Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38 } 38

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38 Calculation of the PV modules

Calculation of the PV modules angular losses under " eld conditions by means of an analytical model

N. Martin *, J.M. Ruiz

CIEMAT-DER, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid, Spain UPM-Instituto de Energia Solar, E.T.S.I.T., Ciudad Universitaria s/n, E-28040 Madrid, Spain

Received 30 March 2000; received in revised form10 July 2000

Abstract

Photovoltaic (PV) modules in real operation present angular losses in reference to their behaviour in standard test conditions, due to the angle of incidence of the incident radiation and the surface soil. Although these losses are not always negligible, they are commonly not taken into account when correcting the electrical characteristics of the PV module or estimating the energy production of PV systems. The main reason of this approximation is the lack of easy-to-use mathematical expressions for the angular losses calculation. This paper analyses these losses on PV modules and presents an analytical model based on theoretical and experimental results. The proposed model " ts monocrystalline as well as polycrystalline and amorphous silicon PV modules, and contemplates the existence of super" cial dust. With it angular losses integrated over time periods of interest can be easily calculated. Monthly and annual losses have been calculated for 10 di! erent European sites, having diverse climates and latitudes (ranging from323 to 52 3 ), and considering di! erent module tilt angles. 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Keywords: PV modules; Optical losses; Angular losses; Re# ectance

1. Introduction

The optical losses of photovoltaic (PV) modules working in " eld conditions have been reported in several recent publications [1} 7]. In most PV applications, the

* Corresponding author. Tel.: #34-91-346-6672; fax: #34-91-346-6037. E-mail address: nuria.martin@ciemat.es (N. Martin).

0927-0248/01/$ - see front matter 2001 PII: S 0 9 2 7 - 0 2 4 8 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 4 0 8 - 6

Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

26 N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

angles of incidence of solar radiation often di! er substantially fromnormal incidence, which is assumed at standard test conditions [8]. As a consequence, re# ection losses can become signi" cant when calculating the electrical PV generation. The importance of this e! ect strongly depends on the module orientation, as well as on local latitude and climate characteristics. In spite of the interest of this question, there are few theoretical studies of the optical behaviour of PV modules applied to di! erent technologies [2,3], and even these are merely systematic applications of Fresnel formulae that include, in some cases, the matrix thin " lmtheory. Other authors [4} 6] consider simpli"ed calculations of these analyses. As a consequence, a lack of easy-to-use mathematical tools for integrated re# ectance e! ects calculations is observed. Although there is a mathematical model initially proposed by Souka and Safat [9] and adopted by ASHRAE [10] (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning) and thus known as the ASHRAE incidence modi" er [11] which is considered by some authors [6,7]. It is not speci" cally obtained for PV modules but calculates transmittance as a function of the angle of incidence of solar radiation by

" tting one parameter. Nevertheless, it presents problems like a discontinuity at 903 and not good " tting results for high angles of incidence. This paper proposes an alternate mathematical model, which is speci" cally ob-

tained from the optical analysis of commercial PV modules of di! erent technologies. It avoids the above-mentioned problems having good " tting results in all cases. Its

" tting parameter supplies direct information about the angular behaviour of a PV

module, and is easily obtained from measurements. With it analytical expressions for the calculation of the global e! ect of the angle of incidence have been obtained. The result is a useful tool with which optical losses of PV modules under " eld conditions can be quanti" ed.

2. The PV module angular losses

The angular losses (AL) of a PV module are calculated in reference to normal incidence of radiation and clean surface, that are the conditions at which commonly the electrical characteristics of a PV module are supplied. Being RM(0) the weighted re# ectance of the module in such reference conditions, and ¹M(0), AM(0) the correspond- ing air-to-solar cells transmittance and absorptance (within the glass, encapsulant, etc.), respectively, the angular losses at an angle of incidence can be calculated by the following formula:

AL( )"1! ¹M( )

¹M(0)

"1! 1!RM( )!AM( ) 1! 1!RM( )

1!RM(0)!AM(0)

1!RM(0) ,

(1)

The over bar-on R indicates weighted by the product of the spectral response of the PV module by the spectral distribution of the solar radiation, AM15G (ASTM Standard E892-87, Annual Book of ASTM Standards 12.02, 1987). All the considered re# ectances or transmittances in this paper are weighted ones.

