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A project of Volunteers in Asia

MICROFICHE REFERENCE LIBRARY

tcro Pelton Turn MHPG Series Volume 9 By: Markus Eisenring

. .

Published by:

SKAT, Swiss Center for Appropriate Technology Tigerbergstrasse 2 CH-9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland

Available ?rom: SKAT, Swiss Center for Appropriate Technology Tigerbergstrasse 2 CH-9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland

Reproduced with permission. Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

Micro Peltsn Turbines

Volume 1: Local Experience with Micro-Hydro Technology Volume 2: Hydraulics Engineering Manual Volume 3: Cross Flow Turbine Besign and Equipment Engineering Volume 4: Cross Flow Turbine Fabrication Volume 6: Village Electrification Volume 6: The Heat Generator Volume 7: MHP Information Package Volume 8: Governor Product Information

First edition: Author: Publishedby:

1991by SKAT, Swiss Centerfor Appropriate Technology Markus Eisenring, Niederuzwil, Switzerland SKAT, Swiss Centerfor Appropriate Technology, StGallen, Switzerland and GATE, German AppropriateTechnology Exchange, Eschborn,Germany WernerFuchs, SKAT F. Hartmann, ASG, St. Gallen, Switzerland GATE and SKAT within MHPG Pleasesendany commentsconcerningthis publication to: SKAT Tigerbergstrasse 2 CH-9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland NiedermannAG, St.Gallen,Switzerland 3-908001-34-X

Layout Cover: Copyright: Comments :

Printed by: ISBN:

MHPG, the Mini Hydro Power Group is an international network constituted by GTZ-GATE, Germany, FAKT, Germany, IT, U.K., PPL, Germany, Projekt-Consult, Germany, and SKAT, Switzerland. The MHPG is one of the most expert and experienced group concerned with hydro work. It can give advice in the field of both small and large projects. The member organisations have a long term experience in fruitful collaboration in the field of micro and mini-hydro projects. Further information is available at SKAT or one of the other members of the group.

Micro Pelton Turbines

Preface
Thispublication hasits originin aworkshop onMicrohydropower energy, organized byGATE,whichwas heldhr Eschbom, Germany. Ihe c&nof theworkshop wasto discuss relevant experience in planningand implementation of verysmallhydropower plants in developing wunbiess. to determine problems anddeficits in thetechnicalandsocioeconomic fields andto discuss matteaon directutilization of mechanical power. Oneof the deficitsstated at this workshopconcemed microPeltonturbineinstallations. fhe author was commissioned by GIZKlATE for the writing of this manual on the layout, design, manufacture andinstallation of verysmall,locallybuilt Peltonturbineplants. It is partof aprogram on micro . hydropower. Thispublication is directedto those whointendto design, dimension, build,installandto runPeltonturbines. It provides all thenecessd.y theoretical background, designs andhintsonmanufacturing andon procedures of installation, Thetechnical informationprovided is anaidfor thesuccessful installationof Peltonturbines, whileat sometime,shortening theway for beginners. Thusunnecessary delayandexpenses canbeavoided. it is with purpose that no descriptions aregivenof very simpledesigns, but achievement of the highest standards of Peltonturbinem-anufachning is not aimedat either.It provides anaverage of such information on whatcanbe reproduced in manydeveloping cot;ntries. Niederuzwil, September 1991 MarkusEisenring

Acknowledgment
Thispublication wasmade possible by Mr. KlausRudolph of GATEandwastinanced by GTLJGATE. in the projectKleinstwasserkrti. It is partof thisproject, whichhasbeen implemented by thecompany ProjectConsult. Wolf Boje andMichaelPriester, from thiscompany, attended to this project. Manyvaluable hintscame frommy feIlowcolleagues onvarious occasions, such asthecoordination meetings onti project3 amalsogiatefulto Andy&own andRodEdwar&of ITDG,Rugby,England, whoareactive in thepromotion of Pelton turbines andV~UO contributed manygoadideas andhintsfromtheirpractical work. Manythanks alsoto Roland Hugentobler of thecompany HUGAL,for thedesigning walk andthepermission to take photosin their workshop,to Arthur Wellingerof the AgriculturalReseatch Centreof T&ikon, Switzerland, forthepermission tousetheexamplesofapplicationofPeltonturbinesin appendix 8,tohlatttas Viertlerfor the contribution of comments, aswell asto RobS&&&erg andAlex Arter for pluof reading.

Mcro Pdton Turblnsr

Units
In thispublicationonly unitsof theinternationalsystem of units (SI-tmits)areused Conversions of theother importantunits aregivenbelow. Basicunits:
physical quantity designation

length mass time temperature Derivedunits: force energy power pRssure discharge velocity
ilCCClCKlI.iOll

meter
kilOgl?Ull

second Kelvin

Ei s K
N = kgms J=Nm=Ws W =Js-

Newton Joule Watt Pascal cubicmeter/second meter/second mcterhquarc second

Pa=Nm2 ms msl ms2

Conversions: 1m 1 inch 1 root (ft) lm 1 foot per second (f/see) 1 square foot (sq.ft. or ft*) 1 m2 1 pound-mass (lb) 1 kg 1 poundweight (lbf) 1bar prcssurc of 1 m watercoh!mn(WC) (10 m WC 1 pound/square inch (psi) 1 pound/square inch (psi) 1 m watercolumn (WC} 1kW 1 hp (UK) 1 rn%-l 1 cubicfoot per second (cE(s) 1 m3s1 1,55Fr (or SFr) (1991)

1000 mm 0.0254m 0.3048m 3.281 ft 0.3048ms- 0.0929m2 10.764ft2 0.4536kg 2.205 lb 4.45 N l(r Paor NmQ 0.0981bar 1 bar) 6.8948103 Nrn 0.7031m WC 1.4222lbf/sq.in (psi) 1000 w 74570 w 1000 It/s 0.0283m3s1 35.315cf/s or ft3/s 1 US$

Micro Pelton Turbines

Nomenclature
: Cl
width of bucketopening bucketwidth absolutevelocityof waterjet optimal jet diameter pitch circle diameter(PCD) runneroutsidediameter force gravitationalconstant = 9.81 bucketheight net head nozzlecoefficient(kO = 0.96...0.98) co&Went (ky= 0.4LO.49) rotationalspeed (RPM) poweroutput waterdischarge bucketdepth optimal peripheral velocity (at thePCD) approximate numberof buckets efficiency jcl contraction cocflicient

ml [ml

[ms-l]

d D D. F g h Ho kc k n P

[ml [ml [ml N

[ms]

[ml [ml E-l 1-l

[min-lj WKl [m%-*]

t U, i! rl WI

[ml
;;

[ms-1

[-I

Photograph 1.: Pelton turbine runner

is a manual on the layout, design, manufacture a,nd installation of yery small, locally built P&on turbine plants.
Micro P&m Turbines

This publication is directed to those who intend to design, dimension, build, install and to run small Pelton turbines. It provides all the necessary theoretical background, designs and hints on manufacturing and on procedures of installation. The technical information provided is an aid for the successful installation of micro Pelton turbines.

1 ISBN 33-908001-34-X )
1

wucro -,

remon

1 urnme

Contents
Pnzface Acknowledgment Units Nomenclature 1. Introduction 1. 1. Classificationof the Turbines 1. 2. Introductionto PeltonTurbines 1. :3. Rangeof Applicationfor Micro PeltonWhines 2. Dimensioningof PeltonTurbines 2. I. Theory 2. 12. TurbineLayout 2. 3. Efficiency 2. ,4. SpeedandPitch Circle Diameter andDesignPrinciples 3. Components 3. I. Intake 3. :;!. Forebay 3. Y. Pcnstock 3. 4. Nozzle Dcflcctor 3. 5. JCL 3. 6. Bucket 3. 7. Rotor 3. 8. Housing 3. 9, Shaft Bearings 3.101. 3.11, Transmission 3.12. Turbine Control GeneralNotes InstallationandMaintenance Checks, 4. 1. Fabrication, 4. 2. Balancing 4. 3. Cost 4. 4. SilfCly 4. 5. 5. 1. 5. 2. 5. 3. FurtherHints Application of PeltonTurbines Noise Training Courses List of relevantpublications Addresses of institutions... Addresses of manufacturers... Costof Peltonbuckets Costof Peltonturbine wheels Costof Pellonturbines Flow nomogram for MDPE pipes Examples of applicationof Peltonturbines Explodedview of Peltonturbine Drawingsetof Peltonturbine Doublejet Peltonturbine 9 9 IO 10 I2 18 I9 23 25 29 30 30 31 33 33 34 35 36 37 37 37 37 39
40

Appendix 1.: Appendix 2.: Appendix 3.: Appenl-lix4.: Appendix 5.: Appendix 6.: Appendix 7.: Appentiilix8.: Appendix 9.: Appendix 10.: Append,x11.:

41 43 44 45 48 49 60 63 85

1 lntPoduotion

1 Introduction
In developing countriesthenecessity andthe possibilities to maIU!faCNrC machines locally areinc!easing. Often+benecessary equipment+ machines, material andthe skilled labouraswell astechnicalstaff areavailable, but whatis missingis the information andtheknow-how.
Nibine

canbeobtainedfrom variousagencies, such asSKAT andGATE.

Sometimes, for crossflow turbines,the headis too big while the discharge is too small.In this casethe Pelton turbine is more suitable. It is the second easiestturbine to be manufacturedlocally. This information for One categoryof machinesused to harnesswa!,et publicationprovidesthe necessary the local manufacturing of Pelton turbines and for powerandwhich canbeproduced locally, arewater The range turbines.In somecountriesthereis an established installing andnmningthemsuccesshtlty. of Peltonturbinesdescribed here,does traditionin theproduction, installing andrunningof of application 50 kW of poweroutputandtherefore lies smallwatermills. Oftentheseareunits with simple not exceed verticalaxis wheelsor arelarge water wheels.For in the mini-micro-range. example,one country with experienceon vertical uponspecialized literature,on axiswaterwheels- ghattas - is Nepal.ln this country This manualis based by suppliersandon thepracticaland thereis alsoknow-howavailableon the buildingof documentation canals, Thesecanals aregenerally usedfor inigation theoreticalexperience of the author,of olher engiandto run the ghattas. neeringoffices and of manufacturers. It has been written mainly to facilitate the design,manufacture In Nepal,the first few crossflow turbineswerebuilt andinstallationof Pclton turbines.All information andinstalledin theearlyscvcnties. Thenit tooksome hasintentionallybeenkept simple,soasto facilitate time,until the endof theseventies, that watermills, nproductionwith simplemeans. Theformulasin the equipped with crossflowturbines,startedto spread. theoretical section arereduced to thenccessaryminiBy 1990mom than 600 water mills had beenin- mumandampartlyapproximate calculations, which stalled, distributedall overthecountry.These instal- arepurposed for the practicaluse. lationsrun with diffcrcnt typesof turbinesandwere locally built by morethantendifferent manufactur- The utilization of the producedpower is not dealt en. with. However,all options are kept open,whereas local conditions areto beconsidered whenaninstalForlocalmanufacturing, thecrossflowturbineis the lationis planned. In case thestatements madeshould simplestmodel. The headrangeoften fits in well not suffice,detailed information will befoundin the with thelocalconditions. Informationonthistypeof literaturelisted attheend,orcanbeobtained from the suppliersof turbinecomponents.

1.I Classification

of the Turbines
both.Theymaybeof the singleregulated or double regulated type.Turbinesmay alsobe dassified accordingto their specificspeed. Illustration 1 demonstrates how therightturbine can be determined for a certaindischarge andhead.

Waterturbinesmay be classified in differentways. Onewayof classificationis according to themethod of functioning(impulseorreaction turbine);another way is accordingto the design(shaftarrangement andfeedof water). Waterturbines may operate as turbines,as pump turbinesor as a combinationof

(,,i ,,

M~~Po P&on Turblnrr

300 200 140

in0

5 a,5

10 20 Discharge

ml,-1

50

100

200

500

1000

Illustration 1: Functional range of d(fScrent watertu&nes (sowce Eschtr-Wyss)

1.2 Introduction

to Pelton Turbines
runner.

This chapterdeals with the history and the latest developments of Pcltonturbines. Togctner withTbgo andcrossflowturbines, Peltonturbinesbelongto the impulse type. The common characteristicis the prcssurcless and partial admissionof flow into the runner. On the Pelton turbine the torque is generated by deflectionof thefreejet in thedoublebuckets of the
Jet

But ket

Thatis why the Peltonturbineis alsocalled he jet turbine. 1 Thefret jet turbinewasinventedaround1880by the AmericanPelton,zfter whom it got its name.The greatest intprovement thatPeltonmadewasto introduce symmetricaldouble buckets.This shapeis basicallystill validtoday.Thesplitterridgeseparates the jet into two equal halves,which are diverted sideways. Sincethenthe turbinehasbeenwnsiderablyimprovedinall respects andtheoutputof power hasincreased. The freejet turbineis usedfor heads up to 2OtKI m. Below 250m, mostlytheFrancisturbinesaregiven preference. Todaythemaximumoutputlies ataround 200 MW.

Splitter rid&

Illustration 2: Reversalof the Jet

Depending on thedischarge, headandquality of the water,Peltonturbinesareinstalledwith a horizontal shaft,with 1 or 2 jets per nmner,assingle or twin

1 lntmduetlon turbine,or with a vertical shaft with up to 6 jets. Generah y theelectricalgenerator is coupleddirectly to the shaft. The speedof small turbinesmay be adjusted by belt drivesor gearboxes. Basicallytheturbine consists of the following pans: nozzle,runnerandhousing. Therunner(photograph 1)is mostlyaonepiecesteelcasting, containing13% chrome, ThelargestPeltonwheels haveadiameter of morethan5 XIIandweigh morethan40000 kg.

The bucketsareshaped in sucha way that the ridge inthemiddledividesthe~jetintotwoequalparts which am reversed by almost 18fP(illustraGon 2). By the reversalalmost all the kinetic energy is transfe~dintofo~ofimpPllseattheouterdiameter of the wheel.Because of the symmetryof the flow almostno axial forceis createdat the runner.

The wheelmustbe placedabovethe tailracewater ievel, which means a loss of statichead,but avoids In orderto avoidanunaccept In thenozzle(illustration8) thepressure of thewater wateringof therunner. in the penstock, caused by the is converted into velocity. The nozzleconsists of a ableraiseof pressure nose-piece whichis fixed to apipebend,andaneedle regulatingof the turbine, jet deflectorsare somewhichcanbe movedinsidethe pipe bend.Thenose timesinstalled(ilhrstration12).Ibe deflectordiverts coneandnosepiece,which aresubjectto wear,am thejet, or partof it, from the runner. madeout of high quality material and arc easyto exchange.

