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Wi-Fi

The name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi registered trademark! term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network W#A$! products that are %ased on the Institute of &lectrical and &lectronics &ngineers' I&&&! ()*.++ standards."

Initially, Wi-Fi was used in place of only the *.,-.z ()*.++% standard, however the Wi-Fi Alliance has e/panded the generic use of the Wi-Fi term to include any type of network or W#A$ product %ased on any of the ()*.++ standards, including ()*.++%, ()*.++a, dual-%and, and so on, in an attempt to stop confusion a%out wireless #A$ interopera%ility. Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection %etween sender and receiver %y using radio fre0uency 1F! technology, a fre0uency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an 1F current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then is a%le to propagate through space. The cornerstone of any wireless network is an access point A2!. The primary 3o% of an access point is to %roadcast a wireless signal that computers can detect and "tune" into. In order to connect to an access point and 3oin a wireless network, computers and devices must %e e0uipped with wireless network adapters See "How Wireless Networks Work" in the "Did You Know..." section of Webopedia!. Wi-Fi is supported %y many applications and devices including video game consoles, home networks, 24As, mo%ile phones, ma3or operating systems, and other types of consumer electronics. Any products that are tested and approved as "Wi-Fi 5ertified" a registered trademark! %y the Wi-Fi Alliance are certified as interopera%le with each other, even if they are from different manufacturers. For e/ample, a user with a Wi-Fi 5ertified product can use any %rand of access point with any other %rand of client hardware that also is also "Wi-Fi 5ertified". 2roducts that pass this certification are re0uired to carry an identifying seal on their packaging that states "Wi-Fi 5ertified" and indicates the radio fre0uency %and used *.6-.z for ()*.++%, ()*.++g, or ()*.++n, and 6-.z for ()*.++a!.

WiFi Explained
What is WiFi WiFi is a technology that allows data transfer over specified radio fre0uencies, this in turn removes the need for ca%led connections making device porta%ility possi%le. The WiFi revolution has %een trumpeted on a num%er of occasions %ut has stalled each time on security fears or cost, %ut as mo%ile hones have driven the pu%lics understanding of wireless communication the consumer appetite for WiFi products has grown steadily to a point where it %ecame commercially via%le. How does it work 7oving data using radio fre0uency is nothing new, in fact the first 7orse code radio transmission has a lot in common with today's wifi technology, after sending what is in effect the first %inary wireless transmission mankind spent the ne/t *) years perfecting the reproduction of the human voice in an analogue format. The telephone while revolutionary did mask the a%ility of data transmission , this was not left to rot as militaries around the world continued to develop the sending of data via 1F transmissions. WIFI of today is a distant cousin of that 7orse signal, although instead of a low %andwidth dot and dash %eing sent thousands of %its of data are sent every second and we are now measuring in kilo%its per second and with newer technologies even mega%its. Wifi as a standard uses the *., -hz range which is largely unused %y the &uropean military and other 1F users like mo%ile communications, this fre0uency %and is then %roken down into channels which a wireless device can use to transmit data and in order to avoid interference the devices can fre0uency hop

or 3ump %etween them mid data stream. 8o we have a method of moving data over 1F %ut each device needs to %e connected and ena%led to work with Wifi, this is in effect like giving each device in your network a handheld radio e/cept they work at much high fre0uencies!. 9ver this radio link the %inary 4ata8tream carries your data for e/ample a we%page %ack to the device that re0uested it. A laptop for e/ample would have a wireless access card or dongle this is %oth a transmit and receive device, this could connect to another laptop with the same setup and create a point to point connection. It is far more likely that the laptop and any other client device will connect to a router or access point to 3oin a much larger wireless network. 2erformance of any wireless link is limited %y the same factors that effect your radio or T: signal, weather, distance, power and walls or o%3ects, again an e/ample if you use an indoor aerial for your T: your signal is weaker and therefore the picture 0uality drops. With a wifi network if the signal strength or 0uality drops the effective data rate is reduced as more packets are re sent to counteract the errors, so it is important to %ear in mind the ma/imum achieva%le range of a wifi ena%led device may %e at the minimum sustaina%le speed. WiFi Variants The accepted wifi standards are set %y the Institute of &lectrical and &lectronics &ngineers or I&&&, ()*.++% was the first to market and is the slowest in terms of raw %andwidth %ut is also the cheapest to produce e0uipment for, with speeds up to ++m%its this is the format that is most prevalent in today's electronics marketplace. Then there is ()*.++a which strangely came second, this can handle up to 6,m%its and runs in the 6 -hz %and, this has until recently %een the domain of the corporate network as ()*.++a e0uipment costs more to purchase and gives greater range. The most recent entry is ()*.++g which is %ack on the *., -hz %and %ut can achieve the 6,m%ps of ()*.++a and %rings the %enefits of the cost reduction in technology, if you are %uying networking e0uipment ()*.++g is the %est option today as it is also %ackwards compati%le with ()*.++% although your connection will run at the speed of the slowest technology used. Security 8o we intend to send data through the airwaves, well its not long %efore someone raises the security card and its right they should, data sent on computer networks is always private %e it a we% surfing session or email. ;se of the industry standard triple 4&8 encryption was deemed too slow for wireless networks which had limited %andwidth to cope with encryption overheads. 8o W&2 the wireless encryption protocol emerged as the preferred method of securing the wireless connections, the +*(%it W&2 standard is not %om%proof %ut would take a few months with a high powered server to crack, this of course assumes you don't change the key which of course you will<. WiFi Uses 8o that's how so the ne/t logical 0uestion is why and perhaps how to implement wireless networking= In the Home .ome networking is not fun, that is reflected in the num%er of homes that have ca%led 5AT6 networks today, few homeowners want to run ca%ling under floors and have unsightly connection %o/es in each room that you might use a device. 8o wireless is a real answer offering the a%ility for a %road%and internet connection to %e shared %etween users in the home, perhaps mum using the 25, dad on a laptop in the garden while the kids hook up their playststaion upstairs. Its only a small step from sharing your internet connection to a full network, sharing a printer and even a music server with all your collection stored as 72>'s

