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Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual

Training Guidelines

Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual

Training Guidelines TM-114073 Training Manual, December 1999

EPRI Project Manager P. Ruestman

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com



Requests for copies of this report should be directed to the EPRI Distribution Center, 207 Coggins Drive, P.O. Box 23205, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523, (925) 934-4212. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. EPRI. POWERING PROGRESS is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright 1999 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

This document was prepared by Duke/Fluor Daniel DFo1A 2300 Yorkmont Road Charlotte, North Carolina 28217-4522 Principal Investigator R. Snyder

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, CA 94304 Principal Investigator or Author J. Tsou

This document describes research sponsored by EPRI. The publication is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual, Training Guideline, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, 1999. TM-114073.

EPRI wishes to acknowledge members of the Heat Rate Interest Group for providing guidance in development of this manual and training guide. EPRI also wishes to acknowledge the following people for reviewing and providing comments to the draft manual and training guideline. Duane Hill, Dairyland Power Cooperative Wes Hull, Central and South West Services Sam Korellis, Illinois Power Company"


Performance optimization of fossil power plants has always been a high priority within the electric power industry. However, it has become of paramount importance in meeting the challenges mandated by operating within a competitive environment. Recently, many power producers have downsized and currently lack experienced staff required to maintain optimal performance. Thus, a resource was needed to capture the lost experience to aid in the retraining of less experienced personnel. The objective of this project was to produce a manual to be used by power producers as a training tool and reference source for the development of heat rate and performance engineers. This document provides required information to understand thermodynamic properties and precepts, guidance on how to use them and methods of determination to assess their impact on system performance. This training guide, a compliment to the reference manual, used EPRI CS-4554 Heat Rate Improvement Guidelines as a basis for development of the program. Specifically, this manual includes: A description of the properties of water, its phases, and the determination of each. A discussion of the Steam Tables and Mollier diagram and how each is used to find the properties of water/steam. A brief discussion of the Ideal Gas Law. A definition and application of the concepts of the first law of thermodynamics and required energy conversion calculations to power plant components. The relationship is used to develop an understanding of how plant parameters are affected by the operation of the components. A review of the principles and applications of fluid flow. Discussion includes pumps and pump operation for forced fluid flow. A discussion of the concept of thermal efficiency and the methods employed to maximize efficiency. An explanation of the various modes of heat transfer and the equations used with each mode. It gives an introduction to nucleate boiling and the factors affecting DNB. A discussion of natural circulation and a brief discussion on heat exchangers are also covered. An explanation and review of power plant systems, which include the water/steam cycle, boiler fuel, air and flue gas systems, as well as, balance of plant systems. An introduction to the Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual, the purpose, organization and use of the manual.


This Lesson Plan describes the properties of water, its phases, and the determination of each. It also includes a discussion of the Steam Tables and Mollier diagram and how each is used to find the properties of water/steam. A brief discussion of the Ideal Gas Law is also included.

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE: At the end of this class the student should have a working knowledge of Thermodynamic principles that can be used by those involved in the Heat Rate Improvement Program. This will be accomplished by meeting the requirements of the following enabling objectives. ENABLING OBJECTIVES:

1. Define each of the following terms:

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Temperature Pressure Density and Specific Volume Enthalpy Entropy Specific Heat Capacity BTU

2. Convert a known temperature from one scale to another. 3. Convert a known pressure from one scale to another. 4. State and define the different phases of water. 5. Explain each of the following
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Saturation Temperature Latent heat Quality Sensible Heat

6. Given a set of conditions and using the steam tables, determine the thermodynamic properties and phases of water. 7. Given a set of conditions using the Mollier diagram determine the properties and phases of water.

8. Using the ideal gas law, solve problems relating to pressure, temperature and volume of an ideal gas.


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Fluid Properties Temperature Pressure Specific Volume Enthalpy Entropy


3.1 3.2 3.3 Steam Tables Phase of Water Mollier Diagram

4.1 Ideal Gases

1.1 Overview This lesson covers the properties of water/steam and the phases of water. It also covers the steam tables and Mollier diagram and their use in the power plant. 1.2 Objectives

2.1 Fluid Properties The thermodynamic properties of a fluid are measurable or quantifiable characteristics of the fluid and include the following: Temperature Pressure Specific Volume 2.2 Temperature A. Definition: A measure of the average molecular kinetic energy: (Thermal Driving Head) B. Temperature Scales 1. Absolute R and K: R = F + 460(459.69) K = C + 273 Internal Energy Enthalpy Entropy

2. Relative F = (1.8 x C) + 32 oF is used most often, but oR is used when absolute temperatures are required. 2.3 Pressure A. Definition: Force per unit area (P=F/A) B. Scales 1. PSIA = (Absolute Pressure) a) Pressure above a perfect vacuum b) Atmospheric pressure + gauge pressure 2. PSIV = Pressure measured below a reference (atmospheric pressure) 6

a) PSIG = Gage pressure = pressure measured from atmospheric b) (PSIG = PSIA - ATMOS) 3. Inches of Hg Pressure (1 PSIA~ - 2" Mercury Hg) 4. Inches of Hg Vacuum = PSIV x 2 2.4 Specific Volume (V) and Density () A. Definition of Specific Volume: Volume per unit mass. v = Volume = ft3 Mass lbm B. Definition of Density (): The inverse of Specific Volume 1 = lbm v ft3 C. Specific Volume and Density are affected by temperature and pressure. Pressure: as pressure v Temperature: as temperature

1. Example:Using the Steam Tables find the density of a saturated liquid at 200oF. v = 0.016637 ft3/lbm = 1/v = 1/0.016637 = 60.1 lbm/ft3 2. Now raise its temperature to 300oF. v = 0.01745 - ft3/lbm = 1/v = 1/0.01745 = 57.3 lbm/ft3 2.5 Internal Energy A. Definition: Thermal energy stored within a substance itself. This is due to the position and movement of the molecules or atoms which make up a substance in relation to each other. B. Enthalpy (h) 1. Definition a) Sum of the internal energy and pv (pressure x specific volume) (flow) energy. 7

b) Energy content of one pound mass of a fluid at a given temperature and pressure. Units of heat energy are in BTUs which stands for British Thermal Units. C. h = specific enthalpy; h = u + pv, where u = Specific Internal Energy in BTU/lbm 1. h = BTU/lbm To convert pv to BTU/lbm divided by Joules Constant = 778 ft- 1bf/BTU pv = Flow energy due to pressure and volume. pv = BTU J lbm 2. Example: Find the internal specific energy of saturated steam at 1000 psia. h = u + pv = h - pv J J u = 1192.9 BTU - (1000 lb) (144 in2) (0.44596 ft3/lbm) lbm in2 ft2 778 ft - 1bf BTU u = 1110.4 BTU lbm 3. Notice that nearly all the enthalpy was internal energy. Generally a change in internal energy results in a change in temperature, but not always. PROOF: For a saturated liquid at 1000 psia, find the internal energy. U = H - pv = 542.6 BTU - (1000)(144)0.02159 j lbm 778ft_-_1bf BTU U = 538.6 BTU lbm At 1000 psia, the change in internal energy is from 538.6 to 1110.4 BTU/lbm, but the temperature remained constant. The only change was a change from a saturated liquid to a saturated vapor. D. Total Enthalpy (H) 1. Total energy of a given mass (H = U + pv) 2. To find total enthalpy, simply multiply specific enthalpy times the amount of mass present. H = (h)(m) 8


Entropy (S) A. Definition: A measure of the unavailable energy in a fluid @ a given temperature and pressure. Units: OR: BTU lbm - oF on a relative scale We are more interested in Entropy changes (Delta S = Sfinal - Sinitial) than specific values of Entropy. 1. Example:Find Delta S when energy is added to a saturated liquid @ 100 oF and changes the saturated liquid to a saturated vapor @ 300oF Delta S = Sfinal - Sinitial Delta S = Sg - Sf Sf@ 100oF = 0.1295 BTU/lbmoF Sg@ 300oF = 1.6351 BTU/lbmoF Delta S = 1.6351 - 0.1295 Delta S = 1.5056 BTU/lbmoF 2. The point is, as heat is added to this example, more of the energy of the liquid-vapor is unavailable. Also the reverse is true for removing energy which results in a decrease in entropy. 3. The change in entropy (Delta S) is used to account for the energy that has been made unavailable for work. 4. For example: Use the main condenser. a) When steam is condensed, the temperature remains constant, but the entropy decreases. b) If condenser pressure is 1 psia, saturated steam exhausts from the turbine into the condenser and condenses with no subcooling. Find the heat rejected .(qrej) BTU on an absolute scale lbm-oR

qrej = T (Delta S) at 1 psia Sf = 0.1325 BTU/lbmoF Sg = 1.9781 BTU/lbmoF T = oF + 460 = 101.74 + 460 = 561.74oR 1) qrej = (561.74)(0.1326 - 1.9781) 2) qrej = 1036.12 BTU's Rejected 5. Notice the qrej is equal to hfg which is the Latent Heat of Condensation. The BTU's are the BTU's or heat given to the Condenser Circulating Water (CCW) System. 6. Qualitatively: We can say that S of condensate decreased when heat was removed and S of CCW increased as heat was added. 7. Summary: The energy that is available in the condensate to do work (useful) per lbmoF has increased. This is mainly due to the inadequacies of the working fluid and the process. Also, the value of hfg indicates that amount of energy that has become unavailable in our work process is S . B. Discussion of T-S Diagram
2200 PSIA 1000 900 800 CRITICAL POINT

1000 PSIA



700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4



1. We assume that at 32oF, S = 0 (Even though S = 0 at O oR). 2. Saturation Line: Every single point on the line, to the left of the critical point is where a saturated liquid exists. 3. Critical Point: At these conditions of temperature (705.47oF) and pressure (3208.2 psia), the following is true. a) There is no difference in specific volume between a saturated liquid and a saturated vapor. b) There is no difference in enthalpy between a saturated liquid and a saturated vapor. c) There is no difference in entropy between a saturated liquid and a saturated vapor. OR vf = vg vfg = 0 hf = Hg hfg = 0 Sf = sg sfg = 0

At the critical point, the liquid/vapor acts like a perfect gas. 4. Subcooled Region: Region left of critical point and left of saturated liquid line. 5. Wet Vapor Region: Area under saturation line. 6. Constant Pressure Lines: From the point where it touches the saturated liquid line, it is horizontal until it touches the saturated vapor line. 7. Enthalpy Lines: Range from 100-1800 (bottom-top) and extend horizontally across the entire diagram. 8. In order to locate a point on the diagram for any condition except at saturated conditions, you must know two properties of the liquid, wet vapor, or superheated steam. 9. If you are a saturated liquid at 212oF. a) Pressure is found by noting where constant pressure line touches sat. liquid curve for 212oF. b) Enthalpy is the horizontal line crossing through the sat. liquid line for 212oF. c) Entropy is the vertical line crossing through the sat. liquid line for 212oF. d) Ex. a saturated liquid at 212oF. P = 15 psia h = 1150 BTU/lbm Ss = 1.75 BTU/lbmoR 11

10. Go back to condenser example a) 1 psia, saturated liquid = 100oF by T-s diagram. b) The saturated steam changed to saturated liquid. Note that enthalpy and entropy decreased. Sinitial = 1.98 Sfinal = 0.12

c) Heat rejected from condenser was heat added to Condenser Circulating water.


3.1 Steam Tables A. The Steam Table consist of 3 separate tables 1. Table 1. Saturated Steam: Temperature Table a) Consists of columns for: 1) Temperature 2) Pressure - corresponds to temperature for saturation conditions. 3) Specify Volume 4) Enthalpy 5) Entropy b) The v, h, and s columns each have values for saturated liquid (vf) saturated vapor (vg), and the change (vfg) from liquid to vapor. 2. Table 2. Saturated steam: Pressure Table a) This table is set up the same as table except the temperature and pressure columns are reversed. 3. Table 3. Superheated steam a) This table is set up differently. It consists of: 1) Abs pressure column with sat. temperature in parentheses. 2) Across the top is temperature - degrees Fahrenheit. This represents the actual temp of the steam. 3) Sh column represents the degrees super heat. 4) It then has columns for v, h, and s. 4. The last part of the steam tables is a conversion factors chart used for converting from one parameter to another.