1.3 Range of Application for Micro Pelton Turbines


The Pclton turbine installationsdescribedin this treatiseare substantiallysmallerthan the onesdescribedabove.Theseturbinescanbe manufactured locally with good results.Different methodsand variousmaterialsaredescribed for the manufacturing of the bucketsor of the runneras welt as for different nozzle arrangcmcnts and the regulating mechanism.

Discharge

MicroPeltonTurbines

Variousconstraintslimit the applicationrangefor minimum power output: locally manufactured Peltonturbines.For instance 0,l kW, limited power application with higher headsproblemsmay arise with the penstack. Here not only the static pressumis rel- maximum power output: evant,but pressure waves mayoccurwhenthe con- 50 kW, limited by sizeof turbine anddesignlimits duit is filled, or when the turbine is started or regulated. This can havedisastrous consequences. minimum jet diameter: High headsalsoimply high totational speedwhich 4 mm, limit set by small size of bucketsand by the jet maycause problemswith therotordueto centrifugal difficulty to concentrate *forces in connectionwith dynamic forces.Larger wheels aregenerallybuilt for higherdischarge rates, maximum jet diameter: 80 mm, limit setby large size of buckets whichim&es largernozzlesandbuckets. In the contextof this publicationonly very small, limits arenot compulsory,but canbetakenas locally manufactured Peltonturbinesaredealtwith. These takinginto consideration thelocal condiThe applicationrangeof these shouldbe within the guidelines, tions for manufacturing, suchasavailability of mafollowing, reduced limits (seeillustration 3): terials,castingfacilities, testingequipment and0th.. tXS. maximum head: 300-200m, limit set by dynamic and hydraulic forceson the buckets,torqueon the shaft In comparison to what is said in chapterI.2 on the latestdevelopments of Peltonturbines,theselimits minimum head: considerably restrictthe applicationrangeof micro 10m, limit setby smalldischarge andpoweroutput, Pcltonturbines. But theystill openanew,interesting largedimensions of wheelandlow RPM field for thelot;! fabricationof turbines. minimum discharge: 0,5 hs, limit setby the small six of bucket

Photograph 2: Double jet PePtonturbine, designed power output up to 100 kW, head up to 400 m, in staintess steelfar up to 410 kW and 1000 m

2 Dlmen8lonlng of Mton TUlblnm8

2 Dimensioning of Pelton Turbines


2.1

Theory

Following arethe necessary fotmulas for the &sign andthe layout of micro pelton buhines: velocity of waterjet [ms-*] 5 = absolute kc = nozzlecoefficient(kc = 0.96...0.98) Fl g = gravitationalconstant = 9.81 [ms**] H,,= net head[m] F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FlO d = d-- 46
WI

d = optimaljet diameter[m] Q = waterdischarge [m3s1] u1 = optimal paipheral v&city [ms-1 (at the pitch circle diameter) kU = coefficient(It = 0.45...0.49) b = bucketwidth [m] h = bucketheight[m] h, = seeiIlustration 14.
5=

u1 =$-/2gH, b = (2.5.3.2) d h = (2.1...2.7)d h, = (O.wO.35) d l-+ = (0.85...1.5)d = 0.9 d D = MU!i a 60 u,i O= ED t

seeilhtstration 14.

t = bucketdepth [m] D= pitch circle diameter(PCD) [m]

of drivenmachine (RPM) [mi&] na rotationalspeed i = transmission ratio (RPM of drivenmachine/ RIM ofturbine) (i=l if a generator is coupleddirectly) a = width of bucketopening[m] k = offsetof bucket it = approximate numberof buckets Da= outsidediameterof runner[m] P= poweroutputFWj Q = efficiency P = densityof water= 1000kg m]

Fll F12 F13 F14 F15

a - 1.2d k = (0.1...0.17)D DR 2 Y-aD,=D+ 1.2h

Theparameters areexplainedin illustration4, on the left side,andin illustration 14 (on page21).

IUus&&n 4: Fun&mew of the Free Jet Turbine

Micro P&on Turbines

2.2 Turbine Layout


The principle dimensionsof a Pelton turbine are determined by thejet diameter. Oncethejet diameter is givenmost other dimensions of the rotor canbe derivedwith the aid of theformulasin chapter2.1. Thesizeof thejet diameter determines theminimum sizeof thebuckets,which givesthe sizeof therotor andof the whole turbine. In certaincases it is possible to install a turbinewith largerbuckets thanrequired. This doesnot necessarily reduce the overallefficiencyof theinstallationin anunacceptable way if theoverdimensioning is kept within certain limits. This may be the caseif a second-hand turbineis used,if only the designof a largerturbineis availableor if modifying themanufacturingfacilitieswouldinvolvetoolargeexpenses. To dctcrminethe size of a turbine two of the three paramctcrs power (P), discharge (Q and net head (Id,,) must bc known. The third parilmctcrcan be cnlf:ulatcd (F15). Whenall of theseparameters arc within rhc limits dcscribcdin chapter1.3,installation of a Pcltonturbineis feasible.Whenoneof the three parameters is above these limits it is sometimes still possibleto install a Pelton turbine, but it is rccommcndcd to study the diffcrcnt possibilities carefully.Maybeaturbinewithmorethanonejetcan be installed, or the other extreme would be the importingof the whole turbine. Themostdifficult taskinPeltonturbinemanufacturing is themakingof thebuckets, bccausc whenthcsc wouldbreakwhile rotatingat high speed, this could bcquitedangerous. Thatis thereason why it is often prcferabl, to purchase the bucketsfrom a rcputcd manufacturer. In this case, or whenthe buckets an: madeby an experienced, local manufacturer, the limits of locally manufactured Pelton turbines,as dcsctibcd in chapter1.3,maybe raised. In casethat the discharge is above,or the headis belowthedescribed limitsit is recommended to look for an alternativetype of turbinedesign. Whenthemaindimensions of a Peltonturbineplant havetobedeterminedtbevariousparametersinteract witheachother. ltisapmsofiterationto nzachthe most suitablelayout. Ihis process is illustrated by the following example: Thesurvey at a plannedsite proves thata grosshead of 96 m is available. For tbesame example adescription is given in chapter3.3 on how to design the penstock andhowto determinethenetheadof 86m, while the testing of the buckets is describedin chapter 4.1.Theownerin this case intendsto install a generator with 10 kW power output,turning at a speed of 1500RP-Mand designed to withstandthe runawayspeedof 2700 RPM. The owner further plans to install an electronic load controller. An overall efficiency of 60 % of the machineryis assumed. The manufacturer with whomhe intendsto order the machineryhas bucketsavailatlo with a width of 60 mm. With theaidof illustration 3 thencccssary discharge is dctenincd to be20 It/s andthejet diamctcris 25,5 mm. Thcscparameters and the other main dimcnsionsof theturbinewill be calculated in the following with the aid of the formulasin chapter2.1. First the discharge is ca!culatedwith formula F15, which is rearranged asfollows: QI - P - 1000
H,fIPrl 1tMOQO It/r = 0,01975 ma/s3 19,75 = 9&9,91-i 000*0,6 (0 20 It/s)

Afier thattheabsolute velocity of thewaterjet c,, the jet diameter d, theoptimal peripheral velocity u,, the pitch circle diameterD. the width of the bucketsb andthe numberof bucketsz arccalculated with the folloGng formulas:
Fl: c, o kc= = 0,97- lkiG&YG d= 4 4Q 39,&I m/s

Thejet diametercan be determined by approximalion accordingto illustration 3, when two of the parameters head(H,), discharge (Q andpoweroutput(P)aregiven.Thediagramis based on anoverall F2: plantefficiency of 60 8.

40,02 It-39.84

:: 0,0253 m = 25,3 mm

2 Dimrn8knlng of Patton Turblner F3:

u, r k, fiz
I 0,48 &&iii-= 60 ren
s 60 l&Q q

F13: z P z 18,9 m/s 240,&X =c = 21,l

FQ:

D8

It * 1500 F4: F13: b = 2.85 d o 2.85 * 25,3 z = -$240.6 - IC = 2 * 25,3

0,2400 m z 240,6 mm

I 72,l mm

Accordingtotable3 inchapter3.6abucketwidthof 60 mm is suitablefor jet diameters of 15to 20 mm. That is why the availablebucketscan he usedalthoughF4givesanoptimalbucketwidthof51,Omm. Bydividingthe~tdiameterbythenozzleooefi[izient (17,9- 1,25= 22s mm) the 225 mm diameterof the boreof theorificeinsert(seechapter 3.4andillustration 8) wascalculated Thepitcbcirclediameterofthewheelof24Ommand thenumber of buckets (21)arereasonable, sothatthe nominalspeedcanbereachedwithoutstepuporstep downtransmission.Thusthegeneratorcan~coupled directly. Sinceanelecttonicload controllerwill be installed, it is not necessary to install a complicated governor. No jet deflectors needto beinstalled,either,because the generator can withstandthe runawayspeed.A simplevalveisinstalledbeforeoneof thenozzles and theothernozzlehasa needleanda spear. The flow rateof 20 It/s is availablein the river most of thetime. Only at somedaysin thedry season the discharge mustbeadjusted by closingthespear of the nozzle,which is manually regulated, or by closing theothernozzlecompletelyto guarantee a residue of flow in theriverbedandto guarantee theheadin the penstockpipe. Becauseall dimensionsfit the requirements,themaindimensionsoftherotorarenow determined.

8 14,94

Sincethe minimum numberof bucketsshouldbe at least16(seechapter2.4)andthecalculated widthof themquimdbucketis morethantheonesavailable by themanufacturer it is decided to build a turbinewith lwo jets. Themforeeachjet will havea discharge of 10 h/s. The proccdumof calculationcontinuesas follows: c,, u, andD remainthesame because thenethead has not changed.

=0,0179m::17,9mm F4: b = 2.95 d s 2,85 . 17,Q

3 51,Omm

2.3 Eff iclency


Theefficiency(q) of small,locally manufactured Peltonturbinesis normally not ashigh as with largerturbines.It is thereforerecommended to calculatethe turbine parametewwith an efficiency of 0.70 to 0.85. This may result in an efficiencyof 0.5 to 0.6 for aninstallationwith an electricalgenerator. It hasprovedreasonable in variousinstallationsto calculatewith suchefficiencies.Consideringthe low efficiencies,the head andthedischarge mustbeavailableto reach the requiredpower output. Therearemanyfactorswhichmay influencethe efficiencyof Peltonturbines, suchasgeometrical arrangement of the buckets,shapeof buckets, Ihtration
turbine.

Speed n

5: Power versus speed curve of a Pelton

Micra Pelton Turbines

mistakes in manufacturing, misalignmentof thejet, friction of the waterstripperandgaskets. Thelosses by windagemay alsohavea considerable influence on the efficiency of micro turbines.It is therefoR recommended to lay out the nominal point in the powerversusspeed chartratheron the lower speed sideof themaximumpowerpoint,towardsasmaller kUvalue.

A jet diameterwhich is smallerthanthe optimal jet diameteror a partly closednozzledoesnot havetoo big aninfiuen& on the efficiency,providedthat the actual jet diameter is not smallerthanonethird of the optimaljet diameteror onesixth of waterdischarge is still possibleat gti part-loadefficiency.

2.4 Spee, and Pitch Circle Diameter


Theproductof the speed (RPM)andthe pitch circle diameter(PCD) of a Peltonturbineis constant (F9 andFIO) for a given head.Thus,with a givenhead andPCDthis resultsin a certainnumberof revolutionsof the turbine.Oftenthespeed of the turbineis givenby therequired RPMof thedrivenmachine, be it a gcncrator or anyotherend-use equipment. With a givennetheadtheRPMcanbc adjusted by changing the diamctcrof the wheel. Anotherpossibility is not to run the turbine at the optimalspeed.illustration 5 showsthat for a given PCD the speedof the runnermay be considerably different from the optimal speed, without havinga too largeinfluenceon the cfliciency of the turbmc andthusallowing the manufacturer to havea series of standardised sizesof PCDs.In thecase of illustration 5 a speed which is 16% lower thantheoptimal speed means only alossof efficiencyof 3 % (see also explanation on page 63). For a certainbucketsize, the PCD hasto be within certainlimits. Theminimum wheeldiameterresults from the fact that a minimum of at least 16 buckets shouldbe installed and from the permissiblecentrifugal forceon the buckets.The maximum wheel diameter is not so much of a problem, because normally a high RPM is required.Mostly economical considerations limit the sizeofthc rotor,because a largewheelalsomeansa largenumberof buckets anda largehousing, Therunaway speed of aPcltonturbineis about1.8to 1.9timesthe nominalspeed.At runawayspeedthe runnerturnsat almostthe speed of thewaterjet, the wateris no moreableto tmnsfcrenergyto the rotor. This is the casewhen no load is taken from the turbine.

Photograph 3: Needle, orifice and star guide of a wzle

3 Components and Deslgn Prlnclples

3 Components and Design Principles


3.1 Intake
The arrangement of the intake posesno special problemfor Peltonturbines.Basicallyanykind of intakemaybeconstructed. This chapter deals with the relevantpeculiarities0PPeltonturbiie plants.The building of a safestructuremustbe recommended. other pointsto beconsidered am erosion andflooding.In thedry season it mustbe guaranteed thatthenecessary amountof wateris tapped, whereas for ecologicalreasons a residue of watermustbe left in the river bed. An often used,costeffectiveintake is theTirolian weir asshowninillustration 6. It hasproved to bereliablefor tappingwaterfrom smallrivets with steepgradientsin mountainousregions. Thewateris divertedfromtheriverbedby akind of channel across theriverbed, which is coveted by a trashrack. At timesof a small flow ratein theriverbed, all thewatercanbcdiverted.In case of surpluswateror flood theintakeis overflown by theriver.Duetoits flat structure it is unobtrusive The largerportionof the debrisload slides over the trash rack. An important point to be considered is the risk of icing up of the weir. 1. River bed 2. Weir StNCtUrC, may beconstructed Of concreteor stonemasonry, with a slopeat the bottomtowardsthe outlet. 3. A frame,madeof angleiron (e.g.40/40mm), is anchored in structure 2. 4. The trashrackcanbemadeof flat iron (e.g. 30/6mm) andis removable. The barscanbe weldedvertically by the endsto another flat iron, or to two rodsin between.The spacing between the flat barsshouldbe 6 to 12mm. The slopeof the trashrackmustbe at least 15O. 5. Thewaterleavestheweir andthe riverbed in a pipe placedat the bottomof the weir.