This is the area that has seen the wifi e/plosion the home is leading the take up of wireless e0uipment and coupled with the rapid uptake of %road%and wifi growth is assured for the ne/t few years. For home networking it is important to understand the components, each device will need a wireless card or dongle, they in turn connect to the hu% which can %e one of > devices. The Wireless Access point is simply a translation device that sits connected to your main 25 and allows any wireless device to talk to it, this means that if that 25 is off then so is everyone's internet connection. $e/t a Wireless router, this is similar to the access point %ut allows routing around the home network so * laptops can network even if the main 25 is off, %ut again if the internet connection is through the main 25 if its off then so is you we% connection. ?y far the most popular choice is a wireless router @ modem, %e careful to get the right modem either dial up, 48# or A48# these allow you to network all of your devices and as long as the wireless hu% is on any device can access the internet, commonly these will have an in%uilt firewall and some ca%led connections. In the Workplace The workplace on the other hand is far more cautious, most offices already have a perfectly good and fast at least +))m%its! network in place, so what %enefits are there for wireless= In strict terms for desktop 25's there are few, %ut more and more workers are issued with laptops as standard. Those laptops will almost certainly have a wireless access card as standard and the new centrino technology for Intel means every laptop shipped has em%edded wifi. 8o of course it makes sense to use wifi, %ut security conscious %usinesses are not happy with the level of encryption offered %y W&2 alone and are layering e/tra security on top far %eyond rolling updates of keys, this makes networks a nightmare to manage and thus restricts growth in this area. We must also consider the num%er of devices in an office network there could %e hundreds of devices trying to share the limited num%er of channels, then there are issues of where to site access points to work most efficiently. Its not all doom and gloom with good planning these can %e overcome to fully e/tract the %usiness %enefits of wireless networks %ut it takes some guts to get started. In Public When is a hotspot not a hotspot= when no one knows a%out it< And there lies the dilemma, while there is a market for those who wish pu%lic internet access on their mo%ile devices there are rarely enough users concentrated in one location to make it pay. &ven when there are at airports or stations getting the average user to understand how to connect and pay for the time they will %e using the service is a tough 3o%. A num%er of providers in the ;A are already out there, ?T openzone, 5osta 5offee and even 7c4onalds wifi with a %ig 7ac, %ut how many of us, even the technically savvy ones have actually use the service= 8o what a%out a nationwide service provider of WiFi, well argua%ly that's what ?T hope open zone will %ecome, %ut many more am%itious plans have %een muted, %road%and %alloons lurking in the lower atmosphere and more recently %road%and wifi lampposts in every street. -reat ideas %ut hugely capital intensive to get going and in this market you come directly head to head with mo%ile operators who hope to sell >- data services, they already have the networks and the su%scri%er %ase so perhaps its fair to say hotspots will stay 3ust that "spots" Next Steps or Wi i While many industry pundits of whom we do not claim to %e one! talk of hot spots and longer ranges it seems likely that the ne/t +* months will %ring wifi into new devices, first mo%ile phones will have wifi alongside ?luetooth then add wifi to 72> players allowing them to stream. #onger term Wifi may %ecome

the defacto standard for connecting household electronics and automating your home, heard this %efore= well yes that was ?luetooth. What's different a%out wifi, well its cheap, commonly availa%le and understood and if you don't have it in your home may%e you should, this is a consumer led growth you should %e part of it.