Specific Heat A. Definition: Specific heat capacity (c) 1. Heat required to cause 1 lbm of any substance to change by 1oF. 2. Sensible heat - heat added that raises the temperature of water. c = BTU lbm oF


Phases of Water There are 5 exact phases of water that we consider in the power industry. A. Subcooled Liquid (Compressed Liquid) 1. Liquid below the boiling point. 2. Enthalpy (h) of a subcooled liquid is determined by one of the following methods. a) Definition: Heat required to cause 1 lbm of any substance to change by 1oF. Heat added that raises the temperature of water is "sensible heat". c = BTU lbm oF b) Subtract 32oF from the temperature and use the units of enthalpy (BTU/lbm). NOTE: Below~ - 300oF, this is a fairly accurate method. But > 300o F, the accuracy drops due to changes in the Specific Heat Capacity of the fluid, i.e., it takes more and more heat to cause the temperature to change by 1oF as its temperature increases. c = Specific Heat Capacity (Assume 1.4 BTU/lbmoF for Reactor Coolant) c) The most desirable (most accurate) method to find h is to look up temperature of liquid in the steam tables and assume hsc = hf STM Table hf Assume at 400psi (Example on two methods) hsc @ 100oF => 68 68 13 T-32 Method hf Actual

69.5 hsc @ 200oF => hsc @ 300oF => hsc @ 400oF => Conclusions 1) Note the increasing error. 2) Use steam table method B. Saturated Liquid 1. Water at the boiling point 2. The properties of Hf, sf, vf, Tsat, Psat are found in the Saturated Steam Tables. 3. Example: find hf @ 100 psia 100 oF 300 psia 300oF 100 psia C. Wet Vapor 1. A combination of saturated liquid and saturated steam at the boiling point. 2. Enthalpy is determined by: hwv = hf + x(hfg) Where hwv = Enthalpy Wet Vapor hf = Enthalpy Liquid x = Quality of Vapor hfg = Latent Heat of Vaporization (hfg = The latent heat of vaporization or condensation) Numerically, hfg is the amount of heat which must be added to 1 lbm of a saturated liquid to change it to 1 lbm of steam or the amount of heat which must be removed to change 1 lbm of saturated steam to 1 lbm of saturated liquid. 168 269.7 375.1 168 268 368 169 270.3 375.3


3. x = Quality = amount of vapor in a wet vapor. x = 100%-m (m = % moisture in a wet vapor) 4. Example: Find hfg @ 1 psia 100 psia 300 oF 1000 psia 5. Example: Find enthalpy of wet vapor @ 500 psia if m = 15%. a) hwv = hf + (xhfg) D. Saturated Steam 1. Steam at the boiling point (no moisture, 100% vapor). 2. The properties of hg, sg, vg, Tsat, Psat are found on the saturated steam tables. 3. Example: Find: 460oF 180oF 400 psia 1000 psia E. Superheated Steam 1. Steam above the boiling point 2. The properties of h, s, v, P, and T are found in the superheated steam tables. 3. Superheat term refers to # of degrees above Tsat. 4. Example: Find Tsh @ 400, 450, 500oF when @ 100 psia. 3.4 Mollier Diagram hg vg sg for the following


45 PSI A

1172 BTUs





A. A pictorial representation of steam tables (does not contain specific volume) called a H-S diagram. 1. Find h of steam at saturation with x = 100% and 900 psia. a) From Mollier on saturated steam line h = b) From steam tables h= 2. Find the temperature and h of a system at 500 psia and 20o superheat. a) T = h= 3. Find the enthalpy and temperature of a system at 300 psia for the following. a) Saturated: b) m = 4% : Note that since we are under saturation line; c) m = 12%: temperature is constant.

4.1 Ideal Gases

15 PS IA



A. Ideal gases are described as gases comprised of molecules that do not interact with one another. The pressure exerted by an ideal gas is the force exerted on the surface by the collision of these molecules. The forces exerted by the molecules increase with the absolute KE as measured by temperature. Similarly, the pressure exerted by the molecules increases as the density of the molecules increases. So we can say that, P PT Since = m/v, we can substitute and rearrange as follows: P m/v T, or P v = T for 1 lbm. If we compare initial and final conditions on a particular system of ideal gas we can write the equation. (P1 V1)/T1 = P2V2 /T2 This is the ideal gas law. B. The Ideal Gas Law is actually a combination, of 2 laws; Charles Law and Boyles law. 1. Charles Law states: The volume of a given mass of gas, maintained at constant pressure, varies linearly with temperature or, V1 = V2 T2 2. Boyles Law states: For a fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure or, P1V1 = P2V2 C. All pressures and temperatures must be in absolute scales. D. Examples: If 20 cu ft of Nitrogen at 15 psia is heated from 73oF to 150oF, what will be the pressure if the volume remains constant? P1V1 = T1 T2 P(20 ft3) = (150 + 460) oR 15 1b/in2 (20 ft3) (73 + 460) oR 17 psia = P2 17 P2V2 T1


This Lesson Plan defines and applies the concept of the first law of Thermodynamics and Energy conversions to power plant components. This relationship is used to develop an understanding of how plant parameters are affected by the operation of the components.

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE: At the end of this lesson the students will have a working knowledge of the First Law of Thermodynamics and Energy Conversions. ENABLING OBJECTIVES:

1. List and define the six energy forms considered in the study of Thermodynamics. 2. Identify the properties which indicate a change in each of the six energy forms. 3. State the First Law of Thermodynamics 4. State the Continuity Equation and apply it in determining mass flow rate, volume flow rate and velocity changes in power plant components. 5. Describe the energy conversions which occur in a moving fluid and relate them to changes in observable parameters and fluid properties for:
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Constant diameter pipe Nozzle and venturi Throttling device Pump Turbine

6. Plot the throttling process on a Mollier Diagram and determine fluid properties upstream and downstream, given appropriate information. 7. Define pump efficiency. 8. Determine turbine work and power given appropriate information. 9. Define turbine efficiency.


1.1 1.2 Purpose of this lesson Overview


2.1 2.2 Energy Forms of Energy


3.1 3.2 3.3 First law of Thermodynamics The Steady Flow Energy Equation Power


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Constant Diameter Pipe Nozzle and Venturi Throttling Device Pump Turbine


1.1 Purpose of this lesson A. Develop concepts of energy conversion within power plant components. B. Apply the concepts in order to enable the student to predict the effects on system parameters.

C. Predict the effects of changing operational conditions on plant parameters. D. Develop the building blocks which will be used in the power plant cycles lesson. 1.2 Overview of the lesson - Review objectives.


2.1 Energy A. Energy is defined as the capacity for producing an effect 1. The effect produced is frequently mechanical work thus the common definition is "the capacity for doing work." 2. Energy in some forms is intangible but the effects produced can usually be evaluated B. General Methods of Classifying Energy 1. Stored energy and energy in transition a) Energy in Transition 1) Momentary energy form; in an intermediate state between two or more stored forms 2) Begins and ends as stored energy 3) Heat and work are the forms of energy in transition b) Stored Energy 1) Energy associated with or contained in systems or bodies such as the working fluid 2) The stored energy forms we will be dealing with are: (a) (b) (c) (d) Kinetic Potential Flow or Pv Internal

2. Mechanical and Thermal Energy a) Mechanical Energy 1) Energy which stems from the position or motion of relatively large bodies 2) Forms of Mechanical Energy (a) (b) (c) (d) Kinetic Flow or Pv Potential Mechanical Work

3) Transfer of mechanical energy is by physical contact between large masses either directly or through a machine such as a moving shaft or piston 4) Unit of mechanical energy is the foot pound force (ft-lbf) b) Thermal Energy 1) Energy associated with the configuration and motion of molecules 2) Characterized by its ability to be transferred from one body to another by temperature difference alone 3) The mechanism of thermal energy transfer is through the collision of molecules or electromagnetic waves 4) Forms of thermal energy (a) (b) Internal energy Heat

5) Unit of thermal energy is the British Thermal Unit (BTU) c) Relating mechanical and thermal energy 1) Joules equivalent, the mechanical equivalent of heat is the mathematical relationship between units used to express mechanical energy and thermal energy. Symbol J 2) 778 ft lbf = 1 BTU or J = 778 ft lbf / BTU

C. Kinetic Energy - Stored mechanical energy due to the mass and velocity that the mass has or the work to bring mass up to observed velocity 1. KE = MV2 2gc KE V2 D. Potential Energy (PE) - Stored mechanical energy associated with the elevation relative to a reference elevation or work done in bringing a mass from Ref to Height Z. 1. PE = mgz / gc or PE per unit mass = gz / gc 2. Height is an indication of PE E. Flow work or displacement energy(Wf) - stored mechanical 1. The Energy necessary to maintain a continuous steady flow of a stream of fluid 2. Flow work is not present unless there is flow 3. W f is the product of the force acting on any cross-section of the stream and the distance through which the force must act to cause any selected mass to pass that cross section 4. Thus W f = Pv P = Pressure v = Specific volume of the fluid 5. Derivation - optional Wk = Force (F) x L F = P(press) A(area) Volume (V) = A(area) L(length) V also equals Mass(M) v (specific volume) Therefore AL = Mv PAL = PMv therefore Wk = PMv and the work per unit mass is Wf = pv

gc = 32 lbm ft lbf sec2

2. The parameter that is an indication of the KE of a fluid is the velocity

F. Internal Energy (u) - Stored thermal energy associated with the molecules and atoms of a substance 1. Majority is contained as vibrational KE of the molecules and atoms of a substance a) Temperature is a measure of this energy b) Also energy associated with the spin of molecules c) And the spacing between molecules 2. The energy distribution between these various forms of internal energy is what causes the heat capacity of a substance to vary Example: At low temp Cp of H20 1 BTU/ lbm F In this condition, almost all of a BTU added goes into the vibrational KE and therefore will show up as a temperature change. At high temperatures and pressures Cp H20 1.4 BTU / lb-F In this case, a portion of the BTU added is going into increasing the spin and spacing of the molecules => show up as an increase in Cp because since all the BTU is not directly related to the increase in vibrational KE.(thus temperature change) Example Problem: 1) Find the h, Pv, u for a saturated liquid at 500F 2) hstm table = 487.9 BTU/lbm 3) Pv = PSAT x v = from stm tables
2 (680.86 lbf/in2)(144 in2/ft )(.02043 ft3/lbm) __________________________________

778 ft-lbf/BTU Pv = 2.57 BTU/lbm 4) U = h-Pv = 487.9 BTU/lbm - 2.57 BTU/lbm U = 485.33 BTU/lbm 3. During a phase change all the energy goes to increasing distance between molecules (internal potential energy), therefore there will be no increase in temperature of the substance.

G. Work - Force applied in moving something through a distance 1. W = F x D 2. Units - ft-lbf 3. Work as such cannot be stored, but work done on a system will show up as an increase of one or more of the stored energy forms. 4. Work done on system is evidenced by a mechanical device passing through the boundary and is moved by some external source 5. Work is done by a system if the mechanical device is passing through the boundary and the force which causes movement of this device is developed from within the system. (Mechanical output such as turbine) 6. Heat - Transient Thermal Energy - Energy transferred from one region to another due to a temperature difference. a) Methods of heat transfer 1) Conduction - Heat transfer through a medium 2) Radiation - Heat transfer without a medium via electromagnetic radiation 3) Convection - Heat transfer by the combined action of conduction, storage, and mixing of a fluid between regions of high and low temperature.


3.1 First law of Thermodynamics A. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but only transformed B. When applied to a system - Net energy entering the system will equal the net energy leaving the system plus the energy accumulated within the system or Energy in = Energy out + Energy Accumulated 3.2 The Steady Flow Energy Equation A. Statement of the first law considering all energy forms assuming steady flow Energy accumulated = 0 in steady flow. B. Energy in = Energy out KE1 + PE1 + Pv1 + u1 + qin + Won = KE2 + PE2 + Pv2 + u2 + qout + (W by) Divide the mechanical terms by J to get all in BTU's 9


Power A. Power is defined as the rate of doing work B. The General Energy Equation becomes a power equation when multiplied by M the mass flow rate in lbm/hr C. Some equivalents 1hp = 2545 BTU/hr = 42.42 BTU/min = 33000 ft lbf/min = 550 ft lbf/sec 1kw = 3.4 x 103 BTU/hr = 1.34 hp D. This will be applied to the turbine, pump, and heat exchanger later


4.1 Energy balance on fluid flowing through a pipe A. Assumptions: -Water is incompressible -Water temperature is ambient -Area1 = Area2 -No change in height -Steady flow conditions B. KE1 + PE1 + u1 +Pv1 + Qin +W on = KE2 + PE2 + u2 + Pv2 + Qout +W by C. Since no change in area => KE1 = KE2 D. No change in height => PE1 = PE2 E. No heat in or out and no work done on or by the system => Qin & Qout = 0 W by & W on = 0 F. Therefore, we are left with: U1 + Pv1 = U2 + Pv2 U1 - U2 = v(P2 - P1) U = vP


