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# Music Theory Forum: mallalieu & self-sim series

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## mallalieu & self-sim series

Posted by Caleb Morgan
68.166.234.51

on 9/25/2006, 1:11 pm

What I'm searching for are new simple formulas that will generate self-similar 12-tone series. I've looked at quadratic residues, binomial coefficients, Stirling numbers, Fibonacci series, Golomb rulers, Sidon Sets; Collatz-type sequences, & Costas arrays. Discussion of 2 techniques of generating self-similarity: There is a kind of 12-tone row that is sort of fractal. When you skip some notes in the sequence and take every other note, or every third note, or "pick and skip" in some irregular pattern, you get a sequence that resembles the original sequence. The vast majority of self-similarity of this kind is limited and imperfect. There are exactly four and only four 12-tone rows that exhibit complete, "perfect" self-similarity. Here they are: C C C C C# E D A F B Eb Ab Bb G F# the so-called "Mallalieu" row F Ab Bb A C# G D# E D B F# "Mallalieu" intervals multiplied by 5 G E D Eb B F A G# Bb C# F# "Mallalieu" intervals multiplied by 7 B Ab Bb Eb G C# A E D F F# "Mallalieu" intervals multiplied by 11

Theorists, including Milton Babbitt, have observed that the Mallalieu series can be derived from the series of numbers that come from the following formula: i ^ n mod p. (2 ^ n mod 13 in this case.) I was fascinated to learn that we can take the formula i ^ n mod p, and plug in different numbers to get other series that exhibit this "self-similar" property, only to a lesser degree. Now, these series have certain limitations. The pattern of self-similarity is always the same--every other note starting on the second note, every third note starting on the third note, and so on. And there are other limitations. So this leads to the need for an alternative, "hand algorithm" approach. I have encountered at least four in the music-theory literature--by Tom Johnson, Andrew Mead, Phillip Batstone, and Robert Morris. I've come up with my own approach. HAND ALGORITHM OR RECIPE FOR SELF-SIMILAR TWELVE-TONE ROWS The recipe has four to six steps: 1) Grid 2) "Pick or Skip" pattern (often from limited-interval rows. see table of 62 rows below

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## Music Theory Forum: mallalieu & self-sim series

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3) Cyclical Permutation series 4) X Swap (or interpreting Cyclical Permutation series as order numbers rather than pitches) 5) Optional: Further Transformation of Series (including, primarily, intervallic expansions) 6) Optional: Test and Tweak 1) Grid--This is simply the 12 tones of the chromatic scale in order. grids: C C# D Eb E F F# G G# A Bb B B Bb A Ab G F# F E Eb D Db C or: the same thing in numbers: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 2) "Pick or Skip" pattern--starting on some note or number other than the first or last, we create a pattern, at will, of numbers picked, in sequence. Having chosen an overall direction, either to the left or to the right (ascending or descending) we stick with it. I've obtained the best results so far by limiting the number of different intervals in my pattern. For this purpose, one can use a table of rows which are limited to only 3 intervals. (See Table below) these can be used in all transformations & rotations Note that the Mallalieu row is made by the simplest possible pattern. (This pattern corresponds to row/map # 14 in the Table) 1,3,5,7,9,11,0,2,4,6,8,10 Next we align this pattern of picks, for convenience, underneath the "grid". 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 (grid) 1 3 5 7 9 11 0 2 4 6 8 10 (sequence of values picked) 3) Cyclical Permutation series The next step is to represent the relationship between our "grid" and our "pick or skip" series as if it were a cyclical permutation. 0 goes to 1 underneath. 1 above goes to 3 underneath. Now we find the 3 in the upper row and note the 7 beneath it. So 3 goes to 7 in the row underneath. Find the 7 in the upper row. 7 goes to 2 in the row underneath. And so on. Continuing this way, we have: (0,1,3,7,2,5,11,10, 8, 4, 9, 6) This is the same thing as writing "0 goes to 1, 1 goes to 3, 3 goes to 7", and so on. 6 goes to 0, or the beginning of the cycle again. cyclical permutation notation: (0,1,3,7,2,5,11,10, 8, 4, 9, 6) 4) X Swap (or interpreting Cyclical Permutation series as position numbers rather than pitches)

