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The Expectancy Theory of Motivation

THE EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION The Expectancy Theory of Motivation

The Expectancy Theory of motivation, which was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964, states that people strive for reaching a goal not only because they feel it as achievable, but also because a goal seems real to be met. Purpose-oriented individuals create their expectations and develop predictions about their future lives. If a goal meets the expected scenario, humans appear to be even more motivated to address it. The expectancy theory of motivation explains the reasons of why a personality decides to perform a specific behavior as opposed to another. This process of decision-making defines the motivational force (MF) of the different behavioral scenarios based on a persons own perception of his/her desired result. This theory is also called as the Valance-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory due to the three factors, which appear while estimating the process of motivation (Hopper, 2011). The first factor, expectancy, refers to the belief that increased effort will result in the increased performance. This factor is influenced by such things as the amount of resources available for achieving the result, a set of necessary skills for getting the job done, and the required support, such as top managers maintenance and appropriate information on the job (Expectancy theory of motivation Victor Vroom, 2010). The second factor is instrumentality, which focuses on the idea that if a person acts well, then the expected result will be attained. This element is affected by understanding of the dependence between performance and consequences, and the feedback between line managers, who are in charge of given tasks and top managers, who are responsible for rewards. The last factor is valence, which emphasizes on a persons need to concentrate more on positive outcomes then on negative results. It refers to the value the person individually put in the rewards. A positive valance demonstrates that a person prefers to receive the reward as opposed to a negative valance.


These three elements are crucial for building relationships between them, referring to effort-performance expectancy (E exceeds P expectancy) and performance-outcome expectancy (P exceeds O expectancy) (Vroom expectancy motivation theory, n.d.). The workplace of a company that produces branded audio and video products is one of the places where all these relationships of the model are being examined. Based on the given scenario, for reaching the companys high production standards and goals, managers need to focus on making rewards and positive outcome closely interrelated. The primary reason of employees failure to meet the target is low motivation and almost no appropriate reward for getting the task done. In this case, managers should thoroughly evaluate whether the offered rewards will be desirable for their employees (Hopper, 2011). The expectancy theory can be successfully implemented in the given situation if rewardspersonal relationships are established. Particularly, the attractiveness of the potential remuneration to the individual should be stimulated through the complex of motivational techniques. Thus, it is recommended for managers to educate those employees, who perceive themselves incapable to conduct this complicated production process through a course of advanced training and professional development programs. For making skillful employees interested in reaching the production goals, executives should motivate indifferent workers by offering special vacation trips and more days off to those, who demonstrate the highest production results with minimum time costs and maximum job efficiency. Finally, according to the expectancy theory, individuals will be satisfied and focused on the high production goals if they perceive their efforts lead to the successful performance level, which in turn, lead to required outcomes, and consequently, result in the potential reward in the form of higher compensation, additional bonuses, and improved working conditions.


Expectancy theory of motivation - Victor Vroom, (2010). Leadership central.com. Retrieved from: http://www.leadership-central.com/expectancy-theory-ofmotivation.html#axzz27Jvvgnnb Hopper, A., (2011). What is expectancy theory of motivation? Selfdevelopment.net. Retrieved from: http://www.selfdevelopment.net/motivation/motivation-basics/what-is-expectancytheory-of-motivation Vroom expectancy motivation theory, (n.d.) Your Coach. Retrieved from: http://www.yourcoach.be/en/employee-motivation-theories/vroom-expectancymotivation-theory.php