G. Recall that: h = u + Pv J 1. (u1 + Pv)-(u2 + Pv) = h J J2 2. u2 > u1 due to friction 3. Pv2 < Pv1 due to drop in fluid energy due to friction H. The conversion of flow energy (Pv) to internal energy (u) due to friction is called "Head Loss". The effects of head loss will be discussed further in the fluid flow lesson. 4.2 Energy Balance on a Nozzle/Venturi A. Assumptions: 1. Mass flow in = mass flow out 2. Fluid is water = > incompressible 3. No friction 4. Area1 > Area2 5. Area1 = Area3 B. Converging section - nozzle 1. PE1 + KE1 + Pv1 +U1 + Qin + W on = PE2 + KE2 + Pv2 + U2 + Qout + W by a) PE = 0 - no change in height b) U = 0 - no friction c) Qin & Qout = 0 d) No work done by the system => W by = 0 e) No work done on the system => W on = 0 2. This leaves: KE1 + Pv1 = KE2 + Pv2 Pv1 - Pv2 = KE2 - KE1 Pv = KE 3. The continuity equation can be applied to determine which of the energy terms increased. a) Since we know that in a steady flow condition
o o

the M

M 11

into a system

out of the system

, we can say that

in Ain Vin = out Aout Vout AV1 = AV2 - Since the fluid is water and relatively incompressible then 1 = 2. Since A2 < A1 then V2 > V1 4. Parameter property changes Velocity increases Pressure decreases Enthalpy decreases Temperature Increases - not noticeable Entropy Increases - slightly

5. Application a) Steam turbine nozzles to convert pressure to velocity b) Air ejector nozzle to create low pressure area c) Flow measurement 1) P V2 2) Recall Pv = KE and KE = 1/2mv2 gc also V velocity
o o

V = Volume Flow Rate (GPM) 3) then


P V2 To make an equality use Venturi constant K giving


V = K (P)1/2 12

K varies based on friction and geometry and will be affected by fouling of the Venturi 4) For mass flow rate
o o

M = V x density or

M = k (P)1/2 () d) Diverging section 2 to 3 1) The Reverse Process Occurs 2) Since A3 = A1 (a) (b) (c) Velocity decreases from point 2 to point 3 Pressure will increase Neglecting friction Pressure will return to the value at point1 and velocity will drop to the initial value 3) Effect of friction will result in some pressure drop across the device (a) (b) This effect is minimized by the smooth transition The orifice is not smooth and significant pressure drop will occur. Inc. NPSH on pump suction Steam Jet Pump Volute Accommodate expansion

4) Application (a) (b) (c) (d)



Energy Balance on a Pump NOTE: Sketch pump on board with suction as Point 1 and Discharge Point 2. A. Assumptions: 1. No heat transferred in or out 2. No friction
o o

3. Steady flow conditions => Min = Mout 4. The fluid is water => in = out 5. Suction diameter = Discharge diameter B. Evaluation using General Energy Equation 1. Pv1 + U1 + KE1 + PE1 + Qin + W on = Pv2 + U2 + KE2 + PE2 + Qout + W by a) KE = 0 - at point 2 as compared to point 1 Since A1 = A2 b) pe = 0 - no noticeable difference in height c) u = 0 - no friction assumption d) Qin & Qout = 0 - no heat in or out


e) No work by the system => W by = 0 f) W pump = Pv2 - Pv1 W pump = v (P) 2. P is called Pump Head and is expressed as: a) PSID b) Feet of water (2.31 ft of water = 1 psi) or43 psi = 1 ft. c) Sometimes ft-lbf C. Pump power
o o

1. Wpump = M x Wpump Power = M x vP 2. If all the power supplied by the prime mover was imported as flow work the pump would be 100% efficient 3. Pump Efficiency pump = output = M VP (power into head) input Brake HP (input by prime mover) a) Pump efficiency 85 - 99% Due to friction and other losses in the pump D. Parameter & property changes across pump 1. Pessure Increases 2. Velocity constant (assume same disch & suct diameter) 3. Enthralpy increases 4. Entropy increases due to friction and other losses 5. Temperature increases not noticeable 6. U 4.4 Energy Balance on a Turbine NOTE: Sketch Turbine on board with inlet as point 1 and exhaust as point 2 A. Assumptions: 1. No friction => constant entropy
o o o o

2. Qin and Qout = 0

o o


3. Min = Mout => no extraction flows 4. Inlet pressure is 1000 psia 5. Condenser pressure is 1 psia NOTE: In the turbine steam is expanded through the stages so specific volume increases. B. Energy Balance 1. KE1 + PE1 + Pv1 + U1 +Qin + W on = KE2 + PE2 + Pv2 + Q2 +U2 + W by a) Qin and Qout = 0 No heat transfer b) No work done on => W on = 0 c) KE 0 Since the steam expands through the turbine and v, the area of the exhaust is made larger to accommodate the expansion. The result is that there is little difference in velocity between inlet and outlet. d) PE - overall height being looked at is 10 to 15 feet. Any change in PE in this case would be very small compared to the other changes. 2. U1 + Pv1 = U2 + Pv2 + W by rearranged to: W by = (U1 + Pv1) - (U2 + Pv2) and since h = U + Pv then: J W by = W turb = h C. Turbine Power Turbine power = Mstm h
o o

Turbine power = Mstm (hstm - hexh) D. Property and Parameter Changes 1. Enthalpy decreases 2. Velocity unchanged


3. Pressure decreases 4. Temperature decreases 5. Specific volume increases 6. Entropy increases for real turbine; constant for ideal E. Plot turbine on Mollier Diagram Real and Ideal NOTE: For Real turb. must know h or % M to get work, Ideal assume const. entropy F. Turbine efficiency 1. In Ideal Turbine there will be a larger h for a given pressure drop 2. The h for the real turbine working between the same two pressures will be smaller. Due to losses in the turbine Entropy increases indicating some of the steam energy has become unavailable for conversion to work. 3. Turbine efficiency a) turb = Wturb real Wturb Ideal = h real h ideal

b) Typically the turbine is designed to be most efficient at full load 85% - 92% G. Example: Given: Inlet conditions; 900 psia

Msteam = 5 x 105 lbm/hr Outlet conditions; 1 psia, 28% moisture


Find: Real Turbine power in HP and KW Ideal turbine power in HP Turbine efficiency

P turb Real = Mstm (hstm - hexh) 5 x 105 lbm/hr (1195 BTU - 815 BTU) = 74.8 x 103 hp 2.54 x 103 BTU/hr-hp or = 55.9 x 103 KW or = 3.4 x 103 BTU/hr-KW P turb Ideal = 5 x 105 lbm/hr (1195BTU-781 BTU)= 81.5 x 103 hp 2.54 x 103 turb = 74.8/81.5 = 91.7%


ATTACHMENT 1 1. What happens to each one of the following parameters as the diameter of a pipe gets smaller (increase, decrease or stay the same)?
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Enthalpy Entropy KE PE Work

2. A pump takes suction on the hotwell at 28" vac. & 107o F and discharges at a pressure of 350 psia. Pump flow rate is 1 x 107 lbm/hr. What is the pump work? (In HP) Assume suction is a Saturated liquid. 3. Given the following:
Psm: 1000 psia

M - 14 x 106 lbm/Hr Pcond - 28" Hg Vac Turb. Exit Quality = 83% What is ideal Turb. work, real turb work and turbine efficiency?

A pump has a h = 3 btu/lbm. If the pump head is 500 psi, how much of the h is due to u? (Inlet temp. = 370F)


5. Given the following conditions:

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 NC press = 2235 psig PRT press = 0 psig NC-32 (PORV) Leaking by.

Find the following for the downstream fluid: Phase Temp. Quality Entropy Enthalpy

6. A 'C' HTR DRN Pump takes suction on the 'C' HTR DRN tank at 5 x 106 lbm/Hr. SUCT pressure is 1 psig and discharge pressure is 650 psia. The suction temp. is 210o F. What is pump horsepower?


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

2. 28" = 1 psia
107F v = .016155 ft3/lbm o m = 10 x 106 lbm/Hr Wk = 10 x 106 lbm/Hr (.016155 ft3/lbm) (349 lb/in2) (144 in2/ft2) = 8.11 x 109 ft-lbf/hr (1 hr/3600 sec.)(.0018182 ft - lbf sec) HP = 4100 HP o o

3. WkI = M (h)
= 14 x 106 lbm/Hr (1192.9 - 775) = 5.85 x 109 BTU/Hr = WkR/WkI = 3.67 x 109 5.85 x 109 = 62.9%

WkR = M h
= 14 x 106 lbm/Hr(1192.9 - 930) = 3.67 x 109 BTU/Hr

4. h = u + Pv
3 BTU/lbm = u + (500 lbf/in2) (144 in2/ft2)(.01824 ft3/lbm) 778 Ft-lbf BTU 21

3 BTU/lbm = u + 1.688 BTU/lbm 1.31 = u

5. h = ~1118 BTUs
phase = Wet Vapor Temp = 212F X = 97% S = 1.71

6. Wk = 5 x 106 lbm/Hr (634 lb/in2)( 144 in2/ft2 ) (.0167 ft3/lbm)

= 7.6 x 109ft-lb/Hr (1 Hr/3600 sec.) (.0018182 ft - lbf sec) HP = 3850 Horsepower



OVERVIEW This lesson is a review of the principles and applications of fluid flow. Discussion will include pumps and pump operation for forced fluid flow.

1.1 1.2 Introduction to Thermodynamics; Kurt C. Rolle Pump Handbook; Karassik, Krutzsch, Frasser, Messina

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE At the end of this lesson the student will have a working knowledge of the principles and applications of fluid flow. He will also understand pumps and pump operation for forced fluid flow. ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1. Define the following:

1.1 1.2 Head Loss Friction

2. Explain how a change in each of the following will affect friction Head Loss.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Friction Factor Pipe Length Pipe Diameter Fluid Velocity

3. Describe the two types of flow that can occur in a system:

3.1 3.2 Laminar Turbulent

4. Explain the purpose of a pump. 5. Explain the theory of operation for a centrifugal pump.
5.1 5.2 Define pump head. Explain how flowrate, head, and power vary with pump speed.

6. Define NPSH available and NPSH required. 7. Define Cavitation.

7.1 7.2 7.3 List the conditions and parameters that affect cavitation. Explain how cavitation is detected. Explain how cavitation is prevented or stopped.

8. Define pump runout.

8.1 8.2 Explain the problems associated with runout. Explain plant design features that limit runout.

9. Define pump shutoff head. 10. Explain the theory of operation of a positive displacement pump.
10.1 Explain how to vary the capacity of a positive displacement pump. 10.2 Explain how a Pd pump is affected by cavitation and runout.

11. Define "water Hammer"


1.1 1.2 Overview Objectives

2.1 2.2 Fluid Flow Headloss


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Centrifugal Pumps Series and Parallel pump operations. Closed System pump Operation Open System Pump Operation Positive Displacement Pumps

4.1 Water Hammer

1.1 1.2 This lesson will discuss: Fluid flow, factors affecting fluid flow, pumps and pump operation. Cover appropriate objectives.

2.1 Fluid Flow A. Definition: Fluid flow is the movement of a fluid from one point to another in a system. B. Development of Fluid Flow. 1. No flow can be developed within a system until a driving force is established. 2. This difference in pressure (the driving force) can be created by two methods: a) By a pump b) By a difference in density of a fluid. 3. Recall that the energy balance performed on the straight pipe showed that energy conversions took place between points one and two. 4. Remember that P1V1 > P2V2 and U2 > U1V, where V is the specific volume. The change in pressure between the two points (Delta P), or differential pressure, resulted due to the flow of fluid within the pipe. 5. The pressure loss in the pipe was a conversion of flow energy (Pv) to internal energy (U) caused by the friction between the fluid and the pipe wall. This conversion is called Headloss. 6. Friction is the resistance to movement. 2.2 Headloss A. Definition: Headloss is the conversion of flow energy to internal energy due to friction. B. Headloss (HL) is dependent on any factor in a piping system which will change or vary the amount of friction in that system.

C. The factors that affect headloss are: 1. Pipe length: as the length of pipe increases, headloss will increase. 2. Friction factor: as the roughness of the pipe increases or the viscosity of the fluid increases; the friction, headloss and pressure drop will increase. 3. Fluid velocity: as the fluid velocity (squared) increases, the friction, headloss and pressure drop will increase. 4. Pipe diameter: as the pipe diameter increases, the friction, headloss and pressure drop will decrease. D. An equation is used to illustrate the terms affecting headloss and is known as Darcey's equation: where: F is the friction factor 1. hL = FLV2 D 2 gc L is the length of pipe V2 is the fluid velocity squared D is the pipe diameter 2. When a system is designed, built and then operated, the hL equation becomes: hL = KV2 2gc Because F, L, D are constant, the constant k is substituted and HL is proportional to the V2. The velocity of the fluid will have a direct effect on the type of flow in the pipe. E. Operators have some control over system headloss in the following ways. 1. Valve position changes will change the friction felt by the fluid and the velocity of the fluid. 2. Changing the system lineup by adding more components or removing components also changes the friction factor. 3. Varying the speed of a single pump or the configuration of several pumps within the system will vary the velocity term.