\ ? \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I I

Illustration 6: Tirolian weir type intake structure

10

Micro Pelton Turblnes

3.2 Forebay
A forebayis normally combinedwith a desihing chamber. As the discharge atPeltonturbineinstallationsis relatively small, the size of the forebay maybe small,Oftenit is enough to havejust a vat, wherethevelocityofthewaterislowenoughforthe suspended paniclesto settle.The accumulated debrishasto beflushedoutfromtimeto time.Thiscan be doneby openingthe flushing gateor valve.In this mannerthe materialis allowedto returnto the riverbed.If thereis a sufficientamountof surplus wateravailable,this canbe donewithout stopping theplant.In somecases alsofloating material,such asleaves andbranches, maycause problems. This canbeencountered by adip wall or by a dip beam. The floating partsare washedawayby the excess wateralongthe overflow in a suitablearrangement. If the sourceof water for the Pelton turbine is a spring,the watermay be diverteddirectly from the sourceto the turbine without complicatedintake, desilting and fombay constr~tions, because such wateris clean. Concretepipes are often suitable for the forebay basin, as shownin illustration 7. 1. Supplypipe from intake. 2. Overflowpipe,leadstheexcess waterbackto the river. may alsobc an ovefflow channel. 3. Flushingpipe,may be openedandclosedbj a plug, a valveor a gate.It is opened andclosed manuallyasandwhennquimd. Thecross-scctional areaof 2 and3 mustbe biggerthanthat of the supplypipe. 4. Plug with handle. 5. Penstock sieve,shouldbe aslargeaspossible, maybemade of p&orated sheet metalwith holes of 3 lo 5 mm diameter,the lop canbeof thesame material,with a handle,at the bottomit canbe fixed to a woodenflange,which fits to the upper endof thepenstock pipe. 6. Topendof thepenstock pipe,nmstbesubmerged in the water,to avoidthe intake of air. 7. Forebaytank,canbe madeof a concret< pipe as shownin thedrawing,or of a barrel,stonemasonryor othermaterial. 8. It is usefulto coverthe forcbaybasinto prevent leaves, branches or other itemsandplaying childten form falling into it.

Illustration 7: Forebay tank

3.3 Penstock
Themostimportantaspects of thelayout anddesign pressure of thepenstock. For this reason the closing maynot be of the penstockare the correctchoice of the pipe time of theturbineregulatingmechanism diameter, thepermissible pressure andthematerial. too short,because pressure wavesandwaterhammer Thereis anextensive choice of specialliterature(see effectscouldoccur.This canbe achieved by a slow alsoreferences 1,2,3 and8)onthese items,therefore closing deviceon installationswherethe runaway only somebasicideasaregivenhere. speed of theturbineplaysaminor role,or whichhave a largeenoughflywheel. This problemmay alsobe under3.5. Penstock pipesconstitutea relativelylargeportion solvedby a jet deflectorasdesct%ed of the costsof Peltonturbineinstallations.This is dueto thehigh pressure involvedandbecause of the The kind of penstockand the material used are lengthof thepipe.Thewall thickness andthecostof selected in accordance with the pressure, the terrain a penstockare almost linear to the permissible conditions andthelocalcircumstances. Forthepower

3 Components and Daslgn Princlplss

11

Table 1: Flow characterlstlcs of polyethylene pipes (nominal pressure 10 bar)


Pipediameter outside Velocityof water v b-4 0,6 DischargeQ Wsl Poweroutputwith Q and nethead100m Ikwl
02

[mm1
32 50 40 63 75 90

inside [mm]
26,2 40,8 32,6 51,4 61,4 73,6

Xs
110

x0: OR7
110
12

if :d
116
14 zo 2,1 23

x; 1:3
281 38 62 88

110
125 140 160 180 200 225 250

90,o 102,2
114,6 130,8 147,2 163,6 184,0 204,6

5:1 8,9 12,3


16,5 z 44 61 79

2,4

12 17 24 31 43 55

of a flow nomogramfor MDPEpipesis plants describedin this publication mainly high- An example 7. The friction losses canbe read densitypolycthylcncpipes(HDPE) arc used.They shownin appendix andflow rates. arcavailable in mostcounlrics, canbeentrenched or out for giveninternaldiameters cmbcddcd in concrctcor canbe laid on the surface. The pipes have to be pmlcctcd againstp&asturing In the following for the sameexampleasin chapter cattle,landslides,avalanches, vandalismand solar 2.2, the penstockdiameteris determined,and the radiation. With rcspcct to ecologicalaspects it is also pipe lossesandnet head anzcalculated. The gross mcommcnded to coverthem, headis 96 m andthelengthof thepenstock is 300m. lbeowner plans tc usepolyethylene pipes, which are in the country. Table1shows therecommended speed anddischarge readily available for apressure dropof 2 m WCfor apipelengthof 100 m for commercialHDPE pipes. It also showsthe Table 1 shows that if the friction lossesin the availablepower with a net head of 100 m and a penstock mustnot exceed 2 m/100m pipelengththe turbineefficiency of 70 %. inside diametershould be bigger than 114.6mm. But, thoughhetakesinto account thatthelosses are The surfaceroughness of the inner wall of thepen- higher, the owner prefersto install pipes with this stockandthe speed of thewaterarerelevantfor the diameterin order to savecosts,because the next pmssurc losses. With mspcct to pipediameter, nomi- biggerdiameter would beconsiderably moreexpennal pressure andcostof pipes,1%to 5% headlossin sive.Hints for thepre-selection of theeconomically thepcnstockpipe arereasonably obtained, whereasit optimalpenstock diameteraregivenunderreference is recommended to keepthelosses under 10 %. (2) md(3). Pipesareavailablefor differentnominal pressures. When a long penstockwith a high head must be installed,to reducecosts, it may be advisable to use pipesfor a lower nominalpressure at the upperend wherethestaticpressure is lower. Anotherpossibility is to install a pipe with a smallerdiameterat the lower partof the penstock. A smallerpipe diameter means ahighervelocityof waterandhigherpressure losses, According to the table of appendix7 an inside diameterof 114mm and a flow rateof 20 h/s result in a flow velocityof 1.9m/sandahydraulicgradient of 3 m/UN m pipp,length. This giveslossesin the penstock of 9 m watercolumnfor a penstock length of 300m. This is just a little below 10% of thegross headandmaybetoleratedwith respect to theconsiderations mentioned above.Thenozzleof theturbine is located0,6m above thetailracewaterlevel andthe losses in thebends, joints and thevalveareassumed to be 0,4m. This resultsin a total lossof 10m, thus the net headis 86 m.

12

Micro

Peston Irurblnes

3.4

Plozzle
When more than one jet is installed, it is often possibleto regulateonly the flow of onejet with a governor,whereas the otherjets arecontrolledby a simplehandvalve.

The manifold with its needles andspearvalvesis a costly component of the Peltonturbines.Suchdevicesareusedto regulate thespeed or the discharge of theturbine.Generallythevalveis regulated by a governor.

The nozzlemustbe designed in sucha way that the Themanifoldshouldhaveasfew bendsaspossible, pn~surelossis assmall aspossibleandthat thusthe with a radiusaslargeaspossible to avoidlosses and nozzlecoefficientis incEased.Whencalculatingthe diameterof thenozzleit mustbeconsidered that the turbulence of the jet. cross-sectional anzaofthejet will besmallerthanthe Pcltonturbines mayhavemorethanonejet. Turbines arcaof theorificeopeningby thefactorv,,. v,,is the with a horizontalaxisarebuilt with oneor two jets, ratio of the diameter of the nozzle opening and turbineswith a vertical axisarebuilt with up to six the jet diameter. The jet contraction factor v,, is jets. To reacha certainnumberof revolutionsthe in therangeof 1,6for holeswith sharp cdgcs, to 1.05 wheeldiameteris selected accordingly.To get the for nicely rounded edges.v,is in the rangeof 1,25 minimum numberof buckets,the diameterof the for properly shapednozzle openings,such as in rotor must not be smallerthan a certainminimum, illustration 8. An increasedvelocity of the water bccnuse it is eitherphysicallynot possibleor partof meanshigher losses.That is why the part of the ihc waterdoesnot hit a bucket.For this reason it is nozzle,in whichthewaterhasahigh speed, hasto bc somctimcs prcfcrablcto USC smallerbuckets with the asshortaspossible. possibilityof makingasmallerpitchcircle diamctcr. With smallerbucketsthe maximumjet diamctcris In orderto avoidfriction losses andturbulcncc of the limitednndsoisconscqucntly thewaterflow rate. To jet, the bendof the nozzle should havethe largest ovcrcomcthis handicapmore than one jet may bc possibleradius. The spear is guidedattwo points,at inslallcd.Thewaterfrom thepcnstock is distributed theplacewhereit cmcrgcsfrom thebendandwith a to UCdiffcrcntnozzles by themanifold.Towards the starguide in front of the nozzletip. The star guide lilst jet the dimctcr~ of the distribution pipesare alsostreamlines thewaler flow (item4 in illustration graduallyreduced. 8 on page14).

Photograph 4: Needle of Pelton turbine nozzle

3 Components and Design Principles

13

Photograph 5: Needle and spear at d(iv;erentstagesof fabrication (parts 3 & 6 in illustration 8 on page 14)

Photograph 6: Starguide before and after machining (part 4 in illustration 8 on pwe 14)

Photograph 7: Nozzle with all parts put together

Micro Pelton Turbines

1. Bend
2. Flange 3. Necdlcor spear

4. Starguide
5. orifice 6. Needletip 7. Orifice insen

8. Regulatingmechanism

Illustration 8: Exumple of Nozzle

3 Componenta and Darlgn Prlnclphs

1. TeepicccG 3/4 2. Nozzle 3. Guiding plug 4. Ncedlc 5. Handwheel 6. O-Ring 7. Hex. nut 8. O-Ring 9. Studbolt

Illustration 9: Example of u simple, hand regulated nozzle (source Aebi)

Micro Peltan Turblner

Illustration 10: Example of nozzle without regulating device

Irregularitieson the surface of the speartip andthe oriticc causedisturbances in the fiow of the jet. Cavitationor erosion with increasedwear could cause fastdestruction of these parts.Damage caused by erosioncanalso stronglyaffectthe efficiencyof theturbine. This is because partof the waterjet may no ionger be hitting the bucketsor is hitt&rgtiem with Educed velocity. Par this reasonthe orifice insertandthe needletip of thenozzlemustbeeasily exchangeable (illustration 8).

Somealternative designs for theorifice of thenozzle (illustration11)arepxuposed by Allen lnversinin his brochureA Pehonmicro-hydraprototypedesign (9). Such low cost alternativesmay be envisaged with ~gard w the requirements and the available material.

A designof theorifice, which is veryeasyto manufacture,is by usingjust a pieceof sheet metalwith a hole drilled in the requireddiameter.When determining this diameterthe jet contractioncoefficient In the designof illustration :O, a valve is installed mustbe takeninto consideration. ITDG suggested a beCore thenozzle.Its so!epurpose beingtheclosing designin which this metal plate is introducedand off of thewaterflow, it is not possibleto controlthe fixed into thenozzlefrom outsidewithouthavingto speed of the rotor with this valve.If this valveis at a dismantle thenozzleassembly (illustration1ld).The position betweenopen and closed,it basicallym- orifice plateof thenozzlein illustration 11d, canbe ductsthepressure andthusreduces the speed of the inserted from outsidethroughthelongishholein the outflowing water.The discharge is also adjusted in front plate andit is fixed from outsideby meansof this manner. bolts. Seasonal variationsof the flow rate may be adjusted by insertingplateswith diffennt holes.

wmlpon~nIs

ana

ueslgn

rrlnclplea

I1

Thread

--

C
Slot in nozzle

Ga:ket

Front plate--

--

Illustration II: Alternative nozzle designs without possibillly ofmw regulation (source Inversin)

Thcsc nozzles ateusedfor non-regulated flow conditionswith aconstant flow rateandload.Theymaybe installedwith an clcctronicload controlleror when fluctuation of the speeddots not play a role. To obtainthe bestcffrcicncyof suchnozzlesthe inner edgeof theorifice shouldbc sharpandthe threaded piecenf flpe shouldbe asshortaspossibleso asto avoidthe contracted waterjet touchingagain.

sameeffect.While the turbineis in operation vibrationsoccur,with aneffectof movingtheturbinefrom its position.Thcscare reasons why the noLzlcsand the turbine must be fixed togetherand why the turbinemustbe rigidly fastened on its place.This is mostly donewith a flange on the nozzle,which is boltedto the turbiie housing.With somedesigns it is possible to adjustthepositionof thenozzlein such a F aythat the same houdag andnozzlecanbe used On someinstalThe diameter of the jet can be smaller than the for differentpitch circle diameters. lations the connection of the nozzle to the housing optimal design diameter without hwmg a great wasomitted,which resultedin enormous problems influenceuponthe efficiency. with alignmentof the nozzleandconsequent power waterandthehigh costs for overhaulWhenthe penstockand the nozzle are filled with loss,splashing water,forcesact uponthe nozzlewith the tendency ing. to moveit out of position.Loadchanges canhavethe

3 Components and Dsolgn Prlnciploe

19

3.6 Bucket
In case thatthebucketsof thePeltonturbinearealso to bemanufactured locally, castingfacilities will be required,Either single buckets,two buckets together,or the completerotor haveto be cast.The casting of bucketsfor Peltonturbinescanbedoneby copyingfrom otherexistingbuckets.It is advisable to castthesinglebucketsand,aftermacblning,to fix themto the rotor disk. In this mannercomplicated castingmouldscanbe avoided. epoxies,polyumbanes show higher water resistance,but slightly lower chemicalandsolventresistame. In southernSwitzerlandthe lifetime of the bucketscould be tripled by this methodin cases wherethe watercontainedsmall particlesof quartz
Sand.