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13/11/13 07:40

## Music Theory Forum: mallalieu & self-sim series

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Now, we could interpret these numbers as representing the pitches of a 12-tone series. In fact, in this case it would make a rather pleasant all-interval series, a sort of "growth" series. But instead, we interpret these numbers as representing the position numbers of each of the 12 notes of the chromatic scale. An easy way to do this is to align the cyclical permutation series with the numbers 0 through 11 underneath it: (0, 1, 3, 7, 2, 5, 11, 10, 8, 4, 9, 6) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 We start on the lower left with the lower 0. We find the matching 0 above it. We look underneath it and write down what we find, the 0. Same thing with the next value, the 1. With the 2, we find the 2 in the upper row, and write down what we find underneath it, the 4. With the next value--the 3--we find the 3 in the upper row and write down the 2 underneath it. And so on. Doing this for all twelve values, we get: 0 1 4 2 9 5 11 3 8 10 7 6 (voila: our Mallalieu series) This is what we get when we interpret the cyclical permutation series as if it represented the positions (or the "wheres" instead of "whats" of each of the 12 tones. That is, taking 0, 1, 3, 7, 2, 5, 11, 10, 8, 4, 9, 6, instead of thinking of this as, for example, 11, or B in the 6th position, we are instead thinking of it as 6, or F# in the 11th position. We are swapping pitch and position, in effect. 5) Optional: Further Transformation of Series (including, primarily, intervallic expansions) By the end of step 4 in this recipe, we have a series with a pattern of self-similarity that we chose in step 2. However, we might not like the intervallic pattern of the series that resulted, and so we can change it. Here are 3 ways: 1) multiply the intervals of the series by 5 or 7. 2) multiply the intervals of the series by 2 through 10, and take mod 13. Replace the one duplicate pitch. 3) "Map" the pitches using one of many possible mappings. Again, we can use our table of series having only three intervals. (See Table) Different transpositions of a single series will produce different new series under mapping. Choose which of the resulting series to keep. Some of these mappings have the same effect as multiplying mod 13. 6) Hand Tweak series (needs no explanation) Conclusion: Two methods for producing self-similar 12-tone series have been presented. The first uses the formula i ^ n mod p. The second uses a "hand algorithm" worked out by calebprime. The series derived from i ^ n mod p have a consistent pattern of self-similarity but the self-similarity is "fuzzy". The "hand algorithm" creates series with varied patterns of self-similarity, in which the self-similarity is exact. TABLE: LIMITED INTERVALS-ROWS 1.12B C D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C# 2.129 C D E F F# G G# A A# B C# D#

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## Music Theory Forum: mallalieu & self-sim series

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3.139 C C# E F F# G G# A A# B D D# 4.127 C D E F# G G# A A# B C# D# F 5.125 C D E F# G# A A# B C# D# F G 6.135 C C# E F G# A A# B D D# F# G 7.123 C D E F G G# A# B C# D# F# A 8.123 C D D# F G G# A# B C# E F# A 9.123 C C# D# F G G# A# B D E F# A 10.123 C C# D# E G G# A# B D F F# A 11.123 C D D# F F# G# A# B C# E G A 12.123 C C# D# F F# G# A# B D E G A 13.123 C C# D# E F# G# A# B D F G A 14.123 C D E F# G# A# B C# D# F G A 15.123 C C# D# F# G# A# B D E F G A 16.123 C D D# F G# A# B C# E F# G A 17.123 C C# D# F G# A# B D E F# G A 18.123 C C# D# E F# G A# B D F G# A 19.123 C C# D# F# G A# B D E F G# A 20.123 C C# D# F G A# B D E F# G# A 21.23b C D# F G A B D E F# G# A# C# 22.13b C D# E G G# B D F F# A A# C# 23.137 C D# F# A A# C# E G G# B D F 24.237 C D# F# G# A# C# E G A B D F 25.235 C D# F# A B D F G# A# C# E G 26.234 C D E G A B D# F# A# C# F G# 27.234 C D E F# A B D# G A# C# F G# 28.234 C D E G A# C# F A B D# F# G# 29.234 C D E F# G# B D# G A# C# F A 30.234 C D E G B D# F# G# A# C# F A 31.234 C D F G# A# C# E G B D# F# A 32.234 C D E G# A# C# F G B D# F# A 33.234 C D F G A# C# E G# B D# F# A 34.234 C D E G A# C# F G# B D# F# A 35.234 C D E F# A# C# F G# B D# G A 36.134 C D# F# A C# E G A# D F G# B 37.34b C E G A# D F G# B D# F# A C# 38.35b C D# F# A D F G# B E G A# C# 39.349 C E G A# D F# A C# F G# B D# 40.347 C E G# B D# G A# D F# A C# F 41.357 C D# G# B E G A# C# F# A D F 42.345 C D# F# A# C# F G# B E A D G 43.345 C D# F# A# D G B E A C# F G# 44.345 C D# G A# D F A C# F# B E G# 45.345 C D# F# A# C# F A D G B E G# 46.345 C D# F# A C# F A# D G B E G# 47.135 C F G# C# E A D G A# D# F# B 48.145 C E G# C# F A D F# A# D# G B 49.45b C F A D F# A# D# G B E G# C# 50.459 C F A D G B E G# C# F# A# D# 51.359 C F G# C# F# B E A D G A# D# 52.456 C E A D G B F A# D# G# C# F# 53.456 C E G# D G B F A# D# A C# F# 54.456 C E A C# G B F A# D# G# D F# 55.456 C E G# C# G B F A# D# A D F# 56.456 C E G# D F# B F A# D# A C# G

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## Music Theory Forum: mallalieu & self-sim series

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## 57.456 58.456 59.456 60.356 61.156 62.56b

C C C C C C

E A C# F# B F A# D# G# D G E G# C# F# B F A# D# A D G E A D# G# C# F# B F A# D G F A# D# G# D G C# F# B E A F A# E A D# G# D G C# F# B F# B F A# E A D# G# D G C#

mallalieu & self-sim series - Caleb Morgan 9/25/2006, 1:11 pm Re: mallalieu & self-sim series - Caleb Morgan 9/27/2006, 6:07 am Re: mallalieu & self-sim series - caleb "quixotic" morgan 9/27/2006, 6:54 am Re: mallalieu & self-sim series - PSM113 10/3/2006, 12:39 pm Re: mallalieu & self-sim series - caleb "middlebrow" morgan 10/4/2006, 3:28 am Re: mallalieu & self-sim series - mark Q 10/3/2006, 12:29 pm Re: mallalieu & self-sim series - caleb 10/3/2006, 5:58 pm Re: mallalieu & self-sim series - Caleb "Overman" Morgan 10/4/2006, 7:44 am
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## Music Theory Forum: mallalieu & self-sim series

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