F. There are two categories that flow will fall into. One type results in low headloss and another type causes high amounts of headloss. 1. Laminar flow - this is fluid flowing in layers and occurs in low flow systems (v < 10 ft/sec.) a) In this type of flow, layers of fluid near the pipe wall covers the roughness of the pipe wall. As far as headloss is concerned, this will reduce friction, headloss and the pressure drop. b) One problem with laminar flow is that the layers of fluid act like insulation and reduce the heat transferred into or out of the fluid. 2. Turbulent flow - this is fluid flowing with random motion in the system. (v >12 ft/sec) a) This type of flow creates more friction between the molecules themselves and between the water molecules and pipe wall. Because of increased friction, the headloss and pressure drop increase. b) One advantage to turbulent flow is that the random mixing action of the fluid will enhance the heat transfer process. c) Friction is related to the type of flow in a pipe through Reynolds number (R#). R# is related to velocity: as v --> R# R# = Vav D v R# is unitless Vav = average velocity D = pipe diameter For R# < 2000 the flow is Laminar. From 2000-3000 the flow is in Transition. For R# > 3000 the flow is turbulent. v = viscosity


3.1 Centrifugal Pumps A. Principle of Operation - As Fluid enters the suction of the pump, it undergoes a pressure drop. The impeller then increases the velocity of the fluid as the fluid moves along the impeller vanes. The fluid also sees an increase in area which will convert some of the velocity to pressure (A v p ). The fluid then passes into the volute where the rest of the velocity increase from the impeller is converted to pressure by another area increase. B. Characteristics 1. For a given speed the pump head will decrease as volume flow rate increases. (Where pump head = discharge press - suction pressure)

2. Centrifugal Pump Laws a) The change in V the change in speed. ( V N) V1 / V2 = N1 / N2 where: N = speed or RPM V = ft3/time b) The change in pump head the change in pump speed, squared. ( Hd N2) Delta P1 / Delta P2 = (N1) / (N2) where
2 2

Delta P = pump head (psid or ft of water) Pump head = Disch press - Suction Press.

c) The change in pump power is the change in pump speed, cubed. ( P N3) P1 / P2 = (N1) / (N2)
3 3

where: P = power d) Example: Given; variable speed pump at 2000 RPM Delta P = 250 psid, V = 3000 gpm, P= 5000 HP Find V, Delta P, and P at a speed of 4000 RPM 1) V N; V1/V2 = N1/N2 V2 = (N2/N1) V1 = (4000/2000) 3000 gpm = 6000 gpm 2) Delta P N2 Delta P1 / Delta P2 = (N1) / (N2) Delta P2 = [(N2) / (N1) ] Delta P1 Delta P2 = [4000 / 2000 ] 250 psid Delta P2 = 1000psid 3) PWR N3 3 3 P1 / P2 = (N1) / (N2) P2 = [(N2) / (N1) ] P1 9
3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2

P2 = [4000 / 2000 ] 5000 HP P2 = 40000 HP 3. Series and Parallel Pump Operation a) Series Configuration Consider a condensate and feed system. Imagine a single pump that takes a suction on the hotwell and pumps it to the boiler. The pump must create enough Delta P to overcome the headloss associated with the components in the system plus the difference in pressure from the condenser to the boiler. This job would require a pump with many stages. The option is to design a system with more pumps in series. Each pump will create a Delta P to overcome headlosses and provide suction pressure for the next pump in the system. 1) Each pump has its own characteristic curve, each produces some head for a given volume flow rate. 2) When placed in series, the first pump increases the pressure in the system. The discharge of pump #1 is now the suction line to #2 pump which will also create its own Delta P. Since the pumps add their pressures independently, the total or combined head curve is merely the addition of pumps 1 and 2. 3) In series pump operation, the capacity for flow is no greater than the capacity of one pump. 4) In an operating system, the characteristic curve for that system has not changed but the operating point (the intersection of the pump and system curves) has. The increased pump head creates higher volume flow rate. Higher volumetric flow rate (V) in turn creates more headloss and shifts the operating point up the system characteristic curve. 5) The above explanation is the same as describing the operation of one multistage pump where each stage is an individual pump. b) Parallel Configuration In order to increase the flow capacity of any system, additional pumps are added in parallel. This is done instead of using one variable speed pump to reduce power consumption. ( P N3) 1) Each pump has its own characteristic curve, each produces some head for a given volume flow rate.


2) When placed in parallel, each pump draws suction from the same point and discharges to another common point. Since each pump sees the headloss of the system the Delta P of each pump is not additive as it is in series configurations. 3) The total capacity of both pumps will be the addition of both pumps flow rate. 4) Adding the second pump in parallel causes the fluid to accelerate thus the headloss increases. We see an increase in volume flow rate and a small increase in head of the pumps at the new operating point. 5) Note the increased pump head for the second pump addition. Generally the increase in pump head is limited by the maximum head of the largest of the two pumps. 6) This design is desirable for high volume flow requirement where the Delta P is less of a concern. C. Problems 1. Cavitation a) Definition - cavitation is the formation of vapor voids in the low pressure area of the pump followed by their collapse in the high pressure region. b) Cavitation is caused by insufficient pressure available at the suction of the pump. 2. Net Positive Suction Head a) Net positive suction head available is the absolute pressure at the suction of the pump minus the vapor pressure of the fluid at the same point. b) Required NPSH - required amount of pressure above the vapor pressure necessary to prevent cavitation for some given volume flow rate (V). This pressure will be equal to the pressure drop in the pump from the inlet flange to the eye of the impeller. It is determined at the factory and will be plotted on the pump curves. c) Example: Instructor make up example for NPSH-Available d) Results of cavitation 1) Pitting and subsequent erosion of impeller 2) Flow oscillations 3) Pump vibration 4) Overheating


e) Indications 1) Vibration and noise 2) Motor current fluctuations 3) Fluctuations in discharge pressure and/or flow rates. f) Prevention Methods 1) Head tank to create a static pressure at pump suction. 2) Booster pump to increase pressure to suction of next pump. 3) Large suction pipe to convert KE to pressure increase. 4) Subcooled liquid to raise NPSHA (lower vapor pressure). 5) Pressurize entire system. 6) Close down on discharge valve - this will decrease fluid velocity and reduce the pressure drop in the pump and thus reduce the required NPSH. 3. Other centrifugal pump problems a) Pump Runout - the maximum flow rate at the lowest anticipated system head for a given system design and pump selection. Pumps which operate in an oversized system can reach their maximum flow rates because of not enough system headloss. Correctly sized pumps can reach runout due to ruptures in the system which drastically reduces or eliminates headloss. Pumps running in parallel may runout if one pump trips. 1) Results (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) Pump efficiency decreases Eventual flow loss (possible cavitation problems) Overheat motor and/or pump System design - choose correct pump for system. Throttle discharge to prevent high flow rates. Create some minimum static head the pump must always discharge against.

2) Prevention methods

b) Pump Deadhead - pump is running with little or no flow. 1) Results (a) (b) Overheat pump and/or motor. Efficiency is very low



So much heat put into water (W p) that temperature will increase; therefore, a greater pressure is required to prevent cavitation. Supply a flow path which will produce the manufactured suggested minimum safe flow rate. (i.e. recirc line)

2) Prevention Methods (a) 3.2

Positive Displacement Pumps A. Principle of Operations - the pump is usually a reciprocating piston device which draws the fluid into a chamber on one stroke and then compresses the trapped fluid before releasing it into the system. B. Types of Positive Displacement Pumps 1. Reciprocating 2. Rotary 3. Screw C. Characteristics 1. For a given speed, the volumetric flow rate is constant. Ideally, the volume flow rate will not vary (for that speed) until the mechanical leakage increases when the pump operates at extremely high discharge pressures. 2. The head (discharge pressure minus suction pressure) is dependent on the system the pump discharges into. D. Problems 1. Cavitation a) A positive displacement pump will cavitate and the results, indications, and prevention are basically the same as for a centrifugal pump. 2. Runout a) A PD Pump will not suffer runout.

4.1 Water Hammer A. Defined as a force wave of fluid striking an obstruction in a pipe (e.g. closed valve, abrupt turn) B. Causes 1. Starting a pump with the discharge valve open.


2. Initiating flow in an unvented system. 3. Rapidly closing a valve with flow in the line. C. Effects 1. Causes rattling in pipes. 2. Loud Noise. 3. Damage to piping, hangers, components. D. Prevention 1. Always initiate flow in an unvented, unfilled system slowly. 2. Use good sense and judgement when starting pumps and opening/closing valves.



OVERVIEW: This lesson plan discusses the concept of Thermal Efficiency and the methods employed to maximize efficiency..

1.1 1.2 Elements of Applied Thermodynamics: Johnson, Brocket, Brock, Keating: Naval Institute Press.

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE At the end of this lesson the student will understand the concept of Thermal Efficiency and the methods employed to maximize efficiency.. ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1. Define Thermal Efficiency and discuss its relationship to the heat and work in a Thermodynamic Cycle. 2. Discuss the Rankine Cycle in terms of the processes involved, and the component corresponding to each process. 3. Discuss the effects of the following on Thermal Efficiency:
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Feedwater Heater Operation Condenser Pressure Condensate Depression Turbine Load


1.1 Purpose of the lesson

2.1 2.2 2.3 Power Cycles Thermal Efficiency and the Second Law Rankine Cycle A. Elements of the Cycle B. Cycle Efficiency 2.4 Design Improvements In Efficiency A. Feedwater heating 2.5 Operational Effects on Efficiency A. Condenser Pressure B. Condensate Subcooling C. Throttling D. Operating Power Level E. Other Considerations F. Indications of Changing Efficiency


1.1 Purpose of this lesson A. Define Power Cycles B. Tie individual components discussed previously into the plant C. Develop the concept of Thermal Efficiency, discuss the conditions which effect it. 1. Design 2. Operational

2.1 Power Cycles A. Definition 1. A Thermodynamic Cycle is a recurring series of thermodynamic processes used for transforming energy into a useful effect. 2. For a power cycle the energy is in the form of heat and the useful effect is mechanical work. B. Elements of the Thermodynamics Cycle 1. A working substance a) Acts as the medium for transport of energy through the cycle. b) Steam/water is the working substance in power cycles. 2. An engine a) The device where thermal energy of the working substance is converted to mechanical work. b) The steam turbine is the engine for power cycles we will be discussing. 3. A source or high temperature energy reservoir a) Supplies energy as heat to the working substance b) The boiler furnace and the fuel supplied provides the heat source. 4. A sink or low temperature energy reservoir a) Absorbs energy as heat from the working substance either directly or through an intermediate heat transfer device known as a receiver. b) The lake, river, ocean, cooling towers, etc will be the sink. c) The Condenser is a receiver. 5

5. A pump - moves the working substance from the low pressure region of the cycle to the high pressure region. C. More elements or components may be introduced into the cycle in order to improve performance, as we will see later. 2.2 Thermal efficiency and the second law of thermodynamics A. For a work producing cycle the thermal efficiency () equals the output divided by the input. 1.

work out = Net Heat Input

2. For a cycle where heat is converted to work.

B. Applying the first law of thermo to the basic cycle. 1. Energy Balance a) Energy into cycle = Energy out of the cycle. b) Qadded = Work out + Qrejected rearranging; Work out = Qadded - Qrejected 2. Thermal efficiency can be expressed as: = work out Q added substituting for Work out: = Qadded - Qrejected Qadded 3. The first law does not restrict how the energy conversion takes place nor to what extent. C. The Second law of Thermodynamics 1. Early efforts to increase the cyclic work produced from a given heat input by reducing the heat rejected suggested the possibility of reducing this waste. This led to the Second Law. 2. No engine, actual or ideal, when operating in a cycle can convert all the heat supplied it into mechanical work. D. The Carnot Cycle







1. Used here to illustrate the basic relationships which effect cycle efficiency. a) Most efficient cycle conceivable though not practical. b) Serves as a standard of comparison for all heat cycles in use today. 2. Composed of four reversible thus ideal processes. a) Constant temperature heat addition. 1) Heat is added to the working fluid at the source temperature from a to b. 2) The heat added is the area under the a-b Process line on the TS Plot. (TS1-2) b) Isentropic expansion from b to c gives the work output c) Constant temperature heat rejection from c to d. 1) Heat is transferred from the working fluid at the sink temperature 2) The heat rejected in the area under the c to d process line on the T-S Plot. (Tsink S2-1) d) Isentropic compression from d to a. 3. The work produced by the cycle is the difference between the heat added and the heat rejected. Area a b c d on the T-S plot. 7

4. Cycle efficiency a) Efficiency Relationship ! added Q ! rejected Q work 1) = ! = ! added Qadded Q ! 2) Recall that Q added = Tsource S1-2 ! Q rejected = Tsink S2-1 3) Substituting and dividing out S = = Tsource Tsink Tsource Tsink 1 Tsource

b) Means of increasing Carnot Efficiency









1) Increase the temperature at which heat is added (a) (b) Increases the work out without increasing Q rejected. This concept has application in the real world Raising Temperature Using superheat 8


Feedwater heating

Constant temperature heat addition is not possible with real working fluids resulting in a sacrifice of work. Example is preheat to sat. temp. of feedwater. Lowers Qrejected for a given Qadded with a corresponding improvement in workout. This principle is limited by the available heat sink such as lake temperature.