!"#$% &'N or(e)WiFI*E +%$,--a.b.( "ra ic /enerator with 0- Virtual S"' Inter aces
The 5T6*) is an e/cellent choice for testing Access 2oints and other WiFi networks. The 5T6*) uses a modified Wireless driver for WiFi $I5s %ased on the Atheros chipset. It can support up to >* :irtual 8tations. &ach of the :irtual 8tations has it's own I2 address, I2 port space, 7A5 address and routing ta%le. The :irtual 8tations can %e assigned to communicate to a particular Access 2oint, use a particular &88I4 and $ickname, and have a W&2 B, or +*(%it! key assigned. There is a single WiFi radio per 5T6*) %ut multiple 5T6*) systems can %e clustered together for more realistic radio interference patterns and increased traffic generation capa%ility. The radio can %e configured in ()*.++a, % or g mode. The radio's country code, channel, fre0uency, sensitivity, rate, 1T8 and T/-2ower can also %e configured. The :irtual 8tations may %e configured with all of the virtual interfaces on the same su%net, or different su%nets, depending on the testing re0uirements. When used with something like :oI2, it allows all of the :oI2 calls to use the standard I2 ports with one call per virtual interface!. The 5T6*) has no moving parts other than the two remova%le e/ternal antenna on swivel mounts! and will fit into a small travel %ag or %riefcase for easy porta%ility. It is also completely silent, so you can include it in your customer demos and presentations. $o additional hardware or software is re0uired, %ut it is suggested that you manage the system using the #A$forge--;I on a separate machine. The 5T6*) can also %e managed over a 4?-C serial console in te/t mode.

#arger ImagesD front %ack


$9T&D This configuration may have a different hardware configuration than the system pictured a%ove. 1efer to your official 0uote for details. $9T&D This configuration may have a different hardware configuration than the system pictured a%ove. 1efer to your official 0uote for details.

Example Network 1ia(ram

2uick Start /uide


+. 5onnect 7anagement ethernet port to 7anagement network or management 25. If connecting directly to a 25, an ethernet cross-over ca%le should %e used. *. 5onnect eth* wired &thernet interface to wired &thernet interface on the A2 or network under test. This usually is considered the 'server' side of the network. >. The 5lient side of the network will %e the :irtual 8tations configured on the 5T6*) WiFi $I5. ,. 5onnect power %rick to standard ;8 or &uropean A5 power source. 6. Install the #A$forge--;I on a separate management 25 or #aptop. Windows and #inu/ -;Is are supportedD 8elect the correct one from the 54197 or 5andela Technologies 4ownload page and install it. B. The 5T6*) should now %oot. If 4.52 is ena%led on the 7anagement network, the 5T6*) will automatically ac0uire an I2 address. If 4.52 is not availa%le, the I2 address will %e set to +C*.+B(.+.+)+ %y the #A$forge scripts. E. 8tart the #A$forge--;I on the management 25 and click the '4iscover' %utton. It should find the 5T6*) appliance and add the I2 address to the drop-down %o/ in the 5onnect widget. 2ress '5onnect' and you will %e connected to the 5T6*). (. 8elect the 2ort 7gr ta% in the -;I. 4ou%le-click on the device called 'ath)'. This is the 1adio device, and should %e configured for the correct WiFi a@%@g mode, channel, country-code, etc. $e/t, select one or more of the :irtual 8tation interfaces and click '7odify'. &nter the correct I2 address information, &88I4 and W&2 key if &na%led!. After applying these changes, the :irtual 8tation interface should associate with the A2 and %e ready to send traffic. Fou may create up to >+ :irtual 8tation interfaces per 5T6*) with the '5reate' %utton. C. 9nce the interfaces are configured correctly, you can click on the #ayer >, :9I2@1T2 and other #A$forge-FI1& related -;I ta%s and configure@modify@start@stop particular traffic patterns that utilize the virtual stations and wired ethernet interface. In most cases, you will want one of the FI1& endpoints to %e on the wired interface and the other to %e on the WiFi :irtual 8tation interface. It is also valid to generate traffic %etween two :irtual 8tation interfaces. +). Any -;I modifications take place immediately after you click '8u%mit'.

&'N or(e)WiFI*E *elated Shots


*adio and Virtual Station !on i(uration Screen

What is OSI Model?


