not advisable unless designed Ior cyclic
loading.ForClassesA,BandC,thisprovisionneed
notapplytothebuildingcolumniIthereisaseparate
crane-carrying column attached to the building
column.(I)
* *
r r r
9. Crane bridge tractive and bumper impact Iorces
should be accounted Ior by the use oI vertical
bracing directly under the runway beams or by
suitable horizontal bracing or diaphragm action to
the adjacent building Irame. The eIIects oI torsion
abouttheverticalaxisoIrigidIramemembersshould
beresistedbybracing.
r r r
10. Use oI tension feld analysis Ior runway beam
webs not advisable unless service loads can be
accommodatedwithoutsuchaction.(I)
r r r r
11.Eccentricities oI crane-induced loads such as rails
not centred within specifed tolerance over beams
belowandweak-axisbendingoncolumnsshouldbe
accountedIor.
r r r r r r
22
Table 4.1 continued
Description
Structural Class of Service
OneCraneOnly
SA SB SC SD SE SF
Thousands of Full Loading Cycles
Lower Limit 'N`
20 40 100 400 1000
N
o
t

D
e

n
e
d
12.Side thrust Irom cranes should be distributed in
proportion to the relative lateral stiIIness oI the
structuressupportingtherails.
r r r r r r
13.Structural analysis should account Ior three-
dimensional eIIects such as distribution oI crane-
inducedlateralloadsbetweenbuildingbents.
r r r r r r
14. Vertical defection oI runway beams under specifed
crane loads, one crane only, not including impact,
shouldnotexceedtheindicatedratiosoIthespan.
r
600
1
r
600
1
r
600
1
r
800
1
r
1000
1
r
1000
1
15. Horizontal defection oI runway beams under
specifed crane loads should not exceed the indicated
ratiosoIthespan.
r
400
1
r
400
1
r
400
1
r
400
1
r
400
1
r
400
1
16. Building Irame lateral defection at runway beam
level Irom unIactored crane loads or Irom the
unIactored 1-in-10-yr wind load should not exceed
the specifed Iractions oI the height Irom column
baseplateor50mm,whicheverisless.
r
240
1
r
240
1
r
240
1
r
400
1
r
400
1
r
400
1
ExceptionsIorpendant-operatedcranesarenoted: ThelesseroI1/100or50mm
17. Relative lateral defection (change in gauge) oI
runwayrailsduetogravityloadsshouldnotexceed
25mm.
r r r r r r
18.EIIect oI temperatures above 150C and below
-30Cshouldbeinvestigated.
r r r
19.Ends oI simply-supported ends oI runway beams
shouldbeIreeoIrestrainttorotationintheplaneoI
the web and Iree Irom prying action on hold down
bolts.(I)
r r r r
23
Table 4.1 continued
Description
Structural Class of Service
OneCraneOnly
SA SB SC SD SE SF
Thousands of Full Loading Cycles
Lower Limit 'N`
20 40 100 400 1000
N
o
t

D
e

n
e
d
20.Wherelateralrestrainttorunwaybeamsisprovided,
the relative movements between the beam and the
supportingstructureshouldbeaccountedIor.(I)
r r r r
21.Complete-joint-penetration welds with reinIorcing
should be provided at runway plate girder web-to-
top-fange connection. (I)
* *
r r r
22. Web and fange splice welds subjected to cyclic loads
shouldbecomplete-joint-penetration.(I)
r r r r r r
23.Electro-slag and electro-gas welding not recom-
mendedIorsplicessubjectedtocyclictensileloads.
(I)
r r r
24. Use oI intermittent fllet welds not advisable Ior
coverplatesorcapchannels,eventhoughalwaysin
compression.(I)
* *
r r r r
25. Runway plate girder web-to-top-fange weld should
becapableoIsupportingalloIthecranewheelload,
distributed through the rail and top fange.
r r r r r r
26.Column cap plates supporting crane runway beams
andsimilardetailsshouldhavecomplete-joint-pene-
tration welds unless contact bearing as defned by 'at
least 70 oI the surIaces specifed to be in contact
shallhavethecontactsurIaceswithin0.2mmoIeach
otherandnoremainingportionoIthesurIacesspeci-
fed to be in bearing contact shall have a separation
exceeding 0.8 mm. Shimming should not be per-
mitted.Alternatively, the welds should be designed
towithstandallimposedstaticandcyclicloads.(I)
* *
r r r
27.RunwaybeamstiIIenersshouldbeadequatelycoped.
Providecomplete-joint-penetrationweldIorstiIIener
to beam top fange. Continuously weld or bolt stiII-
enertotheweb.(I)
* *
r r r
24
Table 4.1 continued
Description
Structural Class of Service
OneCraneOnly
SA SB SC SD SE SF
Thousands of Full Loading Cycles
Lower Limit 'N`
20 40 100 400 1000
N
o
t

D
e

n
e
d
28.Intermediate stiIIeners should be applied in pairs.
(I)
r r r
29.DetailingandinstallationoIcranerailsshouldbein
accordancewithgenerallyacceptedpracticetolimit
wearandtearontherunwayandcranes:
r r r r r r
rails rigidly attached to fanges beneath not
advisable.(I)
r r r r
where the rail is installed by others aIter the runway
beams are in place, the fnal installation should be
inaccordancewiththerecommendationsincluded
herein unless previously agreed to the contrary.
Therunwayshouldbeinspectedandacceptedby
therailinstallerpriortoinstallingrails.
r r r r r r
rail clips should provide lateral restraint to the rail r r r
30.Impact Iactors are applied to crane vertical wheel
loads and should be applied to runway beams and
theirconnectionsandconnectingelements,including
brackets,butexcludingcolumnsandIoundations.
r r r r r r
31.DesignoIrunwaybeamsshouldaccountIorgravity
loadsappliedabovetheshearcentre.
r r r r r r
32.UseoIslip-criticalboltedconnectionsIorconnections
subjected to repeated loads or vibrations required.
(I)
r r r r r r
33.Use oI Iully pretensioned high-strength bolts in all
bracingandrooImembersadvisable.(I)
* *
r r r
34.Use oI snug-tight bolted connections Ior secondary
membersacceptable.(I)
yes yes yes no no no
35.UseoIelastomericrailpadadvisable.(I) * * *
25
Table 4.1 continued
Description
Structural Class of Service
OneCraneOnly
SA SB SC SD SE SF
Thousands of Full Loading Cycles
Lower Limit 'N`
20 40 100 400 1000
N
o
t

D
e

n
e
d
36.RatiooIdepth-to-webthicknessoIcranebeamwebs
shouldnotexceed:(I)
h t
M S
1900
f
#
z
r r r
37.Wherewebcripplingmayoccur,webbearingstresses
should be below yield and avoid the possibility oI
webbuckling.
* *
r r r
38.UseoIrubbernosesonrailclipsadvisable.(I)
* *
r r r
39.UseoIweldedrailsplicesadvisable.(I)
* *
r r r
40. Out-oI-plane fexing oI crane beam webs at termina-
tions oI stiIIeners, diaphragm connections and the
like,shouldbeaccountedIorinthedesign.(I)
* *
r r r
41.Longitudinal struts to columns located below the
cranerunwaybeamsshouldbedesignedIorIatigue
loads due to eIIects oI fexure in the bottom fanges
oItherunwaybeams.(I)
r r r
Items42to53cover,generally,butarenotlimitedto,inspectionandconstruction
42.Removal oI shims beIore grouting base plates rec-
ommended
* * *

43. Web and fange splice welds subjected to cyclic loads
should be ground fush, grinding direction parallel to
directionoIaxialorbendingstress.(I)
* *
r r r
26
Table 4.1 continued
Description
Structural Class of Service
OneCraneOnly
SA SB SC SD SE SF
Thousands of Full Loading Cycles
Lower Limit 'N`
20 40 100 400 1000
N
o
t

D
e

n
e
d
44.Crane beams or trusses oI spans greater than 20 m
shouldbecamberedIordeadloadplus50oIlive
load defection, without impact.
r r r r r r
45.IItopcoverplatesorcapchannelsareused,contact
shouldbemaintainedacrossthesectionaIterwelding.
(I)
* *
r r r
46.StandardsIorInspectionandQualityoIWeldingIor
runwaybeamsandtheirconnectionstothesupporting
structureshouldbeasIollows:
splices in tension areas oI web plates and fanges
should be radiographically or ultrasonically in-
spectedtothedegreeshowninpercent.(I)
15 25 50 100 100 100
web and fange splices in compression areas should
be radiographically or ultrasonically inspected to
thedegreeshowninpercent.
* * *
25 25 50
complete- joint - penetration web- to- fange welds
should be ultrasonically inspected to the degree
showninpercent.(I)
* *
50 100 100 100
fllet welded web-to-fange welds should be 100
inspectedbyliquidpenetrantormagneticparticle
inspection.(I)
r r r r
47.Special procedures Ior maintaining tolerances Ior
shop Iabrication and feld erection oI columns and
cranebeamsrecommended.
* *
r r r
48.Accumulated Iabrication and erection tolerance Ior
centringoIcranerailoversupportingbeamshouldbe
suchthatthecraneraileccentricityshallnotexceed
three-IourthsoIthebeamwebthickness.
r r r r
27
Table 4.1 continued
Description
Structural Class of Service
OneCraneOnly
SA SB SC SD SE SF
Thousands of Full Loading Cycles
Lower Limit 'N`
20 40 100 400 1000
N
o
t

