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Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

C!AP"#R $ I%"R&D'C"I&% "& PR&(RAMMA)L# L&(IC C&%"R&LL#R

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Introduction

Automation was developed as a way of placing the burden of certain tedious, repetitive and dangerous tasks upon machines, and, as a consequence of technological development in electronics and microprocessors PLCs appeared. A PLC is a system based upon a microprocessor, generally of a modular configuration, which can be programmed in a non-computer language and which is designed for controlling sequential processes in real time in the industrial environment. A PLC monitors inputs, make decisions based on its program and controls outputs to automate a process or machine. PLCs provide a great deal of fle ibility to the system and occupy minimal space. !urthermore, they require very low labour costs for installation, maintenance is ine pensive and they may be reused on other machines.

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Prepared by: Haris & Izwan Section Of lectrical! lectronics & "uto#ation Unikl Malaysian Spanish Institute $an %&&'

Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

$*+
1.2.1

S"R'C"'R#.
External structure.

"he most common type of e ternal structures today is the compact structure and the modular structure. Compact structure. #n a single block we have all of the elements$ power supply, CP%, memory banks, inputs and outputs &#'(), etc...
POWER SUPPLY OUTPUTS CONNECTION FOR PROGRAMMING MODULE OR PC CPU MEMORY

INPUTS

*odular structure. "he general structure is divided into blocks, with two different styles being used American and +uropean.

POWER SUPPLY CPU MEMORY

I/O

ANA. O

ETC.

I / 0
POWER SUPPLY

M O D U L E

CPU MEMORY

M O D U L E S

American structure. (ne block contains the CP%, memory and power supply, and separate blocks contain the necessary #'( units. %

+uropean structure. "here is a module for each function$ CP%, power supply, #'(, etc.

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Prepared by: Haris & Izwan Section Of lectrical! lectronics & "uto#ation Unikl Malaysian Spanish Institute $an %&&'

Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

1.2.2

PLCs Structure & Operation

Programmable Logic Control &PLC) is made up basically of three parts$ #nput section. Central processing unit &CP%). (utput section.

SENSORS

INPUT SECTION

OUTPUT SECTION

ACTUATORS

a) Input section. Accepts a variety of digital or analog signals from various field devices &pushbuttons, limit switches, transducers, sensors) and converts them into a logic signal that can be used by the CP%.

b) The CPU (central processing unit)."his is the thinking part of the system. "he CP% makes decisions and e ecutes control instructions based on program instructions in memory. #t interprets the instructions from the user program and according to input values, enables the desired outputs. (

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Prepared by: Haris & Izwan Section Of lectrical! lectronics & "uto#ation Unikl Malaysian Spanish Institute $an %&&'

Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

c) Output section. #ts function is to convert control instructions from the CP% into a digital or analog signal that can be used to control various field devices &actuators - lamps, relays, contacts, solenoids).

"he simple e ample$ Pushbuttons is connected to PLC inputs can be used to start and stop a motor connected to a PLC through a motor starter &actuator).

!urthermore, for the PLC to be operative, the following should be added &show e amples)$ Power supply. Programming console. Peripheral devices.

#nterfaces.

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Prepared by: Haris & Izwan Section Of lectrical! lectronics & "uto#ation Unikl Malaysian Spanish Institute $an %&&'

Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

POWER

SENSORS

INPUT SECTION

CPU

OUTPUT SECTION

ACTUATORS

PROGRAMMING CONSOLE

PERIPHER. DEVICES

d) Power supply unit. "ransforms the mains voltage &generally ,,- .AC) into that of the internal power supply for the PLC &/.) and that of input devices &,0.). e) Programming unit. "his is how the user gains access to the CP% in order to load the program in memory.

DIRECT CONNECTION

THROUGH A CABLE

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Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

) Perip!erals. Peripherals are e ternal au iliary equipment with a specific function, which are connected to the PLC, e tending its field of application or facilitating its use. 1ormally they are not directly involved in the creation and e ecution of the program &keyboards, monitors, displays, etc.). g) "nter aces. #nterfaces are circuits or devices that allow the CP% to be connected to the e ternal elements &peripherals).

