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Keirsey Temperament Sorter From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS) is a self-assessed personality

questionnair e designed to help people better understand themselves and others. It was first introduced in the book Please Understand Me. It is one of the most widely used p ersonality assessments in the world, and its user base consists of major employe rs including Bank of America, Allstate, the U.S. Air Force, IBM, 7-Eleven, Safec o, AT&T, and Coca-Cola.[1] The KTS is closely associated with the Myers-Briggs T ype Indicator (MBTI); however, there are significant practical and theoretical d ifferences between the two personality questionnaires and their associated diffe rent descriptions. Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Four temperaments Understanding the sorter descriptions Four interaction roles Temperaments and intelligence types Historical development Myers-Briggs types versus Keirsey's temperaments See also References External links

Four temperaments David Keirsey expanded on the ancient study of temperament by Hippocrates and Pl ato. In his works, Keirsey used the names suggested by Plato: Artisan (iconic), Guardian (pistic), Idealist (noetic), and Rational (dianoetic). Keirsey divided the four temperaments into two categories (roles), each with two types (role var iants). The resulting 16 types correlate with the 16 personality types described by Briggs and Myers.[2] Artisans are concrete and adaptable. Seeking stimulation and virtuosity, the y are concerned with making an impact. Their greatest strength is tactics. They excel at troubleshooting, agility, and the manipulation of tools, instruments, a nd equipment.[3] The two roles are as follows: Operators are the directive (proactive) Artisans. Their most developed i ntelligence operation is expediting. The attentive Crafters and the expressive P romoters are the two role variants. Entertainers are the informative (reactive) Artisans. Their most develop ed intelligence operation is improvising. The attentive Composers and the expres sive Performers are the two role variants. Guardians are concrete and organized. Seeking security and belonging, they a re concerned with responsibility and duty. Their greatest strength is logistics. They excel at organizing, facilitating, checking, and supporting. The two roles are as follows: Administrators are the directive (proactive) Guardians. Their most devel oped intelligence operation is regulating. The attentive Inspectors and the expr essive Supervisors are the two role variants. Conservators are the informative (reactive) Guardians. Their most develo ped intelligence operation is supporting. The attentive Protectors and the expre ssive Providers are the two role variants. Idealists are abstract and compassionate. Seeking meaning and significance,

they are concerned with personal growth and finding their own unique identity. T heir greatest strength is diplomacy. They excel at clarifying, individualizing, unifying, and inspiring. The two roles are as follows: Mentors are the directive (proactive) Idealists. Their most developed in telligence operation is developing. The attentive Counselors and the expressive Teachers are the two role variants. Advocates are the informative (reactive) Idealists. Their most developed intelligence operation is mediating. The attentive Healers and the expressive C hampions are the two role variants. Rationals are abstract and objective. Seeking mastery and self-control, they are concerned with their own knowledge and competence. Their greatest strength is strategy. They excel in any kind of logical investigation such as engineering , conceptualizing, theorizing, and coordinating. The two roles are as follows: Coordinators are the directive (proactive) Rationals. Their most develop ed intelligence operation is arranging. The attentive Masterminds and the expres sive Fieldmarshals are the two role variants. Engineers are the informative (reactive) Rationals. Their most developed intelligence operation is constructing. The attentive Architects and the expres sive Inventors are the two role variants. Understanding the sorter descriptions Although the descriptions of the individual temperaments and role variants were written as a whole, temperament itself can be understood by comparing it to the rings of a tree:[4] The inner ring: abstract versus concrete According to Keirsey, everyone can engage in both observation and introspect ion. When people touch objects, watch a basketball game, taste food, or otherwis e perceive the world through their senses, they are observant. When people refle ct and focus on their internal world, they are introspective. However, individua ls cannot engage in observation and introspection at the same time. The extent t o which people are more observant or introspective directly affects their behavi or. People who are generally observant are more 'down to earth.' They are more c oncrete in their worldview and tend to focus on practical matters such as food, shelter, and their immediate relationships. Carl Jung used the word sensation wh en describing people who prefer concrete perception. People who are generally in trospective are more 'head in the clouds.' They are more abstract in their world view and tend to focus on global or theoretical issues such as equality or engi neering. Carl Jung used the word intuition when describing people who prefer abs tract conception. The second ring: cooperative versus pragmatic (utilitarian) Keirsey uses the words cooperative (complying) and pragmatic (adaptive) when comparing the differing temperaments. People who are cooperative pay more atten tion to other people's opinions and are more concerned with doing the right thin g. People who are pragmatic (utilitarian) pay more attention to their own though ts or feelings and are more concerned with doing what works. There is no compara ble idea of Myers or Jung that corresponds to this dichotomy, so this is a signi ficant difference between Keirsey's work and that of Myers and Jung. This ring, in combination with the inner ring, determines a person's tempera ment. The pragmatic temperaments are Rationals (pragmatic and abstract) and Arti

