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Airworthiness and Aircraft Loads

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The airworthiness of an a/c is concerned with safety incorporation/application in all aspects of its: construction operation.

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These range from structural strength to the provision of certain safeguards in the events crash landing. It include design requirements relating to aerodynamics, performance and electrical and hydraulic systems.

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Structural aspect of airworthiness of a flying vehicle depends mainly on: strength stiffness

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Strength problems arise from ground loads air loads

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Strength problems arise from ground loads air loads and their magnitude depends on the selection of maneuvering other conditions applicable to the operational requirements of a particular a/c.
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What is Load Analysis


The task of loads analysis o Loads analysis largely means establishing appropriate loads for design and testing The goal or purpose of loads analysis o Nearly always to support design or to verify requirements for designed or built hardware.

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Airplanes loads come from diverse sources. These include: Component and payload weight

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Airplanes loads come from diverse sources. These include: Component and payload weight Air loads

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Airplanes loads come from diverse sources. These include: Component and payload weight Air loads:
Lift Drag gusts

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Lift

Lift

Mo
CP

Drag

CP

AC

Drag

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Lift

Lift

Mo
CP

Drag

CP

AC

Drag

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Span-wise Span-wise Lift lift distribution Distribution Chord-wise Chord-wise Lift lift distribution Distribution

Span-wise Lift Distribution

Wing lift distribution


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Chord-wise Lift Distribution

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Span-wise Span-wise Lift lift distribution Distribution Chord-wise Chord-wise Lift lift distribution Distribution

Span-wise Lift Distribution

Wing lift distribution


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Chord-wise Lift Distribution

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Airplanes loads come from diverse sources. These include: Component and payload weight Air loads: lift, drag, gusts Acoustic loads

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Acoustic Loads During the lift off and the early phases of the launch an extremely high level of acoustic noise surrounds the payload The principal sources of noise are: Engine running Aerodynamic turbulence Acoustic noise (as pressure waves) affecting on light weight panel-like structures produce high response
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Airplanes loads come from diverse sources. These include: Component and payload weight Air loads: lift, drag, gusts Acoustic loads Thermal loads

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Airplanes loads come from diverse sources. These include: Component and payload weight Air loads: lift, drag, gusts Acoustic loads Thermal loads space fast vehicles
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Airplanes loads come from diverse sources. These include: Component and payload weight Air loads: lift, drag, gusts Acoustic loads Thermal loads Landing loads

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Airplanes loads come from diverse sources. These include: Component and payload weight Air loads: lift, drag, gusts Acoustic loads Thermal loads Landing loads: touchdown arresting
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Take-off loads

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Take-off loads: runway taxi assisted (e.g. jet/rocket) take-off catapult

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Catapult

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Take-off loads: runway taxi, catapult, assisted (e.g. jet or rocket) take-off Power plant loads

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Take-off loads: runway taxi, catapult, assisted (e.g. jet or rocket) take-off Power plant loads: thrust engine torque gyroscopic effects

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Gyroscopic effects

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Take-off loads: runway taxi, catapult, assisted (e.g. jet or rocket) take-off Power plant loads:
thrust, engine torque, gyroscopic effects

special loads:

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special loads: towing refueling cargo weapons recoil bomb release missile/rocket fired blast effects

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Other loads: cabin pressure Turbulences crash safety

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Flight Loads
Maneuver Gust Control deflection Buffets (winds strike) Inertia Vibration

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Ground Loads
Vertical load factor Braking Bumps Turns Catapult Arrested landing Aborted take off Spin-up gears Spring back gears One wheel/two wheel Towing Ground winds Break away

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Other Loads & Conditions


Fatigue Fall safety Damage tolerance Bird strikes Lightning Wind milling Thermal Jacking Pressurization Power plant Hail Ground handling

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Principal Aerodynamic loads on an Aircraft


Wings, tail-plane and fuselage are subjected to: bending loads shear loads torsion loads and must be designed to withstand them at minimum weight

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For spacecraft, the following additional loads are encountered: Launch loads boost orbit transfer On orbit loads

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Aircraft Mission and Stages


Applied loads depends on the mission of the aircraft, e.g.: Transport Fighter Aerobatic mission

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The stages during any aircraft mission can be roughly divided into: Taxi and take off Cruising Maneuver Landing

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Design loads must be carefully established for every stage of the aircraft mission.

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The objectives of structural design is to maintain the shape and integrity of the aircraft during each part of the mission and stage.

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Factor of Safety Flight Envelope

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The a/c designer is constantly seeking to reduce the a/c weight to a minimum compatible with safety.

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To ensure general minimum standards of strength and safety, airworthiness regulations (CAA) lay down several factors which the primary structure of the a/c must satisfy. These are limit loads proof loads ultimate loads

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Limit load is the maximum load that an a/c is expected to experience in normal operation.

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Limit load is the maximum load that an a/c is expected to experience in normal operation. The proof load is product of the limit load and the proof factor (1 - 1.25)

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Limit load is the maximum load that an a/c is expected to experience in normal operation. The proof load is product of the limit load and the proof factor (1 - 1.25) Ultimate load is product of limit load and the ultimate factor (usually 1.5)

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The a/c structure must: withstand the proof load without damaging distortion

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The a/c structure must: withstand the proof load without damaging distortion not fail until the ultimate load has been achieved.

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The proof and ultimate loads may be regarded as factors of safety and provide for various contingencies & uncertainties etc.

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Factor of safety =

FoS =

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Margin of Safety = =

MoS = = FoS - 1

-1

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