Thebuckets canbcmadeof differentmaterials. This is alsothe caseif Ihe totor is castin onepiece.On modemPeltontutbiies thebuckets aremostlyof cast If a suitablesizeis not available, the bucketscanbe steel with 13% chrome. But other materials and manufactured as shown in illustrations I4 and 15 methods arealsoused,including castiron, or alloys or theycanbemanufactured by reducing or enlarging suchasbtonzcor aluminium,or injectionmoulding existingbucketson a copymilling machineif sucha with fiber glassreinforcedplastic. machineis available. It is not recommended to manufacture the bucketsof halvedpipe sections or Eachmaterialhasits own properties, one of these othnr ingenious welding constructionsof sheet beingtheallowablestress. Thelimits for application metalsections, because of lackingstrengthandpoor mustbecalculated catehtlly for each material.When cfficicncy. After an enthusiastic start (anda lot of calculatingthe allowabic headfor a certainturbine work suchprojectsmom thanonceendedquietly as configuration not only the static forces must be onemomdcvclopingbusiness ruin. calculated, but thefatigue stress andthe centrifugal forcesarealsoto be considered. Quickchangingof Theoptimalnumberof buckets in aPeltonwheelcan theloadon thebuckets hasanunfavourablc cffcct on bc calculated with the aid of formula F13in chapter the admissible forces,especiallywhenthe stressis 2.1. Variousauthorsgive diffcrcnt formulas,which higherthannormal.This couldbecaused by unequal Can varyconsiderably. &net-ally eachcuttingof the disttibutionof thematerial,cracksat critical places, waterjet by the bucketsmeans a disturbance of the dueto corrosion or dueto welding.Roughlyspoken, jet. Pan of the water getsan abruptand unwanted the maximumapplicablesttzsson Peltonbucketsis diversion. This explainswhy thenumberof buckets aboutthreeto four times smallerthanthe allowable shouldnotbcchosen toolarge,Onthz otherhandnot staticstress. Heattreatment canessentially improve all thewaterof thejet mayhit a bucketif thenumber the properties of the material. of bucketsis too small. The number of buckets influcnccsthe cfficicncy of the turbine, but hasno influcnccon the optimal speed of the runner. Besidesfaults in mnnufacturing, such as casting, alignment, surface fish, themainproblemwith free jet turbinesis erosionof the buckets,particularly wherethe waterimpingeson thebucketsanddueto sandywateror chemicallyaggressive substances in thewater. An oftenoccultingproblemiserosionof thebuckets, caused by particlesof sandsuspended in the water. This canbe avoidedby letting the particlessettlein a desilting basin. Sometimesthe life time of the runner canbeimprovedby usingabettermaterialfor thebuckets, e.g.stainless steel.In somecases good resultshave beenobtainedby the applicationof a plasticcoatto thebuckets. Thiscouldbeacoatbased on epoxy or polyurethaneresins.Comparedwith Photograph 8: Pelton turbine bucket

20

Micro P&on Turblnor

Table

2:

Mechanical properties of different casting materials.


Tensile strength Modulus of elasticity kNlmm2 75-145 169-176 200-215 Fatigue/ tensile rat.0 0.450,36 0,6-0,4 0,4-0,5 0,4-0,5 0,3-0,4 0,3-0,4 Brine11 hardness 0-W 135-300 120-240 160910 250-290 30-60 45-160

Material Grey cast iron Malleable cast iron

N/mm2 150400 300-600 560-900 750850 go-250 220-540

Carbon,low alloy
and medium alloy steel casting Stainless steel Aluminium and alloys Bronze alloys

195-205
50-90 100-l 20

If the propertiesof the material are not sure,the smaller values mustbetakenfor calculation(see also reference (11). It is essentialthat a safetyfactor of about threeis takeninto account whenmanufacturing thebuckets. Strict quality control must be asstued.Generally due there is arisk of poor material quality of castings, to possible shrinkage cavities, blow holesandinclusions, The formulas for the determinationof the main dimensions of Peltonbucketsin illustration 14 are givenin chapter2.1 Illustration 15 showsdifferent sections throughabucket. Thesizecanbereducedor enlarged as requiredwith the aid of a photocopier. Patterns aremadefrom these copiesandthebuckets aremodelledaccording to these patterns.

If differentsizes of Peltonturbineshaveto bemanufactured frequently, it is recommended to useaseries of standardizd bucket sizes -whichwork with the following jet diameters:

Table 3: Jet diameter and bucket width


Jet diameter d: I Bucket width b: 19mm 30 mm 45 mm 60 mm 75 mm 90 mm

3to 6mm
6tolOmm lOtol5mm 15to20mm 20 to 25 mrli 25 to 30 mm

___..

- -.-.---.--

--.---~

-.-_-...---

3 Components .--~ -.-- -

and Design

Principles

21

Errata
The illustration 14. on page 21 and illustration 15. on page 22 of the MHPG-publication Micro Pelton Turbines have some drawing mistakes. As this drawings are vital parts of the publication, please us8 the revisions on this page.

T-

-t-- \,

I--Illustration 14: Cross sections of Pelton bwkets

--cl

Micro Pelton Turbines

---

----. -

Illustration

15: Main dimensions of Pelton buckets

3 Components and Design Principles

21

illu,\ w!an 14: Main dimensions of Pelton buckets

22

Micro Pelton Turbines

DCBA

--.-_ 7 --+ L

Illustration 15: Cross sections of Pelton buckets

3 Components and Design Principles

23

Thedifferent partsof the waterjet passthe buckets alongdistinct paths.This is most obviouswith the partswhich hit thebucketatthebeginningandatthe end of the path throughthe wheel. They leavethe wheelin different directions,accordingto theposition of thebucketsrelatedto thewaterjet. Therefore the shapeof the bucketsis laid out fo: the most signScant flow conditions.That is also the reason

why the shape of the bucketsis a key factor for the efficiency of thehubine. Thesurface finishof thebuckets hasagreatintluence on the efficiencyandon wearing.Ihat is why often not only theinnersurface of thebuckets is polished, but alsothe edges of the rearsurface.

3.7 Rotor
The rotor, wheelor runnerof a Peltonturbinebasically consistsof a disk with a number of buckets lixed at its circumference. Thedisk is mounted on a shaftby meansof a hub. Thenetheaddetermines thevelocity of thewaterjet c, (Fl) and the peripheralvelocity of the rotor u, (F3).Thepitchcirclediameter (PCD)of therotorcan bc calculated(F9) with the speedof the driven machineandthe ratio of the transmission. The formulasaregiven in chapter2.1, like forcewhenthe waterhits the buckets, attempts were madeto prestress the bucketsin peripheral direction by meansof conical pins between the buckets(illustration 16a).In combinationwith the internalstress of the casting,this resulted in uncontrolled pretension with local stress peaks in the area of the pinsleadingto explosion of the rotor.

On modem Pelton turbines very often the single bucketsarefixed to the disk of the rotorby positive connection. Tbismay bedonewith atypeof dovetail on the buckets. The bucketsareheld by two disks by onedisk andtwo rings(illustraThcrcBIXdiffcrcnt methods of fixing the buckets to (illustration16e), the rotor disk (illustration 16). If the bucketsare tion 16d) or by one disk and one ring, which are This kind of fixation of the buckets boltedto thedisk, eachbucketmustbe connected to boltedtogether. but hasa numberof thedisk with two boltsor with a bolt anda pin. The to the rotor disk is expensive, advantages. It can be used for high headapplication, holesin the bucketsandthe disk shouldbe drilled the foot of the bucketsis not weakened by togetherand fit bolts or positioningpins shouldbe because examples is to used.To avoid looseningof the single bucketsin holes. Theintentionof giving these circumferentialdirection, under the hammer-blow avoidsimiliar mistakesin future.

Photograph 9: Pelton turbine runner

24

MicroPeltonTurbInea

Illustration lb: UVJerent possibilities forJ.tYng the buckets to the rotor disk (source Escher-Wyss and Aebi)

on. This requiresvery closetolerances on the shaft andonthewheelintherangeof 1/10Oofamillimeter. It alsorequire coolingfacilities for theshaftandthe possibility to heatup thewheel.Whenthe rotor has to be dismantled,separation of the wheel and the shaftcanbe apmblemdueto fretting rustwhenthese Solutions a), b) and c) in illustration 16 for the designsate used. A very good solution, though fixation of thebucketson therotordisk areoutdated probablynot everywhere available,is to usea tapermethods, whichhavesometimes provedto be unre- lock connection belWe.en the shaft andthe wheel. liable. Sometimes labyrinthseals aremountedbetween the The rotoris usuallyconnected to theshaftby means turbineshaftandthehousingat the point wherethe of a key. With this designnotchsensitivitymust be shaftprotrudes thecasing. Oftena ring is fixedonthe considered. On modemsmall andmediumsizetur- shaft,which turnsin a ring-shaped chamber of the binestherotoris oftenfixed to theshaftby shrinking- housing with anoutletatthebottom(illustration19).

Casting single bucketsis easierthan casting the wholerotor.Thebucketscanbeverywell machined on CNC machines. The safetyis higher andin case a bucketis broken not the whole rotor has to be replaced.

3 Components and DcWgn Prlncipler

25

One of the coursesoffered by ITDG deals with investment casting0f Peltonturbine rotors.Investmentcasting,alsocalledthe lost-wax p~~~ess, was alreadyusedin ancientEgypt and China, but, with theneedto produceprecision partsin high-temperature materials for jet engines, hasfound widespread

indushial applicationonly sincethe SecondWorld War. With this methodit is possibleto producethe most complexshapes, because the positivemodels axemade out of wax.Ihis methodis therefore suited for the fabricationof Pelton bucketsand runners. Detailedinformationis given underreference (10).

Photograph 10: Pelron buckets showing dwerent ways of fiation

3.8 Housing
Thehousing of thePeltonturbinehasthe functionof The housingof a Pelton turbine can be arranged catchingthe splashed wateranddivertingit in such either with a horizontalor with a vertical shaft. A a way thatneitherthe mtof nor thejet an5 disturbed. verticalshaft(illustration 17)hastheadvantage that It alsoserves to fix andholdthenozzles in place. The an optimal draining-off of the wateris guaranteed housingshouldbe installedhigh enoughabovethe andup to fourjetscanbeinstalled(onlargeturbines tailracewaterlevel sothatthe rotor doesnot plunge up to six). In this arrangement optimal resultsan intothewater.Itmustbemanufacturedstrongenoughobtained whenthesidewalls taperupwards by about to protec;the surroundings in caseof damage of a 10. In this mannerthe waterflows downhelically. bucketor of the runner.

26

Micro Pelton Turblner

- \Ir,/J \ .72 - :le -

Concrete ---.-~

Pipe _ _ _-

,.

Illustration 17: Vertical arrangement vf turbo-generating unit (source Aebi)

9 Compomnts and DmQn PdnclpOr

27

In orderto avoidthe necessity of casting a foundation, the turbo generating unit may be fixed on a customarycommercially availableconcrete pipe. l3e drain-off pipe, which setvesasthe tailrace device,isinsertedatthebottomof it. The nozzle can be designedSO that it is adjustable. This enables usingthesame housingdesignfor differentpitch circle diameters. The mosteconomicalsolutionis when the generatoris fixed directlyonthehousingandtherotor is mounted onthegenerator shaft. Two bearings, oneshaft,oneseal anda couplingcanbe eliminated with this design. Thedisadvantage of thisdesign is that it is not suitablefor installationsin which loadsof momthan a quarterof thedesignpowercan be switchedat a time, because thereis no possibility to install a flywheel. The housingof a Pelton turbine with a horizontalshaft (illustration 18) normally consistsof at leasttwo parts. Usually the housingcan be split horizontally at the level of the shaft.Anotherpossibilityisalarge flangeon one side by which the rotor canbe mounted(seephotograph12).Thedesignofthehousing mustbe so that it will enable the waterto flow away from the rotor without disturbances. The width of thehousingis generally thmetofourtimesthewidthofthe buckets.
Coupling

Shaft
-

Block

Flywheel

- .-

J.illow

Flywheel

Illus~n 18: Horizontal avmngement of turbo-genemting unit (sourceAebQ

28

Micro Pelton Turbines

Photograph 1I: Standardized Pelton turbine housing, the application limits of this design are 400 m head, 180 ltls discharge and 400 kW power output, It is possible to install one or two jets. Note the ribs for the strengthening of the housing andfor the reduction of noise.

Photograph 12: Double jet Pelton turbine with the rotorfixed on the generator shaft

3 Ccmponcnt~ l nd Do8lgnPrlnclplw Aubines with a horizontal shaft can be equipped with a maximumof two jets andarewell suitedfor the installation of one or two flywheels. With a flywheel fluctuation of the speedcan be reduced. Excessive torqueon the couplingcanbe avoidedif the flywheelis mounteddirectlyon thesecond shait endof the generator.

29

thefabricationof~tanbucketscastingfaciliti~aFe xkquiml, so it is often also a very good solutionto castthehousingofPeltonturbines.

Thesealingoftheshaftpmvestobeafurther problemin designing. Somehintshavealready been given in 3.7. Stufiing boxesgenerallycauserelatively high power lossesand are connectedwith problems, suchaswearingof the shaft If serialproduction of Peltonturbines is not pianned, maintenance generallythe housingswill be madeas a welding andleakage.IWe are nxsons why thereis a tensealswith a drainat the . constructionof sheet metal. The need for costly dencyto designcontactless mot&is will beavoided in thismanner. However,for bottomleadingto theinsideof thehousingasshown in i.llustradon19.

3.9

Shaft
thecasing(8) thereis a hole,which allowsthewater to flow off via thedrainpipe (6). A disk (2) is fixed ontheshaft(1).It throwsoff thewaterby centrifugal force while it is tuming. Another type of seal is shownin appendix10. For the calculationof the shaft diameter of the turbine rrotor,bendingmoments and torsion momentsmust be considered. The shaft mostly has a largerdiameterin themiddle than at theends.

WhenaPeltonturbinedrivesagenerator, therotoris mostlycoupled directly to theshaftof thegenerator. To providefor thenecessary distance fir theirousing betweenthe generator and the rotor, a !slig hub is required on the rotor (see appendix 10, drawing NP 2244- E).Ibis requires special camfor balancing of the rotor. A type of labyrinth sealsbetween the shaftandthe housing,which may be usedon horizontally split casings, is shownin illustration 19.At thebottomof

Illustration 19: Labyrinth sealof Pekon slrqft I Turbine sh@, 2 Throw ring cfsxea on the shqfrbystudbolts),3 Separated housing,4 Spacers, 5 Fkmge type bearingblock, 6 Drain off pipe, 7 Stud bolts,8 Casing

--

. . . . -.-

W.-w..

.-.-...--

3.10 Bearings
The bearings arealwaysmountedon the outsideof the housing.If two bearingsare mounted,one of themis afixedbearing,with thepurpose of fixing the rotor in axial direction. The bearinghousingmust be fixed rigidly. This is important to allow trouble free operation.Flange typebearings canbe fixed to the housing, plummerblocksamfixedonsupportsonacommon base frame carryingtheturbineandpossiblyalsothegenerator. to dimensionthe bearingsfor a Generallythereis a space between the housingand It is recommended thepillow block, soasto allowleakage waterto flow lifetime of 1WooOrunninghours. off andto stopit from enteringthe bearinghousing. Thiscanbe achieved by placingspacers between the If therotoris fixedto theshaftof thedrivenmachine flangetype bearingunits andthe housing(part4 in thebearingat thisendof the shaftmustbedesigned illustration19). Generallyself-aligningdouble-race strongenoughto take up all the forceswhich may ball bearings areinstalled.Whenthejet is correctly occur. Mostly the beating at the shaft end of the must be replacedby a strongerone, becentered onthebuckets, almost noaxial forces occur, generator cause it is usuallynot designedfor suchloads

3.11 Transmission
Oulsidethe housinga pulley is keyedon the shalt end.In somecaststhe rotoris mounteddirectly on the generator shaft. Gearboxesarea complicatedandcostlysolutionin comparison with belt drives,because in mostcases they haveto be custommade.