The OSI Model is used to describe networks and network application. Layers of OSI Model Three are Sever Layers of OSI Model : OSI Layer Diagram:

7) Application Layer : The application layer provider different services to the application. Exa ple of services provided by this layer are file transfer! electronic essa"in" e# ail! virtual ter inal access and network ana"e ent. 6) Presentation Layer : The $resentation layer is responsible for protocol conversion!

date encryption%decryption! Expandin" "raphics co and and the date co pression. This layer akes the co unications between two host possible. 5) Session Layer : This layer is responsible for establishin" the process#to#process co unication between the host in the network. This layer is responsible for establishin" and endin" the sessions across the network. The interactive lo"in is an exa ple of services provided by this layer in which the connective are re#connected in care of any interruption. 4) ransport Layer : This layer is responsible for end#to#end delivers of essa"es between the networked hosts. It first divides the strea s of data into chunks or packets before trans ission and then the receivin" co puter re#asse bles the packets. It also "uarantee error free data delivery without loss or duplications. !) "et#or$ Layer : This layer is responsible for translatin" the lo"ical network address and na es into their physical address & M'( address). This layer is also responsible for addressin"! deter inin" routes for sendin" and ana"in" network proble s such as packet switchin"! data con"estion and routines. %) Data Lin$ Layer : *ata link layer is responsible for controllin" the error between ad+acent nodes and transfer the fra es to other co puter via physical layer. *ata link layer is used by hubs and switches for their operation. &) P'ysical Layer : $hysical Layer is responsible for trans ittin" row bit strea over the physical cable. The physical layer defines the hardware ite s such as cables! cards! volta"es etc. (o# to remem)er t'e layer of OSI model* The easiest way to re e ber the different layers of OSI Model is to use the ,All people seem o need Data Processing,: Layer Mnemonic . / 0 1 3 4 "ame 'pplication $resentation Session Transport 2etwork *ata Link $hysical All People Seem o "eed Data Processing ne onic

The OSI Model

Introduction
5ompati%le interconnection of network devices is fundamental to relia%le network communications. 4eveloping a set of standards that e0uipment manufacturers could adhere to went a long way towards providing an open environment for network communications.

In the late +CE)s the International 3r(ani4ation or Standardi4ation 5IS36 worked on a seven layer model for #A$ architectures %y defining the 3pen Systems Interconnection 7asic *e erence 8odel 53SI6. Alongside this The I89 developed a set of protocols that fit within this model. 8ince then, other models such as the 6 layer T52@I2 model were developed, however the 98I model is still used to map and categorise protocols %ecause of its concise and clear way of representing network functions.

The I&&& formed the ()* committee in Fe%ruary +C() with the aim of standardising #A$ protocols. This resulted in the I&&& ()* series of committees that sit to develop worldwide standards for communications. Within the 98I model, the 4ata #ink layer was split into two, the 7edia Access 5ontrol 7A5! su%-layer and the ()*.* #ogical #ink 5ontrol ##5! su%-layer.

Fou can make up e/pressions to remem%er the order of the E layers, for e/ample, 'Angus 2refers 8ausages To $i%%ling 4ried 2ork' or 'A 2retty 8illy Trick $ever 4oes 2lease'. I remem%er it %est using the natty e/pression 'Application, 2resentation, 8ession, Transport, $etwork, 4atalink, 2hysical'. It 3ust rolls off the tongue<

The 98I protocol set is rarely used today, however the model that was developed serves as a useful guide when referencing other protocol stacks such as AT7, T52@I2 and 82G@I2G.

Application Layer 7
It is employed in software packages which implement client-server software. When an application on one computer starts communicating with another computer, then the Application layer is used. The header contains parameters that are agreed %etween applications. This header is often only sent at the %eginning of an application operation. &/amples of services within the application layer includeD FT2 4$8 8$72 87T2 gateways

We% %rowser $etwork File 8ystem $F8! Telnet and 1emote #ogin rlogin! G.,)) FTA7 4ata%ase software 2rint 8erver 8oftware

Presentation Layer 6
This provides function call e/change %etween host operating systems and software layers. It defines the format of data %eing sent and any encryption that may %e used, and makes it presenta%le to the Application layer. &/amples of services used are listed %elowD 7I4I .T7# -IF TIFF H2&A85II &?54I5

Session Layer 5
The 8ession layer defines how data conversations are started, controlled and finished. The 8ession layer manages the transaction se0uencing and in some cases authorisation. The messages may %e %idirectional and there may %e many of them, the session layer manages these conversations and creates notifications if some messages fail. Indications show whether a

packet is in the middle of a conversation flow or at the end. 9nly after a completed conversation will the data %e passed up to layer B. &/amples of 8ession layer protocols are listed %elowD 125 8I# $et?I98 names Appletalk A82 4&5net 852

Transport Layer 4
This layer is resonsi%le for the ordering and reassem%ly of packets that may have %een %roken up to travel across certain media. 8ome protocols in this layer also perform error recovery. After error recovery and reordering the data part is passed up to layer 6. &/amples areD T52 ;42 82G