2) Reduce the temperature at which the heat is rejected (a) (b) 2.3 The Rankine Cycle A. Elements of the Cycle 1. Represents the simplest steam cycle. Serves as the starting point for further refinements. 2. Working fluid - Water in the vapor and liquid phases.


a1 a d


3. Heat addition in the Steam Generator.


a) Subcooled liquid from the pump discharge enters the boiler at boiler pressure. (Point a) b) A portion of the heat added to the feedwater goes to raising the temperature to saturation (point a1)

c) The majority of the heat added goes to vaporizing the liquid (constant temperature) from Point a1 to b. d) The heat added per lbm. in the boiler is: q = hsteam hfeed e) The average temperature at which the heat is added during the preheat portion is lower than during vaporization which results in a lower efficiency than the carnot cycle. 4. Expansion in the Turbine a) Ideal turbine b to c 1) Constant entropy expansion to condenser pressure 2) Enthalpy is converted to work work per lbm = hsteam hfeed 3) Wet vapor is exhausted to the condenser. b) Real turbine b to c. 1) Losses due to throttling, moisture, friction etc. result in less of the energy being converted to work 2) Entropy increases from inlet to outlet 3) Exhaust enthalpy for the real turbine at the same pressure is higher than the ideal turbine indicating: (a) (b) (c) Less work per lbm More heat rejected per lbm Lower cycle efficiency

5. Heat Rejection in the Condenser a) Wet vapor at condenser pressure enters the condenser. b) The heat is rejected to the cooling water, condensing the steam, c to d. c) The heat rejected per lbm. is: q = hexh hcondensate 6. Pump-d to a a) Constant entropy compression b) Raises the pressure from condenser pressure to boiler pressure. 7. Superheat/reheat brings the energy of the fluid back to a high level for use in the turbines.






Cycle Efficiency A. Feedwater Heating 1. Principle of Feedwater heating a) A portion of the steam flow is extracted from the turbine after expanding through several stages. b) The extracted Steam Condenses in the feedwater heater c) The heat of condensation is transferred into the feedwater returning to the Steam Generator. d) The drains from the feed heaters are returned to the feedwater system by the drain pumps. 2. Effect of Feedwater heating is improvement of the cycle efficiency a) Raises the average temperature of heat addition in the steam generator. 1) Feed heating raises the temperature from a to a1 2) Heat from the reactor is added from a1 to b. 3) A larger portion of the heat is added at a higher temperature, improving efficiency.


b) Less heat rejected 1) Some of the energy in the steam is recirculated into the feedwater rather than being rejected in the condenser. 2) This results in less total steam flow through the turbine but the effect improves efficiency. 2.5 Operational Effects On Efficiency A. Condenser Pressure






1. Lower condenser pressure (higher vacuum) in general yields improved efficiency. a) Lower pressure means lower temperature at which the heat is rejected. (The condenser is at saturation conditions) b) A larger portion of the steam enthalpy is converted to work. c) Less heat rejected. 2. Condenser Pressure is affected by: a) Condenser Cooling Water flow rate - lower flow rate yields higher condenser temperature and pressure b) Condenser Cooling Water inlet temperature - higher temperature yields higher condenser temperature and pressure.


c) Condenser heat load - higher steam flow rate into the condenser for a given Condenser Cooling Water inlet temperature and flow rate causes higher Condenser Cooling Water average temperature and condenser to Condenser Cooling Water T. Condenser temperature and pressure will be higher. B. Condensate subcooling (condensate depression)





1. Condensate depression occurs when the heat rejected exceeds heat which is required to condense the exhaust steam from the turbine resulting in subcooling of the condensate. 2. The extra heat rejected must be replaced by the heat source. 3. Efficiency is reduced. 4. Some subcooling may be desirable in order to provide NPSH for the Hotwell pumps. C. Throttling 1. Throttling the steam flow prior to admission to the turbine reduces efficiency. a) Throttling is constant Enthalpy. b) Turbine inlet pressure is lower c) Less of the enthalpy is converted to work in the turbine in exhausting to the same condenser pressure 13

d) The throttling loss eventually shows up as increased heat rejected. 2. Operational Considerations a) Sequential operation of governor valves b) Operation with governor valves fully open at full power if possible. D. Superheat and Reheat


a1 a d




1. Superheat and reheat adds temperature and energy to the cycle. 2. It also has the effect of increasing the quality of the fluid. E. Operating Power Level 1. In general, the plant is more efficient at full load then at lower power levels. a) Turbine is designed to be most efficient at full load. b) Less throttling losses. 2. Increasing power level thus total steam flow can cause reduced efficiency if corrective action is not taken. F. Other methods of maintaining maximum efficiency. 1. Minimize auxiliaries 2. Fix steam leaks 3. Fix air leaks into condenser 14

4. Operation of SJAE condenser.



This lesson covers the various modes of heat transfer and the equations used with each mode. It gives an introduction to nucleate boiling and the factors affecting DNB. A discussion of natural circulation and a brief discussion on heat exchangers is also covered.


1. Define 'Heat Transfer'.

1.1 State the three ways heat is transferred in a power plant.

2. Define 'Conduction' heat transfer.

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Explain the variables that effect the rate of conduction heat transfer. List the formulas used for conduction heat transfer. Give an example of where conduction heat transfer occurs in the power plant. Given a set of parameters, be able to work conduction problems.

3. Define 'Convection' heat transfer.

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Explain the variables that effect the rate of convection heat transfer. List the formulas used for convection heat transfer. Give an example of convection heat transfer in the power plant. Given a set of parameters, be able to work convection problems.

4. Define 'Radiation' heat transfer.

4.1 4.2 Explain the variables that effect the rate of radiation heat transfer. Give an example of radiation heat transfer in power plant.

5. Explain why a counter flow heat exchanger is the most efficient type of heat exchanger.
5.1 Using the appropriate heat transfer formulas and given information, be able to work heat exchanger heat transfer problems.


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Heat Conduction Convection Natural Circulation Radiation Heat Transfer

3.1 3.2 3.3 Heat Transfer in Heat Exchangers Types of Heat Exchangers Applications


This lesson will present the topic of heat transfer including the 3 modes of heat transfer, natural circulation, and heat exchangers.

2.1 Heat- Energy transferred between two substances due to a temperature difference. A. Rate of Heat Transfer (Q) - Energy/unit time (BTU/hr) B. Heat is transferred by three methods 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation 2.2 Conduction - transfer of heat thru a material due to a Delta T across the material. It involves no motion of the material itself, but is a result of collisions between the molecules of the material. A. Thermal Conductivity (k) - the rate of heat transfer between opposite faces of a unit cube of material with a Delta T = 1F. (BTU/hr - F- ft.) "k" varies with the type of material and temperature range. The larger the value of k, the better a material will conduct heat B. As the feedwater enters the lower boiler drum it is delivered up the inside of the boiler wall tubes. In these tubes the water conducts the heat trough the boiler tube walls from the heat input from the boiler furnace. The water, as it turns to steam, goes to the steam drum.. C. Conduction through a material can be calculated by: Q = K A Delta T Delta X Where K = thermal conductivity A = Area Delta T = Temperature difference Delta X = Material thickness D. If there are several materials together, such as through a heat exchanger tube, the rate of heat transfer is a result of all the k's, A's, Delta T's, and Delta X's for the materials.

E. To simplify working with conduction problems, the terms k and Delta X have been combined to give the term "overall heat transfer coefficient" (U = BTU/hr- oF - ft2) and results in the formula: Q = UA Delta T (U also includes another variable to be discussed in convection heat transfer.) Used anytime heat is transferred across a material and the 'U' and 'A' terms are known. In the power plant it is used in problems relating to the boiler tubes, condenser tubes, Hx tubes, etc. 2.3 Convection - transfer of heat energy by the combined action of conduction, energy storage, and mixing motion of a fluid between regions of high and low temperatures (i.e. the energy transfer between a surface and a flowing substance). If the fluid is being pumped, we have forced convection. If flow is due to a change in the fluid density, we have natural convection. A. The rate of heat transfer (Q) due to convection will be dependent on several properties of the fluid, such as; temperature, velocity, specific heat, viscosity, etc. These variables have been combined into one factor called the Nusselt Number (Nu). Also affecting Q are the thermal conductivity and the length of fluid being observed. To further simplify this, another factor has been used to combine all of these variables; Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient. hc = Nu K L This term is also included in the U term of Q = UA Delta T. Looking back at this formula for a moment, we see that we can increase the Q by doing three things: 1. Increase the Delta T (not desirable) 2. Increase the A (set by design) 3. Increase U (done by increasing hc) Looking further, "U" can be increased by two methods: (1) decrease laminar layer or (2) break up the laminar layer B. Reheat and superheat sections of the boiler use convection heat transfer. The superheat section take the saturated steam from the boiler steam drum and raises its temperature to the desired level. In this process any small droplets of water carried out of the drum are also evaporated. The reheat section takes steam exiting the HP turbine. This steam is piped back to the boiler to the reheat section so that the energy of the steam and the quality of the steam can be increased back to a superheat condition for use in the IP and LP turbines.

C. The formulas used for convective heat transfer are: 1. Q = MC Delta T and, 2. Q = M Delta h D. Uses 1. Q = M C Delta T a) Used for heat transfer in medium with no phase changes and no boundary is crossed. 2. Q = M Delta h a) Used for heat transfer where there is a phase change, but no boundary is crossed. Example: 1) Feedwater to steam in the boiler 2) Steam to condensate in the condenser 2.4 Natural Circulation A. Mechanism 1. Natural Circulation occurs due to density difference between fluids or two points in the same fluid system. As a fluid is heated up its density decreases. Fluids of higher temperature, lower density have a natural tendency to rise to a higher elevation. Conversely, fluids with lower temperature, higher density have a tendency to fall to a lower elevation. a) Example ---------------Levels equal-------------

70 F

180 F

Tank 'A' water has a higher density than tank 'B' because of the lower temp. Static pressure felt on either side of the valve will be due to the difference in density between the tanks since there is no height difference. Flow will occur from tank 'A' to Tank 'B' until levels change sufficiently to cause the Delta P = 0.

b) In the above example we could place a heater in tank 'B' and a heat exchanger in tank 'A' to remove heat and we would still only get flow until the levels changed to make Delta P = 0. To have continuous flow between the tanks, a complete path from tank 'B' to tank 'A' and a completely filled loop is needed. With the heat source (heater), heat sink (heat exchanger), and return flow path, we can establish a small natural circulation flow.



2. The amount of flow we can get from the above system can be aided further by elevating the heat sink (tank 'A') above the source (tank 'B'). The difference in height will cause a greater Delta P, increasing flow.



Radiation Heat Transfer - the emission of heat energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation from a body by virtue of its temperature. Unlike conduction and convection, radiation heat transfer is independent of any medium and depends entirely on the absolute temperature of the radiating body. The rate of heat transfer is still dependent on the Delta T between two bodies. When conduction and convection cease due to loss of transfer medium radiation transfer will be the only means of heat removal. Types of Heat Exchangers A. Counter Flow heat exchangers - In a counter flow heat exchanger the two fluids flow in opposite directions. Because of this, the average Delta T is at its maximum all along the tubes. This gives the maximum heat transfer of all the heat exchangers.


B. Parallel flow - In parallel flow exchangers the two fluids flow in the same direction. This results in a large Delta T at the inlet, with a small delta T at the outlet. The heat transfer rate for a parallel heat exchanger is less than for a counter flow heat exchanger of the same size. C. Cross-Flow 1. In a cross flow heat exchanger, one fluid flows across the tubes. These heat exchangers are of two types. a) Single pass- fluid makes one pass at right angles b) Multi-pass - fluid makes several passes back and forth across the tubes to set up an approximation of counter flow. 2. The Main Condenser is a cross flow heat exchanger.

3.1 Three methods of Heat Transfer A. Conduction B. Convection C. Radiation 3.2 Cover Objectives



1.1 This lesson will provide the student with an introduction to the Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual, the purpose, organization and use of the manual.