Gearboxesandbelttransmissions shouldbeavoided ifpossible. Thecheapest,best andmostefficient way Powertransmissions may servedifferent purposes, for exampleto transferpower to anotherphysical is to fix thewheeldirectlyta theshaftof thegenerator location.In former times often rope transmissions or of othermachines, e.g. pumps. were used whenthepowerhadto betransferred over differenttypesof couplingsavaila long distance, for instance from a powerstationin Therearcvarious theshaftof theturbineto theshaftof a gorgeto a factoryon a flat, easilyaccessible place. ableto connect the driven machine.Mostly one of the following Gcmrally powertransmissions havethe functionof three typesis used:flange type coupling, flexible adapting thespeed of theturbineto UX rcquimmcnts couplingor toothedcoupling. af thedrivenmachines. Stepup or stepdown transmissions c4an bcachieved by acoupleof pulleysor by Flange typecouplings am rigid connections between a geardrive. thetwo shafts. Thetorqueis generallytransmitted by friction betweenthe two disks.The shaftsmust be A veryefficient way to distributepowerto different accuratelyaligned. When cast iron couplings are machines mechanically is by means of flat belt or V- installed the maximum admissiblespeedmust be belt transmissions. For short distancesalso chain considered. drivesareused. For V-belt drivesseveral beltscanbe installedin parallel.V-beltsrequirea smallercenter Flexiblecouplings reduce anddampen torquepeaks, distance of the two shafiscompared with flat belts, dampenvibrationandcompensate axial, radial and theyhave smalleraxialforces andrelated to thespace angularmisalignment of the shafts,which may be a required,more power can be transmitted.Modern resultof inaccuracy of fabricationor installation,of flat beltshowever,makeup for someof the handi- temperature differences or of otherreasons. capsmentioned aboveandhavea higherefficiency. They can also be installed in the so-calledhalf- Toothedcouplingscan take up axial displacement crossed mannerto transferthe power from vertical andsometypesallow a certaindegree of radial and axisturbinesto horizontalaxismachines. angular misalignment.They can transfer a high torque with a small physical sixe and momentof inertia.

3 Componentr and Derlgn PrInclplsr

31

3.12 Turbine Control


An isolatedpowerstationhasto fulfill a muchmore difficult taskthanapowerstationwhichis connected toagrid. Ithas toadjusttheRPMbyitself.Ihepower production hasto complywith thepowerdemand. If the load is not constant, the turbine hasto be regulatcd.Govemingof thedischarge hasthe advantage thatalwaysonly asmuchwateris usedasrequired to meetthe momentarypowerdemand. To compensate quick,smallloadchanges a flywheel canbeinstalled.To guarantee undisturbed operation, the maximumpower which can be switchedat the time shouldnot be morethan 10 0 to 30 % of the installedcapacity.This is not only a questionof the regulatingmechanism,but also of water hammer cffcctsin the penslock,which may occurwhenthe rcgulntingdcviccis opcncdor closedtoo fast. To rlvoidoverspccd, runawayspeed or ovc~voltagc, governors arencccssary. A simpleway of governing is by handrcguladon, This,howcvcr,is only rccommcndcdfor constant conditions or if thespeed of the lurbineplaysa minor roic. On a Pcltonturbinehand rcgulntioncanbe easilyachicvcdby regulating the nccdlcwith a handwheel(illustration 9).
111 cases wherethcrcis a constant flow ratewhichis alwaysavailable,nozzleswith a fixed openingand without rcguladngmechanism can be installedon theturbine.In othercasts,wherethe flow rateis not alwaysconstant, for instance during the dry season, morethanonejet may bc installedwith diffcrcntjet diameters. Anotherpossibilityis toinstall amanifold with cxchangcable nozzlediamctcrs,In suchcases thesizeof the nozzlemustbc chosensmall enough to maintainthe headin the penstock. The penstock must always be filled with water. Otherwisethe poweroutputof the turbinewill drop drastically,

In cases wherethesupplyof water,andthusthevalve settingis constant, the speed of theturbinemay also be regulated by anelectronicload controller(ELC). It diverts all excess electric power of a plant to a ballastload,whichcould be animmersionheater.A jet deflector should be installed as an emergency shutdown. ffelectricalDCpowerisproduced,theRPMdoesnot haveto be kept constant.For the regulationof the voltage,the resistance of the excitationis changed. Excess energyis storedin batteries. If the energyis only usedfor lighting, a DC distributionsystemcan be installed. But there is also the possibility to produce220 V AC power by meansof an DC-AC invetter. If the load is not sub,jcct to quick changed, simple methods of regulationmay be applied.If a multi-jet turbineis used,thejets could havedifferent diumct;rs. If a singlejet turbine is used,it could be fitted with cxchangcablc mouthpicccsof thenozzle,having differentdiameters of the openingof the orifice (illustrations10& 11). Information on govcming systemsis given under reference (4). On Pelton turbines,it must bc noted thattheprcssurc of thewatermostlyhasthetcndcncy to closethe ncc&c in the nozzleat all its positions. Theclosingforceis thehighestwhenthenccdlcis at its closedposition.With oil hydraulicgovernors the nccdlcis closedby the forceof a spring. Pnzssun: is applied on a hydraulic cylinder to open it. The requiredopeningandclosing timesareachicvcdby oriliccs in thecontrolflow. Whentheturbinehasajet dcflcaor. thegovernorfirst changes the positionof the deflectorquickly and subsequently adjuststhe needleslowly. Thesedouble regulated systemsarc expensive.

4 General n&r

xi

4 General Notes
4.1 Fabrication, Checks, Installation and Maintenance
Fabrication Ihe surface of thebucketsmustbecarefullychecked for cracksandirregularities.This can first be done canalsobeapplied,suchas Pelton turbines can be built locally where steel visually. Othermethods the Magna-Flux, acid pickling or liquid penetrant working, welding, machiningand possiblycasting method.It is alsovery importantthatthebucketsare facilitiesareavailable. checked for theirperfectshape. Ihefabrication of theturbineshouldbe fairly stmightforward,providing that the fabricationstages have The strengthof the root of a bucketcan be tested been carefully marked out..The really important staticallyby applyingweight at theplacewherethe mustbe point is the alignment of the runner, so that the waterhits thebucket.To do this thebuckets fixed in the same way as they are fixed to the rotor splitterridgesof the buckets arecentered to theaxis of thejets.This canbedoneby sight,with the aidof disc.Thedirectionof theforceof theweightmustbe asthatof thewaterjet. It is essential thatthe cross wiresoverthetwo stubflanges (see illustration thesame force of the applied weight is at least three times 10,flanges1 and 2) of the turbine. higherthantheforceof the waterjet. Thisis because When looking along the crosswires towardsthe this methodonly allows statical testing.Dynamic splitter ridges, the runner and shaft assemblyare and centrifugalforceswill be muchhigher and inof thetensilestress thefatiguestress is relevant. movedsothat all threearein oneline. The bearings stead is calcuarc then locked at the correctlateral and angular The forceof the waterjet F on the buckets position.It is bestto fix the position of the nozzle latedwith the following formula: betweenthe flange and the housing,as well asthe positionof the bearingswith locating pins. This is F= 2~1OOO~Q~c,[N] Q In [m%3];c, In [m/s] doneattheworkshopwhenthewholeturbineis preasscmblcd. This formulaconsiders that the forceis the highest when the xunneris beginning to rotate. For the Thenozzlecanalsobealignedby insertingapointed bucketsof the examplein chapter2.2. the force shaftthroughthe nozzlebore.The shaftis centered resultingfrom the discharge of 0,Ol m% andthejet by theoriRceandtheborefor theregulatingspindle. velocity of 39.84m/s is Eventually thepositionof therunnerisadjustcduntil thetip of the shaftis pointingat the splitter ridgeof F = 2.lOOO* Q-c,= 21000~0,01~39,84=79&8N the buckets.If necessary the direction of the jet is adjustedby heating the manifold with a welding This force is equivalent to about 81 kg weight. torchandthenbendingit into the correctposition. Because the appliedload must be at least 3 times higher,these buckets mustbe tested staticallyby the Otherhintson thefabrication of thedifferentturbine applicationof at least250 kg weight. partsaregiven in the relevant chapters. Beforetheplantis put into operation thepenstock is to befilled with waterandchecked for leakswith the Checks valve at the bottom closed.It is also advisableto clean the penstockentirely from stonesand other Sinceanexplosionof aP&on turbinecouldcause items which may haveentend the pipe during conseriousdarnage, not only material,but alsoto per- struction. Thisis veryimportant,because oftenbucksons, it is veryimportantto build andcheckthetotor etsarebrokendueto stones hitting them.Thenozzle of the Pelton turbine with utmost care. Special canalsogetobstructed, with theresultthatthepower attention mustbegivento therootof thebuckets,the is reduced or causingthe turbineto run irregularly. placewherethey areconnected to the rotor disc,and alsoto the outerendsof the spoonof the buckets.

Installabion Therecommended procedure is to install theturbine first, to alignit correctlyandfix it in placeto thebase frameor to the foundationwit h anchorbolts. Afterwards the penstock can be mounted, starting from the bottom. When this is donethe other way roundit is difficult to align the penstockand the turbine. Mostly a piece of the penstockhastobefittedin,whichmaythenbeavery difficult task,considering thepossible misalignment in lateralandangulardirection.

Maintenance and Operation

To facilitateoperationandmaintenance of the plant it is advisable to setup easy-to-followuserinstructions, a setof drawingsand a sparepartslist andto keepa log-book,

Peltonturbines requireonly very little maintenance. Ifthebearingsdonothavelifetirnelubrication,these haveto be greased regularly.From time to time the wearand tear of the buckets,of the orifice and the spearof the nozzleandof the housingat the places wherethewaterhitsit, shouldbechecked. Periodical comprisescheckingfor leaks, The penstockmust be well anchored, because the routinemaintenance weightof thepipe andthepressure of thewaterhave opticalcheckingofallcomponents,checkingwhether Thepaintcoatshould thetendency of movingtheirposition.If thepenstock all boltsareproperlysecured. is not well iixed it is difficult to install the turbine be touchedup sometimeson all suchparts which again,onceit hashadto beremoved, for instance for could rust, so as to prolong the i;Tetime of the material. overhauling. Oncethe nozzle and the bearingshavebeenpositioned and located with pins in the workshop,as described above, only thelateralpositionof therotor will haveto be adjusted on site during installation. If stuffing boxesare installed, thi: gland must be tightened.And the belts will probablyhave to be Eplacedfrom time to time.

Theintake,trashrackand forcbaymustbe regularly On power transmissions wherebelts are used,the checked andcleaned from leaves, branches and dcpulleysmustbe alignedproperly.For this thepulley bris. ontherunnershaftis secured first.Thesecond pulley is thenalignedin all directions. To do this a stmightedgeis placedacross the faceof the first pulley and matched with the second. Thelining out is repeated with thesecond pulley,whenthebeltis tightened and the positionof the second pulley is secured. Afterwardsthe alignmentis checked onceagain.

4.2 Balancing
Balancing, alsocalledequilibration, meansremoval of unequallydistributedmasses on moving parts. Due to the high speed of iotation of the nmnerit is necessary to balanceout forcesoccurringfrom the unequaldistributionof the material,which may be caused by castingor by thegrindingof the buckets. forceson theshaftendandon the bearings. Illustmtion 20 showsa simpledevicefor staticbalancing.

It is best to assemble the wheel and the shaft for balancing.The supportcan be madeof angleiron (e.g. 40/40 mm), which is welded togetherin an arrangement asshownin illustratiuon 20. The balFor thePeltonturbinerotorsdescribed in this publi- ancingedges aremadeof flat iron strips(e.g.80;10 cation, static balancingis sufficient, because the mm). The stripsaremachinedon onesideto form a wholerotoris almosta disk. If the rotor is canAlly sharp, straight edge. There are two slots at the manufactured, balancing is generally not a problem. positionwheretheyarefixed to thesupport. It is now But especiallyon turbine installations wheE the very importantto align the two edges exactlyandto rotor is fixed on the free shaft end of the driven tighten the bolts properly.The whole supportwith machine,it shouldbe balanced to avoid excessive the balancing edgesmust also be be positionedin sucha way thatthe edgesarr:exactlyleveledout.

4 General notes

35

Illustration 20: Device for static baliming I Turbine rotor, 2 Rotor shqft, 3 Support, 4 Balancing edges, 5 Nuts and bolts

To balancethe rotor it is now placedon the edges. Aftcrgentlyputtingitintomotion,thc heavierpartof the rotor will tend to come at the bottom. For equalizingeither material can be removedat the heavier side,e.g.by drilling holesinto the disks,or by addingmaterialto the otherside,e.g.by bolting or weldingon.Whentherotornomoreturnsbyitself, it is staticallybalanced,

Anothersimplemethodof balancing is by usingtwo ball bearings, placed offsetandslightlyoverlapping, on eachsideof the shaft,so asto cradlethe endsof the shaftin them.Theinner ringsof thebearingsare fixed to a support by a spigotor abolt. Theymustbe cleaned properlyandmustnot haveseals. Theprocedure of balancingis the sameas describedabove. With thismethodevenbetter results maybeachieved. After use the bearingsshould be greasedbefore storage.

4.3 costs

Powerstations- alsovery smallones- alwayshave to bebuilt to matchthelocal conditions.Statements on the coststhat aregenerallyapplicablecannotbe made.Only whena projectis studied,a reliablecost estimate canbemade.Thecosts canbeconsiderably reducedif part of the civil works is done by the owners or by communitylabourandby usinglocally available materials.

Generally thepenstock pipeis themostcostlypartof theinstallation,because high heads requirelong and strongpipesandbecause access is sometimes difficult. The terrain conditions can have an essential influenceon thecost.Someapproaches towardscost reductionaredescribed under3.3. Thecostsfor themachinehouseareaquestion of the sizeandof the way it is constructed.

Oftenthe water of a springis usedto drive Pelton turbines. Suchinstallationsaregenerallylesscostly Thecostsof theturbine,the governor, thegenerator thanintakes on riverbeds, because no forebayandno ?mdthe other equipmentmake up only part of the desiltingtank arenecessary. total costs.Of the turbine itself the governor,the

36

Micro Pelton Turblner

nozzleandthebucketsmakeup a substantial partof the expenses, The costsfor theseparts will be ruducedconsiderably if madein serial ptuduction.If partshaveto be importedthis canmakethingsvery much more expensive.Somemanufacturers offer just thePeltonbuckets.,Anexampleaf the costsof variousbucketsixesandmaterialis givenin appendix4and5. Off-the-shelfitems shouldbe used whereverpossible.Approaches towardscostreductionaregiven in the relevantchapters. Thecostfor survey, planningandinstallation,aswell as for transportation, if the access to the plant is difficult, andto be on the safeside,the unforeseen, mustalsobetakeninto theaccount of thetotal costs for aninstallation.

