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LIFTS A device which is used to carry load in vertical direction. Good elevator system design is critical to a multistory building.

Planning of elevator system must therefore feature very early in overall building design programs within both new construction and refurbishment schemes. In larger, multistorey buildings it is usual to locate the lifts at a central pedestrian circulation point. Goods lifts should be kept separate from passenger lifts; though their use for carrying passengers at peak periods should be taken into account at the planning stage.

The following maximum loads are stipulated for passenger lifts in blocks of flats 400kg small lift! for use by passengers with hand baggage only "#0 kg medium lift! for use by passengers with prams and wheelchairs $000kg large lift! can also accommodate stretchers, coffins, furniture and wheelchairs Lobbies in front of lift shaft entrances must be designed and arranged so that $! the users entering or e%iting the lifts, even those carrying hand baggage, do not get in each other&s way more than is absolutely necessary; and

'! the largest loads to be carried by the lift in (uestion e.g. prams, wheelchairs, stretchers, coffins and furniture! can be maneuvered in and out without risk of in)uring people or damaging the building and the lift itself. *ther users should be not be obstructed by the loads more than is absolutely necessary.

For a lobby in front of a single lift


$! the available minimum depth between the wall of the lift shaft door and the opposite wall, measured in the direction of the lift car, must be at least the same as the depth of the lift car itself; and '! +he minimum area available should be at least the same as the product of the depth of the lift car depth and the width of shaft. ,or a lobby in front of lifts with ad)acent doors the available minimum depth between the shaft door wall and the opposite wall, measured in the direction of the lift car depth, should be at least the same as the depth of the deepest lift car.

T!"I#AL A$$I%AL "ATT&$' - .ccuracy in predicting e%pected building population and how and when it will move is critical; for it is on this principle that fundamental elevator system decisions are made. - /ey decisions, such as the number of elevator shafts cannot be easily modified in the later stages of building development. - 0sing data predictions in the process of producing an optimum elevator system design is known as elevatoring. (&! )&SI*' #+'SI)&$ATI+'S +here are many variables that affect elevator system design. +he key ones are given below1
+ype of building occupancy 2a%imum peak demand in passengers per five minute period 3umber of floors to be served

,loor to floor distance Population of each floor 4ocation of building

5pecialist services within the building

,ASI# )&SI*' "A$A-&T&$S 6levator speed. 6levator car dimensions 4oad 3umber of elevators 6levator car design characteristics 7uality of service or interval! It is the e%pected average interval in seconds! between the arrivals of elevators at the main floor. 8andling capacity or (uantity of service It is function of the e%pected building population stated in units of the percentage of a building&s population to be transported within five9

minute period

,.IL)I'* T!"&S +he key design features for different building types is given below /. +ffices - 2a%imum traffic occurs )ust before the start of working hours known as up morning peak. - *ffice building with single unified! tenancy usually provides heavier peak flows than those with multiple diversified! tenancies - 0nified tenancy 9 $: to ':; of the total building population entering five minute period - <iversified tenancy = $0 to $:; of the total building population entering in a five9minute period. <esigning for (uality of service is very much on the preferences and needs of the owner or occupants of a building
.verage interval of '09': seconds = e%cellent

.verage interval of #:940seconds = fair .verage interval 4: seconds 9 poor

0. 1otels - +he traffic flow in hotels is dependant on the type of hotels and its layout. +raffic peaks normally occur in the early morning and in the evenings - .t these peak times traffic flow can be appro%imately $0 ; of the hotel guest population re(uiring elevator service in five minutes period. - .n acceptable service interval in a hotel can vary greatly according to its type and location - In smaller, older or provincial establishments longer intervals up to "0 seconds are acceptable - In modern international hotels not more than #0 seconds are acceptable - 5eparate elevator system for staff movement, catering supplies, linen and other purposes.

2. $esidential ,uildings - +he traffic pattern resembles those of hotels. - +he peak traffic value for use in planning may be taken as "; of total building population - +he acceptable service interval for residential buildings is a highly variable (uantity L+#ATI+' +F &L&%AT+$S - 3ormally the most efficient method of locating elevators to serve an Individual building is to group them together. - . group has a lower average interval between car arrivals than a single elevator. - Groups should be located for easy access to and from a main building entrance and should normally be located centrally for general ease of passenger transit throughout the building. - If a building is of design with areas that Give long distances to the central elevator group. It may be efficient to install an additional elevator for the local areas inter floor traffic. *$+."I'* +F &L&%AT+$S . group of elevators should be designed in a manner so that they are located closely to minimi>e the walking distance between entrances. ?aiting passengers can then react (uickly and access gates swiftly without detrimental effect to the (uality of overall service 4obby areas, especially the main ones, should not be in the path of passage ways. +here are two options for grouping ' or # elevators. +he lobby width twice the car depth when elevators are placed opposite each other in a group and it determines the si>e of machine room. )&SI*' #+'SI)&$ATI+'

'umber of lifts and capacity +wo basic considerations, namely, the (uantity of service desired, determine the type of lifts to be provided in a particular building. 7uantity of service gives the passenger handling capacity of the lifts during the peak periods and the (uality of service is measured in terms of waiting time of the passengers at various floors. @oth these basic factors re(uire proper study into the character of the building, e%tent and duration, of peak period, fre(uency of service re(uired, type and method of control, type of landing doors etc. In large buildings, the provision of a battery of lifts is advisable wherever feasible. Aonsiderations should be given to leaving space for additional lift installation to cater for future traffic development. +##."A'T L+A) 9+he number of persons within any floor area or the occupant load shall be based on the actual number of occupants. 3.A'TIT! +F S&$%I#&S19 +he (uantity of service is measure of passenger handling capacity of a vertical transportation system. It is measured in terms of the total number of passengers handling during each five minutes peak period of the day. ,ive minutes based period is used as this is the most practical time over which the traffic may be averaged. 3.ALIT! +F S&$%I#& 4 +he (uality of service is generally measured by the passenger waiting time at the guiding factor for determining 1