D
e

n
e
d
49.UnlessotherwiseagreedwiththecranemanuIacturer,
centre-to-centredistanceoIcranerailsasconstructed
shouldnotexceedtheindicateddistanceinmmIrom
thetheoreticaldimensionat20C.
r
10
r
10
r
10
r
8
r
6
r
6
50.TopsoIadjacentrunwaybeamendsshouldbelevel
towithinthedistancesshowninmm.
3 3 3 2 2 2
51.Crane runway beam bearings should be detailed,
Iabricated and assembled so that even bearing is
achieved aIter fnal alignment. No gap should exceed
1.0mm.AnyproposalIorshimmingshouldachieve
the required tolerances and should be submitted to
thedesignerIorreview.(I)
* *
r r r
52.Flanges oI crane runway beams, Ior a distance oI
500mm Irom their ends, should not be curved as
viewedincrosssection,andshouldbenormaltothe
webstowithin1mmin300mm.
r r r
53.Ends oI rails at splices should be hardened and
milled.(I)
* *
r r r
4.2 Comments on the Checklist
CommentsonthechecklistinTable4.1aregiveninTable4.2onanitem-by-itembasis.BackgroundinIormation
on most oI the measures can be Iound in the reIerences. The recommendations Ior Crane Service Classifcations A
and B take into consideration at least 20 000 cycles oI loading but because they are defned as inIrequent or light
servicecranes,theyaregenerallylessstringentthanIorClassesCtoF.ThereisawiderangeoIdutycyclesIor
ClassCbutbecausesevereproblemshavenotbeenwidespreadhistorically,therecommendationsaresomewhat
lessseverethanIorClassD.
When measures are correlated to crane service classifcation, it should be noted that the suggested measures have
beencalibratedtoaconceptoIacranerunwayoIseveralspansandwithonecraneoneachrunway.SeeSection
3.4.3Iordetails.
28
Forallclasses,thedesigneroIthestructureshouldadvisetheownerpriortocompletingthedesigniIrecommended
measuresarenotintendedtobeimplemented,alongwithreasons.Fordesign-buildprojects,itisrecommended
that the owner`s specifcation requires that the same inIormation is included in the proposal.
Table4.2
Comments of Checklist for Design of Crane-Supporting Steel Structures
Item Comment
See
Figure
2
Occasionally runway beams are designed as simple span but supplied in lengths that
providecontinuityoversupports.Fisher(2004)andRowswell(1987)provideinIormation
on this topic.The structure designer should consider the eIIect oI settlement oI supports,
particularly Ior underslung cranes. The owner should be made aware oI any proposal to
providecontinuityorcantileverconstruction,andtheimplicationsthereoI.
-
3
TherecommendedmethodIorsupportingcranerunwaybeamsisuseoIsteppedcolumns
with fxed bases. Brackets should be avoided Ior all but the lighter duty cranes and Ior class
oIserviceD,E,andF.
1
4
ThecranerunwaysupportissometimesdesignedasaseparatesetoIcolumns,beams,and
longitudinalbracing,attachedtotheadjacentbuildingsupportcolumnsIorlateralsupport
oItherunwayandtoreducetheunsupportedlengthoIcranerunwaycarryingcolumns.This
isacceptableiIproperlyexecuted,takingintoaccountmovementssuchasshowninFigure
8. However, the interconnecting elements are occasionally subjected to unaccounted-Ior
repeatedIorcesanddistortion-inducedIatigue.FlexibleconnectionsareundesirableIorthe
more severe classifcations oI services.
1
8
5
ReIer also to Item 4. The interconnecting elements and connections may be subject to
distortion-inducedIatigue.
8
6
For light-capacity cranes where building Iraming is relatively rugged, sharing oI loads
between building bents may not be required. Unless it can be shown that without help
IromrooIdiaphragmaction,horizontaldiIIerentialmovementoIadjacentcolumnsdueto
cranesidethrustorcranegravityloadsislessthancolumnspacingdividedby2000,itis
recommendedthatcontinuoushorizontalbracingshouldbeprovidedatrooIlevel.Inthis
way, the roofng material will not be subject to repeated severe diaphragm action.
3
7
ThisitemdoesnotprecludetheuseoImetaldecktoprovidelateralsupporttocompression
fanges oI purlins and top chords oI joists or Ior diaphragm action provided that an eIIective
horizontalbracingsystemIorcraneloadsisinplace.
-
8 Thisrecommendationneednotapplyonlight-dutystructures. -
9 ReIertoFisher(2004)IoradditionalinIormation. -
10
Clause 26.4.2 oI S16-09 places a restriction on the h/w ratio under Iatigue conditions.
Tension-feld analysis is a post-buckling analysis and is not desirable under buckling
distortionIatigueconditions.
-
11 Severaleccentricitiesshouldbeconsidered. 5
29
Table 4.2 continued
Item Comment
See
Figure
13
SomedegreeoIthree-dimensionalanalysisisrequiredtoadequatelyassessloadsinhori-
zontalbracing.ReIertoFisher(2004)andGriggs(1976)IoradditionalinIormation.
3
14/15
Recommended defection limits Ior Items 14 and 15 are consistent with the recommendations
oI the CMAA. Defections are elastic beam defections. DiIIerential settlement oI Ioundations
can cause serious problems and should be limited to 12 mm unless special measures are
incorporated.
-
17
Excessively fexible columns and rooI Iraming members can result in undesirable changes
in rail-to-rail distance, even under crane-induced gravity loads that cause sway oI the
structure. These movements can create crane operational problems and unaccounted-Ior
lateral and torsional loads on the crane runway beams and their supports. Final runway
alignmentshouldbeleItuntilaItertheIulldeadloadoItherooIisinplace.
1
18
For applications where the ambient temperature range lies between 150C and -30C,
structuralsteelmeetingtherequirementsoICSAG40.21grade350Wcanbeexpectedto
perIormadequately.Forserviceatelevatedtemperatures,changesinpropertiesoIthesteel
maywarrantadjustmentoIdesignparameters.Whilenotchtoughnessatlowtemperatures
isoItenrequiredbybridgecodes,thisisnotusuallyarequirementIorcranerunwaybeams,
onereasonbeingtherelativelysmallcostoIreplacementcomparedtoabridgebeam.
-
19
Limiting restraint to rotation and prying action on bolts can oIten be accommodated by
limiting defections and by moving the hold-down bolts Irom between the column fanges
tooutsideasshowninFigures14and18.Thecapplatethicknessshouldbelimitedoruse
oI fnger tight bolts is recommended to minimize prying action on the bolts. Note that the
eccentricityoIverticalloadsshowninFigure18maycauseastateoItensioninthecolumn
fanges. For design Ior Iatigue, large ranges oI stress may have to be considered. Knee brace
strutsshouldnotbeused,inparticularIorclassoIserviceC,D,EandF.
9
14
15
18
20
Wherelateralrestraintisnotprovided,therunwaybeamsshouldbedesignedIorbending
about both the strong and weak axes. See AISC (1993), Rowswell and Packer (1989),
andRowswell(1987).TheuseoIdetailsthatarerigidinout-oI-planedirectionsshouldbe
avoided.S16-01requiresconsiderationoItheeIIectsoIdistortion-inducedIatigue.
13
14
15
16
21
The web-to-fange weld can be subjected to torsional Iorces due to lateral loads applied
at the top oI the rail and rail-to-fange contact surIace not centred over the web beneath,
Ior instance. There is no directly applicable Iatigue category. ReIer to AISE (2003) Ior
additionalinIormation.
5
10
24
Use oI intermittent fllet welds on tension areas oI built-up runway beams is prohibited
by CSA W59. Intermittent fllet welds have shown poor resistance to Iatigue and are
categorically not allowed on dynamically loaded structures by some authorities such as
AISE(2003)andAWS(1999).TheuseoItheseweldsshouldberestrictedtoapplications
whereIatigueisnotaconsideration.
-
30
Table 4.2 continued
Item Comment
See
Figure
26
TherecommendationsIorcontactbearingaresimilartorailroadbridgestandardsandare
morestringentthanIorstaticallyloadedstructures.
9
18
27 ReIer to Fisher (2004). ReIer to fgures Ior details at bottom fange.
16
18
19
29
SquarebarsweldedtothecranerunwaybeambeneathhavebeenusedsuccessIullyIorless
severe applications. Welds Iastening rail bars should be properly sized to resist vertical
loads, shear fow loads, and Iatigue. The eIIects oI induced continuity in otherwise simple
spans should be accounted Ior. Intermittent fllet welds are not allowed in tension areas as
wouldoccuroncontinuousbeams.AmethodtoallowrealignmentoItherailandsupporting
beamshouldbeprovided.Railwaytype,ASCE,orotherrailsoIhardenedmaterialshould
notbeweldedtothesupportingstructureunderanycircumstance.Boltedsplicesshouldbe
staggered.RailsplicesshouldnotoccuroverendsoIbeams.SeeFisher(2004)andAISE
(2003)IormoreinIormationondetailingpractices.Agapshouldbeprovidedbetweenthe
endoItherailandtheendstoptoallowIorthermalmovementoItherail.
13
14
15
16
17
18
30
The designer should review the complete connection that supports the runway beam Ior
Iatigue.ImpactIactorsshouldbeappliedtocantileverbracketsandIorunderslungcranes
andmonorails,toadjacenttrussmembersandconnections.
-
31 ReIertoSection5.9andtheCISCcommentaryonS16-09.
5
6
32
S16-09,Clause22.2.2providesrequirementsIoruseoIpretensionedboltsandslip-critical
connections.SomejudgementonthepartoIthedesignerisrequiredtodeterminewhether
the Iatigue loads warrant slip-critical connections Ior all main and secondary members,
particularlywherestructuralintegritywouldnotbecompromised.Slip-criticalconnections
Ior wind loads or reversals due to wind loads are not normally required. Use oI fnger-tight
bolts with burred threads or welded nuts is not recommended Ior connections subject to
Iatiguebutmaybeconsidered,however,IorlighterdutystructuressuchasshowninFigures
14and15.
-
33
Boltshavecomelooseduetovibrationanddropped,causingnotonlyweakenedconnections,
butalsoasaIetyhazard.
-
34
Snug-tightboltsareacceptableinlight-dutyapplicationsIorrooImembers,girts,andthe
like.
-
35
Elastomeric bearing pads have been shown to reduce noise, increase rail liIe, and reduce
stresses at the web-to-fange junction oI the crane runway beam beneath.
19
36 FromAISE(2003)andS16-09. -
37 SeeItem9. -
31
Table 4.2 continued
Item Comment
See
Figure
38
Rubber nosings have been shown to reduce Iailures oI rail clips due to upliIt Irom bow
waveeIIectwhileatthesametimeresistingupliIt.Rubbernosingsshouldbeusedwith
elastomericrailpads.
19
39
Although rail replacement may be regarded as more diIfcult with welded splices, it can be
argued that replacement should be less Irequent than with bolted splices. Other benefts oI
weldedsplicesincludenoisereduction,impactreductionandreducedwheelwear.Welded
railsplicesshouldbeusedwithelastomericrailpads.Thismeasureprovidescontinuityand
avoidspinchpoints.
-
40 Many Iailures have occurred due to out-oI-plane fexing.
10
19
41
As the bottom fange oI the crane runway beam elongates due to fexure, repeated loads are
imposedonstrutsbeneathit.
9
42
Thereisnogeneralagreement,butshimsleItinplacearereportedtohavecausedsplitting
oItheconcretebeneath.LevellingscrewsarealwaysanoptionandarerecommendedIor
largeloosebaseplates.TheusualmethodoIremovingshimsistoleaveedgesexposedand
pull them aIter the grout has suIfciently cured.
-
43
Only experienced operators should do this work and caution must be exercised to avoid
notchingtheparentmetal,particularlyattapersandchangesinplatethickness.
25
45
Welding oI cap channels to top fanges oIten results in a gap between the channel web and
the fange beneath the crane rail, subjecting the welds to undesirable and unaccounted-Ior
Iorces that can cause premature cracking. The criteria Ior contact should be considered
similartothatcontainedinClause28.5oIS16-09.
-
46
ThisitemshouldbereadinconjunctionwithrequirementsIorweldingdetails.Adiscontinuity
in a continuous fllet weld in areas oI tension or reversal can lead to a Iatigue-induced crack
intheparentmetal.FailureoIanyNDTtestinatensionzoneshouldleadto100testing
oIalltensionareawelds.FailureoIthetestinacompressivezoneshouldresultintesting
doubletherecommendedpercentage.
25
47
See Section 5.27, Fisher (2004),ASCE (2002), andAISE (2003) Ior additional inIorma-
tion.
24
48
TheeIIectoIraileccentricityIromthecentrelineoItherunwaybeamwebbeneathunder
repeatedloadscanleadtoprematureIailureduetounaccounted-Iortorsionalloads.ReIer
toItem21,Section5.28andthereIerencesIormoreinIormation.
5
49
ThistoleranceissubjecttoreviewbythecranemanuIacturerandthestructuredesignerand
maybeincreased,dependingontherail-to-raildistanceandthecranewheeldesign.
24
51 SeeItem26
6
16
18
52 Toprovideproperbearingandtokeepwebsverticalandinline. -
32
CHAPTER 5 - OTHER TOPICS
5.1General
This chapter presents a number oI topics briefy. More detailed inIormation may be Iound in the reIerences cited.
5.2 Crane-Structure Interaction in Mill or Similar Buildings
ObviouslythecraneitselIandthesupportingstructureinteract.Theextenttowhichthestructuraldesignertakesthis
intoaccountisamatteroIjudgement.Thatthecranebridgetiesthetwocranerailstogetherisacknowledgedwhen
thetransverselateralIorcesduetotrolleyaccelerationsortopickingtheloadupnon-verticallyaredistributedto
thetwocranerailsinproportiontothelateralstiIInessoIthesupportingstructure.ItisonlynecessarythatIriction
or the double-fanged wheels transIer these Iorces to the rails. It Iollows that the crane could be considered a part
oI the structure under other load combinations provided only that the Irictional Iorce exceeds the appropriate
specifed or Iactored transverse lateral Iorces depending on the limit state being investigated.
A second Iactor to consider is that the dead weight oI the crane may not be distributed symmetrically either
transversely or longitudinally resulting in heavier wheel loads on one rail than the other or loads distributed
non-uniIormlyalongonerailIromIronttoback.Bethatasitmay,pairsoIcranewheelsareusuallyarticulated
suchthattheverticalloadswithinthepaironasideareequalwhilemultiplearticulationsincreasethenumberoI
wheelswithnominallyequalloads.
Beyondthis,however,thetransversestiIInessoIthecraneendtruckassembliescanaIIectthedistributionoIthe
lateralIorcestotherails.KeepinmindthattheIunctionoIthetruckassembliesistodistributetheloadtothe
wheels.Inbuildingssuchasmillbuildings,heavy-dutycraneswithseveralsetsoIwheelsmayhaveawheelbase
longerthanthebayspacing.ThecranedoesnotsimplyimposeasetoIindependentwheelloadsonthestructure
because the end assembly may have a lateral stiIIness comparable to that oI the crane runway beam. It is not
aquestionoIawindorothersuchload,withnostructurebehindit,whichIollowsthestructureasitdeIorms.
But as the crane runway beam defects the end truck assembly tends to span between the wheels that are acting
againstthehardspots.Whilecommonpracticehasbeenhistoricallynottotakethisintoaccount,theassessment
oI crane-structure interaction particularly when examining existing structures may be benefcial. For example
theendtruckassemblymayinIactsupplysomecontinuityIromspantospanIortransverseloadsevenwhenthe
lateralstiIIeningtrussesarenotcontinuous.
Note7KHDUJXPHQWSUHVHQWHGDERYHDSSOLHVWRVLGHWKUXVWVZKHUHIULFWLRQRUDQJHGZKHHOVPD\JHQHUDWHWKHVKHDU
forces necessary for the two elements being bent to act together.
5.3Clearances
EverycranerequiresoperatingspacethatmustbekeptIreeoIobstructions.ThelayoutoIanindustrialbuildingwith
overheadcranesmustbedevelopedinconjunctionwiththisenvelope.AISE(2003),CMAA(2010),MBMA(2006)
andWeaver(1985)provideblankclearancediagrams.Problemareasthathavebeenencounteredare:
cranesIoulingwithbuildingIramekneebraces,
insuIfcient clearance allowed to the underside oI the rooI structure above, sometimes due to defections
andstructuralconnectionsnotshownonthedesigndrawings,
insuIfcient clearance under crane runway beams,
insuIfcient clearance to Iace oI columns. Weaver (1985) suggests that iI personnel are allowed on the runway,
thenthereshouldbeabout450mmclearancetoIaceoIcolumns,aslittleas25mmiInot.ReIeralsotoowners
saIetystandards,
insuIfcient clearance to the building end wall, resulting in reduced operating space or costly 'doghouse extensions
totheendsoItherunways.
SeeFigure4Iorimportantclearanceconsiderations.ThereIerencescitedabovegiveseveralotherpossibleclearance
considerations.
33
5.4 Methods of Analysis
Attheveryleastsecond-orderelasticmethodsoIanalysisshouldbeusedIorstructurescoveredbythisdesign
guideinkeepingwiththephilosophyoIS16-09.PlasticdesignmethodsarenotrecommendedexceptperhapsIor
rehabilitation studies where aspects such as defection and Iatigue may not control.
UseoIcomputerizedstructuralmodellingwithprovensoItwaretoaccountIorswayeIIects,P-A,insteadoIthe
moreapproximatemethodsoIClause8.7.1oIS16-09arerecommended.CommonlyusedcomputersoItwareis
easilycapableoInotonlydoingsecond-orderelasticanalysis,butbyaddingjointsalongthelengthoIcompression
memberssubjecttobending;theP-oeIIects(Clause13.8.4oIS16-09)aregeneratedalongwiththeP-AeIIects.
Consideration oI these eIIects can be simplifed by judicious structural modelling. The experienced designer
shouldbeabletoisolatecriticalloadcombinationsandthusreducethenumberoIloadcombinationsthatrequire
asecond-orderanalysis.
5.5NotionalLoads
S16-09 requires use oI notional loads to assess stability eIIects (Clause 8.7.2). This approach is somewhat
diIIerentIromAISEandAISCmethodswhereeIIectivelengthsusingthewellknownbutapproximateelastic
Iactor 'K are used. Their use avoids weak beams. Notional loads are fctitious or pseudo-lateral loads, taken
in S16-09 as a small percentage (0.5) oI the Iactored gravity loads at each storey oI the structure. The
translationalloadeIIectsthusgenerated(otherwisetheremightbenolateralload)transIormtheswaybuckling
orbiIurcationproblemtoanin-planestrengthproblem.ThereisnoneedtoconsidereIIectivelengthIactors
greaterthanone.
TheuseoInotionalloadsappliedtoacrane-supportingstructurerequiresconsiderationsbeyondthoseusually
encounteredinresidentialorcommercialconstructionbecauselateralloadsareappliedatthecranerunwaybeam
level. The defnition oI a 'storey Ior an industrial building may be open to interpretation and the concepts oI
eIIectiveandequivalentlengthsasappliedtosteppedcolumnsrequiresstepsintheanalysisanddesignthat
arenotwellcoveredincommonlyuseddesignaids.
MacCrimmonandKennedy(1997)providemoredetailedinIormationandaworkedexampleispresented.See
alsoSection5.6.
5.6 Segmented Columns
Segmented columns may be oI constant or varying (stepped) cross section. Several diIIerent column confgurations
can be used Ior crane-carrying structures (see Fisher 2004 and Galambos 1998). II a member has a constant
crosssectionwithaxialloadsappliedbetweenin-planelateralsupportsorIrameconnections,oriIthemember
crosssectionchangesbetweenin-planelateralsupportsorIrameconnections,ititconsideredtobesegmented.
WheresegmentedcolumnsareusedandwherethecomponentsoIbuilt-upsectionsareconnectedsothattheyact
integrally,theconceptoIequivalentlengthsoIthecolumnsegmentsmaybeappliedandabucklinganalysis
mayberequired.Ziemian(2010)andMacCrimmonandKennedy(1997)providethedesignerwithinIormation
onlimitstatesanalysisanddesignmethods.Fisher(2004)andAISE(2003)containdesignaids.
Section5.5reIerstoaspectsoInotionalloadsthatrequireconsideration.Schmidt(2001)providesanalternative
simplifed method oI analysis oI stepped columns using notional loads, but with cautions that Iurther research is
required.
5.7 Building Longitudinal Bracing
Forlightercranedutyservice,aproperlydesignedsingleplaneoIverticalbracingatthecolumnsshouldprovide
satisIactoryservice.AdecisionwhethertoaddanotherplaneoIverticalbracing,undertherunwaybeams,should
be taken considering the magnitude oI the longitudinal Iorces and the eIIects oI eccentricity in plan. ReIer to
reIerence9IormoreinIormation.ItissuggestedthatwhenthemagnitudeoIlongitudinalIorcesduetotractionor
end stop collision exceed a (specifed) load oI 100 kN, that a second plane oI bracing should be introduced. For
large Iorces, and Ior Crane Service Classifcations C and up, bracing also in the plane oI the crane runway beams
similartothatshowninFigure9isrecommended.
Compared to ordinary industrial buildings, it is even more important in crane-carrying structures subjected to
repeatedloadsthatthelongitudinalbracingbelocatedascloseaspossibletothemidpointbetweenexpansion
jointsorendsoIthebuilding.
34
The interaction oI continuous crane rails that are allowed to 'foat along the length oI the runway and a long
buildingwithexpansionjointsiscomplex.ExperiencehasshownthattheseinstallationsusuallyperIormwell
when temperature fuctuations are not too extreme as is the usual case indoors. The rail might tend to migrate
alongthelengthoItherunway,andadjustmentsmaybenecessary.
FormoreinIormation,seeFisher(2004).
5.8 Building Expansion 1oints
Distance between expansion joints, in general, should not exceed 150 m. Use oI double columns is
recommended over sliding joints, particularly where design Ior Iatigue is required and Ior Crane Service
Classifcations C and up. For more inIormation, see Fisher (2004).
Expansionjointsarenotusuallyprovidedincranerails.ReIeralsotosection5.25.Therailisallowedto
'foat over the joint.
5.9 Mono-symmetric Crane Runway Beams, Lateral-Torsional Buckling
Mono-symmetric sections such as shown in Figure 5 Ior crane runway beams are used not only Ior top
runningcranes,butIormonorailsandunderslungcranesaswell.ThesesectionsoItenhavelonglaterally
unsupportedspans.
CSAStandardS16-09includesprovisionsIoranalysisoIthree-platesections.Othercommonlyusedsections
such as a wide-fange with a cap channel are not specifcally covered. For other singly-symmetric shapes,
arationalmethodoIanalysisshallbeused.TheCommentaryreIerstoZiemian(2010).The2010edition
oI the AISC Specifcation Ior Structural Steel Buildings and Trahair (2011) provide additional inIormation.
Additionally, practical and theoretical aspects oI crane runway beams that are mono-symmetric (I-shaped
beamswithchannelcaps,Iorinstance)areaddressedbyElliIritandLue(1998),Ziemian(2010),Johnson
andLaman(2010),Laman(1996),LueandElliIrit(1993),SalmonandJohnson(1996),Trahair(2011)and
TremblayandLegault(1996).
Toprunningcranesapplyloadstothecranerunwaybeamsabovetheshearcentre(seeFigure5),thereby
reducing resistance to lateral-torsional buckling. Additionally, side thrust is applied at or above the top
fange level, generating a torsional moment on the section.
AproblemoIconcernisthattorsionaleIIectsduetoaccidentaleccentricitiesasshowninFigure5(seealso
5.11) are not well defned and experience must be relied upon. To account Ior the above, designers use a
procedure known as the fexure analogy (see Figure 6) whereby the top fange is designed to resist all lateral
loads and the bottom fange assists in resisting torsional loads. The compressive stress due to the warping
component is the most important quantity and the shear stress contributions are not oI much signifcance.
The infuences oI the warping section constant C
w
,theSt-VenanttorsionconstantJ, also the infuence oI
weldingdetails,areaddressedbyTremblayandLegault1996.
Regardless oI the degree oI investigation oI the eIIects oI torsion, lateral-torsional buckling must be
considered.TheprocedureIordoublysymmetricalI-shapedsectionsisgiveninS16-09.Thesecalculations
involve the quantities C
w
, J, and the coeIfcient oI mono-symmetry |. Fisher (2004) and ElliIrit and Lue
(1998)provideuseIulrecommendationsandexamples.ValuesIorC
w
Iorbeamswithcapchannelscanbe
IoundinFisher(2004),andLueandElliIrit(1993).ApproximationsoIbuilt-upbeammomentresistances
IorvaryingunbracedlengthsareprovidedbyJohnsonandLaman(2010)andLaman(1996)alongwitha
FortranprogramtogeneratemomentcapacitiesIorthesesections.
Sections other than beams with cap channels are oIten used. To aid in calculating section properties, the
CISC has made available on its website a design aid Ior determining torsional section properties oI steel
shapes. Calculations Ior a W section with a continuously welded cap plate instead oI a cap channel are
similar to those Ior a single fange plate oI similar area and moment oI inertia in the y-y axis.
35
AdesignmethodinaccordancewithS16-09IollowsandisusedinAppendixA,DesignExample1.
5.9.1 Design Method
ArationalmethodIorcalculatingtheIactoredmomentresistanceoIalaterallyunsupportedbeam,similartothe
methodproposedbyElliIrittandLue(1998)andinaccordancewithS16-09isasIollows:
ReIerringtothetypicalmomentresistance
diagram above Ior unbraced lengths, the
portion oI the curve Ior the intermediate
orinelasticrangeisreasonablyclosetoa
straight line. S16-09 uses a straight line
transition Irom the elastic buckling curve
atM
u
= M
yr
, L = L
yr
to M
u
= M
p
, L = L
p
.
Establish the class oI section in bending
anddetermineiIthelimitingstrengthmay
begovernedbytheyieldstressorbylocal
fange or web buckling.
For

L L M M
u u p
= , (plasticregion)
For

L L L
u yr
< (inelasticregion)
The unIactored moment resistance Ior
simply supported beams under uniIorm
moment,loadedattheshearcentre,canbe
determinedbytheIollowingIormula:

M
M M M
L L
L L
M
r
p p yr
u
yr u
p

=
( )

(
(

For L L M M
yr r u
> = , (elasticregion)
NotethatL
yr
cannotbecalculateddirectlyandmustbesolvedbytrialanderroriterationuntiltheunbracedlength
usedintheIormulaIorM
u
producesamomentM
u
M
yr
.ThatlengthisthenL
yr
.
The general Iormula Ior M
u
, the critical elastic moment oI the unbraced mono-symmetric beam, is given in
S16-09,Clause13.6(e)(ii):