Theyearlyoperadngcostsarecomposedofdepreciatian, inteti castsfor water rights,inssce. The &preciationtimemaybetakenatlOto2Qyears.The castsfor personnel, maintenance and repair must also be included.The yearly aperatingwas may accountfor 10to 20 96of the total investment. Accmling ta calculations by ITDG, unit generating costshavefd to be of the orderof 0.025to 0.05 US$perkWb(assumingcapitalcostchargedat10% discauntrateover20 years)andunit costsof power usefully consumed 0.06to 0,125USSperkWh with a40%loadfactor(1986).This will however bevalid only for very simpleSelFmade installations.

4.4

Safety

Therearemanysafetyaspects whichmustbeconsid- properly tightenedup. Regular checksensurethe cred. Most of them have been treatedunder the properfunctioningof all the parts. corresponding chapters. As serious problemsmay occurif not respected, theyarerecapitulated hem. Bucketsmustbe carefully fabricatedand checked. They must be designed to withstandfatigue stress The penstockmust be designed not only for static andcentrifugalforces. pressure, but alsoto withstand waterhammereffects. It ispossible tocircumvcntthisby makingprovisions Ibe housingmust be thick enoughto protect the to avoid the water hammereffects,suchas slowly sunoundings from apossibleexplosion of the rotor. closingvalvesor jet deflectors for emergency shutdown. If a belt drive is installed, the belt should have a guard. All moving parts, including the flywheel, The nozzle must be fixed to the housing and the must be safeguarded in such a manner that any housingto the foundationwhile all bolts must be physicalcontactby persons is inhibited.

5 Furthot hints

37

5 Further Hints
5.1 Application of Pelton Turbines
Thoughthenumberof typesof standanlized turbines offered is increasing,the correct choice requires expertknowledgeand experience. For equalheads anddischarges different solutionsarepossible.The conditions of operationhaveto be considered, such as fluctuation of the discharge,the amount and durationof load peaksanCr the RPM of the driven machine. For the rangeof power output of the turbinesdescribed in this publication,mainlythePeltm turbine andthecrossflowturbine aresuitablefor local production. The application range of the crossflow turbineis for lower heads andlargerflow rates. It has a lower cfilciency than the Pcltonturbine.Another possibilityis to install centrifugalpumps,which run in the reverse direction while functioningas a turbine.Thoughthey arenot suitablefor variableflow rrrtcs, theiremploymentmay beinterestingfor constantloadswhensufticientwaterisavailable. Pumps are considerablycheaperthan turbines and often readily available. Peltonturbinesam also suitedfor semi-permanent applicati~Duringconstructionworks,onse~~ business, suchas cheese factories,mountainlodges or others,transportable units can provideelectrical power.Theycanberemoved againwhentheyareno longerneeded. Due to its pollution-freeoperationthe Pelton turbines can be installed in drinking water supply schemes. A further applicationof direct drive is to connecta waterpump to the turbine.If wateris requiredat a location abovethe intake, this is a simpleandefficientwayto pumpthewaterup.Thepartof thewater which hasto bepumped up is branched off from the penstock to the suctionsideof the pumpbefonzthe turbiic. In this mannerthe headat the intaketo the turbine can be utilized and only the differencein height horn the intake to the consumerand the friction losses haveto be produced.

5.2 Noise
A severe problemmay be the noiseof the running turbine.It is advisable to makethelayout of a plant alreadyin the planningstage in a suchway that the turbinewill disturbaslittle aspossible. This canbe achievedby having no windows in the machine houseat the sideof inhabitedhouses, or by placing theturbllc in aseparate smallbuilding.Activenoise protectionmeasures canbe the coveringof the turbine with a woodencasingor with sound-proofing material.

5.3 Training Courses


Trainingcourses ateofferedby theMHPG members designand manufacture. Local manufacturers are SKAT, GATE, FAKT and ITDG. These courses trainedto designandfabricate Peltonturbines which coverdifferentaspects on microhydropower, which am particularly suitedfor remotemountainous reare not mentionedin this publication.One of the giOIlS. courses offeredby ITDG focuses on Peltonturbine

Appendices

39

Appendix 1: List of Relevant Publications

(1) Local Experiencewith Micro-Hydra Technology,Ueli Meier, SKAT, StCallen, 1991:local turbine technology, developed in Nepal,serves asthebasis for comparison with conventional hydratechnologyand othersmallscalesources. (2) Micro HydropowerSourcebook, Allen R. Inversin,NRECA, Washington, 1986: apractical guideto designandimplementation in developing countries, anexcellentdescription of all relevant aspects. (3) HydraulicsEngineering Manual,Alex Arter/Ueli Meier, SKAT. St.Gallen,1990: covers theoryrequitedby hydropowerengineers, is based on practicalexperience. (4) GovcmorProductInformation,GcrhardFischer et al., SKAT, St.Gallen,1990: rellcctsthe conclusions of adequate governing, givesthe various types of governors andspecifications. (5) WaterPowerDcvclopment, Emil Mosonyi,Hungarian Acad.of Scicnccs, Budapest,1960:describes all relevantaspects of waterpowerdevelopment. (6) Sttimungsmaschincn, Berechnung und Konstmktion, Willi BON, Vogel Vcrlag, WUtzburg,1980: describes the structureandfunctionof fluid machines. (7) Stromungsmaschinen, AufbauundWirkungsweise, Willi Bohl.VogelVerlag.Wifrzburg,1977: describes the calculationanddesignof fluid machines. (8)Technischc Sttdmungslehre, Willi Bohl, VogelVerlag,Wutzburg,1982: dealswith theflow characteristics of fluids andgases; textbookwith practicalexamples. (9) A Pclton Micro-Hydra PrototypeDesign,Allen R. Inversin, AppropriateTechnologyDevelopment Institute,Lae, 1980:describes a Pclton turbinedesignfor local manufacturing. (IO) P&on turbinetrainingcourse,a manualof ITDG, document of a course held in Nepalin July/August 1989:describes relevantelements of Peltonturbiie manufacturing, fabricationprocess, designdetailsand investment castingprocess. (11) KempesEngineeringYear Book 1990,Morgan-Grampion Book Publishing Co. Ltd., London , 2 volumes:General engineering book,dealsalsoinvarious sections withusefulaspects onmicroPeltonturbine engineering.

40

Micro Pdton TurbInea

Appendix 2: Addresses of institutions engaged in micro hydropower development and active in publishing literature on small hydropower

FAKT, Associationfor Context-Appropriate Technology, G8nsheidestrasse 43, D-7000Stuttgart1, Germany GATE, GermanAppmpriateTechnologyExchange, Postfach 5180, Dag-Hammarskjold-Weg l-2, D-6236Eschbom1, Germany ITDG, Intermediate TechnologyDevelopment Gnxrp,Myson House, Railway Terrace, RugbyCV21 3HT, UK NRECA, NationalRuralElectric Ccqerativc Association,1800Massachusetts AvenueN.W., Washington DC. 20036,USA SKAT, SwissCenterfor AppropriateTechnology, Tigerbergstrasse 2, CM-9000 St. Gallen,Switzerland HYDRONET,R. Mctzler,Stephan Blaumannstrasse 11, D-7743Furtwangen, Germany PPL,Projckt-Planting-Lauterjung, Gtauhofstrasse 16, D-3340Wolfenbiittel,Germany

Appe~lc.eo

41

Appendix 3: Reference addresses of manufacturers of components and of Pelton turbines

Bell EngineeringWorksLtd. CH-6010Kriens/Luzem,Switzerland Phone(041)49 51 11,Telex78167 BiwaterHydropower,Millers Road Warwick,CV34 5AN, UK Phone(0926)411740,Telex 317473BWaterG, Fax(0926)410740

EFG,Turbiien- und Kraftwerksanlagenbau, Untexe Kebelgasse 16 A-9560Feldkirchen, Austria Phone04276/4670, Fax 04276/ 46703 Elektro GmbH,St. Gallerstrasse 27 CH-8400Winterthur,Switzerland Phone(052)22 22 53

CanyonIndustriesInc. 5346MosquitoLake Road, Elsa,Enterprise &ctrique S.A., ElectromCcanique Dcming Av. de France13,CH-1950Sion,Switzerland Washington 98244,USA Phone(027) 22 57 21 Phone(206)592 5552 EnzfcldcrFranz,A-2551 Enzesfeld, Austria Chapallaz Jean-Marc, IngenicurEPFL/SIA, Phone(02256)81287,Telex 14258 Dryade2 CH-1450%-Croix, Switzerland Evans Engineering & PowerCompany, Priory Lane, Phone(024) 61 1042 St. Thomas Launceston, Cornwall,UK ChinaNationalMachinery& Equipment, 6 TianMu Phone(0566)3982,Telex 45639COMPUTG ShanRd. Hangzhou, China GECEnergySystems, Cambridge Road,Whetstone, Phone7216425072,Telex 35015CMEC2 CN LeicesterLE8 3LH, UK Phone(0533)863434 Dependable Turbines Ltd, 7-3005 Murray Street, Port Moody, B.C. Geppert,Breitweg8-lO, A-6060Halli.Tiro1,Austria CanadaV3H1X3,Phone(6O4)4613121,TelcxO4- Phone(05223)7788-O 54262 Gilbert Gilkes & GordonLtd., Kendal DISAG, CH-7320Sargans, Switzerland CumbriaLA9 7B2, UK Phone(085) 2 21 81, Telex 855597, Phone(0539)20028,Telex 65125 Fax (085)2 78 34 Gugler,A-4085Niederranna 41, Austria DravskeElektrameMaribor, Tozd, Elektrokovinar Phone0728515 14,Telex 116540box a Lasko Dero 13,Lasko,Slovenija,Yugoslavia HUGAL, Hugentobler, Turbinen& Maschinenbau, Phone063-730041, Telex 33121DEM YU Stockenstrasse CH-9249Plgetshausen, Switzerland Drees gL Co. GmbH, Abt. Wasserturbinen, Phone(073)5166 22, Fax (073) 5175 78 Schtitzengasse 36 -38 D-4760Werl, Germany Hydro-WattSystems, 146Siglun Road CoosBay, Oregon97420,USA Phone(053)2473559

IREM S.p.A. Via Vaie 42 I-10050s. Antonino (Torino),Italy Phone(011)9649133/4/5, Telex 212134 IREMTG-I J. Just0SA, Apartado43 Bilbao, Spain Phone(94)4675061, Telex 31558JJSAE Jyoti Ltd., BombayShopping Center, R.C. Dutt Road Vadodara 390 005, India Koessler GmbH,Engineering Works A-3151 St. Geogen, Austria Phone(02746)8272,Telex015652, Fax(C2746) 2626 NewmillsHydra,Mill Lane,IslandRoad,Ballycarry Carrickfergus, Co. Antrim, N. Ireland Phone 78433/78610, Telex74448HYDRO G

Wasserkrafi Volk, Gefiill45 D-7809 Simonswald, Germany WaterPowerMachineryCompany P.O.Box 9723, Midland 08. Texas,USA Phone(915)697-6955 ZOBO AG, Werkzeuge und Apparatebau, Seestmse9 CH-3855Erienx,Switzerland Phone(036)51 17 15
Thefollowingmanufactursrsofferdectronicload controllers.

Dubs Engineering, Llwyngwem Quarry, Machynllcth Powys,walea SY20 9Az, UK Phone06542782

PotteryRoad,BovcyTracy, Obcrmeycr HydraulicTurbinesLtd, 10FrontStreet GP Electronics, DevonUK Collinsvillc, CT 06022,USA Phone0626832670 Phone (203)6930295 Wcrkstittc Paget Resources Ltd., 1230- 800WestPcndcr Street Kobel Hans,Elcktromechanische Vancouver B.C. V6C 2V6, Canada CH-3416Affoltem imE., Switzerland Phone (604)669-8800, Fax (604) 683-2173 Phone(034)75 14 13 SmallHydra East,StarRoute240, Bethel,Maine, USA Phone (207) 824 3244 TamarDesignPTY. LTd Deviot,Tasmania 7251, Australia Phone(003)94 73 57 or (003) 3120 47, Telex AA
58772

THES, Thompson and Howe EnergySystemsInc., Site 17,Box 2 S.S. 1, Kimberly, British Columbia, Canada VIA 2Y3 Phone(604)427-4326

TurbosunAB, Box 71 S-66900 Deje, Sweden Phone055221085,Telex 66176 h Litostroj, Djakoviceva 36 61000Ljubljana, Yugoslavia Phone061556021 VoestAlpin AG, Postfach 2 A-4010Linx, Austria Phone(585)8118, Telex 2208603VA A Voith GmbH,Postfach1940 D-7920Heidenheim, Germany Phone(07321)376,Telex 71479920 VH D

Appendices

43

Appendix 4: Cost of Pelton Buckets

ZOBO AG BRIENZ
WERKZEUGE UN0 APPARATEBAU
SEESTRASSE 9 CH.3355 BRIENZ TELEFON 034 51 17 i5

ZOBO
1.4.90

PimenSiQnS

of

Pelton

Buck&s

and

Price-List

b s l-1

I I

Ny

fBucket
s,ze

reinforce
Jet dinmeter

?d
hidth bucket b Inn)

plastic
of

I L hub in aluminium GG = grey cast iron Sir = stainless


,,f Uidtl n of foot PCD I & c La5 Jyf;: PILch !lat9rrat

wk.-

steel
CObL I..^L--Of

Width shaft c

(mm)

(.-a)

1 (m-j

II

6.6

19

II

I4

10

c I!

