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# HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 1

Part 1
Energy Sector
Siemens AG 2008
Distance Protection
for transmission lines
Gustav Steynberg
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 2
Localization of short-circuits by means of an impedance
measurement:
fault on the protected line
Z1
relay A
Basic principle of impedance protection
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 2 November 09
fault outside the protected line
selectivity
relay A
Z2
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 3
Distance measurement (principle)
Z
L
= R
L
+ j X
L
Z
E
= R
E
+j X
E
I
L1
I
L2
I
L3
I
E
Z
L
Z
E
U U U
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 3 November 09
6 loops: 3 phase- phase loops and
3 phase- ground loops
phase- phase -loop:
The same applies to the remaining loops
U
L1-L2
= Z
L
( I
L1
- I
L2
)
Measured current
measured voltage
06.08.97
dtgerdis3
U
L1
U
L2
U
L3
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 4
I
L1
I
L2
I
L3
I
E
Z
L
Z
E
Z
L
= R
L
+ j X
L
Z
E
= R
E
+j X
E
Distance measurement (principle)
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 4 November 09
phase-ground-loop:
U
L1
=
L1
( R
L
+ j X
L
)-
E
( R
E
+j X
E
)

L1
,
E
measured current
U
L1
measured voltage
06.08.97
dtgerdis3
The same applies to the remaining loops
U
L1
U
L2
U
L3
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 5
Z
L
Z
LF1
Z
LF2
R
F
R
F
Z
D
F1 F2
X
ZL
Z
LF2
R
ZF2
Fault area
distance relay
operating
characteristic
Phase - Phase Fault
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 5 November 09
R
Z
LF2
j
SC1
j
SC2
j
L
R
R
ZF1
ZF2
R
R
Z
Z
LF1
Fault in
reverse
Minimum voltage 0,9 Un
Maximum current 1,1 In
Maximum angle 30
Phase - Phase Fault
R
R
R
F
/ 2
Phase - Earth Fault
R
R
R
F
/(1 + R
E
/R
L
)
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 6
I
SC
E
Z
L
Z
SC
U
1
= k
1
U
SC
= k
1
I
SC
Z
SC.
Z
S A B
Principle of (analog) distance relaying
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 6 November 09
comparator
Z
Replica
(line replica impedance)
(corresponds to the set zone reach)
U
1
= k
1
U
SC
= k
1
I
SC
Z
SC.
U
2
=k
2

I
SC
Z
Replica
Relay design:
operation if
U
1
< U
2
i.e. Z
SC
< Z
Replica
Z
Replica
X
R
Ext. fault
Internal fault
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 7
Fourier analysis of measured values
C(k) S(k) (k)
j I I I + =
Sampled signal i(t)
Processing with two
orthogonal filters
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 7 November 09
-6,000
-4,000
-2,000
0,000
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
0 20 40 60 80 100
dt t sin t) (
2
1

360 -

I I
dt t cos t) (
1

360 -

I I
2
C
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 8
Fourier analysis: Filtering characteristics
0.6
0.8
1
0.6
0.8
1
Full cycle (20 ms at 50 Hz) Half cycle (10 ms at 50 Hz)
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 8 November 09
0 100 200 300 400 500Hz
0.2
0.4
50 0 100 200 300 400 500Hz
0.2
0.4
50
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 9
Discrete Fourier transform (window = 1 cycle)
) (
(

=

=
1 N
1 n
n S i n sin
2
t
N
I
t
i
0
i
1
i
2
i
N
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 9 November 09
=1 n N
) (
(
(

+ + =

=
1 N
1 n
n
N O
C i t n cos
2
i
2
i
2
N
I
n
0 1 2 N
0 1 2 N
3 . . . .
3 . . .
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 10
U U
t j j
e U e U U

= =
I I
t j j
e I e I I

= =
U U
t =
Impedance calculation using U- and I-phasors
I U Z
=
( ) X j R j Z e Z Z
j
+ = + = =

sin cos
R
X
Z
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 10 November 09
I I
t =
0 = t
( )
( ) ( )
I U I U
j
j
j
I
U
j
I
U
e
I
U
e I
e U
I
U
Z
I U
I
U