sans (pragmatic and concrete). The cooperative temperaments are Idealists (coope rative and abstract), and Guardians (cooperative and concrete). Neither Myers no r Jung included the concept of temperament in their work. The third ring: directive (proactive) versus informative (reactive) The third ring distinguishes between people who generally communicate by inf orming others versus people who generally communicate by directing others. Each of the four temperaments is subdivided by this distinction for a result of eight roles. The directive roles are Operators (directive Artisans), Administrators (dire ctive Guardians), Mentors (directive Idealists), and Coordinators (directive Rat ionals). The informative roles are Entertainers (informative Artisans), Conserva tors (informative Guardians), Advocates (informative Idealists), and Engineers ( informative Rationals). The fourth ring: expressive versus attentive The fourth ring describes how people interact with their environment. Indivi duals who tend to act before observing are described as expressive, whereas peop le who tend to observe before acting are described as attentive. Each of the eight categories can be subdivided by this distinction, for a total of 16 role variants. These 16 role variants correlate to the 16 Myers-Briggs typ es. The expressive role variants are Promoters (expressive Operators), Performer s (expressive Entertainers), Supervisors (expressive Administrators), Providers (expressive Conservators), Teachers (expressive Mentors), Champions (expressive Advocates), Fieldmarshals (expressive Coordinators), and Inventors (expressive E ngineers). The attentive role variants are Crafters (attentive Operators), Composers (a ttentive Entertainers), Inspectors (attentive Administrators), Protectors (atten tive Conservators), Counselors (attentive Mentors), Healers (attentive Advocates ), Masterminds (attentive Coordinators), and Architects (attentive Engineers). Four interaction roles In his book Brains and Careers (2008), Keirsey divided the role variants into gr oupings that he called "four differing roles that people play in face-to-face in teraction with one another." [5] There are two Proactive Enterprising Roles: Initiators (expressive and directive): Field Marshal (ENTJ), Supervisor (EST J), Promoter (ESTP), Teacher (ENFJ)Preemptive Contenders (attentive and directive): Mastermind (INTJ), Inspector (ISTJ), C rafter (ISTP), Counselor (INFJ)Competitive There are two Reactive Inquiring Roles: Coworkers (expressive and informative): Inventor (ENTP), Provider (ESFJ), Pe rformer (ESFP), Champion (ENFP)Collaborative Responders (attentive and informative): Architect (INTP), Protector (ISFJ), Composer (ISFP), Healer (INFP)Accommodative The roles were implied in the informing/directing factor introduced in Portraits of Temperament.[5] In his 2010 follow-up book, Personology, "Coworkers" is rena

med "Collaborators", and "Responders" is renamed "Accomodators" Temperaments and intelligence types The following table shows how the four rings relate to one another and to the va rious temperaments. Temperament Role Role Variant Concrete or Abstract? Cooperative or Utilitarian? Informative or Directive? Expressive or Attentive ? Observant (S) Guardian (SJ) Logistical Conservator (SFJ) Supporting Provider (ESFJ): Supplying Protector (ISFJ): Securing Administrator (STJ) Regulating Supervisor (ESTJ): Enforcing Inspector (ISTJ): Certifying Artisan (SP) Tactical Entertainer (SFP) Improvising Performer (ESFP): Demonstrating Composer (ISFP): Synthesizing Operator (STP) Expediting Promoter (ESTP): Persuading Crafter (ISTP): Instrumenting Introspective (N) Idealist (NF) Diplomatic Advocate (NFP) Mediating Champion (ENFP): Motivating Healer (INFP): Conciliating Mentor (NFJ) Developing Teacher (ENFJ): Educating Counselor (INFJ): Guiding Rational (NT) Strategic Engineer (NTP) Constructing Inventor (ENTP): Devising Architect (INTP): Designing Coordinator (NTJ) Arranging Fieldmarshal (ENTJ): Mobilizing Mastermind (INTJ): Entailing Historical development See also Historical Development of Theories of the Four Temperaments Keirsey became familiar with the work of Ernst Kretschmer and William Sheldon af ter WWII in the late 1940s. Keirsey developed the Temperament Sorter after being introduced to the MBTI in 1956.[2] Tracing the idea of temperament back to the ancient Greeks, Keirsey developed a modern temperament theory in his books Pleas e Understand Me (1978), Portraits of Temperament (1988), Presidential Temperamen t (1992), Please Understand Me II (1998), Brains and Careers (2008), and Persono logy (2010). The table below shows how Myers' and Keirsey's types correspond to other temperament theories or constructs, dating from ancient times to the prese nt day. Date Author Artisan temperament Guardian temperament Idealist tempera ment Rational temperament