2.1 Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual, Duke/Fluor Daniel


1. Purpose 2. The Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual

2.1 2.2 Heat Rate Primer Heat Rate Logic Trees

3. Fossil Steam Station Components

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Thermal Kits Boilers Turbine Plant Auxiliaries Condenser Cooling Towers Feedwater Heaters

4. Elements of a Thermal Performance Monitoring Program

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Goals Initial Steps for Establishing a Heat Rate Monitoring Program Performance Tutorial Performance Loss Monitoring and Trending of Key Parameters Unit Performance Survey

5. Instrumentation and Testing Requirements for Heat Rate Monitoring

5.1 5.2 Instruments and Performance Testing Program

6. Cycle Isolation 7. Heat Rate Improvement Program 8. Appendix A and B


TERMINAL OBJECTIVE At the end of this class the students will have a working knowledge of the Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual. ENABLING OBJECTIVES

1. At the end of this class the student will be able to:

1.1 1.2 1.3 State the purpose of the Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual. Define HEAT RATE. Discuss the following in detail: A. Design Heat Rate B. Best Achievable Heat Rate C. Actual Heat Rate D. Factors Affecting Plant Efficiency E. Controllable Losses F. Accounted for Losses G. Unaccounted for Losses

2. Read and interpret the logic trees, how to modify them for a particular plant/facility and how to use them to develop decision criteria. 3. Discuss Thermal Kits. 4. Perform the following:
4.1 4.2 Loss calculations for various plant components including turbines, boilers, condensers, cooling towers and feedwater heaters. Set up thermal monitoring performance programs including: A. Deciding upon which plant parameters to monitor B. Determining deviations from expected values C. Use of logic trees to identify possible causes of the deviations D. Plan an appropriate course of action to resolve performance deviations.

5. Discuss short vs long term performance activities as follows:

5.1 Cycle Isolation Techniques 4

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Improved Operation Practices Preventive Maintenance Programs Upgrades of Plant Instrumentation Repair/Replacement of Components Cost-Benefit.

1. PURPOSE - To define the performance standards necessary to successfully manage a heat rate improvement plan. The information contained in the manual can enable management , staff and technical individuals to make their company more competitive and successful in the future production of electricity.
1.1 The value of this is to measure how well the unit is doing its job in producing electricity. Decisions should not necessarily be made only to improve thermodynamic efficiency but rather to improve a companys overall performance. A thermal performance program is actually the development of performance parameters which characterize a units operation.


2. The Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual - (NOTE: all references to figure numbers indicate figures located in the manual)
2.1 Heat Rate Primer A. This chapter provides the user with definitions of heat rate 1. Heat rate - the amount of heat input into a system divided by the amount of power generated by a system. 2. As-designed heat rate - a tool that provides a definable benchmark for comparison and trending purposes. It is simply a curve generated from turbine heat balance curves, unit expected auxiliary consumption and design boiler efficiency. 3. Best achievable heat rate - the same as the net heat rate obtained from unit acceptance test when the equipment was new and the unit was operated at optimum. This heat rate value is realistic and attainable for it has been achieved before. 4. Operating heat rate - calculated from the heat energy consumed by a unit or station for a specified time period regardless of the operating status of the unit or station. 5. Incremental heat rate - units within a utility system and within a power pool are dispatched (loaded upon the grid) based on their incremental heat rate and resulting cost curve. It is also used in production simulation for maintenance planning and projecting fuel procurement needs and for pricing of power for sale or resale. B. A summary of heat rate measurement methods is also provided 1. Actual heat rate 2. Input/Output method 3. Output/Loss Method 6

C. Efficiency Factor - a quick reference of unit performance in relation to what it was designed to be. 2.2 Heat Rate Logic Trees - a systematic approach to aid station engineering in identifying the root cause(s) of declining unit performance A. Heat Rate Losses Tree - used to identify areas in the plant where heat rate degradation may be occurring without conducting expensive tests. 1. Structured to provide a process by which decisions can be determined that narrow down the cause of the problem based on the available information. 2. A statement of the problem starts the tree. B. Major Cycle Component Tree - identifies major areas in the plant cycle that have the potential for contributing to the overall problem. 1. Components such as boiler and turbine 2. Systems such as condensate/feedwater, cooling water,auxiliary systems and fuel handling. C. Logic Model Symbols. 1. OR gate - output occurs if one or more of the input events occur.

OR Gate

2. AND gate - output occurs if all of the input events occur.

AND Gate

3. TRANSFER IN - indicates that the logic model is developed further at the occurrence of the corresponding transfer out. Transfers can be used to simplify logic model construction by eliminating the need to develop duplicate branches.


4. TRANSFER OUT - denotes a transfer of a portion of the logic model to corresponding transfer in. Transfer out symbol can correspond with multiple transfer in symbols.


D. Logic Tree Application The engineer must first obtain data from various sources at the station including routine monitoring of selected plant performance parameters, special tests, outage reports, initial design documents and interviews with plant personnel. He must then convert the data into decision criteria and associate these with the appropriate areas of the plant. (use figures 2-4 through 2-22 of the Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual to explain how the logic trees are used).

3. Fossil Steam Station Components

3.1 Thermal Kits - a collection of manufacturer turbine generator data in the form of secondary cycle diagrams, curves, equations and constants. This data is supplied to the purchaser in order to best describe the expected performance characteristics of the turbine generator. (A sample thermal kit is supplied, but specific plant data and thermal kits should be used if possible) A. Purpose - the thermal kits are used primarily for the following functions: 1. Standards for monitoring 2. Data for cycle model verifications and studies 3. Unit net capability calculations

4. Turbine testing calculations 5. Corrected unit cycle heat rate or output computation B. Details - the following covers the definition, explanation and applications of the various items in thermal kits. 1. Heat Balance - a diagram of the units secondary cycle describing the expected conditions at a specific unit power level or at a valve point. The cycle conditions described in a heat balance include: a) enthalpies b) absolute pressures c) fluid temperatures d) main steam quality e) simplified normal cycle flow paths and flow rates f) feedwater and condensate booster pumps enthalpy rises g) gross generatoin h) turbine heat rate i) j) l) cycle expansion end points fixed mechanical and electrical turbine generator losses calculation assumptions, units, steam tables used.

k) electrical generator conditions 2. Turbine Heat Rate Curve - the heat rates and loads from the heat balances are used to form the turbine heat rate curve. This expected heat rate curve has been drawn through the locus of valve points. 3. Expansion Lines/Mollier Diagrams - the steam conditions during expansion through the turbine are illustrated by a plot on a Mollier diagram. The thermal kit expansion lines may be used as a basis for comparison for test results and cycle model verification. If a test data expansion line shifts to the right, there has been a decrease in eficiency of that specific section. 4. Extraction Pressure vs. Flow - the extraction zone pressure is determined by the turbine flow to the downstream stages. Either a graph or equation is supplied that defines the expected Extraction pressure as a function of turbine downstream flow for each extraction and for the first stage shell pressure. 5. Enthalpies and End Points - expected stage, extraction and expansion line end point enthalpies are plotted against flow by some venders. These reflect the design at the turbine and its accessories.


6. Leakoffs - this data may be used for cycle models when no test data is available. These may also be used as the baseline for comparison to monitoring/trend results. a) Control, Stop or throttle valve stems and packings b) Turbine and gland steam seals 7. Exhaust Loss Curve - unrecoverable losses occur in the exhaust hood of each LP turbine. The total exhaust loss is plotted as a function of exhaust volumetric flow. The components are: a) Leaving loss - the wasted kinetic energy of the steam leaving the last stage. b) Hood loss - results from the pressure drop of the steam passing through the exhaust hood. c) Turnup loss - occurs due to flow instabilities and recirculation found at very low exhaust flows. d) Shock wave pressure drop loss - due to the shock eaves formed at the turbine exhaust when the pressure drop across the last stage is greater than that required for sonic flow. 8. Choked (Limited) Condenser Pressure - each turbine generator unit has a specific LP turbine exhaust pressure below which unit performance starts to deteriorate, assuming steady flow and heat cycle conditions. Choke limited pressure is nearly a linear function of turbine exhaust end steam flow. Operation at a condenser pressure lower that the choke limited pressure results in loss of net output and a higher heat rate. 9. Turbine Section Efficiency and Effectiveness - vender supplied curves as a function of flow. These reflect expected performance. Turbine test results are compared to these curves to determine which sections or components have performance levels that deviate from the norm. 10. Electrical Generator Losses - the total generator loss is a function of power factor, load, hydrogen purity and hydrogen pressure. This loss information is used for calculating the turbine used energy endpoint in order to calculate gross generation from cycle parameters. 3.2 Boilers A. Dry Gas Loss - high excess air and lower heat absorption in the boiler system can cause exit gas temperatures higher than expected resulting in Dry Gas Loss. A 40o F rise in exit gas temperatures can raise the Heat Rate by one percent. High exit gas temperatures can be caused by: 1. Plugging or fouling of preheaters, hot or cold side where moisture has formed due to reaching the dewpoint.


a) Ensure proper soot blowing for preheater. b) Periodic high pressure washing may be necessary if the pressure drop across the preheater starts to limit fan capablity. 2. Corroded or eroded Preheater. During the process of combustion, sulfer in the fuel is converted to SO2 and, dpending on the excess air available, part of the SO2 is converted to SO3. The SO3 reacts with any water vapor to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4). a) Ensure proper operation of steam coils or preheater bypass damper to keep the preheater above the cold end minimum metal temperature (Figure 3-2). b) If steam coils are used, perform periodic inspections for leaks which would increase water vapor to the preheater. c) Open or close plant windows and doors to circulate outside air through the plant and around the boiler to the Forced Draft fan suction to minimize steam coil usage. 3. Inadequate boiler soot blowing can cause slag to build on heat absorbing surfaces and proper heat transfer cannot occur. 4. Air Preheater average air in-gas out temperature too high above dewpoint. 5. Incorrect number of pulverizer mills in service at a given load - causes an increase in tempering air. This decreases the percentage of total air flow which goes through the preheater, raising exit gas tempertures. 6. Excess pulverizer mill tempering air - causes low mill temperature. 7. Fuel/air control system - maintain O2 as low as possible without adversely affecting combustion 8. Improper O2 monitoring system a) Calibrate or repair monitors b) Ensure location and quantity of monitors gives a representative indication. 9. Air inleakage in boiler, preheater or ducts. a) Run O2 rise test on boiler to locate air inleakage and make repairs. b) O2 readings should be taken at several locations simultaneously to isolate cause of air inleakage. B. Dry Gas Loss Calculations (use Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual section 3 along with actual plant data to perform calculations)


C. Unburned Carbon Loss - A flyash sample should be collected and analyzed for unburned carbon. The percent unburned carbon is also called Loss On Ignition (LOI). This can usually be traced to the following. 1. Improper excess air in the furnace 2. Poor mixing of the fuel and air in the furnace 3. Pulverized coal fineness is incorrect 4. High surface moisture in the coal can lead to agglomeration and have the same effect as coarse coal during the combustion process. D. Carbon Loss Calculations - (use Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual section 3 along with actual plant data to perform calculations) E. Moisture Loss - Boiler efficiency calculations use the Higher Heating Value (HHV) as the amount of heat generated in complete combustion of the fuel. Since these losses are related to the percent moisture and hydrogen in the fuel, improvements can only be made by minimizing the exit gas temperatures discussed earlier. F. Moisture Loss Calculations - (use Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual section 3 along with actual plant data to perform calculations) G. Radiation and Unaccounted for Losses (RUMA) 1. Radiation losses account for heat losses to the air through conduction, radiation and convection. The heat emanates from the boiler, ductwork and pulverizers. If the unit is equipped with hot side precipitators, they can be a source of significant gas temperature drop. 2. Unaccounted for losses include difficult to measure losses that are included in a heat balance to arrive at a guaranteed efficiency. These include heat lost in the ash leaving the furnace through the bottom ash hoppers and economizer hoppers and any apparent losses due to instrumentation errors. H. RUMA Loss Calculations - (use Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual section 3 along with actual plant data to perform calculations)



Turbine Steam is admitted through control valves to the turbine where the thermal energy is converted to kinetic energy and then to mechanical energy by expansion through the turbine sections. For maximum efficiency the turbine stages contain a combination of impulse bucket and reaction blade designs. The method used to control the steam flow to the turbine at various loads affects the plant performance. Partial arc admission can be used where the control valves are throttled successively which adjusts the active nozzle area and the throttle pressure remains constant through the load range. In Full arc admission the control valves remain fully open and the load is changed by varying the boiler pressure or the boiler pressure can remain constant and all the control valves are operated together until the desired load is reached. Usually the best operation is a combination of fixed and variable pressure operation where the control valves are throttled to a valve point and reduced pressure operation is used in a particular load range. There are a number of factors dealing with the turbine which can affect the unit heat rate. A. Main Steam Temperature - A throttle temperature change can affect the turbine load and heat rate. Curves supplied with the unit thermal kit are used to estimate the effects of temperature deviations on the unit heat rate. B. Main Steam Pressure - as with main steam temperature a change in pressure can affect the unit load in several ways. The curve for calculating heat rate improvements due to increased throttle pressure should be included in the unit thermal kit. 1. A 5% increase in initial pressure will result in a 5% increase in steam flow which in turn will cause a 5% unit load increase. 2. The increase in flow will cause an increase in steam velocity leaving the last stage, increasing the total exhaust loss. An increase in exhaust loss results in poorer low pressure turbine efficiency. 3. The throttle available energy increases as the pressure increases. C. Design Features - Design considerations affecting turbine efficiency include component design to minimize pressure drops, stationary and rotating blade design to obtain optimum steam velocity, and section design to minimize friction and leakage losses. D. Maintenance Items - during maintenance outages all packing seals should be inspected for wear and turbine blades and nozzles should be inspected for corrosion or erosion. 1. Solid particle erosion (SPE) of turbine buckets and blades, nozzles and control valves has been a problem of concern for many years. This damage can be minimized by water chemistry, thermal cycling, materil changes and elimination of air inleakage. Damage to turbine seals, nozzles or blades can normally be detected from performing enthalpy drop tests on the turbine quarterly. 14