Network Layer 3
This layer is responsi%le for the delivery of packets end to end and implements a logical addressing scheme to help accomplish this. This can %e connectionless or connection-oriented and is independent of the topology or path that the data packets travel. 1outing packets through a network is also defined at this layer plus a method to fragment large packets into smaller ones depending on 7T;s for different media 2acket 8witching!. 9nce the data from layer * has %een received, layer > e/amines the destination address and if it is the address of its own end station, it passes the data after the layer > header to layer ,. &/amples of #ayer > protocols includeD Appletalk 442

I2 I2G 4&5net

Data Link Layer 2


This layer deals with getting data across a specific medium and individual links %y providing one or more data link connections %etween two network entities. &nd points are specifically identified, if re0uired %y the $etwork layer 8e0uencing. The frames are maintained in the correct se0uence and there are facilities for Flow control and Iuality of 8ervice parameters such as Throughput, 8ervice Availa%ility and Transit 4elay.

&/amples includeD I&&& ()*.* I&&& ()*.> ()*.6 - Token 1ing .4#5 Frame 1elay F44I AT7 222

The 4ata link layer performs the error check using the Frame 5heck 8e0uence F58! in the trailer and discards the frame if an error is detected. It then looks at the addresses to see if it needs to process the rest of the frame itself or whether to pass it on to another host. The data %etween the header and the trailer is passed to layer >. The 7A5 layer concerns itself with the access control method and determines how use of the physical transmission is controlled and provides the token ring protocols that define how a token ring operates. The ##5 shields the higher level layers from concerns with the specific #A$ implementation.

P ysical Layer !
This layer deals with the physical aspects of the media %eing used to transmit the data. The electrical, mechanical, procedural and functional means This defines things like pinouts, electrical characteristics, modulation and encoding of data %its on carrier signals. It ensures %it synchronisation and places the %inary pattern that it receives into a receive %uffer. 9nce it decodes the %it stream, the physical layer notifies the data link layer that a frame has %een received and passes it up. &/amples of specifications includeD :.*, :.>6 &IA@TIA-*>* &IA@TIA-,,C F44I ()*.> ()*.6 &thernet 1H,6 $1J $1JI

Fou will notice that some protocols span a num%er of layers e.g. $F8, ()*.> etc.!. A %enefit of the seven layer model is that software can %e written in a modular way to deal specifically with one or two layers only, this is often called Modular Engineering.

&ach layer has its own header containing information relevant to its role. This header is passed down to the layer %elow which in turn adds its own header encapsulates! until eventually the 2hysical layer adds the layer * information for passage to the ne/t device which understands the layer * information and can then strip each of the layers' headers in turn to get at the data in the

right location. &ach layer within an end station communicates at the same layer within another end station.

5o e

topology

!The shape of a local-area network #A$! or other communications system. Topologies are either ph sical or logical. There are four principal topologies used in #A$s. K bus topolo(y9 All devices are connected to a central ca%le, called the %us or %ack%one. ?us networks are relatively ine/pensive and easy to install for small networks. &thernet systems use a %us topology. K rin( topolo(y 9 All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. 1ing topologies are relatively e/pensive and difficult to install, %ut they offer high %andwidth and can span large distances. K star topolo(y9 All devices are connected to a central hub. 8tar networks are relatively easy to install and manage, %ut %ottlenecks can occur %ecause all data must pass through the hu%. K tree topolo(y9 A tree topology com%ines characteristics of linear %us and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear %us %ack%one ca%le. These topologies can also %e mi/ed. For e/ample, a %us-star network consists of a high-%andwidth %us, called the backbone! which connects a collections of slower-%andwidth star segments. For network diagrams, see $etwork Topology 4iagrams in the Iuick 1eference section of We%opedia.

An O+er+ie# of ,omp-ter "et#or$ opol


Computer Network Designs, Physical & Logical Topologies Configure a Network Communication Devices IT Certifications Computer Glossary thernet !plaine" #outer Comman"s $ecurity %verview &ome Networking I$DN Lines '%IP !plaine" (in"ows #esources (e) $erver Internet *a! G$+ Technology &ow To #outing !plaine" Gateway %$I Layers +o"el IT Tutorials *ree Tools *ree Tests (ireless Communication Computer &ar"ware +o)ile Technology +ore Topics Links

5ere you will learn network topolo"y introdu "et connected! bus! star! hub! hybrid! esh! tr network physical desi"n. In (o puter 2etwo to the layout or desi"n of the connected devic can be physical or lo"ical. In this section I wi different types of the topolo"ies.

$hysical Topolo"y installation.

eans the physical desi"n of a network includin" the devices

Lo"ical Topolo"y refers to the fact that how data actually transfers in a network

Topolo"y can be considered as a virtual shape or structure of a network. This sh correspond to the actual physical desi"n of the devices on the co puter network ho e network can be arran"ed in a circle shape but it does not necessarily ean topolo"y.