c. 590 BC Ezekiel's four living creatures lion (bold) ox (stur dy) eagle (far-seeing) man (independent) c. 400 BC Hippocrates' four humours cheerful (blood) somber ( black bile) enthusiastic (yellow bile) calm (phlegm) c. 340 BC Plato's four characters artistic (iconic) sensible (pistic) intuitive (noetic) reasoning (dianoetic) c. 325 BC Aristotle's four sources of happiness sensual (hedone) material (propraietari) ethical (ethikos) logical (dialogike) c. 185 AD Irenaeus' four temperaments spontaneous historical spiritual scholarly c. 190 Galen's four temperaments sanguine melancholic choleric phlegmatic c. 1550 Paracelsus' four totem spirits changeable salamanders industri ous gnomes inspired nymphs curious sylphs c. 1905 Adickes' four world views innovative traditional doctrinaire skeptical c. 1912 Dreikurs'/Adler's four mistaken goals retaliation service recognition power c. 1914 Sprnger's four* value attitudes artistic economic religious theoretic c. 1920 Kretschmer's four character styles manic (hypomanic) depressive oversensitive (hyperesthetic) insensitive (anesthetic) c. 1947 Fromm's four orientations exploitative hoarding receptive marketing c. 1958 Myers' Jungian types SP (sensing perceiving) SJ (sens ing judging) NF (intuitive feeling) NT (intuitive thinking) c. 1978 Keirsey/Bates four temperaments (old) Dionysian (artful) Epimethean (dutiful) Apollonian (soulful) Promethean (technological) c. 1988 Keirsey's four temperaments Artisan Guardian Idealist Rational Keirsey, David (May 1, 1998) [1978]. Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Chara cter, Intelligence (1st Ed. ed.). Prometheus Nemesis Book Co. ISBN 1-885705-02-6 . Montgomery, Stephen (2002). People Patterns: A Modern Guide to the Four Temperam ents (1st Ed. ed.). Archer Publications. p. 20. ISBN 1-885705-03-4. *Sprnger was said to have six value attitudes, but Keirsey cites him as saying th at the remaining two, "social" and "political", "pertained to all [men], and hen ce, were not distinguishing".[6] In fact, "political" was a category containing both theoretic and artistic, and "social" contained economical and religious.[7] Myers-Briggs types versus Keirsey's temperaments The type descriptions of Isabel Myers differ from the character descriptions of David Keirsey in several important ways: Myers primarily focused on how people think and feel; Keirsey focused more o n behavior, which is directly observable. Myers' descriptions use a linear four-factor model; Keirsey's descriptions u se a systems field theory model.[8] Myers, following Jung's lead, emphasized the extraversion/introversion (expr essive/attentive) dichotomy; Keirsey's model places greater importance on the se nsing/intuition (concrete/abstract) dichotomy. Myers grouped types by `function attitudes'; Keirsey, by temperament. Myers grouped types according to cognitive function: the `thinking type' grouping fo r those with dominant thinking; the `intuitive type' grouping for those with dominan t intuition; the `feeling type' grouping for those with dominant feeling; and the `sen sing type' grouping for those with dominant sensing. Keirsey's temperaments correl ate with Myers' combinations of preferences: Guardians with sensing plus judging (SJ); Artisans with sensing plus perceiving (SP); Idealists with intuition plus feeling (NF); and Rationals with intuition plus thinking (NT).