M
EI
L
GJ L
EI
C
I
u
y
x x
y
w
y
= + + +
|
\

|
.
|
|

(
(

3
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
Moment resistance for unbraced length L
plastic inelastic elastic
M
yr
M
p
L
u
L
yr
36
|
x
,C
w
andJcanbecalculatedusinginIormationIromtheTechnicalResourcesattheCISCwebsiteIorcalculating
torsionalsectionalproperties.ReIeralsotoDesignExample1,step12.
M
yr
0.7S
x
F
y
withS
x
takenasthesmalleroIthetwopotentialvalues
L
yr
lengthLobtainedbysettingM
u
M
yr

L r E F
r
F
u t y
t
y
= = 1 1
490
.
where:

r
b
h w
b t
t
c
c
c c
=
+
|
\

|
.
|
12 1
3
where:
h
c
depthoIthewebincompression
b
c
width oI compression fange
t
c
thickness oI compression fange
5.10 Biaxial Bending
CranerunwaybeamssubjecttobiaxialbendingareproportionedinaccordancewithClause13.8.3oIS16-09,
whichwhentheaxialcompressioniszero,gives

M
M
M
M
fx
rx
fy
ry
+ 1 0 .
ThecapacityoIthememberisexaminedIor
(a)overallmemberstrength,and
(b)lateral-torsionalbucklingstrength.
It is noted that this Iormulation requires lateral-torsional buckling about the strong axis to be considered as
appropriateandallowsinelasticactiontobeconsideredprovidedthatthewidth-thicknessratiosoItheelements
are suIfciently stocky.
SeeAppendixA,DesignExamples1and2.
37
5.11 Heavy Construction
AcommonlyencountereddetailinvolvingwhatiscommonlyreIerredtoasanapronplateisshowninFigure
7,alongwithrecommendationsbasedonS16-09.ThedesignershouldreIeralsotoClause11.2andTable2oI
S16-09IorcriteriaIormaximumwidth-to-thicknessratios.ThedesignoIsuchmembersIorhorizontalstrengthis
usuallydonebyrationalanalysisiIthesectionthatresistslateralIorcesisoIreasonabledepth(sayaboutspan/15
minimum)andcanIunctionasaweb-horizontalbeam.SeeDesignExample2inAppendixA.
WebcripplingandyieldingunderconcentratedwheelloadsiscoveredinS16-09,Clause14.3.2.Inaccordance
withAISE2003andCMAA2010,theconcentratedwheelloadisdistributedat1:1IromthetopoItherailtothe
contactsurIaceatthetopoIthebeam.CanadianpracticeandthecalculationinExample2suggestthataslopeoI
2.5Hto1Visappropriate.
ReIerringtoFigure5,craneloadeccentricitiescancauselocalout-oI-planebendingintheweb.Anexactanalysis
is complex. DIN,Australian Standards, and work by Cornell University address this topic. Rowswell (1987)
notesthatAISEdoesnottakeintoaccountthewheelloadactingoIIthecentreoItheweb,orthetiltoIthebeam
section, accounting Ior these and other eccentricities by use oI the fexure analogy. Experience in the industry is
that use oI the fexure analogy generally provides satisIactory results Ior commonly used rolled beam sections.
Problems, usually cracked welds, have occurred in plate girder sections, particularly where webs are fllet welded
to top fanges and where Iatigue becomes a Iactor. Good results have been achieved using complete-joint-
penetration welds with reinIorcing Ior the web-to-fange connection.
ItisrecommendedthatlocaltorsionaleIIectsbeexaminedIorweldedsections.SeeAppendixA,DesignExample
2Iortypicalcalculations.
Forcranerunwaybeams,includingweldedsections,itisnotcommonpracticetocheckinteractionoIout-oI-plane
eIIects and principal stresses in the local web-to-fange region, perhaps because oI the complex distribution oI Iorces
andbecauseoIexperienceintheindustry.Moreresearchonthistopicisneeded.Additionalrecommendations
Iorlarge,heavy-dutycranerunwaygirderswithapronplatesasonewouldencounterinsteelmakingIacilitiesare
givenbyFisher(2004),AISE(2003)andRowswell(1987).
SomereIerencesshowacalculationoIlocalwheelsupportstressesbasedonoldereditionsoIAISETechnical
ReportNo.13.ThisisnolongerrecommendedandisnotincludedinAISE(2003).
A bearing detail that has been used successIully is shown in Figure 20. This detail can reduce eccentricities,
Iacilitatesachievingtolerancesinsquarenessandelevation,andreducesrestraintsatbeambearings.
AsnotedinChapter4,specialmeasuresareusuallyimplementedtocontrolshopanderectiontolerances.
5.12 Intermediate Web Stiffeners
For longer spans and heavier installations, a decision oIten must be made whether to use partial or Iull-depth
intermediatewebstiIIeners(seeFigure19)ortouseathickerwebandavoidtheuseoIthesestiIIeners.Partial-
depth stiIIeners welded to the top fange are sometimes used to support the top fange, resist web buckling and
resist torsional Iorces. Structures oI each type have been providing satisIactory service. II weight is not the
governingIactor,manyexperienceddesignerswouldagreethatathickerwebwithoutintermediatestiIIenersis
the better solution because oI simplicity, more rugged web-to-fange connection, elimination oI details subject to
IatigueinthetensionzoneoIthewebanddistortion-inducedtoIatigue.
UseoIhorizontalwebstiIIenersasIorhighwaybridgesisnotcommonandisnotrecommendedIornewconstruction
Iorthesamereasonsasnotedabove.ThesestiIIenersmaybepartoIasolutionIorupgrading,however.Caution
mustbeexercisedinzonesoItension,particularlyatsplicesinthestiIIeners.IIthestiIIenersarenotbuttwelded
IullstrengthandgroundinthedirectionoIstress,aIatiguecrackmightpropagateintotheweb.
5.13 Links to Crane Runway Beams
ToaccommodatediIIerentiallongitudinalandverticalmovementsbetweenthecranerunwaybeamandsupporting
structure,butatthesametimetoprovidelateralrestrainttothebeam,articulatedlinksareoItenprovidedIor
Crane Service Classifcations C and up (see Items 19 and 20 in Section 4.2). For more inIormation, see Griggs
(1976),RowswellandPacker(1989),Rowswell(1987),andFigures16and17.Tolimitlateralmovement(b)in
Figure17,thelinkangleshouldnotexceed10degrees.
38
TheselinksoItenareaproprietarydesignwithhardenedsphericalbearings.ManuIacturersliteratureisusually
reIerenced during preparation oI the design and specifcations.
WithdueregardtoconsiderationssuchaspatentsandclassoIservice,theselinksaresometimesdesignedbythe
structuredesigner.
5.14 Bottom Flange Bracing
AISE (2003) recommends that lateral bracing (see Figure 19) be provided to bottom fanges oI crane runway
beamsthatspanmorethanabout11m.CanadianStandardsdonotrequiresuchmeasures.
There are many successIul installations with spans up to 20 m that do not include bottom fange lateral restraints.
Itissuggestedthat,IortheusualcranerunwaybeamproportionsandIorstructuresbuiltandmaintainedwithin
the specifed tolerances, the need Ior bottom fange bracing should be at the discretion oI the owner and the
structuredesigner.
5.15Attachments
The design drawings should state that no attachments should be made to the crane runway beams without
authorizationoIthedesigner.
AttachmentsIorthecollectorrailstopowerthecranesshouldbelocatedabovetheneutralaxisoIthebeamsand
shouldbeboltediIattacheddirectlytotheweb.SeeFigure19.
5.16EndStops
Endstopsoncranerunwaysmayormaynothaveanenergy-dissipatingdevicetoreducetheimpactontheend
stop.Devicessuchasrubber,springs,orhydraulicbumpersmaybemountedontheendstopsoronthecranes.
For light-duty applications, rubber bumpers are oIten used. For Crane Service Classifcations C and up, hydraulic
bumpers are usually specifed. For more inIormation see Fisher (2004), AISE (2003), CMAA (2010), Rowswell
(1987)andTremblayandLegault(1996).
DesignoIendstopsshouldincludeanassessmentoIthemaximumIactoredloadthattheendstopandtherestoI
thesupportingstructurecanreasonablyresist,andthisIorceshouldbemadeknowntothecraneand/orbumper
designer.
Bumper specifcations are usually prepared with the aid oI the manuIacturer`s literature.
5.17 Unequal Depth Beams
Whereunequaldepthbeamsmeetatasupport,severaldiIIerentdetailshavebeenused.Forheavierdutycycle
applications, Crane Service Classifcation C and up, suggested details are shown in Figures 21 and 22.
'Stools on the bottom oI the shallow beam are generally not recommended because oI the magnifed longitudinal
movement due to rotation oI the end oI the beam and bottom fange elongation. Details that involve one beam
bearing on the end oI the other (see Figure 21) present implications oI sequence oI erection and diIfculties in
replacementoIthedeeperbeam.
5.18 Underslung Cranes and Monorails
TheseinstallationsaresomewhatdiIIerentIromotheroverheadcranesbecausetheloadsIromthecranerunway
beamsusuallyarenottransIerreddirectlytothecolumns.SeeSection2.3.3IoradditionalinIormation.Locations
andloadsareoItensubjecttochangestosuitplantoperations.InstallationsareoItenproposedIorstructuresnot
designedIorthisduty.RunwaybeamsareoItensuppliedbythecranesupplier.QuiteoIten,therunwaybeams
willbesuspendedIromrooIbeamsorspeciallydesignedopen-webjoistswhicharereallytrusses.Runwaybeams
shouldneverbesupportedbyopen-webjoistsunlessspeciallydesignedIorthisservice.
39
ImportantconsiderationsareasIollows:
Compression fanges are generally unsupported laterally.
Runway beams are usually continuous. The design should account Ior such things as vertical fexibility oI
supportsandIordiIIerentialsettlement.
Runwaybeamsaresubjectedtosecondarystressesattrolleywheels.DesignproceduresaregiveninCMAA
(reIerence5).
Thebuildingdesignermustcoordinatesupportlocationswiththerunwaybeamsupplierandthespecially
designed open-web joist supplier. The degree oI fexibility oI support locations should be considered.
Athangerlocations,methodsoIverticalandlateraladjustmentshouldbeincorporatedinthehangerdesign
sothattherunwaybeamscanbealignedandsothatloadswillbedistributedevenlyandinaccordancewith
thedesignassumptions.
Requirements Ior design Ior Iatigue should be made known to the open-web joist designer by showing
requirementsonthestructuredesigndrawings.
Antiswaybracesshouldbeprovidedathangerlocations,otherwiseprematureIailureduetoIatiguemay
occur(seeFigure23).
Longitudinalswaybracesshouldbeprovidedatregularintervals(say10m).
Splices in runway beams require special attention to allow a smooth running crane. Typical splices are
shownbyFisher(2004)andGoldman(1990).
Specialized and hybrid beams such as WT or WWT top with ST or special bottom fange are used and may
beIabricatedIromamixoIdiIIerentsteels.InIormationIordesignoIthesebeamsisprovidedbyCMAA
(2010), Galambos (1998), Goldman (1990), and Weaver (1985). Certain confgurations oI hybrid beams are
manuIacturedasproprietaryitems.ManuIacturersliterature,includingdesignaids,isavailable.
Fisher (2004) recommends that the defection due to wheel loads should be limited to span/450.
Curvedmonorailbeamsshouldbeanalysedashorizontallyunsupportedcurvedbeams.TheAustralianStandard
IorcranerunwaysandmonorailsAS1418.18includesaprovisionthatiIthehorizontalradiusislargerthantwice
thedistancebetweensupportsandprovidedthatthereiscontinuitybyatleastonespanoneachsideoIthesection
beingconsidered,theeIIectoIcurvaturecanbeneglected.
FormoreinIormationonthesestructures,seeFisher(2004),Goldman(1990),andWeaver(1985).
5.19 1ib Cranes
Jib cranes usually have a rotating boom attached to a mast which is held in a vertical position by foor and ceiling
mounting or by column or wall mounting. A foor mounted variation is sometimes called a pillar crane. The hoist
isusuallymountedontheboomasamonorail.
JibcranesareoItenanadd-ontoIacilitatematerialhandling.Unaccounted-IorIorcescancauseseveralproblems
including column distortion, column Iailures, crane runway misalignments, and excessive column base shear.
Fisher and Thomas (2002) provide recommendations. Excessive defection oI the boom can lead to a downhill loss
oI control oI the hoist. Fisher (2004) recommends that defection should be limited to boom length divided by 225.
TheouterendoItheboommayalsobesetslightlyhigherthantheendthatisattachedtothemast.
5.20 Truss Type Crane Runway Supports
LongspansmayrequiretheuseoIprimarytrussesinsteadoIcranerunwaybeams.ThedesignoIthesetrusses
issimilarinmanywaystorailroaddesignbutinthiscasetherailisusuallysupporteddirectlyonthetopchord.
The structural analysis should be done with the aid oI computers and must account Ior secondary stresses due
to the usual fxity oI the joints. See Clause 15.1.2 oI S16-09, detailed method oI truss design. The joints and
members,particularlyatthetopchord,shouldaccountIortorsionalIorcesasIromsidethrustandeccentricityoI
railplacement.SeeFigure5.
Forthesestructures,careIulattentiontodesignIorIatigueisnecessary.
FormoreinIormation,seeFisher(2004).
40
5.21 Column Bases and Anchor Rods
DesignoIcrane-carryingcolumnssometimesrequirestheuseoIshearkeys.Anchorrodsmaybesubjectedto
repeatedupwardloads.Fang(2012),Fisher(2004)andCannonandGodIrey(1981)provideuseIulinIormation.
Strict tolerances on anchor rod placement are oIten specifed so that the crane runway beams can be erected
withintherequiredtolerances.
5.22DissimilarMaterials
SpecialconsiderationshouldbegiventotheinteractionoIcrane-carryingsteelstructuressubjecttomovement
andvibrationwithothermaterialsthatareoItenmorerigidandbrittlesuchasmasonry.
Columns are sometimes tied to the wall system. Some fexibility should be provided at the connection (see Figure
2).Fisher(2004)providesrecommendations.
For Crane Service Classifcations C and up, the steel structure should be isolated Irom masonry iI distress in the
masonryistobeavoided.
5.23Rails
RailsareusuallyselectedbythecranemanuIacturer.CMAA(2010),Goldman(1990)andWeaver(1985)provide
additionalinIormation.
ThereisnopublishedcriteriaIorcranerailreplacementduetowearandtear.Thedecisiontoreplaceduetowear
andtearisnotusuallybasedonstructuralconsiderationsunlessadverseeIIectsonthestructurearenoted.
ReIeralsotoChapter4,Item29.
5.24RailAttachments
For lighter duty applications, hook bolts or non-patented rail clips are sometimes specifed. Fisher (2004) contains
recommendationsandlimitationsIoruseoIhookbolts.
Rail clips Ior Crane Service Classifcations C and up are usually two-plate rail clamps or patented, manuIactured
clips.Forthepatentedclip,thedesignerusuallyreIerstomanuIacturersliteraturewhenspeciIyingthetypeoI
clip,spacing,andattachmentoItheclipstothesupport.
TheclipsshownintheFigures8to22areamanuIacturedtype.Othertypesmaybesuitable.
FormoreinIormation,seeFisher(2004),Ricker(1982),Rowswell(1987)andWeaver(1985).
5.25 Outdoor Crane Runways
OutdoorrunwaysrequirespecialattentiontotheIollowing:
Becausethereisusuallynotieacrossthetop,thedistancebetweentherails(gauge)isvulnerabletochange
duetoIoundationconditions.
Inextremelycoldclimates,considerationshouldbegiventouseoIbrittleIractureresistantsteel(WTor
AT)IorcraneserviceClassesDandup.
Distance between expansion joints should be careIully evaluated, considering ranges in temperature.
TemperaturediIIerentialmightwarrantanexpansionjointatanentrancetoabuilding.
OtherenvironmentaleIIectssuchasIromwind,snowandiceshouldbeconsidered.
Fisher(2004),Rowswell(1987)andTremblayandLegault(1996)providemoreinIormation.
5.26 Seismic Design
AISE (2003) and Weaver (1985) provide inIormation on measures sometimes used where there is danger oI
displacementoIwheelsIromrails.
41
CurrentseismicprovisionscontainrecommendationsIoranchoringoIarchitectural,electricalandmechanicalcomponents
oIstructures,butdonotdealindepthwithtravellingcranes.
AISE(2003)andMBMA(2006)suggestthatthedesignerconsiderthedeadloadoIcranesparkedIormaximumeIIect.
IncaseoIseismicactivity,themassoIthecranewillinteractwiththemassoIthesupportingstructure,actingasatie
betweenrails,whetherthecraneandsupportingstructureweresodesignedornot.
Suggestionsare:
ThedesignershouldchecktoensurethattheeIIectoIthelateralloadduetoEdoesnotgovernoversidethrust
onthecranerunwaybeams.
For zones oI higher seismic activity where it can be shown that there is a signifcant risk oI displacement, hold
downdevicesshouldbeconsidered.
InzoneswhereseismicdesignprovisionsmaybemoreseverethanIorwind,thedesignershouldconsideruse
oIadynamicstructuralanalysis,consideringthecrane(s)asatiebetweenrails.TheresultingIorcesonthecrane
shouldbemadeknowntothecranemanuIacturer.
ThespecialseismicdesignprovisionsoItheNBCC2010andClause27oIS16-09SeismicDesignaremostappropriate
Ior building structures characterized by residential and commercial occupancies. Richard, Koboevic and Tremblay
(2011)notethatapplicationoItheprovisionstomanyindustrialbuildingsisnotstraightIorwardIorpracticingengineers.
TheauthorsprovideuseIulinIormationandadesignexampleIoratypicalcrane-supportingsteelstructure.
5.27 Standards for Welding for Structures Subjected to Fatigue
The construction specifcation should defne which portions oI the structure will be subject to the more stringent
requirementsIorcyclicallyloadedstructures.SeeFigure25Iortypicalrequirements.Usuallythecriticalelementswould
bethecranerunwaybeamsandtheirattachmentstothesupports,butitistheresponsibilityoIthestructuredesigner
todetermineiIanyothercomponents(speciallydesignedopen-webjoistssupportingmonorails,Iorexample)needbe
includedinthiscategory.
FlangeplatesusedinthedesignoIheavy-dutyrunwaysshouldbeinspectedIorthepresenceoIlamellarinclusionsin
accordancewiththeprovisionsoIW59.Materialnotmeetingthestandardsshouldberejected.
SeealsoChapter4,Item26.
5.28ErectionTolerances
SituationsshowninFigure5mustbeminimzedoreliminated.
Wherepossible,bearingsandlateralrestraintsshouldpermitlateraladjustmentoIthecranerunwaybeamstomaintain
alignmentwiththecranerail.ThisisoItenaccomplishedbyuseoIslottedoroversizeholes,andshims.SeeFigures13
to17.AlignmentproceduresshouldbereviewedbythedesigneroIthestructure.Forinstance,anincorrectalignment
sequencecouldresultinunevenbearingandeccentricitiessuchasE6onFigure5.
AnchorboltlocationsshouldbecareIullycheckedbeIoreerectionoIstructuralsteel.Baseplatesmustbeaccurately
locatedsothatrequiredtolerancesincranerunwaybeamscanbeachieved.
42
Erection tolerances oI crane runway rails should be compatible with minimization oI eccentricities on the
supporting structure and within tolerances set by the crane manuIacturers.Allowable sweep oI crane runway
beamsshouldbeconsistentwithdesignassumptionsIorraileccentricity,railclipadjustmenttolerancesandrail
alignmenttolerances.
Unless the structure is suitably resistant to change in gauge oI crane rails under rooI dead load, fnal alignment oI
thecranerunwaybeamsshouldbedeIerreduntiltheIulldeadloadoItherooIisinplace.
Figure24showstherequirementsoItheCMAA.ItisbasedonrequirementsIorsatisIactorycraneperIormance.
Othertolerancessuchasthoseshownintable4.1arerelatedtoIabricationanderectiontolerances.Bothcriteria
should apply. The Iabrication specifcation should account Ior required tolerances which may be more severe than
theindividualstandardspermit.
In case oI confict with Clause 2.9.7 oI S16-09 and recommendations contained elsewhere in this design guide,
themorestringentrequirementsshouldgovern.
Checking oI erection tolerances should be by independent survey. Where the specifed tolerances are exceeded,
the designer should be notifed. AIter assessment, the designer should speciIy remedial measures as may be re-
quired.
5.29 Standards for Inspection
ReIeralsotoSections5.27and5.28.
Figure25showscommonlyusedstandardsIorweldingandinspectionoIcranerunwaybeams.
SeeW59IormoreinIormation.
ReIerring to CSA Standard W59, Welding inspection organizations and individual inspectors must be certifed
toCSAStandardsW178andW178.2respectively.ForinspectionoIotheraspectsoIIabricationanderection,
no standard Ior certifcation exists. Inspectors should be completely Iamiliar with the requirements oI the design
drawings and project specifcations including all specifed standards and codes, including requirements Ior
dynamicallyloadedstructuresasmaybeapplicable.
CSA Standard B167-96 specifes the minimum requirements Ior inspection, testing, and maintenance oI cranes and
includes supporting structures. Section 4.4.5.2 specifes that a ProIessional Engineer must certiIy the supporting
structure.TheuserisadvisedtoconsultwiththejurisdictionhavingauthorityregardingadoptionoIthisStandard,
andwhethertheremaybeexemptionsoradditions.
5.30MaintenanceandRepair
Crane-carryingstructuressubjectedtoIatigue,incombinationwith:
age,
unintendeduse(oItencalledabuse),
inadequatedesign,
imperIectionsinmaterials,
substandardIabrication,
substandarderectionmethods,and
buildingcomponentmovements,suchasIoundations,
requiremaintenanceandrepair.RepairproceduresshouldincorporatetherecommendationsoIanexperienced
structuredesigner,ortherepaircancreateeIIectsthataremoreseriousthattheoriginalimperIection.
ReIerringalsotoitem5.29,itisrecommendedthatperiodicinspectionandmaintenancebedoneandachecklist
shouldbepreparedIorthemaintenancepersonnel.
Fisher(2004),Millman(1991,1996)andReemsnyderandDemo(1978)provideadditionalinIormation.
43
CHAPTER 6 - REHABILITATION AND UPGRADING OF EXISTING
CRANE-CARRYING STEEL STRUCTURES
6.1General
Designers may be asked to assess and report on the condition oI a crane-carrying steel structure Ior diIIerent
reasonssuchas:
concernabouttheconditionoIthestructure,
duediligencebroughtonbyachangeinownership,
toextendtheuseIulliIeunderthesameoperatingconditions,
toincreaseproductionbyaddingcranesorotherequipment,and
tomodiIyprocessesandaddnewandpossiblyheaviercranesorotherequipment.
Thestructuremaybeseveraldecadesold,materialsoIconstructionarenotclear,drawingsandcalculationsare
nonexistent,andpastcranedutycyclesunknown.Thelocalbuildingcodeauthoritymaybeunpreparedtoaccept
measureswhichmightbeinterpretedascontrarytotheprovisionsoIthelocalbuildingcode.
Little guidance is available that is directly related to crane-carrying structures in Canada. AISE (2003) and