2. Enthalpy drop test - (use Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual section 3 for discussion of this test, instrumentation required, Unit operating setup, calculation and corrections) 3.4 Plant Auxiliaries - Overall unit heat rate is calculated by dividing total Btu input by total net generation. Since gross generation is not used, the electrical auxiliaries used to operate the plant can affect the heat rate significantly. A. Each unit should have a curve of expected auxiliaries for a given load and it should be updated whenever equipment is added or removed. B. An effect on the heat rate due to high plant electrical auxiliaries can be caused by the following: 1. Operating plant equipment when it is not needed for the plant status. 2. Operate equipment such as service water pumps and air compressors only as needed. 3. Maintain equipment whose power usage increases with deteriorating performance such as pulverizers and pumps. 4. Maintain boiler ducts and expansion joints to prevent air inleakage to conserve FD and ID fan power. 5. Investigate possible installation of variable speed drives for fans instead of using dampers for air flow control. 6. Outdoor lighting should be controlled by automatic sensors. 7. Maintain heating and air conditioning controls for proper operation. 8. Turn off personal computers when not in use, especially overnight. 3.5 Condenser A. The condenser receives exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine and condenses it to liquid for reuse. B. The water cooled surface condenser is the most common type of condenser used in modern power plants. Efficiency increases as condenser absolute pressure decreases. With condenser pressure as low as possible the amount of heat rejected is lower and the amount of work of the turbine increases. This is accomplished by optimizing the heat transfer rate between the condensing steam and the cooling water, effectively allowing no leakage of air into the condensing space and minimizing any cycle leakage to the condenser which would add heat load. C. Things that affect the heat transfer are:


1. Tube fouling or restriction - detected by monitoring absolute back pressure and the terminal temperature terminal difference between the turbine exhaust and cooling water outlet temperature. Possible corrective or preventative measures: a) Backwashing arrangements may be provided b) Sponge balls or brushes may be automatically circulated through the condenser. c) Periodic condenser tube cleaning d) Chemical cleaning e) Install condenser pressure differential transmitters to monitor tube restrictions 2. Cooling water flow rate inadequate a) Place additional pumps in service b) Monitor flow rate c) Determine if cooling water blowdown is installed on CCW inlet. It should be installed on the outlet. d) Test circulating cooling water pumps for proper flow and rebuild as necessary e) Maintain clean racks or screens and waterboxes. 3. Cooling water temperature too high a) Place additional cooling tower cells in service b) Perform cooling tower maintenance 4. Condenser backpressure too high with proper cooling water a) Perform helium leak test for condenser inleakage b) Inspect steam jet air ejectors for proper operation c) Check incoming drain lines, feedwater heater high level dumps, minimum flow valves and steam traps for leakage or improper operation d) Isolate pressure sensing lines at condenser to check for instrument line leaks. 3.6 Cooling Towers Condenser cooling water systems are either once through or closed systems. A once through system is where water is pumped from a river or lake through the condenser and the warmer water is returned to the source. A closed loop system rejects the heat to the atmosphere through the use of either a cooling tower or a body of water such as a cooling lake. Most newer plants use cooling towers because of the environmental restraints. 16

A. Cooling tower performance is affected by the ambient wet bulb temperature, deterioration of the fill material, fill silt buildup, icing on tower structure, low water loading and high water loading. B. Wet Bulb temperature - Using the range and the tower outlet temperature, the corresponding calculated wet bulb temperature can be found from the venders design curves using either the design or measured value for circulating water flow. 1. If the actual wet bulb temperature is higher than the calculated the tower is performing at or better that expected. 2. If the actual wet bulb temperature is consistently lower that the calculated then further testing or inspections are necessary to determine caused of the deficiency C. Deterioration of fill material - routine inspections are necessary to survey damage or deteriorated fill material or to remove any debris D. Fill silt or algae buildup - Purpose of the fill material is to increase the contact area between the air and water and to increase the water residence time. To maintain its maximum effectiveness buildup must be prevented by blowdown and proper water treatment. E. Low water loading can cause poor water distribution and high water loading can cause excessive air pressure losses. 1. Inspect distribution nozzles 2. Clogged distribution nozzles 3. Fan blade deterioration 4. Motor problems 3.7 Feedwater Heaters - Provide three purposes in the power plant. A. Provide efficiency gains in the steam cycle by increasing the initial water temperature to the boiler, reducing the amount of heat input required by the boiler B. Provide efficiency by reducing the heat rejected in the condenser. C. Minimize thermal effects in the boiler. D. Items that can affect performance: 1. Improper heater level can cause flashing in the drain cooler section and tube damage a) Check operation of automatic controls and level instrumentation. b) Check for possible tube leaks in feedwater heater. c) Vent valves may not be set up properly. 17

2. Improper extraction line pressure drops. Possible problem with extraction line check valve. 3. Tube fouling due to corrosion affects the heat transfer in the heater and also increases the problem of deposition of oxides on heat transfer surfaces. a) Reduce the level of dissolved gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide in feedwater and adjust pH of the feedwater. b) Clean tube bundles 4. Continuous vent orifice plugging 5. Channel pass partition/gasket leak E. Feedwater Heater Calculations (use Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual section 3 along with actual plant data to perform calculations)

4. Elements of a Thermal Performance Monitoring Program (the students should refer to section 4 of the manual throughout this section of study)
4.1 Goals A. The goal of a performance monitoring program is to improve unit efficiency. These are needed because of increased fuel cost, increasing age of the units and their equipment, increased cost of capitol improvements and increased competition in the utility industry. B. Improvements should initially concentrate on activities that can be accomplished with little capitol investment in a relatively short time. 1. Cycle isolation 2. evaluating selected parameters to improve operations control 3. Identify preventive maintenance that can easily be conducted on select equipment 4.2 Initial steps for establishing a heat rate monitoring program: A. Evaluate cycle isolation for leaks or improperly positioned valves (Use Section 6 of the manual for details on cycle isolation) B. Determine which performance parameters are being monitored at the unit with existing instrumentation (use Table 4-1 for a list of parameters that can be monitored at a typical fossil station). C. Obtain readings of the selected parameters from Table 4-1 and compare the readings with expected values. If no historical readings are available use Table 2-2 as a starting point. D. Determine the magnitude of the parameters deviation from expected. An aid in this is to review Table 2-1 for utility experienced deviations. E. Determine the heat rate deviation as shown in Table 4-4. 18

F. List the parameters deviating from expected in descending order of effect on heat rate. G. Select a parameter to be investigated from the list. Discuss the parameters and their deviation with unit operators and other plant personnel to ensure its validity. H. Review logic trees or parameter diagnostic tables to identify components effected and potential caused for the deviation. Modify the logic trees from one of the demonstration reports to suit the unit being evaluated. I. Refer to performance parameter accounting manual such as found in Appendix B of the manual, or the Performance Tutorial in section 4. Prepare a list of possible corrections to the deviation. Review with operations and maintenance to determine the appropriate action for correction.

J. 4.3

Performance Tutorial - This section of the manual is designed to be of assistance in identifying losses while operating the plant . Use this section as a guide to addressing various plant problems that have an effect on plant efficiency. Performance Loss Monitoring and Trending of Key Parameters - This section of the manual describes how the units performance can be surveyed for losses and trended to follow the effects of operation . A. Loss Monitoring - required for determining how well a unit is being maintained and operated. A successful program consists of: 1. Gathering accurate operating data from adequate sources to provide a complete status of unit operating parameters. 2. The data must then be incorporated into the proper calculations for determining actual performance losses for cost/benefit analysis. 3. If a source of degradation is identified the plant staff can then pursue determining the root cause for the degradation. 4. From the root causes plant staff can optimize their preventive maintenance program, their instrumentation requirements, operating practices and their performance parameter monitoring needs. B. Classification - It is helpful to classify performance losses so responsibilities for loss reduction can be more effectively delegated 1. Controllable losses - are performance losses that can be minimized by the plant operating personnel, such as: a) throttle pressure b) throttle temperature



c) hot reheat temperature d) condenser pressure e) make-up flow f) feedwater heater terminal temperature difference g) feedwater heater drain cooler approach temperature h) main steam desuperheater spray flow i) j) l) reheat desuperheater spray flow auxiliary electrical loads carbon loss

k) dry gas loss m) coal weighing error 2. Accounted-for losses - those remaining performance losses for which an effect on heat rate can be determined. These are usually correctable by maintenance a) reheater pressure drop b) extraction line pressure drop c) hydrogen loss d) moisture in fuel loss e) RUMA loss f) turbine efficiency g) miscellaneous h) light-off fuel 3. Unaccounted-for losses - performance losses for which an effect on heat rate cannot easily be established. These may or may not be known to exist. a) heat loss to the condenser b) soot blowing c) steam coils usage d) plant auxiliary steam heating e) condensate/feedwater recirculation f) improper valve alignment g) excessive turbine shaft seal leakages h) LP turbine efficiency i) others 20

C. Quantification - to achieve total benefit from monitoring performance losses, the effect on unit efficiency must be correctly quantified (use the example in section 4) 4.5 Unit Performance Survey - not since the initial acceptance tests on many fossil units has an overall level of performance been established, Since that time unit operating modes have changed, modifications have been made, coal quality has changed and equipment has aged. With this in mind it is the primary goal of the Unit Performance Survey program to determine the present level of overall performance and to improve it by identifying and minimizing losses. The main objectives are: (Use section 4 to identify particular items in each of the following to aide in presenting this section) A. To stress the importance of performance and to provide a means for on-thejob performance training for station and results personnel. B. To establish a present level of performance for each fossil unit. C. To identify cycle and equipment problems and obtain information for use in problem resolution. D. To improve the present level of performance of each fossil unit by identifying and minimizing losses.

5. Instrumentation and Testing Requirements for Heat Rate Monitoring

5.1 Instruments and Performance - A problem with the objective of efficient unit operation is one which provides the operators with the tools they require to maintain all important parameters at an optimal value. The operators should also be motivated to utilize this information to strive for efficient unit operation. The Thermal Performance program is jeopardized severely when instrument error exists. This is an unaccounted-for loss undetectable until a calibration is performed. A. ASME Performance test codes - if a plant component performance is suspect, based on on-line testing with normal instrumentation an ASME Code test can be performed to verify, identify and quantify the problems. B. Instrumentation - Once it has been decided which performance parameters should be monitored, and the effect of each of these parameters on unit heat rate has been determined, the type if instrumentation to be used and the frequency of monitoring must be decided 5.2 Testing Program - (use section 5 of the manual for a list of periodic and special testing that may be performed)

6. Cycle Isolation



Each steam plant has a normal path for the flow of liquid or steam. These can be different at various loads. These paths are usually well represented on the heat balance diagrams provided by the vendors. What is not shown are the numerous paths which are available for liquid or steam to escape from the normal flow paths. When flow is diverted from the normal steam path is either lost from the cycle completely or returned to a section of the cycle where energy is removed from the fluid without providing any useful work. The only way to appropriately deal with cycle isolation problems is to perform periodic cycle walkdowns. This will allow a utility to identify the particular losses that are occurring in a unit and schedule maintenance activities to correct these problems as required. Cycle isolation method A. Prepare a detailed cycle configuration checklist. This should contain all the lines not used during normal operation and they should be isolated. This should also contain all lines which have steam traps to ensure steam trap operability. B. The walkdown consists of determining if there is any leakage through the isolation valve by checking either the downstream pipe wall temperature or by listening for flow C. Lines which terminate at the base slab drain or are vented to the atmosphere can be checked visually. D. Attention to the deaerator and feedwater vents can be important E. A list of valves will be produced from the walkdown. This list may need to be reduced. The reduced list should be used on a frequency bases to check cycle condition. A number of these valves may need repair.