Myers paired ESTJs with ENTJs, ISFPs with INFPs, INTPs with ISTPs, and ENFJs wit h ESFJs because they share the same dominant function attitude. ESTJs and ENTJs are both extraverted thinkers, ISFPs and INFPs are both introverted feelers, INT Ps and ISTPs are both introverted thinkers, and ENFJs and ESFJs are both extrave rted feelers. Keirsey holds that these same groupings are very different from on e another because they are of different temperaments. ESTJs are Guardians wherea s ENTJs are Rationals; ISFPs are Artisans whereas INFPs are Idealists; INTPs are Rationals whereas ISTPs are Artisans; and ENFJs are Idealists whereas ESFJs are Guardians.[9] See also Analytical Psychology Carl Jung Ernst Kretschmer Five Temperaments Four Temperaments Interaction Styles Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Temperament References "Don't Just Find a Job That's Right for the Economy, Find a Job That's Right for Y ou!". Guide To Online Schools. Retrieved 27 April 2013. Keirsey, David (May 1, 1998) [1978]. Please Understand Me II: Temperament, C haracter, Intelligence (1st Ed. ed.). Prometheus Nemesis Book Co. ISBN 1-88570502-6. Montgomery, Stephen (2002). People Patterns: A Modern Guide to the Four Temp eraments (1st Ed. ed.). Archer Publications. p. 20. ISBN 1-885705-03-4. Keirsey Temperament versus Myers-Briggs Types http://www.keirsey.com/brains.aspx Please Understand Me, p.30 Please Understand Me II, p.340, citing Haley, Jay Strategies in Psychotherap y p. 8-19) "Keirsey Temperament vs. Myer-Briggs Types at Keirsey.com". Retrieved 2008-0 6-18. The Four Dimensions of Myers External links Keirsey Temperament Website [hide] v t e Keirsey Temperament Sorter Guardians (SJs) Conservators (E/ISFJs): Providers Protectors Administrators (E/ISTJs): Supervisors Inspectors Artisans (SPs) Entertainers (E/ISFPs): Performers Composers Operators (E/ISTPs): Promoters Crafters

Idealists (NFs) Advocates (E/INFPs): Champions Healers Mentors (E/INFJs): Teachers Counselors Rationals (NTs) Engineers (E/INTPs): Inventors Architects Coordinators (E/INTJs): Fieldmarshals Masterminds Related articles David Keirsey Please Understand Me Personality psychology Analytical psychology [hide] v t e Analytical psychology People Aura Augustinaviit Marie-Louise von Franz Sigmund Freud Carl Jung David Keirsey Isabel Myers Concepts Archetype Collective unconscious Personal unconscious Categories: Keirsey Temperament Sorter Personality typologies Personality tests Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content

Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages Deutsch Espaol Franais Nederlands Edit links This page was last modified on 17 April 2014 at 05:39. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use a nd Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundatio n, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view Wikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki

Artisan temperament From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Artisan temperament is one of four temperaments defined by David Keirsey. Co rrelating with the SP (sensingperceiving) Myers-Briggs types, the Artisan tempera ment comprises the following role variants (listed with their corresponding Myer s-Briggs types): Composer (ISFP), Crafter (ISTP), Performer (ESFP), and Promoter (ESTP).[1] Contents 1 Description 1.1 Learning 1.2 Stress 1.3 Traits in common with other temperaments 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Description Artisans are concrete in speech and utilitarian in pursuing their goals. Their g reatest strength is tactical variation. Their most developed intelligence role i s that of either the Operator (Promoters and Crafters) or the Entertainer (Perfo rmers and Composers). As the stimulation-seeking temperament, Artisans prefer to live one day at a tim e. They may spontaneously pursue activities that offer fun or pleasure. Playful in their interpersonal relationships, Artisans tend to be more permissive as par ents than the other temperaments,[1] wanting their children to explore and enjoy the world. Interests: In education, Artisans want to learn artcrafts and techniques that th ey can use in their career. They tend to seek work involving operations and equi pment,[2] which could range from a scalpel to a fighter jet. Orientation: Artisans live in the here and now. They want to enjoy the present m oment. They tend to be optimistic about the future and cynical about the past, b elieving that life is a series of risks or random events without any larger patt ern or meaning. Self-image: The Artisans' self-esteem is rooted in their grace and artistry; the ir self-respect in their boldness; and their self-confidence in their adaptabili ty. Values: Artisans enjoy excitement and perform well when in a state of restless e nergy. "They are excitable as children and they never seem to get less excitable as they grow up."[2] They seek stimulation and trust their impulses. Prone to s pontaneous acts of generosity, they want to make an impact on others. They aspir e to virtuosity, taking great pleasure in practicing and mastering their techniq ue in the pursuits that interest them. Social roles: In romantic relationships, Artisans want a playmate, someone who c an share in the pleasure and excitement they seek. As parents, Artisans are libe rators, exposing their children to a wide variety of activities, encouraging the m to push beyond their limits, and guiding them toward independence and self-suf ficiency. In business and social situations, they are negotiators, making the mo st of the opportunities at hand. Learning Artisans want teachers who are interesting, active, and playful. They will avoid sedentary forms of learning and uninteresting learning assignments. They will a lso avoid reading assignments that are not succinct, practical and relevant. Art isans want to demonstrate their learning through actions. Stress As a defense mechanism, Artisans may respond with denial, insisting that a fact is untrue despite overwhelming evidence.[3] Since Artisans feel a need to make a n impact and to be spontaneous, they become stressed when their ability to do th ese things becomes constrained. Boredom is another source of stress for Artisans . When under stress, they can become reckless, and they may retaliate against th e source of the stress. Providing Artisans with options, such as new ways to mak e an impact and new activities, can relieve the stress.[1] Traits in common with other temperaments Keirsey identified the following traits of the Artisan temperament:[1] Concrete in communication (like Guardians)