N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

27

where RM( ), AM( ), ¹M( ), are the re# ectance, transmittance and absorptance at the angle . The complement to unity of the angular losses, named by the following angular factor, f , represents, according to the "rst equality in Eq. (1), the relative angular light transmission of the module. The experimental value of such a parameter can be obtained by dividing the short-circuit current (I ) at an angle by the product of the short-circuit current at normal incidence ( "0) and the cosine of the angle:

f " I ( ) I (0) cos

1

1!RM( ) 1!RM(0) .

(2)

The angular factor thus calculates the optical losses relative to the normal incidence situation. The frequently ful" lled condition of negligible absorption within the air-to-cell path is the obvious one leading to the last approximate equality in both (1) and (2) equations. It is, however, to be noted that the approximation should hold, even if absorption is not negligible, provided the absorptance ratio, AM( )/AM(0), is not much di! erent than the transmittance ratio (or the angular factor), a not unrealistic case.

3. Analytical model for the re6ectance of a PV module

3.1. The model expression

Fromthe optical analysis of di!erent PV modules con" gurations, considering crystalline (x-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) technologies, with or without antire# ec- tive coatings, and looking for a simple analytical expression, the following formula for the re# ectance of a PV module has been obtained:

RM( )"RM(0)#[1!RM(0)] exp(!cos a/a )!exp(!1/a ) 1!exp(!1/ )

,

(3)

where is the irradiance angle of incidence and a the angular losses coez cient, an empirical dimensionless parameter to " t in each case. The model has been applied to the analysis of di! erent x- and a-Si modules. In all cases, the results are very satisfactory. With it the expression of the angular losses becomes

AL( )"1! 1!exp(!cos a/a ) 1!exp(!1/ )

.

(4)

3.2. Model-x tting performance with analytical results

The results of applying the proposed model to di! erent x- and a-Si module con"gurations are plotted in Fig. 1 and summarised in Table 1. The model describes very accurately all the analysed con"gurations, as can be deduced fromthe " gure (see also the high coe$ cients of determination, r , in Table 1). It can be observed that there are modules that show low values of RM(0), like the ones having the optimised triple coating or ZnS " lm, and other with quite high re# ectance

28 N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38 Fig. 1. Re # ectance

Fig. 1. Re # ectance calculated values (dots) and modelled ones (lines) for each indicated con" guration of crystalline and amorphous silicon modules.

Table 1 RM(0) and a values for each di ! erent con " guration, relative asymptotic standard errors ( ) and coe $ cients of determination (r ) obtained in each regression analysis. The triple coating consists on an optimised (SiO /Ta O /ZnS) one. The a-Si : H thickness is 400 nm, d1"92 nmand d2"62 nm

Con " guration

RM(0)

a

(a )

r

Air/glass Air/glass/Si Air/glass/SiO /Si Air/glass/triple coat./Si Air/glass/ZnS/Si Air/glass/a-Si:H/Ag

0.043

0.173

2.0E-03

1.000

0.225

0.157

1.6E-02

0.998

0.260

0.155

5.4E-03

0.999

0.113

0.179

1.4E-02

0.999

0.085

0.168

3.1E-03

1.000

0.358

0.136

1.8E-02

0.998

Air/glass/ITO(d1)/a-Si:H/Ag

0.267

0.138

1.4E-02

0.999

Air/glass/ITO(d2)/a-Si:H/Ag

0.203

0.163

1.4E-02

0.999

values at normal incidence, like the one with no antire# ective coating or with a layer of SiO . Nevertheless, angular losses depend on the shape of the spectral re#ectance

curve versus the angle of incidence. This e! ect is characterised by the parameter a , which increases for good relative angular responses. Considering our example cases, although the & air/glass/triple coat/Si' con" guration presents low re# ectance at normal incidence it has a not so good angular response. The opposite e! ect is observed with

a con" guration

With the a-Si con"gurations the obtained "tting results are also good. As it occurs with x-Si modules, the interface & air/glass' is a " rst approach to describe the angular in# uence of the re# ectance of an a-Si module. Nevertheless, the angular response

like & air/glass/SiO /Si' .