28.0 12G.5 &--

I+J s5.0
K

70

44

Mlcro Pelton Turblner

Appendix 5: Cost of PeltsnTurbine Wheels

(ti.9249 Algetrhouren Switzeriond

Ref. : Prices

for Peltonrunncrs

28.12.90

Peltonturbine
!later

runners

ial steel steel stetl steel

Pitch diameter 290 310 310 350 240 230 290 290 350 370 410 410 -I10 430 490

Bucket liidth 35 35 50 70
50 50 50 50 50

Price

(e\ WorL\ sFr.

stainless stainless stainless stainless Alu-Bronce .Alu-Bronce Alu-Bronce


Alu-Bronce

4'800.i'EOO.8'800.13600.5'800.6'300. 6200.6800.11300.17600.13800. 18500. 19800. 19500.21JOO.-

Alu-Bronce
Alu-Bronce Alu-Bronce Alu-Bronce Alu-Bronce Alu-Bronce

Alu-Bronce

100
70

110 130 120 110

For the above mentioned runners the molds are on stock and the runners can be cast at any time. The runners equilibrated
are cast in one piece, and are ready for fixing.

without

a shaft,

are

Appendlces

45

Appendix 6: Cost of PeCtonTurbines

ZOBO AG BRIENZ
WERKZEUGE UND APPARATEBAU
SEESTRASSE 9 CH-3855 BRIENZ TELEFON 036 51 17 15

ZOBO
1.4,90

Pricelist

Pelton

Turbines

Installat position

J~.~I of 1-3 1s possible is generally

nozzles

and

jets,

KI th

fi\ed

~1

adjustah

- The rotor generator Esecut

fised

directely

on

the

shaft

of

the

i or1 ijf

the

nozzle:

- without closing de\.icr - with closing 1:all.e - manual Ilow regulation - flow controlled by positioning to requirement: 12 2: 220 380 \= \= \ 1

mot.or

- Output

volt.aSe

according

- Governors

according

to

requirement

Prices PT

are

guiding

prices

including installation 1KW from from accord. accord. accord. Fr Fr 2*0.-

escluding I instailstion from from Fr Fr 2200.3500.-

150/200

@,050.5
1,s -

PT 250 PT 350 PT 500 PT kO0

2Kh
5KW

3800,expenses espenses expenses

f tom Frlo8oo.f ram Fr216oo.f ran Fr324oo.-

3.0
lO,O-

15KW
30KW

Larger

turbines

or

turbines

for

special

appl.i;.sr.ions

upon

,.cy,resr

46

Micro Pelton Turbines

ZOBO AG BRIENZ
WERKZEUGE UND APPARATEBAU
SEESTRASSE 9 CH-3855 BRIENZ TELEFON 036 5117 15 zoso

1.4.90

Pricelist:

Housings Jets

PT

150:

wit.11 fixed nozzle nozzle with hoie gasket tailrce casing

Fr lb7*Fr 62.Fr TOFr lo5.-

PT

250:

with fixed nozzle nozzle with hole with adjustable gasket tail&e casing

Fr 262.nozzle Fr 83.Fr 312.. Fr e 9;Fr 203.-

Pt

350

:with fisea nozzle with adjustable nozzle gasket

nozzle

Fr 331.Fr m.Fr 107.0 Fr 11.0

PT

500

Fr 456.:with fixed nozzle with adjustable nozzle F: 637.nozzle Fr 137.manually adjustable no.Fr 842.electr. adjustable noz. FrZos.gasket Fr 13.-

PT 600

: upon

request

Appendices

47

ZOBO AG BRIENZ
WERKZEUGE UND APPARATEBAU
SEESTRASSE 9 CH-3055 BRIENZ TELEFONO3651 17 i5 zoso

24.8.89 Cimensions: Housing and Nozzle

* Dimensions of generator
*

--I
-

Some Generators require an intermediate flange Length ace.

oncr.!hous-khreadj
-::

kI

150 250 350 1 500

180 290 390 550 Auf

100 200 260 360 Anfrilge

16 30 35 60 260 1 200 1100

L600

Flow Nomogram
Internal

(for MDPE pipes) a


Flow Rate t/set Umin C Flow Velocity m1s D Hydrsullc Gradlent tn/lOOm pipe

A Diameter mm

0.01 1 0.02 0.05 . -2 -3 -4 -5 0.1 .: - 10 0 15; - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 100 2345- 200 - 3oc - f30 - 500 1-..._ 5iP 30 4050100: 1.5 :2>- 3000 - 4000 \ . - 1000 0.2 -

0.01.

ooz0.@5 0.03. 0.040 05-

O.l-

-0.2

0.3 0.4 0.5 -

01:

l-

0.3 O-

0.2;

0.3 05040.5 L

-.._

l-

2-

- 5000
- loo00

5cs451

2003004005cm1CQD2CQD3cxM4cKxIwoo- 2ooDo -XXI00 -4oooo -5oooO ma/mm. - 100 ,200 .300

16
lo15: 20 2 20-

Appendlcea 49

Appendix 8: Examples of application of Pelton turbines


Source FAT, CH-8356T&ikon TG, Switzerland A descriptionof a numberof installationsin variousregionsof Switzzrlandshowsthe diversityof local conditionsandalsothat of requirements on electricitysupply. The tableon page59 givesanoverviewof thepticiple dataon thesmallpowerstationswhicharedescribed hereafter. A8.1 Blackenalp (0.15 kW) Blackenalp is residence for 760 headsof cattleof which 10 a~ milk-producingcowsthat supplythe small cheese dairy. Whenthe watersupplyhadto be renewed this wasanopportunityto makethe40 m supply line for drinking waterwith aslightly largerdiameter (90mmnominalwidth) in orderto operate a smallwater powerstation(seefig. 1 and2). With thesmallheadof 18.5m thePeltonturbinerequires awaterquantityof approximately1.5l/s to generate an outputof 150W. The wateris not contaminated by the turbine,so that it remainsfit for drinking. The gcncratcd energy is stored in accumulators with acapacity of 600Ah. Whenthebatteries arecharged thewater supplyto the turbineis automaticallyshutoff.

Fig. 1: Micro-Pelton turbine with built-on DCGenerator. (The turbine at Blackenalp has about the same dimensions, but is equipped with three nozzles.)

Fig. 2: ALTO on the smallest PeQon turbines there is a runner with the typical double spoon-shaped buckets.

The24 volt batteries supplya 220Volt system via a D.C.- A.C. inverter,which allows connecting units with a capacityof up to 1 kW. This is sufficient for lighting, to run thestirrerfor cheese making,a butterchum anda small centrifuge,whereas the milking machine is run by a waterjet pump.

50

Micro

PeltonTurtAnes

AS.2 Beuertweid (2 kW)

Beuertweid is anAlp with therightsfor holding55heads of cattleof which at the moment,12cowssupply milk and 10 arecalves.Theexcessive milk is madeto cheese in a wood-heated cauldron. For supplyingthehousehold andcow shedwith electricitytwo springsin a rnmh arekerbed(fig. 3), from wherethewateris led into awoodencase with acapacity of approximately 200liters.Fern thissurgetank thenecessary waterfor generating electricity(4l/s) flows througha sieve into thepenstock, while theexcess waterrunsoverthe caseinto the marshland andthe successive stream.

Fig. 3: Simple wafer intake in a marshland below the spring (no floods, no debris load).

Fig. 4: An old wooden box servesas surge rank.

Thepenstock - which is anembedded PE-pipewith a nominalwidth of 75 mm - follows thecourse of the stream, throughalp meadows. 350m down towards thevalley (fig. 5). Theheadis 90 m; theaverage slope 27%.The pipescould be dugin with the aid of a machinefor laying cables, which canbe attached to the rearendof a tractor. Themachine house consists of amasonryboxwith a1ront madeoutof anold electricaldistributionhousing, entrenched in the slopealongside thebmk (fig. 6). Inside,the Peltonturbine,with top mounted generator anda constant outputof 2 kW single-phase alternating currentof 220V and50 Hz, is installedon top of a concrete pipe with 25 cm inner diameter(fig. 7). This installationsupplies two buildings which arenormallynot inhabitedat the sametime, the secondary dwelling some400 m towardsthe valley andthe main dwelling, about 50 m higher up (seefig. 5). The electricitysupplyto bothbuildingsis viit buriedelectricalcables. Themachines andappliances usedin the household andcow shedof the main dwelling havea total connected load of about5 kW.

Ftg. 5: Beuertweid: The penstock leads through meadows at an average slope of 27%. I Penstock (buried) 2 Machine house 3 Main dwelling 4 Secondary dwelling

Fig. 6: Machine house:By coveting it with earth andplcrnting the appeamncecould be Improved.

Fig. 7: Turbine-generator unit. I Penstock (PE-pipe 75 mm outer dia.), 2 Shut-o# valve with pressure gauge, 3 Pelton turbine 4 Turbine base (concrete pipe 32 cm outer dia.), 5Synchronousgenerator(nominaloutputpower3 kW, 220 V, 50 Hz).

Fig. 8: Spring kerb: Immediately qfier emerging, the water is collected in a concrete basin and is led into a PVC-pipe(inner diameter100mm).

52

Micro Pelton Turbines

A8.3 Hinterchirel(2.4 kW)


The alpinepasture of Hinter&ire1- with 29 heads of cattleof which about15aremilk-cows and14arecalves

- is a summerdwelling. Also cheese and butterareproduced at this family enterprise. In order to supplythis pasture with electricity for themilking machine, lighting, hot water,thecheese stirrer aswell asthe hot plate,two refrigeratorsandotherkitchenutensilsa springwas kerbcd , which after dry seasons, in autumn,supplies atleast3 l/s water,andinspringandsummer morethandoublethat.Immediately afteritemerges, thewateriscollectedinaconcretebasinandledintoaPVCp@e with 1OOmmnominalwidth (fig. 8). The pipe leadsto a well which is madeof a concrete pipe of 35 cm inner diameter,which actsasa surgetank. Fromthesurgetank a nearly300m long PE-pipewith a nominal width of 63 mm leadsto thebottomof the valleybelow thepasmre house (fig. 9). The headis 130m; the average slopeis 50%.The penstock wasdug in together with anewdrinkingwatersupplyline.Theupperquarter of thepenstockleads through steep terrain (about70%slope)interspersed with loosestones androck andhadtc bedugin by hand.Theremainingpart of theline could be dug in with the aid of anoff-roadearthmover.

Fig. 9: Hinterchirel: The penstock leads through steep terrain (up to 70 % slope) with rocks and boulders. 1 Spring kerb, 2 Lead-over to surge tank, 3Surge tank, 4 Penstock (buried), 5 Machine house, 6 Cow shed

Fig. 10: Machine house (well integrated into irs surroundings)

A woodenhut with about4 mz areawas built to housethe turbine andgeneratorassembly (fig. 10). The generator suppliessingle-phase alternatingcurrentat 220 V andwith a frequencyof 50 Hz. Theelectricity is transferred to the houses overa distanceof about50 m via buriedcables.

AppendIces

53

Fig. II: Electrical control cabinetin


the alpine hut with electronic governor and indicating instruments for current, voltage and frequency.

Fig. 12: For loud compensation at the consumer side the excessivepower is led to a 200 It immersion henter (righ t) or to an air-cooled load resistor (left).

Theclcctricalcabinetwith thecontrolandmonitoringinstrument is fittedinsidethefarm house (fig. 11).The electronic governoralwaysleadssomuchpowerto a 2001immersionheater that thegenerator is constantly loadedwith 2.4 kW. Whentheimmersionheateris fully charged the excessive energyis led off via an air cooledload resistor(fig. 12). Elccuicalappliances andlampswith a total connected loadof about7 kW areinstalledin thealpinepasture buildings.
AS.4 Uachliiger (8.6 kW)

Four enterprises with in total 264 headsof cattleanda hill restaurant belongto the alpine communityof Bnchltlgcr. The small powerstationin the first placeprovides theenterprises with electricityfor themilking machines andfor lighting andhot water.Theexcessive energyis usedto supplytheimmersionheaterof the restaurant. Thewateris takenfrom therun-offof amountainlakeby means of asimpletrashrackintake- aconcrete pipe of 1 m inner diameterdug into the bed of the stream. The concrete pipe is covetedwith a simplegrid of concrete-reinforcing steel(fig. 13).In orderto avoidsuspended particles(moss,partsof plants)which arc carriedby thebrook, fmm enteringthe intake,a iinely perforated plateis placedoverthe grid. Theupperpart of the penstock, which beginsdirectlyat theintake,passes throughmck terrain(fig. 14)and thenabout50cmunderthesurface, furthertothemachinehouse.ThelengthofthePE-pipelinewithanominal diameter of 160mm and6 barnominalpressure, is 160m, theheadis 50 m. This resultsin anaverage slope of 33%. Thegeneratoronthethree-nozzlePeltonturbinewithvemcalaxissuppliesaconstant 8.6kWdectricalpower. Thetransmission lines to thefour enterprises areshort;theoneto therestaurant is about1km. All electrical lines ateburled.

Micro Pelton Turbines

Fig. 13: A simple intake consisting of a trash rack made of concrete reinforcing steel,placed on a concrete pipe (inside dia. I00 cm) which is dug into the bed of the stream.

Fig. 14: The uppersectionof the penstock (PE-pipe,outsidedia. 160 mm) leadsopen through rock terrain.

A&S. Cave1(15.4 kW)

At theoccasion of theredevelopment of thealp pasture with rightsfor 333heads of cattleanelectricalcheese makingplant for 100milk cowswasinstalledanda smallhydroelectric powerplant wasbuilt. In a flat sectionof a brook abovea waterfall, wateris takenby a Tirwlianweir which coversapproximately oncquartcrofthe bcdofthestmam,andisledtoadcsiltingchamber(fig. 15to 17).Fromthedcsiltingchamber a PE-pipeline with a nominaldiameter of 200mm leadsfirst alongthe flattersectionof thestream then sideways alongthe slopeof thevalley,with anaverage gradientof lessthanI%, to a pit made of glass-fibm reinforced plastic,with a diameter of 1.5m and 1.8m deep- the surgetankwith a volume of 3 m3(fig. 18). Since this flat low-pressure penstockof 350 m length has also a slight oppositeslope, further small intersection andventingpits arerequited.

and

From thesurgetank a penstock with a length of 295m leadsfirst at anangleandthen following the line of the hill slopeto themachinehouse. The head is 84 m, the average slope30%.The diameterof the penstock is stepped. The upperpart hasa nominal diameterof 200mm anda nominalpressure of 6.3 bar;the lower sectionis 160mm and 10bar.

Appendices

55

Fig. 15: Water in take and desilting basin in theflat section of the stream. I Tirolian type intake /flooded) 2 Desilting chamber

Fig. 16: Desihingsystem with protection wauagainst high water (looking downstream).

Fig. 17: View into the desilting chamber while flushing (water has been partially let offi. I BafJe plate, 2 Flushing slide, 3 Intake sieve on the lowpressure penstock drain.

Fig. 18: Surge tank of glass-fibre reinforcedplastic (2.5 m dia.) with intake sieve on penstock and overflow via the plugging pipe in the bottom.

56

Micro Pelton Turblnos

Themachine housewasbuilt 30 m abovethe b0tto.m of thevalley in the slopeof the hill, because the snow masses of theoppositeavalanche-prone slopeoftenhavenotmeltedby thebeginningof thesummer. A solid, avalanche proof concrete construction was made.Ihe twin nozzlePehonturbine with horizontalshaftis coupled directlyto thegenerator. Thepowerplantsupplies three-phase ahemating 22OI380 V, 50 Hz cumnt. Theoutputis adjusted at a constant 15.4kW. Thehot wateraccumulator of thecheese-making planttakesup for regulating. thelargestamountof powerandactsasa load compensator Thepowertransfer to the alpinepastures overa distance of 400 m is by meansof buried cableswhich amled inside a PE-pipewith 60 mm diameter.