+ = =

= =

sin cos
R X
( ) X j R j Z e Z Z
Z Z
j
Z
+ = + = =

sin cos
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 11
Distance protection
Impedance calculation using U- und I-phasors (principle)
{ } ( )dt t u U R

=
T/2
T/2
0 L L
cos (t)
T
1
e
{ } ( )dt t u U I

=
T/2
T/2
0 L
sin (t)
T
1
m
L
{ } { }
L L
m e U jI U R U + =
L
{ } ( )dt t i R

=
T/2
T/2
0 L
cos (t)
T
1
e
L
I
{ } ( )dt t i I

=
T/2
T/2
0 L L
sin (t)
T
1
m I
{ } { }
L L L
m e I I I jI R + =
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 11 November 09
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
U U L
) t j(
L L
sin cos
U

+ + + = =
+
t j t U e U t u
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
I I L
) t j(
L L
sin cos
I

+ + + = =
+
t j t e I I t i
L L L L L
I I + = jX R U
{ } { } ( ) { } { } ( )
L L L L L L
m e m e I I jI R jX R U jI U R + + = +
{ } { } { }
L L L L L
m e e I I I X R R U R =
{ } { } { }
L L L L L
m e m I I I R R X U I + =
{ } { } { } { }
{ } { }
2
L
2
L
L L L L
L
m e
m e e m
I I
I I
I R
I U R R U I
X
+

=
{ } { } { } { }
{ } { }
2
L
2
L
L L L L
L
Im e
Im Im e e
I I
I I
+
+
=
R
U R U R
R
Note: This calculation does not consider the a-periodic DC component in the measured signals
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 12
Distance protection
Fast impedance estimation using Kalman Filters
) t ) t ) t
) t (
i cos( C
t
e - cos( B sin( A

+

+ =

\
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
Task: Estimation of the coefficients A, B, C on basis of
measured currents and voltages
Method: Gaus Minimization of error squares:
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 12 November 09
Method: Gaus Minimization of error squares:
2
(i) (i)
k
N - k i
f - u Delta
|

\
|

=
=
MIN
Delta = quality value
k = sampling number
N = length of data window
i = variable
0
dC dB dA
Delta
=
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 13
10 ms 20 ms 30 ms
40 ms
i
t
Estimator 1 (Gauss)
(5 samples)
X
R
X
Z = 50%
Estimator 2 (Gauss)
Jump detector
Fault inception
0 ms
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 13 November 09
X
R
X
R
X
R
Normal measuring step 1 (Fourier)
(2x16 samples, 5 ms shifted)
Z = 80%
Z = 90%
Z = 100%
Estimator 2 (Gauss)
(7 samples)
Estimatorr 3 (Gauss)
(9 samples)
Estimator 4 (Gauss)
(11 samples)
Estimator 5 (Gauss)
(13 samples)
Normal measuring step 2 (Fourier)
(2x21samples, 5 ms shifted)
As previous measurement
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 14
Distance protection,
Typical operating time characteristic
Operating time (ms)
10
15
20
25
30
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 14 November 09
Fault location in % zone reach
Short-circuit data:
SIR = 26
f = 50 Hz
Fault: L1-E
5 shots per fault case
Fault inception: 0... 90
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
5
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 15
R
L
+ j X
L
I
L1
R
E
+ j X
E
V
L1
V
L2
V
L3
I
L2
I
L3
I
E
Distance measurement
Fault loop formulas
Relay
location
Ph-Ph
Ph-E
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 15 November 09
Phase-to-Earth loop:
Phase-to-Phase loop:
15.10.97
engerdis3
( ) ( )
|
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
|
=
+ + =
E
L
E
L L E
L
E
L L L
E E E L L L L
I
X
X
I jX I
R
R
I R V
jX R I jX R I V
1 1 1
1 1
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1 L L L L L L
I I jX R V + =

## HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 16

time
t
1
t
2
t
3
Z
1
Z
2
Z
3
A
C
B
D
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 16 November 09
D1 D2 D3
distance
A
C
B
D
Z
1
= 0,85 Z
AB
Z
2
= 0,85 (Z
AB
+ 0,85 Z
BC
)
Z
3
= 0,85 (Z
AB
+ 0,85 (Z
BC
+ 0,85 Z
CD
))
Safety margin is 15
%:
line error
CT, VT error
measuring error
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 17
2nd Zone: It must initially allow the 1st zone on the neighbouring feeder(s) to clear the fault.
The grading time therefore results from the addition of the following times:
operating time of the neighbouring feeder mechanical 25 - 80 ms
static: 15 - 40
digital: 15 - 30
+ circuit breaker operating time HV / EHV: 60 ms (3 cycles) / 40 ms (2 cycles)
MV up to about 80 ms (4 cycles)
+ distance relay reset time mechanical: approx. 60-100 ms
static: approx. 30 ms
(With numerical relays 250 ms is possible)
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
static: approx. 30 ms
digital: approx. 20 ms.
+ errors of the distance relay internal timers mechanical: 5% of the set time, minimum 60-100 ms
static: 3% of the set time, minimum 10 ms
digital: 1% of the set time, minimum 10 ms
+ distance protection starting time *) mechanical: O/C starter: 10 ms, impedance starter: 25 ms
static: O/C stater: 5 ms, impedance starter: 25 ms
digital: generally 15 ms
+ safety margin (ca.) grading; mechanical-mechanical: 100 ms
static/digital-mechanical or vice versa: 75 ms
digital-digital or static-static 50 ms
*) only relevant if the set relay times relate to the instant of fault detection / zone pick-up. This is the case with all Siemens relays. There are other relays where the
time is adapted by software to relate to the instant of fault inception. In the latter case the starting time has to be dropped.
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 18
Z
SC
Impedance area for
forward faults
X

## Fault location Where is the fault ?

Determination of fault direction

SC
Current area for
forward faults

SC
U
SC
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 18 November 09
R
Z'
SC
Impedance area for
reverse faults

SC
current / voltage diagram impedance diagram
The impedance also shows the direction, but ....

SC
Current area for
reverse faults
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 19
Why impedance measurement and directional determination separately?
line characteristic
fault with arc resistance
X
A B
Impedance measurement and directional determination
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 19 November 09
direction may be determined together with the impedance measurement
but: problems may arise in certain cases (e.g. close-in faults)
separate directional determination required!
fault with arc resistance
in forward direction
fault in forward direction
fault in reverse
direction
close-in fault
R
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 20
Alternatives for the directional measurement
V
f
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
Z
line
Z
grid
relay
fault L1-E
Method 1
Method 2
V
L1
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 20 November 09
faulty phase voltage
I
f
V
L2
V
L3
voltage memory
(pre-fault voltage)
I
f
V
L2
V
L3
V
L1
healthy-phase voltage
(phase to phase voltage)
I
f
V
f
V
L2-L3
V
L2
V
L3
V
L1
V
f
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 21
Directional measurement
Summery of all 3 methods
u
RI
= u
L2-
L3
u
f
= u
L1
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 21 November 09

`
)

`
)

`
)
Distance measurement
Direction measurement
with voltage memory
Direction measurement
with unfaulted voltage
i
f
(t)
u
L1
i
f
i
f
i
f
u
L2-L3
u
L1
06.08.97
dtgerdis9
Measuring
window
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 22
X
Z1
Z2
Z4
Z1B
Z5
Line

Distance zones
Inclined with line angle
Angle prevents overreach of
Z1 on faults with fault
resistance that are fed from
both line ends
Impedance zones of digital relays (7SA6 and 7SA52)
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 22 November 09
R

Z3
Fault detection
no fault detection polygon: the
largest zone determines
the fault detection
characteristic
encroachment area with
R
min
and
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 23
0.6
0.3
(s)
Ring feeder: with grading against opposite end
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 23 November 09
The same grading from both sides
HV Power Seminar Nov 2009 24
L2
Z3
Energy Sector Energy Automation
Siemens AG 2008
Page 24 November 09
L3
L4
L1
Z2
Z1
The impedances of the Z2 and Z3 must be grading with the shortest impedance