N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

29

improves in general when considering the rest of the module materials. Also, good performance at normal incidence can imply worse relative angular responses, as it may occur with the transparent conducting oxide of indium-tin oxide (ITO) layer.

3.3. Validation of the model with experimental results

3.3.1. Experimental method

In order to validate the proposed model with experimental data, a testing system has been developed. With it the angular factor f (Eq. (2)) of an equivalent technology solar cell (ETC) of each PV module has been measured. As light source, a class A solar simulator has been used and the samples have been mounted on a rotary structure on which any angle of incidence of the radiation can be obtained. The whole " xture has been located inside a big black box where multiple re# ections between ETC and walls are avoided (see Fig. 2). The angle of incidence and the irradiance at normal incidence have been measured for calculating the angular e! ect. Also ETC temperatures have been registered for correcting the obtained currents to the same temperature and thus avoiding temperature e! ects.

3.3.2. Regression analysis with the experimental data

The experimental values of the angular factor have been " tted to the proposed model equation. The obtained angular losses coe$cients (a ) for a representative module of each technology are included in Table 2, together with the calculated

are included in Table 2, together with the calculated Fig. 2. Experimental set-up for the measurement

Fig. 2. Experimental set-up for the measurement of the angular factor f of equivalent technology solar cells (ETC).

Table 2 Regression analysis " tting results with the experimental data

 

a

Technology

Estimated value

(a )

r

m-Si

0.169

1.2E-02

0.999

p-Si

0.159

1.5E-02

0.999

a-Si

0.163

1.8E-02

0.998

30 N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38 Fig. 3. Experimental f data

Fig. 3. Experimental f data (dots) of three PV modules of di ! erent technologies and " tted curves obtained with the proposed model.

N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

31

coe$ cients of determination. From these values and looking at Fig. 3 it can be

concluded that the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results and describes correctly, for all possible angles of incidence, the angular variation of a PV module re# ectance. Another signi"cant result is that the module technology has a second-order in# uence in the angular response (" rst-order determined by the

& air/glass' interface), although better relative results are obtained in general with

polycrystalline (p-Si) and amorphous silicon PV modules. This fact does not mean that with monocrystalline silicon (m-Si) technology the optical losses increase, in absolute terms, which is mainly characterised by RM(0). In fact, most m-Si modules have textured solar cells and antire# ective coatings and, as a consequence, low RM(0) values. But this also may imply a not so good angular response, specially regarding textured solar cells. This e! ect is characterised by the coe$cient a , which increases with angular losses.

3.4. The ew ect of superxcial dust on the model parameters

As in real operating conditions the PV module contains a certain degree of dust, it is interesting to check if the proposed model is also valid for these conditions. With this aim, angular factor ( f ) measurements have been performed on PV modules having di! erent dust degrees. Although the dust characteristics can vary depending on its nature and external factors and this could a! ect the optical transmittance of the module, an approximate but e! ective way to characterise the dust thickness is by means of the relative transmittance at normal incidence in reference to the clean surface condition value. But dust also modi"es the angular performance of the PV module by increasing its angular losses. This fact is characterised by an increase of the angular losses coe$ cient, a . Typical values of 0.17 for a m-Si module become 0.20 if a moderate dust

quantity is

(I (0) /I (0) "0.92).

for a high amount of dust

The energetic consequences of these increments shall be

discussed afterwards in this paper.

on its surface (I (0) /I (0) "0.98) or 0.27

4. Corrected expression of I sc with angular losses

The expression of the short-circuit current of a PV module considering the angular losses of each radiation component (direct, di! use and albedo) is