Millman(1991)provideguidanceandarethebasisoIseveraloItherecommendationscontainedherein.AISE
(2003)providesanappendixthataddressesrecommendedpracticesIorinspectingandupgradingoIexistingmill
buildingstructures.NotethattheNBCCCommentarycontainsrelevantinIormation.
6.2 Inspections, Condition Surveys, Reporting
AninspectionplanshouldbepreparedthatisbasedontheIollowingasaminimum:
sitevisits,
review oI existing drawings, specifcations, calculations, site reports, photographs,
available records oI modifcations to the structure and equipment,
interviewswithplantpersonnel,togaininsightintotheoperation,pastandpresent,and
reviewoItheapplicablecodesandstandards.
The feld inspection may involve use oI a proIessional inspection and testing agency and may include the
Iollowing:
visual inspection noting deIects such as corrosion, cracks, missing components, reduction oI area,
detrimentaleIIectsoIwelding,andphysicaldamage,
visualinspectionoIcranerailsandtheirconnections,
visualinspectionoIconnections,
recording oI feld alterations not noted on available drawings,
commentsonmisalignmentsandsettlement,includingneedIoranalignmentsurvey,and
specialinvestigationssuchasidentiIyingoldersteel,weldability,nondestructivetesting,measurementsoI
actual crane wheel loads, strain gauging, impact measurements, defection under live load measurements,
andthermalloads.
AcommonproblemwhenevaluatingolderstructuresistoidentiIyoldersteel.S16-01coversthisinClause5.2.
The report oI the feld inspection should be tailored to the ultimate purpose oI the inspection. Suggested contents,
asaminimum,areasIollows:
background,includingpurposeoItheinspection,
scope,
availablerecords,recordsoIdiscussions,
44
generaldescriptionoIthestructure,
feld conditions,
historyoItheuseoIthestructure,includingcranedutycycles,
historyoIperIormanceandmaintenanceoIthestructure,
descriptionoIdeIects,
description oI modifcations,
photographs,resultsoItesting,
specialinvestigations,and
needIorIurtherwork.
6.3Loads,LoadCombinations
TheloadsandloadcombinationsgiveninChapter2oIthisguidehaveprovensatisIactoryIorthedesignoInew
Iacilities.Itisrecognized(AISE2003)thatsomeoItheloadsareconservative,particularlythosegeneratedby
craneortrolleymotion.AstudyoIoverloadconditionsmayrevealaverylowprobabilityoIoccurrenceand/or
shortdurationsuchthat,withtheownersapproval,theseoverloadscanbeeliminatedIromIurtherconsideration
or used with reduced load combination Iactors. For instance, the probability oI simultaneous occurrence oI
maximumverticalloadsIrommorethantwocranesalongwithimpactwilllikelybelowenoughthatareduced
loadcombinationIactorcanbeused.FormoreinIormation,seeMillman(1991).
AhistoryoIsatisIactoryperIormanceovermanyyearscombinedwithaknowledgeoIoperatingconditionsmay
provide the necessary degree oI confdence so that loads, load combination and Iatigue design criteria can be
realisticallyassignedIortheparticularoperations.
Millman (1991) recommends exclusion oI Any combination oI instantaneous dynamic crane loads which
originateIromdiIIerentIunctionalprocesses.TheIollowingexamplesareprovided:
hoistoperationandtrolleytravel,
craneandtrolleytravel,
hoistoperationandcranetravel,and
trolleybumpercollisionandhoistoperation.
Impact Iactors can be reassessed based on studies and feld measurements. See Millman (1991) Ior more
inIormation.
Side thrust loads can be studied analytically and can be assessed in the feld using strain gauges under the most
severeoperatingconditions.ManyexperienceddesignerswouldagreethatIorsidethrust,providingthatloads
onthetrolleyendstopdonotgovernandthattherunwayisnotbadlyoutoIalignment,sidethrustshouldnotbe
expectedtoexceedthelateralloadsgeneratedbyIrictionduetolockedtrolleywheels.Thus,sidethrustvalues
maynotbeexpectedtoexceedthoseIornormalradiocontrolledcranesasshowninTable2.1,unlessunusual
conditionsexistatthetrolleyendstops.
RegardingIatigue,thesimultaneousoccurrenceoImaximumverticalwheelloadswithsidethrustcansometimes
beeliminatedIromconsideration.
TheweightoIcranescanbeconsideredtobedeadload(seeSection2.3.2).IIweighinginplaceisrequired,this
canbedoneusingloadcells.DutycycleanalysescanbedonetostudytheeIIectsoIIatigue.
Environmental loads are based on probability oI occurrence during the liIe oI the structure. II the expected
remainingliIeoIthestructureissomewhatlessthanIoranewstructure,theprobabilitiesoIexceedancecouldbe
examinedandthentheparametersmightbeadjustedaccordingly.Thisexaminationandresultingrecommendations
should be undertaken by qualifed people.
6.4 Structural Modelling
Modern methods oI analysis using three-dimensional computerized models will provide the most accurate
inIormationonhowloadswillbedistributedthroughoutthestructure,includingtheIoundations,andmayresult
insubstantialcostsavings.
45
CranesoItenactaslinksbetweentwosidesoIarunway(seeSection5.1).ThisactionshouldnotbeassumedIor
newdesignsunlessthecranesaredesignedtoactthisway,butiIitcanbeshownthatthisishappeningwithout
illeIIect,itmaybeincludedintheassessment.
Where lateral-torsional buckling is a critical consideration, ElliIritt and Lue (1998) question whether lateral-
torsionalbucklingcanoccur,giventhatthecraneactsasalink.ThelinkedbeammayhaveareserveoIlateral
strengthtopreventlateral-torsionalbuckling,beingmorelightlyloadedthanthebeamunderinvestigation.ReIer
alsotoSection5.2.
6.5 Reinforcing, Replacement
Whentheseconditionsareencountered,aninspectionplanshouldbedrawnupinaccordancewithguidelines
presentedabove.
MethodsoIrepairsandreplacementsarevariedandareachallengetotheingenuityoIthedesigner.Considerations
mayinclude,butarenotlimitedto:
degreeandnatureoIphysicaldamage,
degreeoIdeterioration,Iromcorrosion,Iorinstance,
materialsoIconstruction,
weldability,
existingdetails,
IatigueliIeremaining,
easeoIconstructionandreplacement,
expectedIutureserviceconditions,and
pastperIormanceundersimilarconditions.
Acceptance criteria Ior older buildings where tolerances are outside those recommended Ior new construction
shouldbeestablishedbyanexperienceddesigneraItercareIulstudy,onanindividualbasis.
6.5.1 Reinforcing an Existing Runway Beam
Solutionsthathavebeenappliedtothiscommonproblemare:
addverticalstiIIeners,
addhorizontalstiIIeners,
addlateralsupport,
weldateeonthebottom,
weld angles to the top fange,
reconfgure the runway beam as a truss, and
installnewcolumns.
6.5.2 Reinforcing an Existing Column
Solutionsincludeaddingmetalbyweldingandalsoaddinganewcolumnundertheexistingbrackets.
StructureshavebeenstiIIenedbyaddinghorizontalbracingtoimproveloadsharingbetweenIrames.
6.5.3 Welding to Existing Structures
Remember that loads may not be shared uniIormly between existing and new material, particularly iI there is
signifcant load in the existing member.
Confrm weldability, particularly Ior older structures.
DevelopweldingtechniquesthatwillnotcompromisethestrengthoItheexistingload-carryingmemberdueto
excessiveheatinput.
PracticalhintscanbeIoundintheJuly2002issueoIModernSteelConstruction,publishedbytheAISC.
46
CHAPTER 7 - SUGGESTED PROCEDURE FOR DESIGN OF
CRANE RUNWAY BEAMS
7.1General
TwoexamplesareprovidedinAppendixAtoillustratethedesignoItoprunningcranerunwaybeams.Fisher
(2004),FisherandVandePas(2002),KulakandGrondin(2006),andSalmonandJohnson(1996)alsoprovide
examples,includingmonorails,tolimitstatesdesignprinciples.
AnoutlineoIthegeneralprocedureIorthedesignoItoprunningcranerunwaybeamsispresentedinTable7.1.
The order is somewhat fexible. Procedures are similar Ior other types oI runways.
7.2 Design Criteria
Establish,withtheownersapproval,thedesigncriteria.AchecklistoIitemstoconsidershouldbepreparedand
shouldincludesomeoralloIthedatainTable7.1.ReIeralsotoSection4.1.
Table7.1
Design Criteria for Crane-Supporting Steel Structure
Design Criteria Value/Units
CodesandStandards
Importance(seeNBCC2005)
LiIeoItheStructure years
Materials(Plates,Shapes,Fasteners,etc.)
Span mm
ProvisionIorFutureExpansion?
SimpleSpan?
LateralSupportIorTopFlange?
TopoIRailElevation,orHeightIromMainFloor m
RequiredClearancetoU/SBeam mm
SideThrustEquallyDistributedBothSidesoIRunway?
NumberoICranes,EachRunway
CollectorRailMountingDetails
47
Table 7.1 continued
Design Criteria Value/Units
DesignIorFutureAdditionalCranes
JibCranes,orProvisionIorJibCranes
DesignIorFutureUpgrades
ClassoICranes CMAAClass
Service(Description)
TypeoIDuty(seeTable2.1andSection3.4.2)
CraneHookCapacity #hook(s)each
Capacityeachhook kg
WeightoICraneBridge kg*
WeightoICraneTrolley kg*
BridgeWheelsperRail TotalNumber
Driven
BridgeWheelSpacing mm
MinimumDistanceBetweenWheelsoICranesinTandem mm
MaximumWheelLoad,EachCrane(notincludingimpact) kN
MinimumWheelLoad,EachCrane(notincludingimpact) kN
CraneRail Description
SelIload kN/m
RailJoints(boltedorwelded)
ResilientPadUnderRail?
BridgeSpeed m/sec
TypeoIBumper
48
Table 7.1 continued
Design Criteria Value/Units
BumpersSuppliedwithCrane?
BumperForceonRunwayEndStop(UltimateLoad) kN
FatigueCriteria:
Vertical- Equivalentpassesononecrane,maximumwheel
loads
Horizontal- EquivalentcyclesoIsidethrustat50oI
maximumsidethrust
#oIpasses
#oIcycles
Defection Criteria:
VerticalLimit(onecrane,notincludingimpact)
HorizontalLimit
Span/
Span/
ImpactCriteria:
PercentageoImaximumwheelloads,onecraneonly
FoundationConditions,Limitations
OtherConsiderations(suchasextremetemperatures,etc.)
*Weight Certifed?
7.3 Design Procedure
CalculateSideThrust
UsingthesidethrustcriteriaIromTable7.1andTable2.1,calculatethesidethrustIorceC
s
Iromeach
cranetoeachsideoItherunwayanddistributetothewheels,usuallyequally.Calculatethesidethrust
toeachwheelasapercentageoIthemaximumverticalloadtoeachwheel.
SelectaPreliminarySection
Using the wheel loads, defection criteria and approximate methods, choose a section that, aIter Iurther
analysis,couldprovidetherequiredmomentsoIinertiaabouteachaxis.
MovingLoadAnalysis
Frommanualcalculations(Iorassistance,seeBeamDiagramsandFormulaeintheCISCHandbook),
or using a computer, compute the governing defections, bending moments, shears and reactions Ior
49
thewheelloadsIorasinglecraneandIormultiplecranesasmayberequired.EIIectsoIimpactshould
notbeincludedatthistime.
Review the section properties required Ior defection and adjust and recalculate iI necessary.
Refne the Trial Section
Determineclassandmemberproperties.
CalculateOtherForcesintheVerticalPlane
CalculateloadsduetoDeadLoads,AxialLoads,TractiveLoads,Temperature,Bracing,etc.
CalculateeIIectsoITorsionalLoads
Re-evaluate Defections
CalculateFactoredLoads
CalculateFactoredResistanceandComparetoFactoredLoads
CheckLocalWheelSupport
IterateasNecessary
DesignStiIIeners
DesignBearingsandLateralRestraints
DesignElementWeldsand/orBoltsIorFactoredLoads
CheckIorFatigueResistance
50
REFERENCES
1. AISE. 2003. Guide Ior the Design and Construction oI Mill Buildings. Association oI Iron and Steel
Engineers.TechnicalReportNo.13,Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania.
2. ASCE. 2002. Minimum Design Loads Ior Buildings and Other Structures. American Society oI Civil
Engineers.StandardSEI/ASCE7-02,NewYork.
3. Cannon,R.W.,GodIrey,D.A.andMoreadithF.L.1981.GuidetotheDesignoIAnchorBoltsandOther
SteelEmbedments.ConcreteInternational,Vol.3,No.7,July.Farmington,Illinois.
4. CMAA. 2010. Specifcations Ior Top Running Bridge and Gantry Type Multiple Girder Electric Overhead
Travelling Cranes. Crane ManuIacturers Association oI America, an AIfliate oI Material Handling Industry,
Specifcation #70, Revised . Charlotte, North Carolina.
5. CMAA. 2010. Specifcations Ior Top Running and Under Running Single Girder Electric Travelling
Cranes Utilizing Under Running Trolley Hoist. Crane ManuIacturers Association oI America, an AIfliate
oI Material Handling Industry, Specifcation #74, Revised. Charlotte, North Carolina.
6. CSA.1996.SaIetyStandardIorMaintenanceandInspectionoIOverheadCranes,GantryCranes,Monorails,
Hoists,andTrolleys.CanadianStandardsAssociationStandardB167-96,Etobicoke,Canada.
7. Demo, D.A. and Fisher, J.W. 1976. Analysis oI Fatigue oI Welded Crane Runway Girders. American
SocietyoICivilEngineers.JournaloItheStructuralDivision,May.Chicago,Illinois.
8. ElliIritt,D.S.,andLue,D.-M.1998.DesignoICraneRunwayBeamwithChannelCap.AmericanInstitute
oISteelConstruction.EngineeringJournal,SecondQuarter.Chicago,Illinois
9. Fang,S.-F.2012.ApplicationsoIPretensionedAnchorRodsinIndustrialFacilities.AmericanInstituteoI
SteelConstruction.EngineeringJournal,FirstQuarter.Chicago.Illinois.
10. Fisher,J.M.2004.IndustrialBuildings,RooIstoColumnAnchorage.SecondEdition.AmericanInstitute
oISteelConstruction,Inc.SteelDesignGuideSeries7.Chicago,Illinois.
11. Fisher, J.W., Kulak, G.L. and Smith, I.F.C. 1997.A Fatigue Primer Ior Structural Engineers.Advanced
TechnologyIorLargeStructuralSystemsATLSSReportNo.97-11.LehighUniversity,October.Bethlehem,
Pennsylvania.
12. Fisher, J.M., and Thomas, S.J. 2002. Design Concepts Ior Jib Cranes. American Institute oI Steel
Construction.EngineeringJournal,SecondQuarter.Chicago,Illinois.
13. Fisher,J.M.,andVandePas,J.P.2002.NewFatigueProvisionsIortheDesignoICraneRunwayGirders.
AmericanInstituteoISteelConstruction.EngineeringJournal,SecondQuarter.Chicago,Illinois.
14. Ziemian,R.D.2010.GuidetoStabilityDesignCriteriaIorMetalStructures,SixthEdition.JohnWileyand
Sons,Inc.,Hoboken,NewJersey.
15. Goldman, C. 1990. Design oI Crane Runway Girders IorTop Running and Under Running Cranes and
Monorails.CanadianJournaloICivilEngineering,Volume17.Montreal,Quebec.
16. Griggs,P.H.,andInnis,R.H.1978.SupportYourOverheadCrane.AssociationoIIronandSteelEngineers.
ProceedingsoIthe1978AnnualConvention,Chicago,September25-27.Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania.
17. Griggs, P.H. 1976. Mill Building Structures. Proceedings oI the Canadian Structural Engineering
ConIerence,1976.Toronto,Ontario.
18. Johnson,P.C.andLaman,J.A.2010.SinglySymmetricCombinationSectionCraneGirderDesignAids.
AmericanInstituteoISteelConstruction.EngineeringJournal.FourthQuarter.Chicago,Illinois.
19. Kulak, G.L. and Grondin, G.Y. 2010. Limit States Design in Structural Steel, Ninth Edition. Canadian
InstituteoISteelConstruction,Markham,Ontario.
20. Kulak,G.L.,Fisher,J.W.,andStruik,J.A.1987GuidetoDesignCriteriaIorBoltedandRivetedJoints,
SecondEdition.JohnWileyandSons,Inc.,NewYork,NewYork.
21. Laman,J.A.1996.LRFDCraneGirderDesignProcedureandAids.AmericanInstituteoISteelConstruction.
EngineeringJournal,FourthQuarter.Chicago,Illinois.
51
22. Lue,T.,andElliIritt,D.S.1993.TheWarpingConstantIortheW-SectionwithaChannelCap.American
InstituteoISteelConstruction.EngineeringJournal,FirstQuarter.Chicago,Illinois.
23. MacCrimmon, R.A., and Kennedy, D.J.L. 1997. Load and Resistance Factor Design and Analysis oI
Stepped Crane Columns in Industrial Buildings.American Institute oI Steel Construction. Engineering
Journal,FirstQuarter.Chicago,Illinois.
24. MBMA. 2006. Low Rise Building Systems Manual. Metal Building ManuIacturers Association, Inc.
Cleveland,Ohio.
25. Millman,R.1996.FatigueLiIeAnalysisoICraneRunwayGirders.AssociationoIIronandSteelEngineers.
IronandSteelEngineer,Vol.73,No.7.Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania.
26. Millman,R.1991.OldMillBuildingsvs.CurrentDesignLoads-ASurvivalApproach.AssociationoIIron
andSteelEngineers.IronandSteelEngineer,Vol.68,No.5.Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania.
27. Mueller,J.E.1965.LessonsIromCraneRunways.AmericanInstituteoISteelConstruction.Engineering
Journal,January.Chicago,Illinois.
28. Reemsnyder,H.S.andDemo,D.A.1978.FatigueCrackinginWeldedCraneRunwayGirders:Causesand
Repair Procedures.Association oI Iron and Steel Engineers. Iron and Steel Engineer,April. Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania.
29. Richard,J.,Koboevic,S.andTremblay,R.2011.SeismicDesignandResponseoICrane-Supportedand
Heavy Industrial Steel Structures.American Institute oI Steel Construction. Engineering Journal, Third
Quarter.Chicago,Illinois.
30. Ricker,D.T.1982.TipsIorAvoidingCraneRunwayProblems.AmericanInstituteoISteelConstruction.
EngineeringJournal,FourthQuarter.Chicago,Illinois.
31. Rowswell,J.C.1987.CraneRunwaySystems.RowswellandAssociates,ConsultingEngineers,SaultSte.
Marie,Ontario.
32. Rowswell,J.C.,andPackerJ.A.1989.CraneGirderTie-BackConnections.AssociationoIIronandSteel
Engineers.IronandSteelEngineer,January.Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania.
33. Salmon, C.G., and Johnson, J.E. 1996. Steel Structures Design and Behavior, Emphasizing Load and
ResistanceFactorDesign,FourthEdition.HarperCollinsCollegePublishers.NewYork,NewYork.
34. Schmidt,J.A.2001.DesignoIMillBuildingColumnsUsingNotionalLoads.AmericanInstituteoISteel
Construction.EngineeringJournal,SecondQuarter.Chicago,Illinois.
35. Trahair,N.S.2011.InelasticBucklingoIMonosymmetricI-Beams,ResearchReportR920.TheUniversity
oISydneySchooloICivilEngineering.Sydney,Australia.
36. Tremblay, R., and Legault, P. 1996. Torsional Properties oI Built-Up Crane Runway Girders. Canadian
SocietyoICivilEngineers.1
st
StructuralSpecialtyConIerence,Edmonton,Alberta.
37. Weaver,W.M.1985.WhitingCraneHandbook,4
th
Edition,ThirdPrinting,WhitingCorporation.Harvey,
Illinois.
52
FIGURES
53
Figure 1
A Common Example of a Crane-Supporting Structure
54
Figure 2
Illustration of Interaction of Dissimilar Materials
55
Figure 3
Typical Horizontal Roof Bracing at Lower Chords of Roof Trusses
56
Figure 4
Typical Clearance and Wheel Load Diagram
57
Figure 5
TypicalCraneLoadEccentricities
58
Figure 6
Flexure Analogy
, e
d
d
d
2 2
1
2
1
. . For many cases, , and satisfactory results are obtained
E\DSSO\LQJDOOWKHVLGHWKUXVWWRWKHWRSDQJH
( ) M C e d F d
F C
d
e
d
d
F F C F
F C
d
e
d
d
0
0
1
b s t
t s
x b s t
b s
2 1
1 1
2
1 1
2
`
`
= = + -
= +
= + =
= + -
<
<
F
F
!
!
59
Figure 7
Runway Beam with Apron Plate
60
Figure 8
Typical Damage near Columns Due to Fatigue and Unaccounted-for Forces
61
Figure 9
Examples of Unaccounted-for Forces and Fatigue Damage at Beam Supports
62
Figure 10
Examples of Unaccounted-for Forces and Fatigue at Beam Lateral Restraints
63
Figure 11
Example of Unaccounted-for Differential Movements
64
Figure 12
Compatible Deformation Forces Due to Deection of Bracket
65
Figure 13
Example of a Light-Duty Tie-Back
66
Figure 14
Details Suitable for Many Class SA, SB and SC Services
67
Figure 15
Details Suitable for Light Duty Where Fatigue Is Not a Consideration
68
Figure 16
Example of a Fatigue-Resistant Beam Support
69
Figure 17
Details from Figure 16
70
Figure 18
Bearing Detail Suitable for all Classes of Service
71
Figure 19
Typical Heavy-Duty Crane Runway Beam
72
Figure 20
Example of a Heavy-Duty Bearing Detail with Minimal End Restraint and Eccentricity
73
Figure 21
Details for Beam Change in Depth
74
Figure 22
Alternative Detail for Change in Depth
75
Figure 23
Details for Support of Underslung Cranes
76
Figure 24
Crane Runway Beam Erection Tolerances
77
Figure 25
Typical Welding and Inspection Practice for Heavy-Duty Beams
78
79
APPENDIX A
DESIGN EXAMPLES
80
Design Example 1
Illustration of Design of a Mono-symmetric Section Crane Runway Beam
(Note: Design is for bending strength only and is not a complete design)
Design Criteria Value/Units
CodesandStandards CSAS16-01
Importance(seeNBCC2005) N.A.
LiIeoItheStructure N.A
Materials(Plates,Shapes,Fasteners,etc.) CSAG40.21Grade350W
Span 10670mm
ProvisionIorFutureExpansion? N.A.
SimpleSpan? Yes
LateralSupportIorTopFlange? No
TopoIRailElevation,orHeightIromMainFloor N.A.
RequiredClearancestoU/SBeam N.A.
SideThrustEquallyDistributedBothSidesoIRunway? Yes
NumberoICranes,EachRunway 1
CollectorRailMountingDetails N.A.
DesignIorFutureAdditionalCranes No
JibCranes,orProvisionIorJibCranes No
DesignIorFutureUpgrades No
ClassoICranes CMAAClassA
Service(Description) N.A
TypeoIDuty(seetable2.1) Light
CraneHookCapacity #hook(s)each
Capacityeachhook
1
22.68tonnes,incl.liItinggear
WeightoICraneBridge N.A
81
Design Criteria Value/Units
WeightoICraneTrolley 2721kg
BridgeWheelsperRail TotalNumber
Driven
Two
One
BridgeWheelSpacing 3050mm
MinimumDistanceBetweenWheelsoICranesinTandem N.A
MaximumWheelLoad,EachCrane(notincludingimpact) 169.0kN
CraneRail Description
SelILoad
ASCE40,89mmheight
19.8kg/m
RailJoints(boltedorwelded) N.A.
ResilientPadUnderRail? N.A.
BridgeSpeed N.A.
TypeoIBumpers N.A.
BumpersSuppliedwithCrane? N.A.
BumperForceonRunwayEndStop(UltimateLoad) N.A.
FatigueCriteria:
Vertical- EquivalentpassesoIonecrane,maximum
wheelloads
Horizontal- EquivalentcyclesoIsidethrustat50oI
maximumsidethrust
N.A.
Defection Criteria:
VerticalLimit(onecrane,notincludingimpact)
HorizontalLimit
Span/600
Span/400
ImpactCriteria:
PercentageoImaximumwheelloads,onecraneonly
25
OtherConsiderations N.A.
*Weight Certifed? N.A
82
Design Data
LiItedLoad
kg . m/s
. kN
1000
22 680 9 81
222 4
2
#
= =
^
^
h
h
TrolleyLoad
kg . m/s
. kN
1000
2 721 9 81
26 69
2
#
= =
^
^
h
h
CraneRunwayBeamSpan10670mm
CraneWheelBase3050mm
MaximumWheelLoads169kN,notincludingimpact
1) Calculate M
x
Figure A1
WheelLoads
PointoImaximumbendingmomentisat . mm 0 5 10 670
2
3 050
4 573 - = b l
M
LL
underwheelloadclosesttomid-span144.9 4.573662.6kNm
IInecessary,theleItreaction(144.9)ortherightreaction(193.1)canbecalculatedasIollows:

.
. . .
( )
.
. .
R right wheel left wheel 169
10 67
10 67 4 573 3 050
169
10 67
10 67 4 573
l
=
- +
+
-
^
^
h
h
7
6
A
@

. . . kN 48 3 96 6 144 9 = + =

.
. .
.
.
R right wheel left wheel 169
10 67
4 573 3 050
169
10 67
4 573
r
=
+
= ^ ^ h h
6 @
. . . kN 120 7 72 4 193 1 = + =
C
C.G.
Wheel Load
10 670
4 573 3 050
763
763
169 kN 169 kN
R=144.9 kN R=193.1 kN
M
=
6
6
2
.
3
k
N
.
m
M
=
5
8
8
.
6
k
N
.
m
83
Figure A2
Runway Beam Section
W610217
(All units in mm)
A = 27 800 d = 628
r
x
= 262
I
x
= 1 910 10
6
b = 328
Z
x
= 6 850
S
x
= 6 070 10
3
t = 27.7
r
y
= 76.7
l
y
= 163 10
6
w = 16.5
Z
y
= 1 530
S
y
= 995 10
3
J = 5 600 10
3
C
w
= 14 700 10
9
Rail 40
#
, d = 89 mm
B
p
= 381 mm
t
p
= 12.7 mm
6
4
0
.
7
m
m
328 mm
W610 x 217
84
Mduetoimpact $ . . . kNm 0 25 662 3 165 6 # = =
Estimateddeadload,includingrailandconductorsis2.64kN/m
$ .
.
. kNm M 2 64
8
10 67
37 57
DL
2
# = =
FactoredMoment M
fx
. . . . . 1 25 37 57 1 5 662 3 165 6 = + +
^ ^ h h
$ kNm 47 1242 1289 = + =
2) Determine Side Thrust
Use20oIthesumoItheliItedloadandthetrolley(seeTable2.1),equallydistributedtoeachside.
SideThrust0.2(222.426.69)49.82kN12.45kN/wheel
RatiooIsidethrusttomaximumwheelload
.
.
169
12 45
0 07367 = =
Specifed moment M
H
duetosidethrust
M
H
0.07367 662.348.79kNm
Factoredmomentduetosidethrust
M
HF
1.5 48.7973.19kNm
3) Select a trial section
For vertical defection, a preliminary analysis shows that a section with I
x
2.0 10
9
mm
4
will defect 18.5 mm
maximum.
Using
l
600
as the criterion, the maximum allowable vertical defection . mm
600
10 670
17 78 = =
thereIoreI
x
shouldbeatleast
.
.
. . mm
17 78
18 5
2 0 10 2 081 10
9 9 4
# # # =
Considering that horizontal defection < , then . mm
l
400 400
10 670
26 7
max
= = D ,and

.
.
. . . mm I
26 7
18 5
0 073 67 2 0 10 102 1 10
y top flange
9 6 4
# # # # $ = _ i
AItersomepreliminarycalculations,thecoverplatedW610217sectioninFigureA2ischosenIoranalysis.
4) Determine Class of Section
CheckIorClass2(Compact) (S16-01,Clause11.2)
For fanges and projecting elements .
t
b
F
170
9 09
y
# =
CoverplatesbetweenlinesoIwelds .
t
b
F
525
28 06
y
# =
W610217 -Class1Iorbending(Table5.1inCISCHandbook)
CoverPlate38112.7mm,projection(381 328)/226.5mm

t
b
oIprojectingelement
.
.
. < .
12 7
26 5
2 09 9 09 = = OK
85

t
b
betweenwelds
.
. < .
12 7
328
25 82 28 06 = = OK
Section qualifes as Class 2 in bending (actually Class 1)

5) Calculate M
p
andZ for both axes
CalculateplasticneutralaxisoIthesection(SeeFigureA3)
16.5h
2
16.5 (572.6 h
2
)4839
33h
2
94484839
h
2
432.9mm
Figure A4
Centroid of Section Above Neutral Axis
Centroid
1
3
9
.
7
m
m
a
c
b
a =69.9 mm
b =153.6 mm
c =173.8 mm
A=16.5x139.7=2305 mm
2
A
3
A
1
A
web
A
2
5
7
2
.
6
m
m
h
=
4
3
2
.
9
m
m
2
Figure A3
SectionAreas
A
1
= 12.7 381 = 4839 mm
2
A
2
= 27.7 328 = 9086 mm
2
A
web
= 16.5 572.6 = 9448 mm
2
A
3
= 27.7 328 = 9086 mm
2
86

CalculateCentroidsoITopandBottom
CentroidTop
. . .
. mm
4839 9086 2305
4839 173 8 9086 153 6 2305 69 9
147 7
# # #
=
+ +
+ +
=
^ ^ ^ h h h
CentroidBottom
. .
. mm
9086 7143
9086 446 8 7143 216 5
345 4
# #
=
+
+
=
^ ^ h h
Distancecentroidtocentroid147.7345.4493.1mm
$
.
kNm M
10
350 16229 493 1
2800
p
6
# #
= =
. mm Z
350
2800 10
8 0 10
6
6 3 #
# = =
For the weak axis, top fange only

. . . mm Z 12 7
4
381
27 7
4
328
1 206 10
2 2
6 3
# # # = + =
$ . kNm M 350 1 206
10
10
422
p
6
6
# # = =
Centroid
4
3
2
.
9
m
m
4
4
6
.
8
m
m
A
web
= 432.9 16.5 = 7143 mm
2
A
fange
= 9 086 mm
2
A
total
= 16 229 mm
2
Figure A5
Centroid of Section Below Neutral Axis
Figure A6
Top Flange Only
87
6) Calculate Elastic Section Properties x-x (for the built-up section)
Material
A
(mm
2
)
y
b
(mm)
Ay
b
(10
3
mm
3
)
Ay
b
2