Artisans are realistic. They want to experience events in the moment. They enjoy manipulating concrete objects, whether for practical or artistic purposes. Pragmatic in pursuing their goals (like Rationals) Artisans take pride in bold and unconventional behavior. They aren't interested in following a rule if they don't see how it serves a practical purpose. See also Keirsey Temperament Sorter Guardian temperament Idealist temperament Rational temperament References "Keirsey.com Portrait of the Artisan". Retrieved 2011-04-18. Keirsey, David (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Inte lligence. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. ISBN 1-885705-02-6. Rodionova, D.E. (2007). "Specifics of defensive-coping strategies in connect ion with typological characteristics of the personality". Psychological Science and Education (in Russian) (Moscow, Russia) (2007, N5): 259266. External links Artisan temperament at Keirsey.com [hide] v t e Keirsey Temperament Sorter Guardians (SJs) Conservators (E/ISFJs): Providers Protectors Administrators (E/ISTJs): Supervisors Inspectors Artisans (SPs) Entertainers (E/ISFPs): Performers Composers Operators (E/ISTPs): Promoters Crafters Idealists (NFs) Advocates (E/INFPs): Champions Healers Mentors (E/INFJs): Teachers Counselors Rationals (NTs) Engineers (E/INTPs): Inventors Architects Coordinators (E/INTJs): Fieldmarshals Masterminds Related articles David Keirsey Please Understand Me Personality psychology Analytical psychology

[hide] v t e Analytical psychology People Aura Augustinaviit Marie-Louise von Franz Sigmund Freud Carl Jung David Keirsey Isabel Myers Concepts Archetype Collective unconscious Personal unconscious Categories: Keirsey Temperament Sorter Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages Franais

Portugus Edit links This page was last modified on 13 September 2013 at 05:06. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use a nd Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundatio n, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view Wikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki

Guardian temperament From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Guardian temperament is one of four temperaments defined orrelating with the SJ (sensingjudging) Myers-Briggs types, ent comprises the following role variants (listed with their -Briggs types): Inspector (ISTJ), Protector (ISFJ), Provider sor (ESTJ).[1] Contents 1 Description 1.1 Stress 1.2 Traits in common with other temperaments 2 See also 3 References 4 External links Description Guardians are concrete in communicating and cooperative in pursuing their goals. Their greatest strength is logistics. Their most developed intelligence role is either that of the Conservator (Protectors and Providers) or the Administrator (Inspector and Supervisor). As the security-seeking temperament, Guardians are practical and frugal types. T hey "share certain core values, among them the belief in a strong work ethic, th e need for people and institutions to be responsible, the importance of followin g the rules and of serving one's community."[2] Guardians value experience, and they seek a tangible return on their investments. Believing in common sense, the y are not attracted to idle speculation. They are the glue of civilization, main taining and nurturing institutions that have been established by the dint of har d work. They tend to be conventional and cooperative in their work, wanting to m ake sure everybody gets what they deserve, no more and no less. They follow the rules and conventions of their cohort or group and expect others to as well. Interests: In their education and careers, Guardians' primary interest is busine ss and commerce, with an eye toward practical applications in managing materiel. by David Keirsey. C the Guardian temperam corresponding Myers (ESFJ), and Supervi