AS.6 Aebnet (16 kW)

Whenthecommunaldairy for six alpinepastures with a total of 150headsof cattlewasplanned a possibility wassoughtto electrify the dairy aswell aseachof the farms. The nearbystreamprovedto supplya rathersparse amountof waterduring so in orderto provide thcelecnicaldairywithsufficientgoweralargeheadwould~requi~.Thereforr:~elocationofthemachine house wasdecided on at aplacebelowthepasture buildings,wherethestream flattensout. Theoptimalplace for thewaterintakewasa point underneath the waterchamber for thedrinking watersupply,which granted provided aneffectiveheadof 220m.Placing alsoareliableflow duringdryperiods (fig. 19).Thisarrangement tbcintakehigherwouldhavemeantdoingwithout thesurplus waterof thedrinking waterchamber.Howevcr, thcovcrRow ofthc waterchambcrtotheintakcofthepowerplant (fig. 20)isasubstantial contribution towards powersupplyduring autumn.

autumn,

Fig. 19: Water intake with desilter in steep section of stream (approx. 60% slope). I Water chamber for drinking water supply, 2 Overmwfrom water chamber to intake, 3 Tirolian weir type intake, 4 Desilting systemand surge tank

Fig. 20: Tirolian weir type intake . I Trash rack 2 Perforated plate cover over trash rack 3 Qverflow from drinking water supply (PVC pipe, outside dia. 90 mm)

Appendices

57

At

thearea of waterintaketheterrainhasa slopeof nearly60%.Conditions for anextended desiltingsystem into two arenot ideal. Therefore,a concrete pipe, with an inner diameter of 120cm, which is separated compartments by meansof a steelplate with ovefflow edge,wasusedassurgetank anddesiltingchamber (fig. 21).A dip wall beforetheoverflow edgekeeps backfloating debris,while sandsettlesat thebottomof the first compartment andcanbe tlushedawayby pulling out the overblow pipe. The second compartment serves asa surgetank. The uppersectionof the 650 m long penstockleadsthrougha steeplysloping area with many rocks and boulders, Burying thepipeline waselaborate andrequired blasting.Forthelower sectionwith alengthof 140 m, s!eelpipeswith 121mm outerdiameteranda wall thickness of 4 mm wereused.The otherpartsof the penstock consistof PE-pipeswith corresponding diameterand nominalpressures of 16, 10 and 6.5 bar accordinglyadapted to the height.

Fi$. 2J: Desilting system and surge tank (inside dia. 1.2 .m). I LJestlting sys:em with overflow via plug pipe in bottom drain 2 Bafjre 3 Overflow edge (separating wall between desilter and surge tank) 4 Surge tank 5 Wirelesssystemformoni:oringofthe waterlevel

Fig. 22: The machine house stands in an avalanche prone area, protected by a rti!:k.

Themachinehousewhich stands in an avalanche proneareaandis built of concrete, is protected by a large rock (fig. 22). With a total watersupplyof 11l/s the installedturbine-generator group<fig.23), in spring,hasanelectrical outputof 16kW, wMch is quite sufficient,thoughthe water supplyof 6 l/s towardsautumnallows merely for thegeneration of 8 kW. Despitethe smallerquantityof milk to be processed, this compels anextremely sparinguseof electricity at eachof the enterprises in orderto secure supplyto the dairy.

58

Micro Pelton Turbines

Thedecreasing supplyof waterrequiresa levelcontrolin thesurgetankandadaptation of theflow rateat the turbine.Whereas thelevelcontrolis automaticandthepersons in charge arealertedvia wireless, adjustment of theneedlein the nozzleof the Peltonturbineis doneby band. On theconsumers sidetheloadis governed by anelectronicload controller.Electricity supplyto the alpine pasture andadjacent buildingsis via a 630m buriedcable.A building which stands in theopposite direction from themachinehouse,requires a separate cableof 360m length.An efficient methodcouldbe found for burgng the cables.

Fig. 23: View rnto the machine house. 1 Shut-off slide with pressure gauge 2 Handwheel for nozzle control 3 Pelton turbine 4 Turbine tail race with built-in water cooled load resistors for excesscurrent 5 Three-phase synchronous generator (nominal output 20 kW, 2201380 V, 50 Hz) 6 Electrical control cabinet with instruments for current, tension and frequency.

Table: Technical data of the described power plants


(Source: FAT, CH-8356 Tanikon TG, Switzerland) Power plant Electrical output[kWl Head [ml Water flow rate [It/s] Water intake: height above sea level [m] used water supply Penstock:length m] outside dia. ?)[mm] inside dia. 1) [mm] nominal pressure 1) [bar] material 1) average slope[%] speed of water at nominai output 1) [m/s] Turbine: type, position of axis 2) regulation cooling of ballast load with: Electrical transmission lines: length [;I voltage
l)lower section 2)hPhorizontal; v&ertical

Blackenalp 0,15 18,5 1,6

Beuertweid

Hinterchirel
24

Bachlager
85

Cave1

Aebnet

2 90 4

130 3

50 26

l5,4 84 27

16 220
11

1795

1785
spring/brook

1590

2005
brook

3) -

350 75 66 6 PE 27

spring 280 63 51.4 10


PE

160 160
141 6 PE

2040 brook 295(645)4)

1865 spring/brook

160 130,8 10
PE 30 cr

640 121 113


>30 Steel 37

52

33
i;;

12

1,4

191
PeVon, h water

Pelton, v air

<---

Pelton, v Pelton, v --- - - - > electronic load controller air water

water

24
3)supply line for drinkq 4)total with low-pessure

460 220
waler peirsW .--ot 350 m length

SO 220

1503 2201380

415

1000

2201380

22Of380

tw

lvlwro remon

I urmnes

Appendix 9: Exploded view of Pelton Turbine

.\ i -I:/
I

Appmdlcea

61

Part list of exnl&d (Source Disag)

view

of Pelton

turbine

drawing

ZP-055

View

A. B. C. D. E, F. I, L, M. R.

Base frame with anchor bolt Washer Bottom of housing Gasket Washer and nut - H. Nozzle orifice parts Needle and spear Star guide - Q. Manifold parts - Z, Regulating mechanisme

View

parts A B., F., G. Bearing C:'Runner and shaft D ., E. Bush and washer H. - 0. Speed measuring parts and coupling P, - S. Flywheel

parts

View

A. Top of housing B, Generator

62

Micro Pelton Turbines

Appendix 10: Drawing set of Pelton Turbine


Appendix10showsthe designof a Peltonturbine.Thediagrambelow givesthe applicationrange of the turbine,Theturbinemaybeinstalted with 1or 2 jets.It wasimportantto themanufacturer to beableto offer a standard turbineat a reasonable price. With a pitchcircle diameter of 164hnm theturbinecanbeusedwith a headof 15to 25 m at a speed of 1000 of 1500 RPM.Within these limits thekyvalue varies between RPM andwith a headof 25 to 40 m at a speed 0.38 and0.56.But the efficiencyis only affectedby a maximumdecnxseof 5%.

14

Flow rate It/s


. _ _ . _. _.,__ ._.._.. -_~._ / -.-__

._. . 12__., .____

i jets /*-... . ..__ ---,_. ,_ .__ .__ A(-._-.--... -.- - .--- ..--., ,_ ._.... _. ,_. .__ ..___. --__ .._ .,.....,. ,.. 10 .x/ ,A ----__ .---.-.-..------.--------------___.._ -----~.--~.~;~~... .._..-. -_-.._.. 8 _... e/ / 1, / ./ ,// / ,. /<<I _.-.---- -.....-.-..----..-. -l--.--_-ll--l-)..----.j .,...._. ^ -...... 6 ,.,,,,,..._._~,..^~,,...._,..,,.,.,.,.,,,. 4

.__ __ ,_ .-...-. _..._.. -_... --- .._.__.__.____-_-.--Speed 1500 rpm I I


35 40 45

1jet

.__-...__....--...--. ._.I __--.__. _.._.._ __., 2 ______-Speed 1000 rpm I C 25 20, 15 I


30

Head m
--- Limite

64

Micro Pelton Turbines

f+ ;I+ + 3

4--

IO

Appmdlces

65

\ I
3

x 1

II

Assembly drindg
.mmN-llam I

NP-ICI16

AppendIces

67

HUGFL
Turbinenbau Gegens tand
Di 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 1 4 1 1 1 5 1 Housing Nozzle Rotorhub Angle 50 x 80 x 5

Pertlist

Nr
I

NP - 1016

BI.

Xssembly

drawing

cmm

07.12.90 Remarks
I I

Specification

Part number

I NP-3548 NP-4134-A NP-2244

Generator Valve Union Elbows,taper P4 round,with boss PNl I I seat HA 11 I I

Backnuts

914 I
10 11 4 1

Screwed Flanges, Flanges Pipe 2" NW 80

13 1 1 14 1 1 1518 16 1 6 17 1 8 18 1 8 19 I 1 20 21 22 1 1 1

1 Pipe NW 50 1 tlzx . Bolt IHex. Bolt M8 x :llO stainless steel steel 1

Ml2 x 20 stainless Ml2 x 35

I I
I

1Hex . Bolt

1Her. . Nut M12 IHex. Bolt MlO x 20 stainless Tee dl = 88,s steel

I
I

I
I I

I Welding

d2 = 60,3

Pipe NW 80 Bend NW 80 Reduction 0,88,9 x 0 60,3

68

Micro Pelton Turbines

Appendlces

69

fY t--

--

--./ 7 Y I

-f

2
I 1 I cover

1 HUGRLPELTON-TURBINE

1 NP- 2244-E

6
/

I \
\
-,

Appendices

71

29

0-b
hew Nut MI4 T.*tion
WtllUtS

10 9

6
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Gf-th 130- r.24$ W-N ff-NC ff310-r 321-T NC 536-2'

screwed Flenges Long Screw Sofkeh orifii Needle Guide of Needle

KP-4131 w--c133 W- 4132

kte

ljkrsetzung mii gkder Ivr

Nozzle

HUGFL

PELTON-TlREiNE

NP-4134-E

Zi8
1 4

Appmdlcem

73

2 I 2
1

Flat Flat
Pipe

210 II 10 * 370 200 lo u 3w WtO N 090 u 75

4 3 2

9.37 St. 37 St.37

HUGFlL

PELTON-TURBNE

1NP-3548

Apperidlces

75

:...y5. *:!,!, , ,I,: ,, ,,,: ; _,) s,, ,, :

,..:

,;,

-, 5, I.

AppendIces

??

Nombre de Dib2.S

stiick
I

Needfe
tsgsnstand Spictficatlon hderungsn: ModifkTtioqs:

,
Pos. Rap.

n'=aJ -31 cc/


Malwirl Mmti95ro Model1 Mod&is Bemerhungon Observations

II

E : =?$

&mamq

m/Y q&k~

NC a. t2. ?o

Needle

H
u

Gcrchcn

I I

E t-l L

PELTON-TURBINE

NP-4133-E

/ , 1. (3 <.

Appendices

79

view a
I -

Posl ?Y W

(4)

Cisgmstrnd

Guide of Needle

80

Micro Peiton Turbines

Appendices

81

Tee, Bl reducing

NP 4134 - Pas - 7

Size of Connection
12 3

I 3: 36
36 10

z 10 18 I1 I1 12 12 12 I5 is 15

13 --~~
38 41 42

:1

I -1 Al- % 0 I/& h-1


0 I /40 %%

I'/& %-I I h-1 - 'rn


3Li

/ P5 ::
26 ~18 : 21 : 21 25 26 .25 : :i : :: 21

0 1/4-1

0 I/&1
l

-1
/4I

1/4-l

'/z
3/4

0 I /4- 1h0 I /4- I /4-

1/4- I rn- 1 0 I h- h-l /4 l 1rn- 3/i- 1 /iI 0 1/2-1 -1 l 1/2- 1 - 1Al

it 38 42 42 46 i: 50 50 :!I 38 40 44 48 48 55 5;

16 12 1: 16 18 18 j0 j0 50 50 54 18 50 52 54 j4 57 55 57 58 58 Liii--

i5;
36 38 40 42 45 42

1h- I Al- 1 1rn- 1h- I /4 0 1%lhh


l l 0 I /2-l rn3/4

0 1/2- I h- 1 I rn- 1/2- I /4 I 'h-2 -1 /4 2 - h- 1I2 02 - %-l'/z


l

ii zt
48 38 42 45 46 48

29 37 19 :'3 f! 37 31 35

m-2 - I

- I 'h

02 -1/4-I/4 l 2 - I /4- I /2 2 - 1h- I l 2 - 1h- 1/z 2 -2 - 'rn 02


02

$!I
34
34 33 62 71 65 35 42 35 34 34 i 45 34 / 44

-2
-2

- 3/4 -1

I+&$2/2-2 -2 2h-2/2- I 2'/2-2'h- l/z 2'/2-2'/2-2 a3 -2 -2 3 -3 -2 62 71 69 69 65 85 --

xz 35 36 36 38

68 71 69 69 76 85

:: :z i --.~---_ _-.--...
44 42 42 52 55 54 45 42 41 61 85 55

82

Micro Pelton Turbines

Long Screw Sockets

NP 4134 - Pas - 4

Size of Connection 3% I2 %

h ;z

0 5:

1 1'h
1/!a

12

1; 116 125 143

57 65 75 a4 98 [

Screwed Flanges PNi, NP 4134 - Pos - 5 round with boss, with or without bolt holes

321

AppendIces

83

Backnuts P4

NP 4134 - Pos - 6

810
Size of Co~nnection /a Cl b 7 5 19

Union Elbows, taper sent UA 11


-_ .-. G
_

NP 1016 - Pos - 7

Size of Connection

T-

11
.-___ 21 25 z; 38 45 50 F 78

G/b % I 1/4 1/!2 2 2% & 4

--.

---- ..___ -___ 12 21 =2


----_..2; :: .._. --

-.

2; 72 82 6-z 712 I25

15 18 21 26 31 34 43 48

38 42 45 43

md rund rund 31 38

Plug with square head and collar

NP 4131 - E - Pos -1

84

Micro Pelton Turbines

. .

..

.-, .

_.

(_ :: -.

1. Cnrirlg 2. Cover 3, Noxalc pipe


4. Wyc lrrnrdl 5. Nuxslc tip 6. Stnr guide

7. Nccrllr 1i11 R. Ncctllc RICI~ 9. Stern ldsirlp 11. 12.

10. Jet clrflectw JCL wlwru!ur


Bitrkat

(in

tlctnil

ndy)

IX 14. 15. iG. 17. IR.

Ihlllrr cli.w! Sldt llc~~rin~ Sbnft collpling Braking jet Itrpnlnliup alwh

19. ltcgdaling I&r 20. Spring drnwbnr 21. Needle cm~tml rod
22.

cu urn

23.

Dllrl1pnt Belt drive