(10
6
mm
4
)
I
0
(10
6
mm
4
)
W 27800 314 8730 2740 1910
Plate 4839 634.4 3070 1948 0.065
32639 11800 4688 1910
. mm y
A
Ay
32 639
11800 10
361 5
B
b
3
#
= = =
!
!
andy
T
640.7 361.5279.2mm

I I Ay y A
xx b B
0
2 2
= + - ! ! !
. mm 1910 10 4688 10 32 639 361 5 2332 10
6 6 2 6 4
# # # = + - =
^ h

.
mm S
y
I
361 5
2332 10
6 451 10
B
B
xx
6
3 3 #
# = = =

.
mm S
y
I
279 2
2332 10
8352 10
T
T
xx
6
3 3 #
# = = =
7) Calculate Elastic Section Properties y-y
I
yy
WRSDQJH . . 27 7
12
328
12 7
12
381
3 3
# # = +
c c m m
. . mm 81 46 10 58 53 10 140 10
6 6 6 4
# # # = + =
I
yy
web .
.
. mm 572 6
12
16 5
0 2143 10
3
6 4
# # = =
I
yy
ERWWRPDQJH . mm 81 46 10
6 4
# =
I
yy
! . mm 221 7 10
6 4
#
S
yy
WRSDQJH
.
. mm
190 5
140 10
0 7349 10
6
6 3 #
# = =
S
yy
ERWWRPDQJH
.
. mm
164
81 46 10
0 4967 10
6
6 3 #
# = =
8) Calculate ~Equivalent top ange
. . . mm A 27 7 328 12 7 381 13 92 10
3 2
# # # = + =
^ ^ h h
mm I 140 10
6 4
# =
mm
t w
12
140 10
3
6 4
# =
Note:Twoparallelplatesmust
be continuously welded and
the projecting element must
be relatively small. For more
inIormation,reIertoTremblay
andLegault(1996).
88
. mm t w 13 92 10
3 2
# =

.
w
w 13 92 10
12
140 10
3 3
6 #
# # =

.
. mm w
13 92 10
12 140 10
347 4
3
6
#
# #
= =

.
.
. mm t
347 4
13 92 10
40 07
3
#
= =
Use equivalent top fange Ior purposes oI analysing the mono-symmetric section.
Figure A7
Section for Purposes of Mono-Symmetric Section Ayalysis
a
b
5
7
2
.
6
m
m
c
347.4 mm
27.7 mm
6
4
0
.
7
m
m
16.5 mm
328 mm
40.07 mm
89
9) Calculate Section properties x-x
Material
A
(mm
2
)
y
b
(mm)
Ay
b
(10
3
mm
3
)
Ay
b
2

(10
6
mm
4
)
I0
(10
6
mm
4
)
a 9086 13.85 125.8 1.743 0.5809
b 9448 314 2967 931.5 258.1
c 13920 620.7 8640 5363 1.863
32450 11730 6296 260.5

. mm and . . . mm
. .
mm
.
mm
.
mm
y
A
Ay
y
I I Ay y A
S
y
I
S
y
I
32 450
11730 10
361 5 640 7 361 5 279 2
260 5 10 6292 10 32 450 361 5
2 317 10
361 5
2 317 10
6 409 10
279 2
2 317 10
8 300 10
B
b
T
xx b B
xB
B
xx
xT
T
xx
3
0
2 2
6 6 2
6 4
6
3 3
6
3 3
#
# #
#
#
#
#
#
= = = = - =
= + -
= + -
=
= = =
= = =
^ h
!
!
! !
10) Calculate Section Properties y-y
I
yy
WRSDQJH mm 140 10
6 4
# =
I
yy
web .
.
. mm 572 6
12
16 5
0 2143 10
3
6 4
# # = =
I
yy
ERWWRPDQJH
. mm 81 46 10
6 4
# =
I
yy
! . mm 221 7 10
6 4
# =
11) Calculate M
p
andZ
Determinedistancetoneutralaxis.

$
. . .
. .
. mm
then
. .
kNm
. mm
h h
h h
h
M
Z
13 920 16 5 572 6 9086 16 5
13 920 9448 16 5 9086 16 5
33
23 368 9086
432 8
350 16 227
10
345 4 147 0
2 797
350
2 797 10
7 99 10
p
2 2
2 2
2
6
6
6 3
# #
#
#
+ - = +
+ - = +
=
-
=
=
+
=
= =
^
^
h
h
Figure A8
Neutral axis of Equivalent Section
5
7
2
.
6
m
m
A =13 920
t
A =9 448
w
A =9 086
b
N.A.
16.5 mm
h
2
90
Centroid Top
16 227
2
16.5 139.8
13 920 159.8
147.0 mm
2
#
#
=
+
=
Centroid Bottom
16 227
2
16.5 432.8
9 086 446.7
345.4 mm
2
#
#
=
+
=
12) Calculate Section Properties for Mono-Symmetric Analysis
ReIertoGalambos(1998),orvisithttp://www.cisc-icca.ca/resources/tech/updates/torsionprop

.
.
.
.
.
. .
. mm
. . . . .
. mm
. . . .
. mm
d
J
C
1
328
347 4
27 7
40 07
1
0 3678
640 7
2
40 07 27 7
606 8
3
347 4 40 07 328 27 7 606 8 16 5
10 69 10
12
606 8 347 4 40 07 0 3678
19 0 10
w
3
3 3 3
6 4
2 3
12 6
#
# # #
#
# # #
#
=
+
=
= -
+
=
=
+ +
=
= =
a
l
c c
^
^ ^ ^
m m
h
h h h
< F
ShearCentreLocation
.
.
. . . mm y 279 2
2
40 07
0 3678 606 8 35 98
0
# = - = =+
^ h ,thereIoreabovethecentroid
Figure A9
Centroid of Top and Bottom Flange
1
3
9
.
8
m
m
347.4 mm
27.7 mm
328 mm
40.07 mm
4
3
2
.
8
m
m
91

.
.
.
. < .
I
I
221 7 10
140 10
0 6315
2317 10
221 7 10
0 0957 0 5
x
y
6
6
6
6
#
#
#
#
= =
= =
t
thereIore
. . . . . mm 1 0 9 2 0 6315 1 606 8 1 0 0957 142 3
x
2
# # # = + - - = b ^ ^ _ ^ h h i h
13) Investigate strength of the section in bending

M
EI
L
GJL
EI
C
I
u
y
x x
y
w
y
= + + +
|
\

|
.
|
|

(
(

3
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
Z
3
Z
2
Ior beams with two fanges.

2
2 2 2 2
4
4 7 4
2 5 =
+ + +

M
M M M M
a b c
max
max
.
M
max
maximumIactoredbendingmomentmagnitudeinunbracedsegment
M
a
Iactoredbendingmomentatone-quarterpointoIunbracedsegment
M
b
IactoredbendingmomentatmidpointoIunbracedsegment
M
c
Iactoredbendingmomentatthree-quarterpointoIunbracedsegment
Z
2
coeIfcient to account Ior increased moment resistance oI a laterally unsupported
doubly-symmetricbeamsegmentwhensubjecttoamomentgradient

C
C.G.
Wheel Load
10 670
4 573 3 050
763
763
169 kN 169kN
R=144.9
0.25L
0.75L
kN R=193.1 kN
M
=
6
6
2
.
3
k
N
.
m
M
=
5
8
8
.
6
k
N
.
m
M
a
M
b
M
c

M
M
M
a
b
c
=
=
=
386 3
643 9
515 4
.
.
.
kN m
kN m
kN m
Figure A9a
Bending Moment Diagram (Due to Wheel Loads Only)

2
2 2 2 2
4 662 3
662 3 4 386 3 7 643 9 4 515 4
1 185 =

+
( )
+
( )
+
( )
=
.
. . . .
.
92
M
u
=

+ +
1 185 200 000 221 7 10
2 10 670
142 3 142 3 4
77 000 10
2 6
2
2
. .
. .
..
. .
69 10 10 670
200 000 221 7 10
19 10
221 7 10
6 2
2 6
12
6


+

|
\

|
.
|

(
(
= = 2 839 10 2 839
9
. N mm kN m
14) Calculate M
yr

M S F S
yr x y x
=

=
0 7
10 350
10
1570
3
6
. ,with minimum

0.7 6 409
kN mm
TheIactor0.7wasintroducedinS16-09toaccountIorresidualstresses.SeecommentbyTrahair(2011),p.8.
15) Calculate L
u

L r
E
F
r
F
u t
y
t
y
= = 1 1
490
.

where

r
b
h w
b t
t
c
c
c c
=
+
|
\

|
.
|
12 1
3
h
c
depthoIthewebincompression
b
c
width oI compression fange
t
c
thickness oI compression fange

r
t
=
+


|
\

|
.
|
=
347 4
12 1
239 1 16 5
3 347 4 40 07
95 86
.
. .
. .
. mm

L
u
=

=
490 95 86
350
2 511
.
mm
16) Since M
u
>M
yr ,
calculate M
r

M M M M
L L
L L
M
r p p yr
u
yr u
p
=
( )

|
\

|
.
|
|

(
(

L
yr
lengthLobtainedbysettingM
u
M
yr

To fnd L
yr
,M
u
canbeexpressedasIollows

M
L
L
u
yr
yr
=

+ + +
( )

2 585 10
142 3 20 249 4 1 881 10 85 701
14
2
3 2
.
. .
93
L
yr
,mm M
u
,kNm

14000 1976~1570
15000 1811~1570
16000 15541570,butcloseenough
17) Calculate M
r

Fromstep11,M
p
2797kNm,I

M
p
0.9

27972517kNm

M
r
= ( )

|
\

|
.
|

(
=
0 9 2 797 2 797 1570
10 670 2 511
16 000 2 511
0 9
.
.
= <
2 054
1849 2 517 kN m kN mOK
18) Calculate distribution of the side thrust C
s
by exural analogy
SeeFiguresA10andA11.
MomentatShearCentre C C 243 89 332
s s
= + =
^ h

Couple, applied to each fange .


C
C
223 384
332
0 5470
s
s
=
+
=
^ h
40 lb Rail
C
s
89+(12.7+27.7)/2=109.2 mm
6
4
1
243-(12.7+27.7)/2=223 mm
398-27.7/2=384 mm
Shear Centre
2
4
3
3
9
8
8
9
Dimensions rounded to the nearest mm
Figure A10
Distribution of Side Thrust
94
DistributionoIhorizontalloadappliedatshearcentre,asasimplebeamanalogy
- to top fange .
C
C
223 384
384
0 6326
s
s
#
+
=
^ h
- to bottom fange . C 0 3674
s
=
M
fyt
(top fange) $ . . . kNm 1 18 73 19 86 36 # = =
M
fyb
(bottom fange) $ . . . kNm 0 1796 73 19 13 15 # = =
M
fx $ kNm 1289 =

0.1796C
s
Shear Centre
+
C
s
1.180C
s
0.5470C
s
0.5470C
s
= =
0.3674C
s
0.6326C
s

19) Check overall member strength

.
. .
.
. . . < . OK
M
M
M
M
1 0
0 9 2800
1289
0 9 422
86 36
0 511 0 227 0 739 1 0
rx
fx
ry
fy
# #
# +
+ = + =
20) Check stability (lateral-torsional buckling)

1289
0 9 2 054
86 36
0 9 422
0 697 0 227 0 924 1 0
.
.
.
. . . .

= + = < OK
No further checks are required (see Section 5.10)
Conclusion: Section is adequate in bending
Figure A11
Moments about Shear Centre
95
Design Example 2
Illustration of Design of a Heavy-Duty Plate Girder Type Crane Runway Beam
Design Criteria Value/Units
CodesandStandards CSAS16-01
Importance(seeNBCC2005) N.A.
LiIeoItheStructure N.A.
Materials(Plates,Shapes,Fasteners,etc.) CSAG40.21Grade350W
Span 15240mm
ProvisionIorFutureExpansion? N.A.
SimpleSpan? Yes
LateralSupportIorTopFlange? Yes
TopoIRailElevation,orHeightIromMainFloor N.A.
RequiredClearancestoU/SBeam N.A.
SideThrustEquallyDistributedBothSidesoIRunway? Yes
NumberoICranes,EachRunway 2identicalcranes
CollectorRailMountingDetails N.A.
DesignIorFutureAdditionalCranes N.A.
JibCranes,orProvisionIorJibCranes No
DesignIorFutureUpgrades N.A.
ClassoICranes CMAAClassD
Service(Description) Heavy
TypeoIDuty(seetable2.1) SteelMill,caboperatedorradiocontrolled
CraneHookCapacity #hook(s)each
Capacityeachhook
1
45tonnes
WeightoICraneBridge 106600kg*
96
Design Criteria Value/Units
WeightoICraneTrolley 29500kg*
BridgeWheelsperRail TotalNumber
Driven
4
2
BridgeWheelSpacing SeeFigureA12
MinimumDistanceBetweenWheelsoICranesinTandem 3658mm
MaximumWheelLoad,EachCrane(notincludingimpact) 276kN
CraneRail Description
SelILoad
Bethlehem135lb/yd
0.657kN/m
RailJoints(boltedorwelded) Yes
ResilientPadUnderRail? Yes
BridgeSpeed 1.5m/sec
TypeoIBumpers N.A.
BumpersSuppliedwithCrane? N.A.
BumperForcedonRunwayEndStop(UltimateLoad) N.A.
FatigueCriteria:
Vertical- Equivalentpassesononecrane,maximum
wheelloads
Horizontal- EquivalentcyclesoIsidethrustat50oI
maximumsidethrust
1000000
500000
Defection Criteria:
VerticalLimit(onecrane,notincludingimpact)
HorizontalLimit
Span/800
Span/400
ImpactCriteria:
PercentageoImaximumwheelloads,onecraneonly
25
OtherConsiderations
Useelastomericpadunderrail.Firsttwo
axlesoIeachcranearedriven.
*Weight Certifed? No
97
Figure A12
Wheel Conguration - Two Cranes
Design Data
ApreliminaryanalysisshowsthatamomentoIinertiainthestrongaxisoIapproximately15 10
9
mm
4
will
berequired.AcomputerizedmovingloadanalysisIoroneandtwocranesusingI14.5 10
9
mm
4
yieldsthe
Iollowingresults:
15 240 mm 15 240 mm
1829 3658 1829 3658 1829 3658 1829
Crane A Crane B
Bumpers Compressed
3048
Figure A13
WheelLocation-OneCrane
M
max
,1Crane,noImpact
M
LL
, specifed 2 751 kNm
V
LL
, specifed 839.0 kN
762
Figure A14
Wheel Location - Two Cranes
M
max
, 2 Crane,noImpact
M
LL
, specifed 3 051 kNm
V
LL
, specifed 960.5 kN
98
Fromthecranedataprovided,momentsandshearsIoronecranewithoutimpactareasIollows.
7
2
8
914 914
6
1
8
2
7
.
6
1
3
2
7
7
.
3
1
9
9
2
8
7
3
9
7
5
0
8
C
L
Span
C.G. Wheels
276 kN (typical)
15 240 mm
Wheel Position for M
max
Crane Live Load Shear Force Envelope kN (Unfactored)
1
1
1
0
1
8
8
4
1
1
1
0
1
8
8
4
2
4
2
3
2
7
2
6
2
7
5
1
2
7
2
6
2
4
2
3
Crane Live Load Bending Moment Envelope kN.m (Unfactored)
8
3
9
2
7
.
6
7
7
.
3
1
3
2
1
9
9
2
8
7
3
9
7
5
0
8
6
1
8
7
2
8
8
3
9
Figure A15
Bending Moments and Shears - One Crane
99
Figure A16
Bending Moments and Shears - Two Cranes
MomentsandshearsIortwocranesintandem,bumperscompressed,withoutimpact,areasIollows.
7
9
5
457 457
6
4
0
2
7
.
6
1
3
2
7
7
.
3
1
9
9
2
8
7
3
9
7
5
0
8
C
L
Span
C.G. Wheels
276 kN (typical)
15 240 mm
Wheel Position for M
max
Crane Live Load Shear Force Envelope kN (Unfactored)
1
2
1
1
2
0
1
9
1
2
1
1
2
0
1
9
2
5
4
9
2
9
2
7
3
0
5
1
2
9
2
7
2
5
4
9
3
0
5
1
Crane Live Load Bending Moment Envelope kN.m (Unfactored)
9
6
0
2
7
.
6
7
7
.
3
1
3
2
1
9
9
2
8
7
3
9
7
5
0
8
6
4
0
7
9
5
9
6
0
100
Consider the Forces from Traction, C
ls
(One crane only)
WheelsarepositionedIorM
max
.
CriterionIorC
ls
is20oItheloadinthedrivenwheels.Forworstcase,assumeallhorizontalloadresistedat
RHS(RH).