I " IM

GM

B cos [1!F ( )]#D 1#cos [1!F ( )]

2

#A 1!cos

2

[1!F ( )] ,

(5)

where IM is the short-circuit current at standard test conditions, GM the standard 1000W/m irradiance, B the direct irradiance, D the di! use irradiance on the

32 N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

horizontal plane, A the ground-re# ected irradiance on a horizontal plane facing the ground, the module' s tilt angle, the angle of incidence of solar radiation, F the angular losses factor of the solar radiation direct component, F the angular losses factor of the solar radiation di!use component and F the angular losses factor of the solar radiation ground-re#ected (albedo) component. The angular losses factors F , F and F are obtained by the formulae

F ( )" exp(!cos a/a )!exp(!1/a ) 1!exp(!1/ )

,

F ( ) exp ! 1 c sin # !sin

a

1!cos

#c sin # 1!cos !sin

F ( ) exp ! 1

a

c sin # ! !sin

1#cos

#c sin # ! !sin 1#cos

(6a)

(6b)

(6c)

While the factor F is directly calculated fromthe model expression, both F and F are calculated by solving two integrals that consider the contribution of each solid angle unit incident on the PV module (assuming an isotropic distribution of di! use and albedo radiation). Expressions (6b) and (6c) are two approximate analytical solutions of these integrals, with c "4/(3 ) and c as a " tting parameter (see Table 3). The coe$ cient of determination of such approximation is always greater than 0.999 for the typical a values, as it is shown in Table 3. Fig. 4 represents F and F versus the tilt angle of the PV module for two representative a values. In good approximation it can be demonstrated [12] that relative power variations are proportional to short-circuit current ones, being the proportionality factor slightly bigger than unity, commonly in the range [1, 1.1]. This fact permits to calculate the relative power (or energy) losses in PV generation due to current losses and, in most cases, to consider that they are practically similar.

Table 3 Results of " tting equations (6b) and (6c) to the & exact+ F and F values for typical a values of silicon PV modules

a

c 1

c

(c )

r

0.16

4/(3 )

!0.074

!1.3E-02

0.999

0.17

4/(3 )

!0.069

!1.3E-02

0.999

0.18

4/(3 )

!0.064

!1.4E-02

0.999

N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

33

Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38 33 Fig. 4. Angular losses factors

Fig. 4. Angular losses factors of the di! use and albedo radiation components for typical a values of a m-Si module (0.17 for clean surface and 0.2 for a medium dust quantity).

5. Angular losses calculation at di4erent European sites

With the aimof applying the proposed model to some illustrative cases of interest, the angular losses of a south-oriented standard monocrystalline PV module shall be calculated at di! erent sites and considering several tilt angles. For that purpose, the typical meteorological year of ten di! erent European sites [13} 16] having diverse climates and latitudes has been considered. Table 4 summarises the geographical and climatic characteristics of each location.

5.1. Monthly average losses

PV modules angular losses are mainly determined by the angle of incidence of direct radiation, and thus, the module tilt angle, local latitude and solar position are the most in# uencing parameters. Considering Europe, in southern sites PV modules su!er the highest monthly average losses in June} July for vertical position, while in locations with higher latitudes the maximum angular losses are obtained in December at horizontal position. On the other hand, minimum values are obtained in all considered cases in December} January (at 803 tilt angle in northern sites and 703 in the southern ones). Table 5 summarises the monthly average values of the angular losses calculated on each considered site and Fig. 5 represents the yearly evolution of the monthly losses for some selected cases.