1.#

$rc!itecture o a PLC

(*) 0 - The program is in ROM and data memor in R!M. "ome manu#acturers use a single $PROM. +

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Prepared by: Haris & Izwan Section Of lectrical! lectronics & "uto#ation Unikl Malaysian Spanish Institute $an %&&'

Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

1.#.1

%emory types

"hese are devices where information is stored. "ypes$ a) &$% &2andom Access *emory), memory which can be read from and written to. 2eading and writing are done electronically. #nformation is lost if the power supply is not maintained. b) &O% &2ead (nly *emory) #ts contents may be read, but it may not be written to. 3ata or instructions are recorded by the manufacturer and they may not be altered. #nformation is not lost when power is switched off. (ther types of memory are as follows$

Programming P&O% Programmable 2(* EP&O% +lectrically programmable P2(* EEP&O% +lectrically erasable P2(* %se of memory in a PLC$ a) %ser memory$ +lectronic +lectronic +lectronic

Erasing not possible

" power is lost 3ata are not lost

%ltraviolet light &%.)

3ata are not lost

+lectronic

3ata are not lost

"he user program is normally recorded in 2A* since it will be read by the microprocessor and changes made by the user must be permitted. 4ince 2A* loses data if power is lost, a backup battery is installed to keep power flowing to the circuitry, thus preventing it from being erased. #n some PLCs a +P2(* or ++P2(* is used instead. b) 3ata table$ "his is the area where the #'( image, internal variables such as counter values, etc. are stored. "hey are stored in 2A* since they are data which are constantly changing. c) 4ystem memory$ (n one hand we have$ 2(* or +P2(* which contains CP% boot data. ,

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Prepared by: Haris & Izwan Section Of lectrical! lectronics & "uto#ation Unikl Malaysian Spanish Institute $an %&&'

Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

(n the other hand$

2A* which stores the system set-up. d) +P2(* and ++P2(* memory$ *ay replace the 2A* once a definitive program has been developed. 1.#.2 CP'. "he CP% is made up of the following elements$ processor, memory, and associated au iliary circuits. 2(* memory is what tells the microprocessor what it should do when booting up, during processing and at system shut-down &firmware or system software). #ts general functions are$ +tc. 6asic CP% work cycle. 7) Creating the input image, which is stored in internal registers which do not vary during program e ecution. ,) Access and e ecution of program instructions, updating registers as indicated by the program. 8) %pdating outputs according to the state of the registers. 4upervision and control of cycle times &watchdog). 4elf-test at power-on and during program e ecution.

4tart-up of the program and system configuration scan cycle. 5enerating the cycle time base. + ternal communications.

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Prepared by: Haris & Izwan Section Of lectrical! lectronics & "uto#ation Unikl Malaysian Spanish Institute $an %&&'

Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC


24V

S1

S 0

IN P U T IM AG E

...

E 32.1

E32.0

... PRO G RAM IN STRUC TIO NS A RE REA D E32.0 E32.1

A32.0

O UTP U TS U PDATED

...

...

A 32.0

H 1

1.#.#

"nput(Output )"(O) 'nits

"hese are the basic devices which take information from the sensors and pass it on to the CP% in the case of the inputs, or pass information from the CP% to the actuators in the case of the outputs. "heir main functions are$ Adapting voltages and working output of the sensors and actuators to those of the PLC9s electronic circuits. +lectrically insulating the logic circuits from the power circuits. Assigning specific processor addresses to the sensors and actuators.

1.#.* +ypes o inputs.


#nputs &#nput, +ntrada, +ingabe) may be grouped$ According to the type of power$ 1o power. 3irect current.

Alternating current. According to the type of signal$ Analogue. 3igital &:ero or one).

'

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Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

,igital inputs. "hese are the most commonly used and their input signal is of the all or nothing type, that is, at a certain voltage level or at :ero voltage. An e ample of this type of device are limit switches, push-buttons, toggle switches, etc. $nalogue inputs. "here are some magnitudes whose input values are not all or nothing, but are a range of continuous values. !or these cases it is necessary to have an analogue input module. Analogue inputs give variable voltage or current values. "ypical values are$ .oltage$ - to 7- .olts or -7- to 7- .. #ntensity$ 0 to ,- mA. "he most typical cases are electrical devices for measuring temperature, level, position, the level of a liquid, the speed of a motor &tachometer), etc. + ample of a liquid level measurement$
;7-. .alue in volts proportional to the level

-.

#n order for the analogue value to be adapted to the CP% there should be an Analogue'3igital converter. "he precision of the Analogue #nput unit depends on the precision of this converter &number of bits). + ample$ #f we have a two-bit converter, we have two combinations of bit values, where the combination -- corresponds to an input level of -. and the combination 77 corresponds to 7-. &ma imum signal), the intermediate values will be$ --7 777 -. 8.88. <.<<. 7-.

inter !" =

#0V #0 #0 = $ = = %.%% n $ # $ # %

#f instead of a two-bit converter we had a four-bit converter, the intermediate values would be as follows$ 1&

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Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

------7 --7--77 -7--7-7 -77-777 7--7--7 7-77-77 77-77-7 7777777

-. -.<< 7.88 , ,.<< 8.88 0 0.<< /.88 < <.<< =.88 > >.<< ?.88 7-.

inter !" =

#0V #0 #0 = & = = 0.((V n $ # $ # #'

@hen applications require high precision, a resolution of 7, bits is generally used.

inter !" =

#0V = $.&&mV $#$ #

Special inputs. *any PLCs, in addition to the inputs discussed so far, have other types of inputs which may be categorised as special inputs. ,ast counting in-ut. "hese are inputs which are connected directly to an internal counterA their operation is completely independent of the PLC9s normal cycle.
encoder ; signal !ast inp.

A/arm or error in-uts. "hese inputs are generally used to interrupt normal operation of the PLC cycle in order to e ecute special tasks. 11

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Prepared by: Haris & Izwan Section Of lectrical! lectronics & "uto#ation Unikl Malaysian Spanish Institute $an %&&'

Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

1.#.- +ypes o outputs As in the case of the inputs, we can divide the outputs into$ Analogue. All or nothing &digital). Analogue outputs give a variable voltage or intensity value. 3igital outputs are used to actuate elements which are either enabled or disabled &all or nothing). %nder the heading of digital outputs there are three types$ 2elay output. "ransistor output. "2#AC output. &elay outputs. "hese are used with actuators that can operate on direct current or alternating current. "hey are used when actuating speed does not need to be fast, at average power consumption &around , amperes). +ransistor outputs. Currently the most common outputs are transistor outputs. "hese cards are only used for 3C current at low power &-./ amperes)A they feature quick response and long *"6! as they last longer than relays. +&"$C outputs. "he elements to be placed on a "2#AC output may operate on AC or 3C current, and they are used in applications requiring fast switching where a relay would be too slow. "hey last longer than a relay and can handle similar power levels &, amperes). $nalogue outputs. "he inverse of analogue inputs is applied here, as a digital'analogue converter is required$
binary value

3 A convertor

( earth

to e ternal elements

"he e ternal elements to be connected are usually$ 1%

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Automated Manufacturing System (SRD 35403) Introduction to PLC

*otor speed regulators. Proportional solenoids. As in the case of analogue inputs, the higher the precision of the 3'A converter, the greater the analogue values that can be obtained. Analogue outputs can be on the order of$ .oltage$ --7-. or -7- to 7- . Current 0-,- mA.

1(

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Prepared by: Haris & Izwan Section Of lectrical! lectronics & "uto#ation Unikl Malaysian Spanish Institute $an %&&'