, specified load . . kN
.
. .
. kN
C
R R
0 2 2 276 110 4
15 24
110 4 1 646
11 92
ls
R L
# #
#
= =
= = =
Themaximum()momentM
r
willoccurunderthesamewheelasIorgravityloads11.92 8.534101.7kN
Note: Axial load is not signifcant Ior this section and will not be considered Iurther in this example.
1) Calculate Side Thrust
ReIertoSection2.3.1andTable2.1IorcranesoItype"CabOperatedorRadioControlled".TotalsidethrustIor
onecraneisthegreatestoI:
-40oIliItedload 0.4 459.81 176.6kN
-20oI(liItedloadtrolley) 0.2 (4529.5) 9.81 146.2kN
-10oI(liItedloadcraneweight) 0.1 (45+ 136.1) 9.81 177.7kN Governs
StiIInessinthedirectionoIsidethrustisthesameonbothsidesoItherunway,thereIorethemaximumvalue,
177.7kNwillbedistributedequallytoeachside,

.
. kN per wheel
2 4
177 7
22 21
#
=
ThereIoremomentsandshearsduetosidethrustwillbe
.
.
276
22 21
0 0805 = timestheverticalwheelloadmoments
andshears.
Summary Table - Unfactored Live Load Bending Moment and Shear Summary
Moments
(kNm)
Shears (kN)
at End at 1524 at 3048 at 4572 at 6096 at 7620
OneCrane
Live Load 2751 839.0 728.0 618.0 508.0 397.0 287.0
Impact 687.8 209.8 182.0 154.5 127.0 99.25 71.75
Side thrust 221.5 67.54
Traction 101.7 11.92
Two
Cranes
Live Load 3051 960.0 795.0 640.0 508.0 397.0 287.0
Impact
Side thrust 221.5 67.54
Traction 101.7 11.92
101
NotethatintheabovesummaryIortwocranes,thevaluesIorsidethrustwillbeslightlyconservativebecausethe
maximumvaluesIorasinglecranepositionedIormaximumeIIectswereused.IIarigorousapproachisused,the
designermaybeIacedwithaIormidablenumberoIpossibilitiesIorthecriticalcombination.Fromthesummary
table,onecranewillgovernIorstrengthcalculations.
Investigate Deection Due to Live Load
FromacomputerizedmovingloadanalysisusingI
xx
14.5 10
9
mm
4
, maximum defection due to live load not
including impact, is as Iollows. Defection Ior two cranes is shown Ior inIormation only.
Maximum Deection, mm Span/800, mm
Onecrane 23.6 19.1
Two cranes 25.8 19.1
ThereIore, Ior defection s19.1 mm,
minimum
.
.
. . mm I
19 1
23 6
14 5 10 17 9 10
xx
9 9 4
# # # = =
Pick Trial Section
Figure A17
TrialSection
1
5
0
0
m
m
b
1440x16
c
500x30
a
500x30
f
w=8.9
d
1010x10
e
207x10.9
W 530x72
1230
30
*
Note: the 10 mm Apron Plate is considered
adequate for local foot traffic. No other live
load need be included for this design.
* 30 is a minimum dimension and should
be increased if possible to limit distortion-
induced fatigue stresses.
102
Class of Section for Bending x-x, Grade of Steel 350W
Flanges
. >
t
b
F
30
250
8 33
145
y
= =
Class2
Web
>
<
w
h
F
F
16
1440
90
1700
83 000
y
y
= =
Class2
OK(14.3.1)
However,sincethecompositesection,includingaportionoItheapronplate,willnothaveanaxisoIsymmetry
intheplaneoIbending(seeS16-01,Clause11.1.3),thesectionwillbeconsideredClass3.
ThereIore,inaccordancewithS16-01,Clause11.2,Table2;
Projecting fanges
t
b
F
200
y
#
10.69
StemsoITeeSections
t
b
F
340
y
#
18.17
Webs
w
h
F
1900
y
#
101.6
ThemaximumslendernessratiooIaweb > .
F
83 000
237 1
y
= (Clause14.3.1)
IIthewebslendernessratio >
w
h
S
M
1900
f
z
,
thenthemomentresistancemustberequiredinaccordancewithclause14.3.4
Consider Eccentricity of Loads Due to Side Thrust (C
ss
) in the Horizontal Direction

.
.
H C C
H C
1490
1631
1 0946
0 0946
T ss ss
B ss
# = =
=
ReIerringtothemomentsduetosidethrust,increasethebendingmomentsandshearsinthehorizontalbeam
by a Iactor oI 1.0946, and apply a bending moment to the bottom fange oI the plate girder 0.0946timesthe
calculated lateral moment due to side thrust. The bending moment y-y in the bottom fange is
$ . . . kNm 0 0946 221 5 20 96 # =
M
ry
bottom fange $ . kNm 0 9 350 30
4
500
10 591
2
6
# # # # = =
-
Note:Resilientpadnotincludedabove.EIIectissmallandcanbeneglected.
103
Calculate Section Properties x-x
Figure A18
Section Properties of Girder with Apron Plate, About x-x Axis
Element
(mm )
A
2
(mm)
y
b
( mm )
Ay
10
b
3 3
( mm )
Ay
10
2
b
6 4
( mm )
I
10
0
6 4
a 15000 15 225 3.4
b 23040 750 17280 12960 3981
c 15000 1485 22280 33080
d 1369 1505 2060 3101
E
54410 41850 49140 3981
. mm and . . mm y
A
Ay
y
54 410
41850 10
769 2 1510 769 2 740 8
B
b
T
3
#
= = = = - =
!
!
b
10.69x10=106.9 mm
a
y
=
7
6
9
m
m
B
136.9
d
c
104
.
mm >
I I Ay y A
3 981 10 49140 10 54 410 769 2
20 940 10 17 900 10
xx b B
2 2
6 6 2
6 4 6
O
# #
# #
= + -
= + -
=
^ h
! ! !
C
ss
1
5
1
4
6
1
5
0
0
5
H
T
H
B
Reaction from Horizontal Beam
Reaction from Horizontal Beam
Figure A19
Side Thrust
ThereIore vertical defection due to crane load will be less than
span
800
andwillbe
.
.
. . mm
2 094
1 79
19 1 16 3 # =

.
mm
.
mm
S
y
I
S
y
I
769 2
20 940 10
27 220 10
740 8
20 940 10
28 270 10
x Bottom
B
xx
x Top
T
xx
6
3 3
6
3 3
#
#
#
#
= = =
= = =
1

6
3
1
1

4
9
0
105
Calculate Section Properties y-y
Element
(mm )
A
2
(mm)
x
' ' a
( mm )
Ax
10
'a'
3 3
( mm )
Ax
10
'a'
2
6 4
( mm )
I
10
6 4
0
500 30 15000 250 3750 938 313
290.7 16 4651 250 1163 290.8
1010 10 10100 975 9848 9602 859
207 10.9 2256 1480 3339 4942 81
161.7 8.9 1439 1480 2130 3152
E
33450 20230 18920 1253

x
Ax
A
x
a
= =

= =

' '
. ' .
20 230 10
33 450
604 8 1583 5 604
3
mmand .. . 8 978 8 = mm

I I Ax x A
yy
a
= +
= + ( )
=
0
2 2
6 6
2
1253 10 18 920 10 33 450 604 8
7 945
' '
.
10
6 4
mm

S
I
x
y a
yy
' '
.
= =

=
7 945 10
604 8
13140 10
6
3 3
mm
18.17x8.9
=161.7 mm
500x30
1010x10
207x10.9
1230
470
18.17x16
=290.7 mm
978.7 mm X from point a = 604.8 mm
a
b
Figure A20
Section Properties of Girder with Apron Plate, About y-y Axis
106

' .
mm S
x
I
978 7
7 945 10
8118 10
' ' y b
yy
6
3 3 #
# = = =
Calculate Lateral Deection Due to Side Thrust

.
. . . .
. mm
. mm > . mm OK
Span
7 945 10
1 0946 0 0805 20 94 10 16 3
3 8
400 400
15 240
38 1 3 5
9
9
#
# # # #
= =
= =
Check Shear OK by quick check.
Calculate Factored Moment Resistance M S F
rx x y = z (Clause 13.5)
at top fange $ . . kNm 0 9 28 27 10 350 10 8 905
6 6
# # # # = =
-
at bottom fange $
.
.
kNm
2 827
2 722
8 905 8574 # = =
Calculate Factored Moment Resistance M S F
ry y y = z (Clause 13.5)
atrailside $ . . kNm 0 9 13 14 10 350 10 4139
6 6
# # # # = =
-
atbackside $
.
.
kNm
13 14
8 118
4139 2557 # = =
Check for Reduction in Moment Resistance M
rx
Due to a Slender Web (14.3.4)
FactoredMoment M
fx
isapproximately $ . . kNm 1 2 200 1 5 3500 5490 # # + =
^ ^ h h
then ( )
. .
. > OK min
S
M
1900
0 9 27 22 10
5490 10
1900
126 9 90
x
fx
6
6
# #
#
= =
z
Check for Reduction in Moment Resistance M
ry
Due to a Slender Web
FactoredMoment M
fy
isapproximately $ . . kNm 1 5 221 5 332 # =
then
. .
> OK min
S
M
1900
0 9 8 118 10
332 10
1900
281
10
876
y
fy
6
6
# #
#
= =
z
] g
Calculate Shear Capacity of the Unstiffened Plate Girder Web (Clause 13.4)
V A F
rf w s
= z
F
s
iscalculatedinaccordancewiththewebslendernessratio
w
h
GototheCISCHandbookoISteelConstruction,wheretheIactoredultimateshearstress F
s
z isgivenIorgirder
webs.
Forgrade350,
w
h
90 = ,nointermediatestiIIeners MPa F 106
s
= z
then kN V
1000
106 1440 16
2442
rf
# #
= =
107
Check for Possibility of a Thinner Web
Capacity seems to be more than adequate, try 12 mm plate (fanges will have to be increased to maintain I
min x
),
>
w
h
F
12
1440
120
1900
y
= = ,thereIorebendingstrengthiscalculated(S16-01,Clause14).
FromCISCHandbook MPa F 60
s
= z ;thereIore kN V
1000
60 1440 12
1036
rf
# #
= =
FactoredShearForce . . kN 1 5 839 209 11 9 1590 . + + =
^ h plusDeadload~1036,thereIorestiIIenerswould
berequired.
Calculate Dead Load Supported by the Plate Girder
Section Area, mm . 0 785
2
#
kg/m 0.00981 # = kN/m =
PlateGirder
. 53 04 10
3
#
416.3
50 of Apron Plate 5175 40.6
135
#
Rail 66.96
Misc. (allowance) 50.0
E
573.8 5.629kN/m
Calculate the Unfactored Bending Moment M
x
Due to Dead Load
$ .
.
. kNm 5 629
8
15 240
163 4
2
# = =
Calculate the Unfactored Maximum Bending Moment M
x
Due to Live Loads
$ . . kNm 2 751 687 8 101 7 3541 = + + =
Calculate the Unfactored Maximum Bending Moment M
y
due to Live Loads (side thrust)
$ * . . . kNm 1 0946 221 5 242 5 # = =
*Amplifed due to eccentricity oI loads due to side thrust
Calculate M
fx
$ . . . kNm M 1 25 163 4 1 5 3541 5516
fx
# # = + =
^ ^ h h (seepreviouscalculations)
II the unloaded crane has been weighed (C
DL
) knowing the liIted load (C
LL
), the Iactored vertical crane load
wouldbe1.25C
DL
1.5C
LL
.
Calculate M
fy
atTop
$ . . . kNm M 1 5 242 5 363 7
fy
# = =
108
Calculate M
fy
atBottom
$ . . . . kNm M 1 5 0 0946 221 5 31 4
fy
# # = =
Check Trial Section for Biaxial Bending, Top corner, Rail Side.
ThisistheYieldingLimitState(Strength)Check.

.
.
. . . . OK
M
M
M
M
1 0
8 905
5516
4139
363 7
0 691 0 088 0 779 1 0
rx
fx
ry
fy
#
#
+
+ = + =
Check for Lateral-Torsional Buckling
LimitState(Stability)isnotrequiredbecausethesectionislaterallysupportedbythehorizontalbeam.
Check for Bending Strength Top Corner, Back Side

.
.
.
. < . OK
M
M
1 0
2557 2
363 8
0 142 1 0
ry
fy
#
=
Check for M
fx
and M
fy
in Bottom Flange

5 516
8 574
31 4
591
0 643 0 053 0 696 1 0 + = + = <
.
. . . . OK
Calculate Factored Shear in the Vertical Direction

. .
.
. . . .
. kN
1 25 5 629
2
15 24
1 5 839 0 209 8 11 92
53 61 1591 1665
# # = + + +
= + =
b ^ l h
Check Shear Strength in the Vertical Direction
. < . OK
2442
1665
0 682 1 0 =
AcheckIorcombinedbendingmomentandshearisnotrequiredbecausethesectionisnottransverselystiIIened.
SeeS16-01,Clause14.6.
109
Check Local Wheel Support
(a)CheckWebCripplingandYielding(Clause14.3.2)
Web, t =16 mm
Factored Wheel Load = 1.5 x 1.25 x 276 = 517.5 kN
N = (2 x 146) + (5 x 38) = 482 mm
1
1
2.5:1
Rail, 146 mm deep
Flange, t =30 mm
Fillet Weld, 8mm
Figure A21
Web Crippling Under Crane Wheel
CheckInterior
(i) . kN B 0 8 16 482 300
1000
350
3503
r
# = + =
^ h 14.3.2(i)
(ii) .
.
kN B 1 45
1000
0 8 16
350 200 000 2485
r
2
#
#
# = = 14.3.2(ii) Governs
theIactoredresistanceoI2485kN~517.5 kN OK
AcheckattheendsisnotnecessarybecausebearingstiIIenerswillbeused.
(b)ChecktorsionaleIIectsonwebunderawheelloadincludingraileccentricityandsidethrust.
FactoredVerticalLoad . . . kN 1 5 1 25 276 517 5 # # = = ,includingimpact
Factoredmomentduetoeccentricity $ . . . kNm 1 5 1 25 276
1000
12
6 21 # # # = =
Factoredmomentduetosidethrust $ . . . kNm 1 5 22 21
1000
184
6 13 # # = =
$ . . . kNm M 6 21 6 13 12 34
f
= + =
110
Figure A22
Stability and Strength of Web Under Combined Loads
Side thrust = 22.21 kN per wheel
146+30+8 = 184 mm
8
eccentricity = 0.75x16 = 12 mm
Wheel load = 276 kN
8
GTSM
Note:Theprocedurebelowisconserva-
tive, neglecting torsional restraint pro-
vided by the rail and fange. ReIer to ReI-
erence1IorinIormationonamoreexact
method established by Cornell Univer-
sity. Australian Standard AS 1418.18
also includes a procedure using limit
statesmethods.
ForlengthoIweb482mm,aspreviouslycalculated
mm Z
bd
4 4
482 16
30 848
2 2
3 #
= = =
$ . . < . kNm, No Good M kN 0 9 30 848 350 10 9 717 12 34
r
6
# # # = =
-
Since the torsional resistance oI the rail and fange was not included in the above approximation, check using a
moreexactingmethodsuchastheAustralianStandardA51418.18.Usingthismethod:
Factoredbendingmoment15000Nmm/mmlengthoIweld
Factoredresistance $ . Nmm/mm length of weld OK 0 9
4
16
350 20160
2
# # = =
NoneedtocheckatendsbecausebearingstiIIenershavebeenused.
111
ForstiIIeners, . Clause .
t
b
F
200
10 69 11 2
y
# =
thereIoreminimum
.
. mm t
10 69
232
21 7 = =
Try25mmthickstiIIeners
GTSM
GTSM or Grind to
bear and fillet weld
A A
Bearing Stiffener
Support Factored Reaction = 1665 kN
b=232 mm
240 mm
16 mm web
12 mm
12t =192 mm
Section A-A
Figure A23
Bearing Stiffeners
Design Bearing Stiffeners
112
Check column action

mm
. mm
.
. mm
of the length of the stiffeners
. mm
.
.
A
I
r
L
r
KL
2 232 25 16 192 14 672
25
12
480
12
192 25 16
230 5 10
14 672
230 5 10
125 3
4
3
0 75 1440 1080
125 3
1 1080
8 61
2
3 3
6 4
6
# # #
#
#
#
#
#
#
= + =
= +
-
=
= =
=
= =
= =
^ ^
^
h h
h
UsingTable4-4oItheCISCHandbook,theIactoredresistanceIor350MPastiIIenersis

kN > kN 314
1000
14 672
4607 1665 # = OK
Check Bearing (Clause 13.10)
Check one side
Factoredload . kN
2
1665
832 5 = =
Clause 28.5 states that at least 75 oI the area must be in contact. To guard against fllet welds supporting the
load,checkIor0.75207155mmincontact.
TheIactoredbearingresistance,toclause13.10

= = 1 5 0 9 350
155
1000
25 1831 . . kN~832.5 OK

Design welds to web


Factoredloadperweld
say
. kN/mm
2 1350
1665
0 617
#
= =
^ h
FromTable3-24,CISCHandbook,need5mmIorstrength,useminimum8mm(50loaded)
Fit to Bear, Minimum welds to be provided
207 mm
25
Figure A24
Bearing of Bearing Stiffener
113
Design Bottom Flange Fillet Welds For Strength
MaximumFactoredShearV
fx
1665kN
CalculateShearFlow
I
VAy
Factored shear fow at web-to-fange junction 'a'

.
. N/mm
20 94 10
1665 10 15000 754
899 3
9
3
#
# # #
= =
The minimum fllet weld is 8 mm (Page 6-172 oI the CISC Handbook). Using an E49XX electrode and Table
3-24 in the CISC Handbook, the Iactored shear resistance Ior a pair oI 8 mm fllet welds is
. . kN/mm > . OK 2 1 24 2 48 0 8993 # =
Continuousweldswouldbeusedto
.
.
.
2 48
0 899
0 36 = capacity
Design Upper welds for Strength
MaximumFactoredShearduetosidethrust . . . . kN V 1 5 67 54 1 0946 110 9
fy
# # = =
Figure A25
Factored Shear Flow at Web-to-Flange 1unction 'a'
7
3
1
m
m
a
A
3
A
2
A
1
N.A.
7
6
9
m
m
7
5
4
m
m
7
0
1
m
m
114
979 605
Weld 'b'
Weld 'd'
Weld 'c'
266x30
Weld 'e'
Weld 'f'
291x16
A=12636 mm
2
y=
(7980x133)+(4656x258)
12636
=179.1 mm
y=179 mm
1$
For weld 'b', y . mm A 12 636 605 179 5 383 10
6 3
# # = - = r ^ h
For welds 'c', and 'd' (Calculate 'c', use Ior both)
. mm y A 19 651 605 250 6 976 10
6 3
# # = - = r ^ h
For welds 'e'

A = ( ) + ( ) + ( ) = + + = 207 10 9 161 7 8 9 103 5 10 2 256 1439 1035 4 730 . . . . mm


22
2 256 103 5 1439 103 5 1035 51 8
4 730
92 2 N A .
. . .
. =
( ) + ( ) + ( )
= mm (1144.8mmIromRHS)
mm Ay = ( ) = 4 730 979 114 8 4 088 10
6 3
. .
For weld 'I'

. . . . mm A 103 5 10 9 161 7 8 9 1128 1439 2567


2
# # = + = + =
^ ^ h h
. .
. .
. mm N A
2567
1128 51 8 1439 103 5
80 8
# #
=
+
=
^ ^ h h
(IromRHS)
. . mm y A 2567 979 80 8 2 306 10
6 3
# # = - = r ^ h
For weld 'b'

A
N A
= + =
=
( ) + ( )
=
15 000 1369 16 369
15 000 15 1369 35
16 369
16 7
2
mm
m . . mm
IromNAoIentiresection 717 7
16 369 717 7 11 74
.
. .
( )
= = Ay 88 10
6 3
mm
For weld 'c'

mm
mm
from NA of entire section
. mm
y
y
A
A
1369
741 5 736
1369 736 1 008 10
2
6 3
# #
=
= - =
= =
r
r
^ h
Figure A27
UpperWelds
136.9x10
N.A.
d
Weld c
b
500x30
Figure A26
Welds 'b','c' and 'd'
115
Calculate Factored Shear Flows
weld'b' =

+
1665 10 11 748 10
20 94 10
110 9 1
3 6
9
.
.
. 00 5 383 10
7 945 10
934 1 75 1 1009 2
3 6
9

= + =
.
.
. . . N/mm(2welds)
weldd'c'and'd'
1665 10 1 008 10
20 94 10
110 9 10 6
3 6
9
3

+
.
.
. ..
.
. . .
976 10
7 945 10
80 1 97 4 177 5
6
9

= + = N/mm(2welds)
weld'e' N/mm
weld'
=

=
110 9 10 4 088 10
7 945 10
57 1
3 6
9
. .
.
.
II' N/mm
110 9 10 2 306 10
7 945 10
32 2
3 6
9
. .
.
.