(o puter network topolo"ies can be cate"ori8ed in the followin" cate"ories. 9 bus 9 star 9 rin" 9 esh 9 Tree. 5ybrid networks are the co plex networks! which can be built of two or ore a topolo"ies. .-s opology

:us topolo"y uses a co on backbone to connect all the network devices in a n shape. ' sin"le cable functions as the shared co unication ediu for all the this cable with an interface connector. The device! which wants to co unicate essa"e to all the devices attached with the shared cable but only the intended re and process that essa"e.

Ethernet bus topolo"ies are easy to install and don;t re<uire uch cablin" and on is used for network co unication. 4=:ase#3 and 4=:aseT are two popular type used in the :us topolo"y. 'lso! :us network works with very li ited devices. $ likely to occur in the :us topolo"y if ore than 43#4/ co puters are added in a

'dditionally! if the :ackbone cable fails then all network beco es useless and n a on" all the co puters. >nlike in the Star topolo"y in which if one co puter i network then there is not effect on the other co puters in a network.

/ing opology

In rin" 2etwork! every co puter or devices has two ad+acent nei"hbors for co network! all the co unication essa"es travel in the sa e directory whether c clockwise. 'ny da a"e of the cable of any cable or device can result in the brea network. ?in" topolo"y now has beco e al ost obsolete. @**I! SO2ET or Token ?in" Technolo"y can be used to i ple ent ?in" Tech can be found in office! school or s all buildin"s. Star opology

In the co puter networkin" world the ost co only used topolo"y in L'2 is topolo"ies can be i ple ented in ho e! offices or even in a buildin". 'll the co topolo"ies are connected to central devices like hub! switch or router. The functi devices is different. I have covered the detail of each networkin" devices in the s website. (o puters in a network are usually connected with the hub! switch or r >nshielded Twisted $air &>T$) or Shielded Twisted $air (ables.

's co pared to the bus topolo"y! a star network re<uires ore devices A cables The failure of each node or cable in a star network! won;t take down the entire n as co pared to the :us topolo"y.

5owever if the central connectin" devices such as hub! switch or router fails due

ulti ately all the network can co e down or collapse. ree opology

Tree topolo"ies are co prised of the ultiple star topolo"ies on a bus. Tree topo ultiple star topolo"ies to"ether onto a bus. Only the hub devices can connect d and each 5ub functions as a root of a tree of the network devices. This bus%star%h supports future expandability of the co puter networks! uch better than a bus Mes' opology

Mesh topolo"y work on the concept of routes. In Mesh topolo"y! essa"e sent t take any possible shortest! easiest route to reach its destination. In the previous t essa"es are usually broadcasted to every co puter! especially in bus topolo"y. topolo"y essa"e can travel in only one direction i.e clockwise or anticlockwise Mesh topolo"y and the essa"e finds its route for its destination. ?outer works i essa"es and in reachin" the to their destinations.The topolo"y in which every every other device is called a full Mesh topolo"y unlike in the partial esh in wh indirectly connected to the other devices. S-mmary

Topolo"ies are the i portant part of the network desi"n theory. ' better network have the knowled"e of these topolo"ies and if you know the difference between Si ilarly you should have the knowled"e of each network device so that you can accordin" to your network needs. ' isconfi"ured network can result in a waste well as a lots of troubleshootin" ethods to resolve the issue. So thebasic unders topolo"ies and network devices is a ust to build a "ood network.

"ow to #ire $our Network


#isted Pair ,a)ling Twisted#pair &also known as 4=:aseT) is ideal for s all! ediu ! or lar"e networks that need flexibility and the capacity to expand as the nu ber of network users "rows. 4=:aseT cablin" looks very si ilar to that of co on telephone cable! althou"h instead of four &0) wires! there are ei"ht &B). In the picture i ediately below! you will see an ?C#44 connector or plu"! as well as an ?C#0/ connector. The ?C#44 connector is co on to nor al in#door telephone wirin"! while the ?C#0/ is for 4=:aseT network cable.

In ost circu stances we reco end usin" 4=:aseT cablin" for its flexibility and reliability! however if a sin"le cable ust be 13/ feet or lon"er you will need to install a repeater to a plify the si"nal throu"h the cable. This is where thin coax &4=:ase3) is so eti es preferred as it can be as lon" as .== feet. In a twisted#pair network! co puters are arran"ed in a star pattern as entioned earlier. Each co puter has a twisted#pair cable that runs to a centrali8ed hub. Twisted#pair is "enerally ore reliable than thin coax networks because the hub is capable of correctin" data errors and i provin" the networkDs overall trans ission speed and reliability. 'lso known as up-linking! hubs can be chained to"ether for even "reater expansion. >ntil recently it was ore expensive to i ple ent a network that included both 4=:ase3 as well as 4=:aseT! as you needed to purchase hubs that acco odated both types of cablin" and connectors. Eith the develop ent of the Balun! &see picture below) it is easy to add a thin coax based &4=:ase3) co puter to a twisted pair &4=:aseT) network! and likewise! a 4=:aseT based co puter to a 4=:ase3 network. I ediately below you will see &in a clockwise rotation) a co bined network that uses a co puter with a 4=:aseT network card! a laptop with a PCMCIA network card and a co puter with a 4=:ase3 network card. @or clarity purposes! the Balun would be attached to the ,T connector on the 4=:ase3 network card and the ?C#0/ plu". ' ter ination plu" would then be added to the opposite side of the ,T, connector.

There are different "rades! or categories! of twisted#pair cablin". Category 5 is the ost reliable and widely co patible! and is reco ended by ost network desi"ners. It runs easily with 4=Mbps networks! and is re<uired for @ast Ethernet. Fou can purchase (ate"ory / cablin" that is in pre#cut len"ths! or you can purchase it on bulk spools and cut and cri p to your own specific len"ths. (ate"ory / cables can be purchased or cri ped as either straight-through or crossed. ' (ate"ory / cable has B thin! color#coded wires. 'lthou"h only wires 4! 3! 1! and . of the total B wires are used by Ethernet networks for co unication! all the wires have to be connected in both +acks. Straight-through cables are used for connectin" co puters to a hub. Crossed cables are used for connectin" a hub to another hub &the exception to this is when so e hubs have the built#in uplink port that is crossed internally! which allows you to uplink hubs to"ether usin" a strai"ht cable). In a strai"ht#throu"h cable! wires 4! 3! 1! and . at one end of the cable are also wires 4! 3! 1! and . at the other end.

In a crossed cable! the order of the wires chan"e fro beco es 1! and 3 beco es ..

one end to the other: wire 4

To fi"ure out which wire is wire nu ber 4! hold the cable so that the end of the plastic ?C#0/ tip &the part that "oes into a wall +ack first) is facin" away fro you. @lip the clip so that the copper side faces up &the sprin" lock clip will now be parallel to the floor). Ehen lookin" down on the coppers! wire 4 will be on the far left. The followin" exa ples will show you "raphically what this looks like.

'in ,oa0 ,a)ling Thin coax &also known as 4=:ase3) is "reat for s all ho e or office networks with two or three co puters. Si ilar to the cablin" used to connect a G(? to a TG set! coax cablin" is inexpensive and easy to set up and does not re<uire a hub.

In a thin coax network! which is so eti es called a backbone! co puters are arran"ed in a ,chain, with a be"innin" and an end. Each co puter in a backbone re<uires a network card! a T#connector! and at least one inco in" or out"oin" coax cable. The co puter at each end of the network will also re<uire a /=#oh ter inator plu".

What is (Wireless / Computer) Networ i!g?


,y ,ra"ley +itchell, -)out.com Gui"e

See More About: client server networks peer to peer networks types of area networks network protocols

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Used CISCO Euipment,uy/sell/lease/rent use" uipment, #outer, $witch, -ccess $erver, tc.www.californiasystem.com0 Best Networking Courses*in" Networking Institutes in In"ia Get Info on Courses,-"mission,*ees.www.$hiksha.com0Networking/Courses Computer Hardware JobsCompanies &iring *reshers & !perts $u)mit 1our #esume *ree. Now2+onsterIn"ia.com uestion: (hat is 3(ireless 0 Computer4 Networking5 Answer: In the worl" of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing "evices together for the purpose of sharing "ata. Networks are )uilt with a mi! of computer har"ware an" computer software. Area Networks Networks can )e categori6e" in several "ifferent ways. %ne approach "efines the type of network accor"ing to the geographic area it spans. Local area networks 3L-Ns4, for e!ample, typically reach across a single home, whereas wi"e area networks 3(-Ns4, reach across cities, states, or even across the worl". The Internet is the worl"7s largest pu)lic (-N. Network !esign Computer networks also "iffer in their "esign. The two types of high/level network "esign are calle" client/server an" peer/to/peer. Client/server networks feature centrali6e" server computers that store email, (e) pages, files an" or applications. %n a peer/to/peer network, conversely, all computers ten" to support the same functions. Client/server networks are much more common in )usiness an" peer/to/peer networks much more common in homes. - network topology represents its layout or structure from the point of view of "ata flow. In so/calle" )us networks, for e!ample, all of the computers share an" communicate across one common con"uit, whereas in a star network, all "ata flows through one centrali6e" "evice. Common types of network topologies inclu"e )us, star, ring an" mesh.

Network "roto#o$s In networking, the communication language use" )y computer "evices is calle" the protocol. 1et another way to classify computer networks is )y the set of protocols they support. Networks often implement multiple protocols to support specific applications. Popular protocols inclu"e TCP0IP, the most common protocol foun" on the Internet an" in home networks. %ired &s %ire$ess Networking +any of the same network protocols, like TCP0IP, work in )oth wired an" wireless networks. Networks with thernet ca)les pre"ominate" in )usinesses, schools, an" homes for several "eca"es. #ecently, however, wireless networking alternatives have emerge" as the premier technology for )uil"ing new computer networks. Ne't 8 (hat is (ireless Networking5 Suggested (eading Networking *-9s %)at Is Networking * (e$ated (esour#es (hat Is a ,it5 (hat Is the %$I +o"el5 New posts to t)e Computer Networking +orums: Data Transformation $ervices an" ,ackup Limite" or No Connectivity 3weir" $upporting an" +aintaining the $ecurity (e$ated Arti#$es Networking *un"amentals / Computer an" (ireless Networking ,asics &ome Networking / &elp for (ire" an" (ireless &ome Networking Linu! Network -"ministrators Gui"e / &istory Types of Networks / L-N (-N +-N an" -rea Networks &ome Networks / &elp for (ire" an" (ireless &ome Computer Networks

Networ Ca"les a!d Ca"li!g


:. (hile wireless may )e the wave of the future, most computer networks to"ay still utili6e ca)les. C-T; an" C-T< Ca)les 3<4 Direct Ca)le Connection (ith the right kin" of ca)les, serial an" parallel ports on a PC support cheap networking of two computers.

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Cat,E Et)ernet Cab$es-ll Lengths & Colors In $tock $ame Day $hipping till ;P+ $T Cab$es-n"=its.com0Cat; SOO( Net%ork Cab$eThe (orl"7s Lea"ing$uppliers of Net%ork Cab$e $olutions www.soor.cc Patch Ca)les - patch ca)le connects two network "evices. Network patch ca)les are typically C-T; or C-T;e thernet ca)les linking a computer to a near)y hu), switch or router. thernet Crossover Ca)les - crossover ca)le "irectly connects two network "evices of the same type to each other over thernet. Crossover ca)les are useful for temporary networking of "evices when a network router, switch or hu) is not present. Null +o"em Ca)les - null mo"em ca)le connects two stan"ar" serial ports for the purpose of computer/to/ computer networking. Null mo"em ca)les ena)le "ata transfer )etween two computers with a minimum of setup re>uire". #?/@; Connectors an" Ca)les #?@; is a stan"ar" type of connector for network ca)les such as those use" in thernet networks. #?@; connectors feature eight pins to which ca)les interface electrically. *i)er %ptic Ca)le *i)er optic ca)les carry information using pulses of light. These ca)les are "esigne" for long "istance network communications, although fi)er to the home installations are )ecoming more common. (hat -re T: Lines an" TA Lines5 T: an" TA lines are reserve" circuits typically use" )y organi6ations to connect two geographically separate" offices for private voice an"0or "ata telecommunication service. Network Ca)le an" Connection Technologies Practice !am This interactive test presents >uestions an" answers on common ca)ling technologies for home networks. Lease" Line - lease" line is a ca)le connecting two specific locations for voice an"0or "ata network service. Lease" lines most commonly are rente" )y )usinesses to connect )ranch offices.

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BSNL !ata Cards+o)ile )roa")an" on CD+- 3:!4 Bnlimite" Downloa"s at C;D0monthE www.,$NL.co.in0DataCar"s Industria$ %ire$ess %I-IC.@ 0 ; G&6 -P, ,ri"ge, #epeater, $erial ,ri"ge, +%D,B$ gateway www.acksys.fr #$/CAC Pinouts These pinout "iagrams illustrate the F/pin an" C;/pin serial line #$/CAC stan"ar" network ca)les.

-(G / -merican (ire Gage This reference ta)le for the -(G specification lists wire "iameters in millimeters an" inches for wire gages :D through A<. (ire Gage Calculator Convert )etween gage num)ers an" wire si6es in inches. Bses -(G or any of the other maGor wire gage stan"ar"s. Ca)le Testing &elp +any pro"ucts an" techni>ues e!ist for testing network ca)les to ensure they meet specifications for spee" an" >uality. Learn a)out the engineering principles )ehin" network ca)le testing e!plaine" clearly with "iagrams. << ,locks / Punch Down ,locks The H<< punch "own )lockH still serves a purpose on a few types of networks, )ut they have )ecome something of a historical curiousity now