34

N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

Table 4 Geographic and climatic characteristics of the considered sites for the calculation of the PV angular losses

Site name

Latitude (deg)

Longitude (deg) Altitude (m)

Clime KoKppen [17]

Betdagan Seville Murcia Athens Madrid Logron o Nice Paris } Trappes Ucle De Bilt

32.0N

34.82E

30

BSw (semiarid) BSh (warmsteppe) BSh (warmsteppe) Csa (mediterranean) Csa (mediterranean) Csb (mediterranean, moderate summer) Csa (mediterranean) Cfb (mild winters fresh summers) Cfb (marine west coast) Cfb (marine west coast)

37.4N

6.0W

10

37.79N

0.80W

3

37.97N

22.72E

7

40.45N

3.71W

664

42.5N

2.5W

384

43.65

7.2E

4

48.78N

2.0E

123

50.8N

4.35E

100

52.1N

5.18E

3

Table 5 Monthly average angular losses calculated at each di! erent considered site. The table shows the minimum and maximum values and the correspondent tilt angle.

 

Monthly angular losses

 

Minimum

Maximum

Site name

Value (%)

Month

Tilt angle

Value (%)

Month

Tilt angle

 

(deg)

(deg)

Betdagan (32.0N) Sevilla (37.4N) Murcia (37.8N) Athens (38.0N) Madrid (40.5N) Logron o (42.5N) Nice (43.7N) Paris-Trappes (48.8N) Ucle (50.8N) De Bilt (52.1N)

1.8

Dec

70

14.7

Jul

90

1.4

Dec

70

13.5

Jul

90

1.4

Dec

70

13.3

Jun

90

1.5

Jan

70

14.8

Jun

90

1.7

Jan

70

12.6

Jun

90

1.6

Jan

70

11.0

Jun

90

1.3

Dec

70

11.1

Jul

90

1.5

Dec

80

10.5

Dec

0

2.0

Dec

80

9.4

Dec

0

1.9

Dec

80

10.8

Dec

0

5.2. Annual losses: The latitude and tilt angle iny uence

The angular losses for each considered place versus the module tilt angle are represented in Fig. 6. Highest angular losses correspond in all cases to vertical position (facades in buildings) and di!erent minimum values are obtained for each location, depending mainly on the latitude: the lowest losses in a yearly basis are achieved with tilt angles some degrees under the local latitude. This observed behav- iour is more clearly observed in Fig. 7, which represents the annual angular losses

N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

35

Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38 35 Fig. 5. Monthly angular losses

Fig. 5. Monthly angular losses of a standard m-Si module at di! erent sites, plotted versus the number of the month. Two extreme tilt angles are considered (03 and 90 3 ).

Two extreme tilt angles are considered (0 3 and 90 3 ). Fig. 6. Annual angular

Fig. 6. Annual angular losses of a standard m-Si module at di! erent sites, plotted versus tilt angle.

versus the di! erence latitude-tilt angle. All the curves " t quite accurately quadratic functions (coe$cients of determination '0.98) and moreover they can be grouped into two more general equations, one for the Mediterranean sites (Betdagan, Seville, Murcia, Athens, Madrid, Logron o, Nice) and the other one for central Europe ones (Paris-Trappes, Ucle, De Bilt):

36 N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38 Fig. 7. Annual angular losses

Fig. 7. Annual angular losses of a standard m-Si module at di ! erent sites, plotted versus latitude-tilt angle.

Mediterranean Europe:

AL (%)"11.3 10 ( ! ) !11.9 10 ( ! )#2.87.

Coefficient of determination"0.97; standard error"0.19;

Central Europe:

AL (%)"8.4 10 ( ! ) !11.0 10 ( ! )#3.49.

Coefficient of determination"0.96; standard error"0.13.

(7a)

(7b)

An approximate value for minimum annual angular losses at medium latitude sites is 3% and is obtained with a tilt angle some degrees under the local latitude. Also an important consequence of the above-obtained results deals with the integration of PV in buildings, where the angular losses can become especially signi" cant if PV modules have to be installed at orientations and tilt angles quite di! erent fromthe ideal ones. For medium latitude locations, especial attention should be paid to re# ection losses when dealing with facades integration. A good alternative is to install the PV modules into well-oriented roofs, or awnings.