For fllet welds, reIer to the CISC Handbook, Table 3-24, and page 6-172.
Weld
Factored Shear Flow, N/mm Minimum Fillet, mm
x-x y-y Combined Strength Thickness
a 449.7 - 5(58) 8(36)
b 467.1 37.6 504.7 5 8
c 40.1 48.7 88.8 5 8(7)
d 40.1 48.7 88.8 5 8(7)
e * 57.1 57.1 5(3) 5
f * 32.2 32.2 5(2) 5
* No signifcant gravity loads Ior purpose oI this example. () means oI strength provided.
Regarding weld 'a', a complete-joint-penetration groove weld with reinIorcing will be provided. No Iurther
evaluation.
Simplify Fatigue Loading
ThecriterionIorverticalloadingis1000000passesoIacrane,maximumwheelloads.
ThecriterionIorsidethrustis500000cyclesoIloadingat50sidethrust.
FindtheleveloIsidethrustthatIor1000000cycles,willcausethesamedamage.
FatigueliIeisinverselyproportionaltothevalueoIthestressrangeIorvaluesaboveconstantamplitude
threshold.*
Stressrangeisproportionaltoload.

* Does not include consideration oI low stress cycles, not signifcant Ior these calculations.
116

life
life
load range
load range
Load Ratio
2
1
1
2
3
3
= = d n
then . . Load Ratio 0 5 0 794
3
= =
i.e.use . % . % 0 794 50 39 7 # = oI specifed side thrust in calculations Ior strength.
Calculate Fatigue Loads and Stress Ranges
For M
x
,criterionis1000000cranepassages,maximumwheelloadwithoutimpact.
$ kNm, no reversal M 2751
x specifed
=
kN V 839
x specified
=
For M
y
,criterionis1000000cyclesoIsidethrust,includingreversal,at0.397 full load

$
$
. . . kNm
.
.
.
. kNm
M
M
0 397 242 5 96 27
0 397
1 5
31 4
8 31
y specified
top
y specified
bottom
! #
! #
= =
= =
.
.
.
. kN V 0 397
1 5
110 9
29 35
y specified
! # = =
Atweldedrailclips,checkiInettensionexistsunderminimumwheelloads(trolleyatotherside)and50
sidethrust.Wheelloads
. .
kg . kN
8
106 600
4
0 1 29 500
4
0 1 45 000
15187 149 0
# #
. + + = =
b b l l

.
. MPa f
28 27 10
276
149
2 751 10
52 53
sv
6
6
#
# #
=+ =

.
.
. MPa < . No Tension, OK f
7 945 10
96 27 10 605 100
6 12 52 53
sh
9
6
!
#
# #
=
-
=
^ h
BeIoreproceedingIurtherwithacheckonbasemetal,welddetailsneedtobeaddressed.ReIerringtostrength
calculations, intermittent fllet welds would be adequate at welds a, c, d, e and I.
Use oI intermittent fllet welds in tension areas is not advisable. These welds should be continuous fllets. Bolted
connections would be considered Ior the apron plate, but welds will be used Ior purposes oI this example.
Evaluation Ior continuous fllet welds oI the same size at a, b, c, d, e, I and g.
Calculate Stress Ranges in Base Metal
()meanstension
base metal at bottom fange
.
. MPa f
27 22 10
2 751 10
101 1
sr
6
6
#
#
=+ =+
at a'

.
. MPa
.
f
20 94 10
2 751 10 739
97 09
0 0
sr
9
6
#
# #
=+ =+
=-
at 'b'

. .
.
. . . or .
f
No Tension
20 94 10
2 751 10 731
7 945 10
96 27 10 355
96 04 4 30 100 3 91 7
sr
9
6
9
6
#
# #
!
#
# #
!
=-
=- =- -
d d
^
n n
h
117
at 'c' and 'd'

. .
.
. . . or . MPa
f
No Tension
20 94 10
2 751 10 731
7 945 10
96 27 10 175
96 22 2 12 98 34 94 1
sr
9
6
9
6
#
# #
!
#
# #
!
=-
=- =- -
d d
^
n n
h
at 'e'
.
.
. MPa . MPa f
7 945 10
96 27 10 772
9 35 18 71 Reversal
sr
9
6
!
#
# #
! = = =
^ h
at 'I
.
.
. MPa . MPa f
7 945 10
96 27 10 875
10 60 21 20 Reversal
sr
9
6
!
#
# #
! = = =
^ h
Calculate Ranges of Shear Flow in Weld Metal
at 'a'
.
.
. N/mm V
20 94 10
839 10 11 31 10
453 1
r
9
3 6
#
# # #
= =
36 - 100 8
36 - 100 8
50 - 100 8
50 - 100 8
7 - 100 8
7 - 100 8
3 - 100 5
2 - 100 5
GTSM
See
Figure
A24
One Stiffener detailed.
Other Stiffener is the same.
GTSM
Figure A28
Minimum Welds Required for Factored Loads (Except GTSM weld) Minimum Effective Welds
and Fatigue Considerations not Included
118
at'b'V
r
= +

+
839 10 11 748 10
20 94 10
29 35 1
3 6
9
.
.
. 00 5 383 10
20 18 10
470 7 7 83 478 5 462 9
3 6
9

= + = +
.
.
. . . . or N/mm
aat'c','d'V
r
= +

+
839 10 1 008 10
20 94 10
29 35 1
3 6
9
.
.
. 00 6 976 10
20 18 10
40 39 10 15 50 54 30 24
3 6
9

= + = +
.
.
. . . . or N/mm
aat'e'V
r
=

=
29 35 10 4 088 10
20 18 10
5 94
3 6
9
. .
.
. ==
=

11 89
29 35 1
.
.
N/mm(Reversal)
at'I'V
r
00 2 306 10
20 18 10
3 35 6 70
3 6
9

= =
.
.
. . N/mm(Reversal)
a
g
c , d
f
h
b
Note: Stiffeners are at bearings only.
e
Base Metal
welded rail clips
100
Figure A29
Locations of Fatigue Checks on Cross Section
119
Examine Base Metal
ReIertoCSAS16-01,Clause26,andTables9and10
Location
Stress Range
f
sr
MPa
Category

MPa
F
rst

MPa
Fatigue Life Cycles
nN f
sr
3
= c
Comment
Basemetal
bottom
ange
101.1 A 8190 10
9
165 ~1 10
6
OK
a 97.1 B 3930 10
9
110 ~1 10
6
OK
b notension
Special
Case*
OK
c,d notension OK
e 18.71 B 3930 10
9
110 ~1 10
6
OK
f 21.20 B 3930 10
9
110 ~1 10
6
OK
*Detailissubjectto8repetitionsoIloadwitheachcranepassage(nN~8000000cycles).Thereisnocategorybutthistype
oIwelddetailisknowntoprovidesatisIactorilyservice.
Examine Weld Metal
Location
Weld
Size
mm
Throat
Area
mm
2
/mm
Stress Range
f
sr
MPa
Category

MPa
F
rst

MPa
nN
f
sr
3
=c
Comment
a 8 5.656
453.1 5.656 2
40.05MPa
E 361 10
9
31
5.619
10
6
~1 10
6
OK
b Full-StrengthGrooveWeld B 3930 10
9
110 SeeNote
~1 10
6
OK
c,d 8 5.659
50.545.6592
4.47MPa
E 361 10
9
31
'
~1 10
6
OK
e 5 3.535
11.893.535
3.36MPa
E 361 10
9
31
'
~1 10
6
OK
f 5 3.535
6.703.535
1.90MPa
E 361 10
9
31
'
~1 10
6
OK
Note:anexaminationoIf
sr
comparedwithF
srt
andclause26.3.4,Figure1showsthatIatigueliIeiswellabovethe
requirementoI1000000cycles.
120
Consider Distortion-Induced Fatigue
The area oI most vulnerability is at welds 'c' and 'd' where diIIerential vertical defection between the runway
beamandtheW530beamatthebackoItheapronplatemaycauseprematureIailureoIthesewelds.Inaddition,
theIabricator/erectormaypreIeraboltedconnectedIoreaseoIIabrication,shipping,anderection.
Provideaboltedconnection,slip-critical,classAsurIaces,22mmdiameterA325bolts.Table3-11oItheCISC
HandbookprovidesavalueV
s
45.2kNperboltinsingleshearIorslipresistance.Table3-4oItheHandbook
providesavalueoI88.9kNIactoredshearresistance,threadsincluded.OKIor10mmplate.
UnIactoredShearFlow

.
.
.
. . .
. . . N/mm
20 94 10
1061 10 1 008 10
7 945 10
1 0946 67 54 10 6 976 10
51 1 64 9 116 0
9
3 6
9
3 6
#
# # #
#
# # # #
= + = + =
FactoredShearFlow . N/mm 174 0 =
Calculate minimum bolt spacing Ior shear fows

.
.
mm
116 0
45 2 10
390
3
#
= = (Slip) Governs
or
.
.
mm
174 0
88 9 10
511
3
#
= = (Strength)
DetermineminimumboltspacingIorbuilt-upmembersinaccordancewithS16-01,Clause19.SpacingIorbolts,

notstaggered,shouldnotexceed mm > mm
F
t 330
350
330 10
176 300
y
#
= =
Sincethisprovisiongovernsoverslipresistance,asmallerboltdiameterwilldo.M20boltsprovide37.4kNslip
resistance,thereIoreOKbyinspection.
Check Fatigue at Stiffener Welds
Specifed Shear 839.0 209.8 11.92 1 061 kN
in mm fillets f 8
sr
. ( ) welds 1061
4
10
8 0 707 1350 4
3
# # # # =
. MPa 34 7 =
ForcategoryE, MPa, MPa F 361 10 31
srt
9
# = = c

.
. > . OK nN
f
cycles
34 7
361 10
8 64 10 1 0 10
sr
3 3
9
6 6 #
# # = = =
c
Examine Weld to Top Flange
Nocalculationisnecessaryhere.CJPweldswithreinIorcingarerecommendedtoreducepossibilityoIcracking
duetorepeatedstressduetoloadsIromthecranerail.nNcouldbeashighas410
6
Iorthisdetail.
Conclusion
CranerunwaybeamdesignshownbelowisOK.
CouldinvestigateuseoIalightersectionandalternativegradeoIsteel.
121
122
INDEX
Alignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,5,11,27,29-30,39-44
Anchorrods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40-41
Apronplates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37,59,101-103,105,107,116,120
Attachments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38,40-41
Bearings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,27,30-31,37-38,41,49,66-67,70,72,110-112,118
Bi-axialbending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,108
Bolts
high-strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,30
slip-critical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,30,120
slottedholes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
snug-tight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,30
vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Bracing
bottom fange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
horizontal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21,28-29,33,45,55
lateral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
swaybraces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
vertical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,33
Brackets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,21,24,28,30,64
BrittleIracture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,40
Cantileveredbeams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-9,20,28
Capchannels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,26,31,34
ClassoIcranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2,8,12-21,27-28,33-34,37-38,40,47,70,80,95
ClassoIstructuralservice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12,16-27,66
Clearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,32,46,56,80,95
Codes,Standards,Guides
AISC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29,33-35,45
AIST/AISE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6,12,29,30-33,37-38,40-41,43-44,50
ASCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,30-31,50,81
CISC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi,30,34,36,48,84,90,106-107,112-113,115,120
CMAA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,3,5,12-15,18,29,32,37-40,42,47,50,80,95
CSA
B167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,12,42,50
S16. . . . . . . . . . . . vii,1-2,7-12,20,28-31,33-34,36-37,39,41-43,84,102,107-108,119-120
W178 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
W59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,29,41,42
MBMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3,6,12,16,32,41,51
NBCC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii,1-7,41,46,80,95
ColdTemperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,29,34,40
123
Columns
axialshortening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
built-up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
capplates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,29
eccentricities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
reinIorcing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
segmented,stepped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,28,33
tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,12,26,40
torsion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Companionaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii,2,7
Conditionsurveys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Continuousspans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,20,30,39
Cracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,31,37,43,120
Craneweight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5,32,44,47,80-81,95,100
Curvedmonorailbeams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Defection
Irames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,64
horizontal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,48,81,84,96,106
vertical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,26,29,32,39,48,81,84,96,101,104,120
Designcriteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12,16-18,20,46,80,95
Diaphragmaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,28
Dissimilarmaterials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40,54
Distortion
distortion-inducedIatigue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,11,28-29,37,101,120
welding-induceddistortion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Drawings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,32,38-39,42-43
Dutycycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,3,11-12,16-19,27,38,43-44,47
Eccentricities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,21,26,28,31,33-34,37,39-42,57,72,102,107,109-110
Elastomericpads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24,30-31,96
Endstops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,5,30,33,38,44,48,81,96
EquivalentnumberoIcycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11,14-15,17,19,48,81,96
Equivalentstressrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii,80,95
Expansionjoints
buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33-34,40
rails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Fatigue
cumulativedamage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,10-12
goodpractice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,30,77
numberoIcycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,8-19,48,81,96,119
FieldInspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42-43
124
Flexureanalogy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34,37,58,92-93
Foundations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,5,20,24,29,40,42,44,48
Frames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-22,32,45
Girts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,30
HeavyConstruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Hottemperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,29
Impact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6,20-22,24,30-31,38,43-44,48-49,81,84,96,100
Inspection
feld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42,43
testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31,42-44
welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26,42-43,77
Interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,8,32-33,40,54
Intermittent fllet welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23,29-30,116
Jibcranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,6,39,47,80
Kneebraces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29,32
Lamellarinclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
LiIe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,10-13,15-16,20,30,43-46,80,95,115,119
Light-dutycranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,4,8,12-14,27-28,30,33,38,40,65,67
Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37-38,45
Loadcombinations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii,1-3,6-7,20,32-33,44
Loadspectrum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13,16-19
Loads
craneweight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5,32,44,47,80-81,95,100
impact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6,20-22,24,30-31,38,43-44,48-49,81,84,96,100
overloadconditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
repeatedloads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii,1-2,8,24,28,31,33,40
sidethrust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,4-6,22,32,34,39,41,44,48,58,84,92-93,100-102
tractive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5,21,49
wheelloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5,7,17-20,23-24,32,37,39,43-44,48,56,82,97-100,109,116
Lowstressrangecycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,115
Masonry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
MeaneIIectiveloadIactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-14
Momentenvelope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98-99
Mono-symmetricsections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,34-35,80,88,90
Monorails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5,8,30,34,38-39,41,46
Movingloadanalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,97,101
Multiplecranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3,6,49
Notionalloads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,33
Oldersteel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43,45
Outdoorcranerunways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Palmgren-Minerrule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,10
125
Plategirders
inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-26,41-43,77
proportions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,36,38
tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,26-27,31,42,76
welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,26
Poorpractice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Pryingaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,29
Rails
clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,31,40,42,116,118
replacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31,40
selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40,81,96
splices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27,30-31,47,81,96
wear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,31,40
ReIerences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50-51
Rehabilitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii,33,43
ReinIorcing
beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,45
columns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Repair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42,45
Replacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,29,31,38,40,45
Seismic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,40-41
Settlement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20,28-29,39,43
Shearcentre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24,34-35,90,92-93
Shearenvelope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98-99
Shearkeys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Shims
baseplates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,31
bearings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,27,41
Sidethrust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,4-6,22,32,34,39,41,44,48,58,84,92-93,100-102
Slottedholes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
StiIIeners
bearingstiIIeners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23,110-112,117-118,120
intermediatestiIIeners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-25,37,45,107
longitudinalstiIIeners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37,45
Stressconcentrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Structuralmodelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33,44
Surveys
condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
126
Tolerances
erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21,37,40-42,76
Iabrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,27,42
sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,21,29,31,34,37,39,109-110
Torsionalsectionproperties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34,36,90
TractiveIorces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-5,21,49
Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9,26,30,32,38-39,45,55
UltimatelimitstatesoIstrengthandstability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3,7
Unaccounted-IorIorces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5,8,11-12,28-29,31,39-41,60-63
Underslungcranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3,5,8,28,30,34,38,75
Unequaldepthbeams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38,73-74
Upgrading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii,37,43
Vibrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,24,30,40
Webcrippling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,37,109
Welding
capplates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,26,34
electro-slag,electro-gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
grinding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,111
intermittent fllet welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23,29-30,116
rails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,30-31,116,118
splices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23,25-26,31
stiIIeners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,37,111,117,120
Weldingtoexistingstructures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43,45
Wheelloaddiagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56