They are preoccupied with maintaining the morality of their group.[3] Orientation: Guardians have a strong sense of duty. They forgo the pleasures of the moment to prepare for unseen eventualities. They regard past events with a s ense of resignation. They guard against the corruption of outside influences, an d look to past experiences to guide their present choices. Self-image: The Guardians' self-esteem is based on their dependability; their se lf-respect on their beneficence; and their self-confidence on their respectabili ty. Values: Guardians are concerned about the well-being of people and institutions that they hold dear. They trust authority and seek security. They strive for a s ense of belonging and want to be appreciated for their contributions. They aspir e to become executives, whether by managing their own households or by running a multinational corporation. Social roles: In romantic relationships, Guardians regard themselves as helpmate s, working together with their spouse to establish a secure home. As parents, th ey focus on raising their children to become productive and law-abiding citizens . In business and social situations, they are stabilizers, establishing procedur es and ensuring that the material needs of the group are met. Stress Guardians often experience stress when rules, expectations, and structure are un clear, or when those around them do not act according to established norms. The extraverted (expressive) typesProviders and Supervisorsmay respond by becoming cri tical of others. The introverted (attentive) typesProtectors and Inspectorsmay tak e on the burden of trying to correct the perceived faults in the system themselv es, resulting in overwork and burnout. Guardians also experience stress when the results of their hard work go unnoticed or unappreciated. [4] Traits in common with other temperaments Keirsey identified the following traits of the Guardian temperament:[1] Concrete in communicating (like Artisans) Guardians focus on facts. They are concerned about practical needs like providin g goods and services that help society function smoothly. Cooperative in pursuing their goals (like Idealists) Guardians value teamwork. They are committed to preserving established social in stitutions. Cautious toward change, Guardians work within the system to ensure t hat all contingencies are considered. See also Artisan temperament Idealist temperament Keirsey Temperament Sorter Rational temperament References "Keirsey.com Portrait of the Guardian". Retrieved 2008-05-03. Tieger, Paul D.; Barbara Barron-Tieger (1999). The Art of SpeedReading Peopl e. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-316-84518-2. Keirsey, David (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Inte lligence. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. ISBN 1-885705-02-6. Berens, Linda V. et al. (2001). Quick Guide to the 16 Personality Types in O

rganizations. Huntington Beach, CA: Telos Publications. pp. 1521. ISBN 0-97121441-7. External links Guardian Temperament at Keirsey.com [hide] v t e Keirsey Temperament Sorter Guardians (SJs) Conservators (E/ISFJs): Providers Protectors Administrators (E/ISTJs): Supervisors Inspectors Artisans (SPs) Entertainers (E/ISFPs): Performers Composers Operators (E/ISTPs): Promoters Crafters Idealists (NFs) Advocates (E/INFPs): Champions Healers Mentors (E/INFJs): Teachers Counselors Rationals (NTs) Engineers (E/INTPs): Inventors Architects Coordinators (E/INTJs): Fieldmarshals Masterminds Related articles David Keirsey Please Understand Me Personality psychology Analytical psychology [hide] v t e Analytical psychology People Aura Augustinaviit Marie-Louise von Franz Sigmund Freud Carl Jung David Keirsey Isabel Myers Concepts Archetype

Collective unconscious Personal unconscious Categories: Keirsey Temperament Sorter Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages Franais Portugus Edit links This page was last modified on 17 March 2013 at 05:31. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use a nd Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundatio n, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view Wikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki

Idealist temperament From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Idealist temperament is one of four temperaments defined by David Keirsey. C orrelating with the NF (intuitivefeeling) Myers-Briggs types, the Idealist temper ament comprises the following role variants (listed with their corresponding Mye rs-Briggs types): Champion (ENFP), Counselor (INFJ), Healer (INFP), and Teacher (ENFJ).[1] Contents 1 Description 1.1 Stress 1.2 Traits in common with other temperaments 2 See also 3 References 4 External links Description Idealists are abstract in speech and cooperative in pursuing their goals. Their greatest strength is diplomatic integration. Their best developed intelligence r ole is either mentoring (Counselors and Teachers) or advocacy (Healers and Champ ions). As the identity-seeking temperament, Idealists long for meaningful communication and relationships. They search for profound truths hidden beneath the surface, often expressing themselves in metaphor. Focused on the future, they are enthusi astic about possibilities, and they continually strive for self-renewal and pers onal growth. Idealists strive to discover who they are and how they can become their best pos sible self -- always this quest for self-knowledge and self-improvement drives t heir imagination - and Idealists yearn to help others make the journey too. Interests: Idealists tend to study the humanities. They seek careers facilitatin g the personal growth of others, whether through education, counseling, or other pursuits that promote the happiness and fulfillment of individuals and society. Orientation: The lives of Idealists are guided by their devotion to their person al ethics.[1] They are altruistic, taking satisfaction in the well-being of othe rs. They believe in the basic goodness of the world and of the people in it. The y take a holistic view toward suffering and misfortune, regarding them as part o f a larger, unknowable truth, a mystical cause-and-effect. With an eye toward th e future, they view life as a journey toward a deeper spiritual knowledge. Self-image: The Idealists' self-esteem is rooted in empathetic action; their sel f-respect in their benevolence; and their self-confidence in their personal auth enticity. Values: The emotions of Idealists "are both easily aroused and quickly discharge d."[2] Their general demeanor is enthusiastic. They trust their intuition and ye arn for romance. They seek deeper self-knowledge and want to be understood for w ho they are behind the social roles they are forced to play. They aspire to wisd om that transcends ego and the bounds of the material world. Social roles: Idealists seek mutuality in their personal relationships. Romantic ally, they want a soulmate with whom they can share a deep spiritual connection. As parents, they encourage their children to form harmonious relationships and engage in imaginative play. In their professional and social lives, Idealists st