3uality of service or $ating Acceptable interval '09':sec e%cellent #09#:sec. Good #:940sec. ,air 4094:sec. Poor over 40sec. 0nsatisfactory #A$ S"&&)19+he recommended speeds for the different types of the lifts in different occupancies are given1 T!"& +F LIFTS . +##."A'#! '+. +F FL++$S S&$%&). #A$ S"&&)

Passengers lift 8ospitals lifts

off. @uild. gen. hospital

4.: $#9'0

0.:90.B:mCs $ mCs

$+.') T$I" TI-& 5$TT6 4It is the time that is the average time re(uired by each lift in taking one full load of passengers from ground floor discharging them in various upper floors and coming back to the ground floor for taking the fresh passengers for the ne%t trip. It is observed that the handling capacity is inversely proportional to waiting interval which in turn is proportional to D++ of the lift from $'09$00 sec. increasing its handling capacity by '0 percent. +he round trip time can be decreased not only increasing the speed but also by improving the design of the e(uipment related to opening and closing of the landing car door, acceleration, deceleration, leveling and passenger movement.

Turn4round time is a calculated value indicating the time which a lift re(uires to complete a cycle with a given type of traffic. .verage waiting time is the time between the button being pressed and the arrival of the lift car1
.verage waiting time s! Ecycle time s! 3umber of liftsCset

Transportation capacity is the maximum achievable carrying capacity 5in passengers6 within a five minute 5277s6 period1 +ransportation capacity1 #00 s! % car load passengers! Aycle time s! % no. of lifts +ransportation capacity e%pressed in percent +ransportation capacity ;! E $00 % transportation capacity 3umber of occupants of building
A$$A'*&-&'T +F T1& LIFTS1 9 +hey should be easily accessible from all entrances, for ma%imum efficiency, they should be grouped near the centre of the building. It is preferable not to have all lifts in straight line and if possible not more than three lifts should be arranged in such manner.

In some cases when there are more than three lifts, the alcove arrangement, the lift alcove lead off the main corridor so there is no interference by traffic to the other groups or the other parts of the ground floor. +his arrangement permits the narrowest possible corridors and saves space on the upper floors. ?alking distance to the individual lifts is reduced and a passengers standing in the centre of the group can readily see all ideal arrangement of the lifts depends upon the particular layout of individual building.

"+SITI+'I'* +F T1& -A#1I'& $++It should be placed above the lift well as this has several advantages, such as reduced load on the building, lower capital cost of the lift, smaller lift well for the given si>e lift car and reduced power consumption compared with machine room in the basement.

8igh speed lifts with gearless machine should, in all cases, have machine room above the lift well. If located in the basement it should be separated from the lift well by a separation wall. It should be properly ventilated.

"A'+$A-I# *LASS LIFTS Panoramic lifts are available in a variety of cabin shapes and a carrying capacity of 4009$:00kg :9'0 passengers!. +here are several possible drive systems and nominal speeds, depending on the height of the building and re(uirements for comfort1 0.4, 0."#, $.0 mCs with a three phase a.c. drive; and 0.':9$.0mCs with a hydraulic drive. Aonstruction materials used are glass and steel 9 polished, brushed or with high gloss finish 9 brass and bron>e. +he panoramic lift en)oys great popularity. +his applies both to e%ternal lifts on the facades of imposing business premises from which passengers can en)oy the view, and internal lifts in department stores or in foyers of large hotels where they look out on to the sales floors and displays.

&S#ALAT+$S 9 are re(uired to provide continuous mass transport of people. +hey are not designated as &stairs& in the provision of emergency escape.! 6scalators, for e%ample, in department stores rise at an angle of between #0F and #:F. +he #:F escalator is more economical, as it takes up less surface area if viewed in plan but for large ascents, the #0F escalator is preferred both on psychological as well as safety grounds. +he transportation capacity is about the same with both. 6scalators in public transport installations are sub)ect to stringent safety re(uirements for function, design and safety! and should have angles of ascent of 'B9'GF. +he angle of rise is the ratio #C$", which is that of a gentle staircase. In accordance with a worldwide standard, the width of the step to be used is "0cm for one9person width!, G0cm for one9 to two9people width! and $00cm for two9people width!. . $00cm step width provides ample space for people carrying loads. . flat section with a depth of H'.:0m minimum of two hori>ontal goings! should be provided at the access and e%it points of the escalator. In department stores, office and administration buildings, e%hibition halls and airports the speed of travel should, as a rule, are no greater than 0.: mCs, with a minimum of three hori>ontal e%it goings. ,or underground stations and public transport facilities, 0.":mCs are preferred. +he average split of traffic that goes upstairs in a large department store is1 ,i%ed stairs '; 4ifts G; 6scalators I0; Aoming down, about three9(uarters of the traffic uses the escalators. .ccording to current assessments, on average one escalator is installed for every $:00 m' of sales area; but this average should be reduced to an optimum of :009B00ms(.

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