7. Heat Rate Improvement Program

7.1 The financial success of electric utilities in an increasingly competitive environment depends largely on improving plant performance to maintain or lower the cost of producing electricity while meeting ever more stringent environmental regulations. A heat rate improvement program can include cycle modifications, component modifications, improved maintenance practices or increased use of microprocessor based controls and instrumentation. Cycle Modifications - examples of cycle modifications include retrofitting a unit for variable pressure operation, installing variable speed drives on plant equipment and modification or addition of equipment for improved heat recovery.



A. Variable Pressure Operation - EPRI report GS-6772 presents a discussion of variable pressure operation for efficiency improvements, a portion of this report is highlighted in the manual. B. Variable Speed Drives - an option increasingly being considered in both new plant designs and life extension projects. Increasing fuel costs and improvements in technology and reliable have caused a decisive shift toward the use of this equipment. 1. There are three basic ways a motors speed can be changed: a) change the number of poles on the motor b) change the slip of the motor c) change the frequency of the energy supply to the motor 2. Two speed motors - a good example of changing the poses the make a speed change. These machines do not have the flexibility to meet more than two plant conditions. 3. Wound rotor motor drives are a form of variable speed drive that has been found in generating stations throughout the years. 4. The most efficient and most commonly used type of variable speed equipment is the adjustable frequency synchronous motor. The benefits are reduced electrical auxiliary usage at reduced loads. C. Heat Recovery Modifications - a power plant Rankine thermal cycle suffers tremendous energy losses, therefore it is important to recover even small heat losses. 1. Circulating water heat recovery - more than half of the fuel burned is lost to the condenser cooling system. These are considered unavoidable, but it is possible to recover some of this waste energy for a secondary use such as air preheating. 2. Air preheating evaluation results are shown in table 7-1, Coil design operating results in table 7-2 3. Heat pipe air heater technology - are high performance heat transfer devices that are simple, inexpensive and reliable over a long service life. There are no moving parts and positive seal connections reduce leakage to effectively zero while high heat transfer rates permit a lowweight, low-volume, low-cost package. (use section 7 for a detailed discussion) D. Component Modifications - there are many areas in the plant where small investments can improve unit heat rate and provide cost savings. 1. Boiler duct expansion joint leaks


2. Boiler oxygen measurement is extremely important to proper boiler operation. The proper number of analyzers and the proper location is important 3. Windbox damper operation is critical for proper fuel and air mixing. 4. Accurate feedwater heater level controls should be installed and maintained. E. Maintenance Practices - if proper unit maintenance is not carefully planned and executed then unit thermal performance will suffer greatly. A good performance program should help drive the maintenance plan. 7.3 Cost Benefit Analysis -EPRI report TR-101249 describes the efforts of Southern California Edison Company to improve heat rate at Ormond Beach Generating Station Unit 2. A brief of this report is in section 7 of the manual.

8. Appendix A and B
8.1 Appendix A - Procedure for calculating expected unit net heat rate. A. Purpose - to provide a standard for comparison with actual unit net heat rate. B. Use section 8 to guide discussion of net heat rate calculations. 8.2 Appendix B - Performance Parameter Accounting Manual.



1. OVERVIEW: This lesson will provide the student with a review of power plant
systems which will include the following: 1.1 1.2 1.3 The Water/Steam cycle Boiler fuel, air and flue gas systems Balance of plant systems

2. References:
2.1 Electric Generation Steam Stations, Skrotzki, Bernhardt

TERMINAL OBJECTIVE At the end of this lesson the student will understand power plant systems which will include the following: The Water/Steam cycle, Boiler fuel, Air and flue gas systems and Balance of plant systems

1. Describe the Water/Steam cycle. 2. List the boiler fuels most commonly used. 3. Describe the air and flue gas systems 4. Describe other major plant systems used to produce electrical power.



1. PLANT CYCLES (Water and Steam)

1.1 The steam-water cycle is the heart of the steam-electric power plant. This main cycle uses two primary types of equipment. A. Shell and tube type heat exchangers (boilers, superheaters, economizers, condensers, heaters) 1. Bring two fluids close to each other, one hot and the other cold, separated by a thin metal wall. 2. The Hot fluid transmits its heat to the cold fluid. 3. Typical problems: a) Boiler tubes must contain water and steam at very high pressures while the outer side of the tube can be at very high temperatures (3500 degrees) b) Condensers must handle tremendous volumes of exhaust steam and transmit heat between steam and cooling water whose temperatures differ by only 20 degrees. Occasionally air leaks by the sealing mechanisms into the condenser. This air can plate out on the surfaces of the condenser tubes increasing the heat transfer medium in which heat must be transferred. The exhaust pressure will increase and reduce the efficiency of the cycle. B. Rotating shaft equipment (pumps, fans, turbines) 1. Pumps are used through out the steam-electric plant. Areas where they are used are: a) Condensate/Feedwater pumps b) Chemical addition pumps c) Fuel oil pumps (oil fired plants) d) Boiler feed pumps e) Circulating water pumps 2. Fans are used to provide air to the boiler as: a) Forced draft fans b) Induced draft fans c) Pulverizer fans, primary air fans(Coal fired plants) 3. Turbines are used to provide the rotating motive force for the generator and for the moving of fluids (turbine driven feedwater pumps)


The basic water-steam cycle is the same for all steam-electric power plants.





A. Condenser hotwell 1. The condenser hotwell provides a large quantity of boiler quality water to be circulated through the system to the boiler. 2. This hotwell condensate pumps take a suction on the hotwell and provide enough discharge pressure to send this water through a number of condensate heaters a) The hotwell condensate pumps are usually relatively low pressure pumps and operates with a low suction head (hotwell is under a vacuum) b) These pumps provide suction pressure to a higher head pump. B. Condensate heaters 1. Condensate heaters provide preheating of the condensate prior to providing this water to the boiler.

2. By preheating the water, less energy has to be added to the water in the boiler to provide the quality of steam required by the turbine/generator thereby making the cycle more efficient. 3. Heating steam for the condensate heaters is provided to the heaters from extraction (bleed) steam from different stages of the turbine. The steam provided to the heaters is compatible (temperature) to provide a gradual increase in the feedwater temperature. 4. The number of stages of feedwater heating is dependent on the heating requirements to make the cycle as efficient as is possible. Too few or too many heaters can make a marked difference in cycle efficiency. The number of heaters is a function of plant design. 5. Taking heaters out of service will effect cycle efficiency. C. Condensate/Feedwater is delivered to the boiler at the required pressure by the boiler feedwater pump. This pump can be a constant speed motor driven centifugal or variable speed turbine driven centrifugal pump. It can also be a positive displacement pump. 1. If a constant speed motor driven feedwater pump is used, varying the amount of feedwater to the boiler must be performed by boiler feedwater control valves. 2. If a variable speed turbine driven pump is used, a combination of feedwater pump speed and feedwater control valve position is used to control boiler water level. 3. This water delivered to the boiler will have energy applied such that the water will be turned into steam.

Unheated Downcomer

Heated Riser

D. Boiler 1. Types of boilers used: a) Natural draft (circulation) - air is allowed to enter the furnace area of the boiler to feed the combustion process and the natural flow through the boiler to the stack is allowed to occur. b) Forced draft - air is supplied to the furnace area with forced draft fans and forced though the boiler sections to the stack. This type boiler produces better heat transfer to all areas of the boiler. 2. Heat left in the combustion gases leaving the boiler is the largest single loss in a steam generating unit. Economizers are used to recover some of that heat. The economizer is used to preheat feedwater going to the lower boiler drum. The hotter the water entering the boiler, the less energy is required to produce the steam required by the unit. 3. Water that is supplied is heated as it flows up the boiler inside boiler tubes 4. Heat produced in the boiler through the ignition and burning of fuels must be transferred through the boiler tube wall to the water flowing inside. Anything that will reduce the heat transfer of this heat to the water will reduce cycle efficiency. 5. Steam is produced when the water is heated to the vaporization phase. 6. Superheaters take the saturated steam leaving the steam drum and raises its temperature to the desired level. 7. Steam leaves the boiler through main steam lines to the high pressure turbine 8. Reheaters provide for greater efficiency of the IP and LP turbines by increasing the energy of the steam prior to it reaching the IP and LP turbines. Reheaters also increase the cycle efficiency by using the combustion gases leaving the furnace. E. Turbine 1. The turbine is the prime mover of the generator to produce the required electrical power output. 2. There are numerous arrangements of the high pressure and low pressure turbines that are used to produce the desired electrical output, a) single casing, single flow b) single casing, double flow c) tandem compound, single or single/double flow d) tandem compound, triple exhaust

e) cross compound, double flow f) cross compound, quadruple exhaust g) triple cross compound 3. There is usually a single high pressure turbine, possibly an intermediate pressure turbine and one to three low pressure turbines. 4. The high pressure turbine receives the high pressure steam from the boiler and produces the highest amount of torque on the turbine shaft. A large amount of the energy is removed from the steam by this turbine. 5. The steam is then piped to the reheater section of the boiler where additional temperature and energy is added and then it is directed to the IP and LP turbine(s). The blades on the IP and LP turbines are much larger than those on the high pressure turbine. These larger blades allow the turbine to use more of the steams remaining energy.





F. Condenser

1. The steam from the low pressure turbine is exhausted to the condenser where it is condensed back to a subcooled liquid to begin the water/steam cycle over again. 2. Circulating cooling water is supplied to the condenser through condenser tubes to condense the steam. The circulating water can be supplied from a lake, river, ocean, cooling towers or any other large supply of cooling water.


2.1 Boilers use various fuels to provide the necessary heat required to produce steam. These fuels are classified as solid, liquid and gas. A. Solid fuels are coal (various types of coal are used), wood, coke and even trash. 1. Coal is ranked by percent moisture, fixed carbon, oxygen and sulfur content. All of these are determining characteristics which define how much heat (BTUs) and ash content can be expected to be produced when burned. a) The higher the BTU content the less fuel is required to produce the steam requirements of the plant. b) The lower the ash and sulfur content the fewer emissions released from the plant and the less flyash that has to be removed. c) Flyash plates out on the boiler tubes, especially in the superheat sections of the boiler. This reduces the heat transfer of the hot gases to the water/steam and, therefore, reduces cycle efficiency. d) Sulfur dioxide is a byproduct of the firing process of coal. The higher the sulfur content the more Sulfer dioxide is produced. This , when combined with water, produces sulfuric acid. 2. Coke is a byproduct of oil refineries that may be burned in pulverizedcoal-fired boilers. 3. Wood is used usually in the form of waste from lumbering or manufacturing processes. Special furnaces are required for this fuel. B. Liquid fuels are oil and coal tars 1. Fuel oils such as diesel fuels to number 6 crude oils are used. Btu content, water, specific gravity, sulfur and flash point are the test that oils must undergo prior to use in boilers. C. Gas used is natural gas 2.2 Air and Flue Gas Systems


A. Inorder for the fuel supplied to the boiler to burn and burn properly air must be added to the fuel mixture. This is usually provided by forced draft fans/primary air fans. 1. Forced draft fans are controlled either from the control room. 2. Induced-draft fans are used to suck the gases out of the boiler and deposit them to the stack at a slightly higher than atmospheric pressure. B. Flue gas temperature leaving the economizer is still quite high. Some of this energy can be removed and transferred to the inlet air through the use of air-heaters. Flue gas outlet temperature must be watched closely to ensure inlet air temperature doesnt drop too low. If temperature gets too low water droplets can form in the air. This mixed with the sulfur products produces sulfuric acid. C. It has already been stated that when burning fuels byproducts of the fuel burning process are produced and must be removed from the boiler and the stack emissions. 1. In the burning of coal slag is produced which falls to the bottom of the boiler. Systems are provided to crush this slag into particles that are sized such that they can be sluiced to a holding tank where trucks can remove them from the plant or sluiced to an area outside of the plant. 2. Flyash is also produced when coal is burned. High efficiency precipitators have been installed in the flue gas flow path to catch and funnel flyash to areas where it can be removed from the plant.


3.1 Coal handing equipment or fuel oil handing equipment as well as coal or fuel oil storage facilities must be provided. There needs to be enough fuel stored to operate the plant for an extended period of time. A. Coal must be moved to conveyor belts, then crushed and moved to other conveyor belts to move it to the top of the plant where it is stored again for daily use in the plant. This plant storage or hoppers must be refilled daily. The coal is further crushed as necessary to be used in the furnaces in the boilers. B. Fuel oil must be stored in large tanks and must be kept at a temperature such that the oil will flow easily through the piping but not to hot to where is may ignite prematurely. 3.2 The circulating water system will have some sort of intake screening system to prevent large objects from entering the condenser waterboxes and possibly blocking condenser tubes. This will cause a reduction in cycle efficiency.



Demineralized water must be either produced in the plant or delivered to the plant by some means. The boilers require clean demineralized water for use in the boilers. This reduces the amount of deposits and boiler downtime. Various oil systems must be provided to lubricate turbine and pump bearings to prevent component failures. This will also require oil purification systems.



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