rive to be catalysts of positive change. Stress Idealists experience stress when their desire for cooperation and harmony within their group conflicts with their desire for personal authenticity.[3] Since Ide alists often go to great lengths to try to ensure that everyone's needs are met, they can become frustrated when others fail to do the same, either by acting in dependently of the wishes of the group, or by trying to enforce the wishes of th e group without regard to individual needs. This tension is especially evident i n the two mentoring types (Counselors and Teachers). Idealists tend to come by their best ideas through a combination of intuition an d feeling, so they may have difficulty explaining how they reached their conclus ions. They may become frustrated, or even insulted, when others fail to share th eir enthusiasm and instead want an explanation of the reasoning behind the Ideal ist's insights. Since inspiration is not a conscious process, the Idealists may not have an immediate explanation, even though their reasoning is sound, and so may feel dismissed and undervalued. Idealists have a strong drive to work for the betterment of a group or organizat ion, and can feel as though they are losing their identity if stuck in an enviro nment that requires conformity.[4] This is especially evident in the two advocat ing types (Champions and Healers). Traits in common with other temperaments Keirsey identified the following traits of the Idealist temperament:[1] Abstract in communicating (like Rationals) Idealists focus not on what is, but on what could be or what ought to be. They s ee the world as rich with possibilities for deeper understanding. Cooperative in pursuing their goals (like Guardians) Idealists believe that conflict raises barriers between people, preventing socie ty from reaching its full potential. Idealists seek harmony in personal and prof essional relationships, working toward solutions that respect the needs of all p arties involved. See also Artisan temperament Guardian temperament Keirsey Temperament Sorter Rational temperament References Keirsey.com Portrait of the Idealist Keirsey, David (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Inte lligence. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. ISBN 1-885705-02-6. Rodionova, D.E. (2007). "Specifics of defensive-coping strategies in connect ion with typological characteristics of the personality". Psychological Science and Education (in Russian) (Moscow, Russia) (2007, N5): 259266. Berens, Linda V.; Sue A. Cooper et al (2001). Quick Guide to the 16 Personal ity Types in Organizations. Huntington Beach, CA: Telos Publications. pp. 1521. I SBN 0-9712144-1-7. External links Idealist Temperament at Keirsey.com

[hide] v t e Keirsey Temperament Sorter Guardians (SJs) Conservators (E/ISFJs): Providers Protectors Administrators (E/ISTJs): Supervisors Inspectors Artisans (SPs) Entertainers (E/ISFPs): Performers Composers Operators (E/ISTPs): Promoters Crafters Idealists (NFs) Advocates (E/INFPs): Champions Healers Mentors (E/INFJs): Teachers Counselors Rationals (NTs) Engineers (E/INTPs): Inventors Architects Coordinators (E/INTJs): Fieldmarshals Masterminds Related articles David Keirsey Please Understand Me Personality psychology Analytical psychology [hide] v t e Analytical psychology People Aura Augustinaviit Marie-Louise von Franz Sigmund Freud Carl Jung David Keirsey Isabel Myers Concepts Archetype Collective unconscious Personal unconscious Categories: Keirsey Temperament Sorter

Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages Franais Portugus Edit links This page was last modified on 3 March 2014 at 17:29. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use a nd Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundatio n, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view Wikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki Rational temperament From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Rational. The Rational temperament is one of the four temperaments defined by David Keirse y. Correlating with the NT (intuitivethinking) Myers-Briggs types, the Rational t