5.3. The dust iny uence in the average angular losses

The existence of dust increases substantially the angular losses by a factor that can vary typically between 1.3 and 1.5, depending on the dust thickness (frommoderate to very signi" cant). Fig. 8 shows for the particular case of Madrid the dust e! ect on the annual angular losses, considering a typical moderate dust degree (I (0) /I (0) " 0.98) and a very high one (I (0) /I (0) "0.92).

N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

37

Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38 37 Fig. 8. Annual angular losses

Fig. 8. Annual angular losses of a standard m-Si module at Madrid, plotted versus tilt angle, considering three di ! erent surface dust degrees.

6. Conclusions

With the proposed analytical model angular losses in PV modules working in real conditions can be easily calculated. The model depends on a " tting parameter called the angular losses coe$ cient that characterises the relative angular response of the PV module. The model has been applied to the calculation of monthly and yearly losses in 10 di ! erent European sites, considering their typical meteorological years. While module technology does not in#uence meaningfully the angular losses, dust does:

besides reducing the light transmittance at normal incidence, it also increases the relative angular losses. These losses present an annual evolution, which is very dependent on the latitude and the tilt angle, with an average value that is function of the di! erence latitude-tilt angle. A minimum annual value of about 3% is found for all the considered sites.

Acknowledgements

The authors express their gratitude to Luis Zarzalejo and EstefanmHa Caaman o for providing the typical meteorological years radiation data.

References

[1] K. BuKcher, True module rating. Analysis of module power loss mechanisms, Proceedings of 13th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 1995, pp. 2097} 2103.

38 N.Martin, J.M.Ruiz / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 70 (2001) 25 } 38

[2] R. Preu, G. Kleiss, K. Reiche, K. BuKcher, PV-module re# ection losses: measurement, simulation and in # uence on energy " eld and performance ratio, Proceedings of 13th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 1995, pp. 1465} 1468. [3] S. Krauter, R. Hanitsch, P. Campbell, S.R. Wenham, Optical modelling, simulation and improvement of PV module encapsulations, Proceedings of 12th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 1994, pp.

1198 } 1201.

[4] S. Li Causi, C. Messana, G. Noviello, A. Parreta, A. Sarno, Performance analysis of single crystal silicon modules in real operating conditions, Proceedings of 13th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 1995, pp. 1469} 1473. [5] A. Parreta, A. Sarno, R. Schioppo, M. Zingarelli, L. Vicari, Analysis of loss mechanisms in crystalline silicon modules in outdoor operation, Proceedings of 13th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 1995, pp. 242} 246. [6] E.A. Sjerps-Koomen, E.A. Anselma, W.C. Turkenburg, Solar Energy 57 (6) (1996) 421.

[7] P. Schaub, A. Mermoud, O. Guisan, Evaluation of the di! erent losses involved in two photovoltaic systems, Proceedings of 12th European PV Solar Energy Conference, 1994, pp. 859} 862. [8] IEC 904-1 International Standard, Geneva, 1987.

[9] A.F. Souka, H.H. Safwat, Solar Energy 10 (1966) 170. [10] ASHRAE Standard 93-77, New York, 1977. [11] J.A. Du $ e, W.A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York,

1991.

[12] N. MartmHn. Study of the in # uence of the re# ection, the angle of incidence and the irradiance' s spectral

distribution on the PV generators,. Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad PoliteH cnica de Madrid, Madrid, 1999. [13] M.H. Macagnan, E. Lorenzo, C. JimeH nez, Int. J. Solar Energy 16 (1994) 1. [14] M. Petrakis (Ed.), Pascool Project, TRY Programme, Final Report, Contract JOU2-CT79-0013, Athens, 1995. [15] L. Zarzalejo, Roof solutions for natural cooling, Contribution to the Final Report, Contract No. JOR3CT960074 EC DGXII, 1998. [16] Single family houses in Europe: a contribution tool towards energy labelling, Final Report, SAVE Progamme (CEE) SA/83/94/F, 1996. [17] W. Koppen, Das Geogralplhisches system der Klimate, Handbuch der Klimatologie, Band I, Teil C, Berlin, 1936, pp. 1 } 4.