emperament comprises the following role variants (listed with their correspondin g Myers-Briggs types): Architect (INTP), Fieldmarshal (ENTJ), Inventor (ENTP), a nd Mastermind (INTJ).[1] Contents 1 Description 1.1 Stress 1.2 Traits in common with other temperaments 2 See also 3 References 4 External links Description Rationals are abstract in speech and utilitarian in pursuing their goals. Their greatest strength is strategy. Their most developed intelligence role is that of either the Engineer (Architects and Inventors) or the Coordinator (Masterminds and Fieldmarshals). As the knowledge-seeking temperament, Rationals trust reason implicitly. They re ly on objective observations and factual analysis in any given situation. They s eek a logical argument as a basis for action. As strategists, Rationals strive t o gain as much information as possible, applying what they learn to develop long -term plans and the steps for achieving them. They are characterized by a toughminded personal style, tending to pursue either power or understanding. They are often strong-willed, ambitious, intelligent, and self-determined. Subjective th oughts and emotion have no place in the decision-making process of a Rational. D riven to excel, they work hard to achieve their goals, and they do well where th ey can take control or work independently on a task. Interests: Rationals are drawn to science and technology. They usually seek care ers involving systemswhether mechanical or electrical (as in engineering), organi c (as in biology), social (as in psychology or sociology), or organizational (as in business or economics).[2] Orientation: Rationals are pragmatic about the world around them, having little use for social convention or sentiment except as a means to an end. They weigh l ogical outcomes before acting, looking for errors in reasoningin themselves and o thers. Many often believe that ethical concepts like good and evil are relative, depending on one's particular point of view.[citation needed] They regard time as the duration of events rather than as a continuum. They view place as the int ersection of two crossing lines (as in Cartesian coordinates, for example).[2] Self-image: The Rationals' self-esteem is rooted in their ingenuity; their selfrespect in their autonomy; and their self-confidence in their resoluteness.[2] Values: Rationals appear calm even in times of turmoil. They achieve this state through an intense concentration of effort rather than through cold-heartedness. They trust reason and strive for achievement. They are knowledge-seekers who as pire to technical wizardry, and so are pleased when others defer to their expert ise.[2] Social roles: In romantic relationships, Rationals want a mindmate with whom the y can discuss the topics that interest them, which are often abstract or theoret ical, such as philosophy. As parents, they encourage their children to become se lf-reliant individuals capable of thinking for themselves. In their professional and social lives, Rationals are visionary leaders, developing and consolidating coherent long-term plans.[2] Stress

When under stress, Rationals may intellectualize or repress their feelings.[3] T he informative Rationals (Architects and Inventors) prefer theorizing, designing , and prototyping their ideas, which may cause them to feel overburdened when ca lled upon to finalize their ideas into practical operation by themselves. This c an result in feelings of inadequacy, which can lead to poor or no execution. The directive Rationals (Masterminds and Fieldmarshals) experience stress when t heir long-range vision is resisted or derailed. They may respond by collecting m ore and more minute data or by becoming increasingly authoritarian, unaware of h ow their demands are perceived by others. When confronted with negative conseque nces in their endeavors, Rationals may experience feelings of incompetence, espe cially if they are not emotionally intelligent. They are frustrated by inefficie ncy or the perceived illogic of others.[4] Traits in common with other temperaments Keirsey identified the following traits of the Rational temperament:[1] Abstract in communicating (like Idealists) Rationals use concepts, possibilities, theories, and identified patterns as a me ans for communication. Although Rationals are realistic, the abstract world serv es as a tool for thinking independently and developing new ideas that can be use d in more practical matters. Pragmatic in pursuing their goals (like Artisans) Rationals are unconventional thinkers when deciding on a task or solving a probl em. Individualistic by nature, Rationals observe their own interests as a respon se to action, free from societal conformity or traditional thinking. Rationals a re not necessarily uncooperative, but they will refuse to perform a certain acti on if it goes against their understanding or experience and is not based on soun d logic or the facts (as they understand them) in a given context. See also Artisan temperament Guardian temperament Idealist temperament Keirsey Temperament Sorter References Keirsey.com Portrait of the Rational. Keirsey, David (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Inte lligence. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. ISBN 1-885705-02-6. Rodionova, D.E. (2007). "Specifics of defensive-coping strategies in connect ion with typological characteristics of the personality". Psychological Science and Education (in Russian) (Moscow, Russia) (2007, N5): 259266. Berens, Linda V.; Sue A. Cooper (2001). Quick Guide to the 16 Personality Ty pes in Organizations. et al. Huntington Beach, CA: Telos Publications. pp. 1521. ISBN 0-9712144-1-7. External links Rational temperament at Keirsey.com [hide] v t

e Keirsey Temperament Sorter Guardians (SJs) Conservators (E/ISFJs): Providers Protectors Administrators (E/ISTJs): Supervisors Inspectors Artisans (SPs) Entertainers (E/ISFPs): Performers Composers Operators (E/ISTPs): Promoters Crafters Idealists (NFs) Advocates (E/INFPs): Champions Healers Mentors (E/INFJs): Teachers Counselors Rationals (NTs) Engineers (E/INTPs): Inventors Architects Coordinators (E/INTJs): Fieldmarshals Masterminds Related articles David Keirsey Please Understand Me Personality psychology Analytical psychology [hide] v t e Analytical psychology People Aura Augustinaviit Marie-Louise von Franz Sigmund Freud Carl Jung David Keirsey Isabel Myers Concepts Archetype Collective unconscious Personal unconscious Categories: Keirsey Temperament Sorter Navigation menu Create account Log in

Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages Edit links This page was last modified on 26 August 2013 at 16:56. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use a nd Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundatio n, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view Wikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki