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Every chemical has a characteristic molar molecular weight (also called a molar mass) that depends on the number

and types of atoms it contains. Later this week, you will learn how to calculate molar molecular weight from a chemical formula or structure. For now, keep in mind that different chemicals have different masses per mole. Chemicals can have very different molar volumes. Moreover, the volume occupied by one mole of a given chemical will change with temperature, pressure, and state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas). One useful pattern, however, is that most gases have similar molar volumes at a given temperature and pressure. One mole of a gas typically occupies 24.5 L at 25C and 1 bar (approximately room temperature and atmospheric pressure at sea level). This value will be useful later in the course when we discuss leavening agents used in baking. In the pre-lecture questions, you saw that every substance has a particular density (mass per unit volume): therefore, the mass of one liter of a substance is not the same across substances.

1. SPEAKER 1: So if you looked back at how we calculate the number of 2. molecules of each of the ingredients, the critical number that we had to 3. give you for you to be able to do this was the number of grams per mole of 4. each of the different molecules. 5. And actually, the real difference that gave rise to the number of molecules 6. becoming more equal, even when the weights were so disparate, was that 7. the different molecules had different weights. 8. So for example, water has a molecular weight, we said, of 18 grams per mole, 9. whereas sugar, that is, sucrose, has a molecular weight of 10. 342 grams per mole.

11. Whereas baking soda, on the other hand, has a molecular weight of 84 12. grams per mole. 13. So it was these different numbers that gave rise to the very different 14. numbers of molecules that we found. 15. So now we just want to take one moment to delve into, a little bit more 16. deeply, where these numbers, where the number of grams per mole of each 17. species, comes from. 18. And it won't surprise you, I hope, to find out that the answer, again, has 19. to do with molecular structure. 20. It has to do with the weight of each one of the molecules individually. 21. And just to make this a little bit more clear, let's go through and work 22. out some of these weights for ourselves just so that you can see how 23. those go, and so that you can get a little bit of context for this sort of 24. thing as we move on in the course. 25. So you'll recall that we defined a mole, when we defined what a mole is, 26. we said a mole is 12 grams of the element carbon-12, of the isotope of 27. carbon which is called carbon-12. 28. Now carbon-12 is called carbon-12 because it has, within it, six protons 29. and six neutrons. 30. Protons and neutrons are some of the elementary constituents of matter, 31. along with electrons. 32. And they are the ingredients, as it were, that make up the carbon atom. 33. It turns out the protons and neutrons have a weight which is about the same 34. as each other, whereas electrons are so much lighter that when we're 35. thinking about weighing molecules, we don't have to worry about them at all. 36. Now the weight of a proton or a neutron is actually a 37. fundamental unit of nature. 38. And it's given by what scientists call-- there are actually two

39. different units that are sometimes used by scientists and that we might 40. use in this course. 41. One is called an atomic mass unit. 42. And the other is called a Dalton. 43. So an atomic mass unit is equal to Dalton, is equal to the mass of a 44. proton or a neutron. 45. And in real units, both of these quantities are equal to 1.66 times 10 46. to the minus 27 kilograms. 47. That's a Dalton or an atomic mass unit. 48. Now carbon-12 has 12 atomic mass units of mass, six neutrons plus 6 protons. 49. And so that means that the mass of a other carbon-12 is 12 times an atomic 50. mass unit, or about 1.9 times 10 to the minus 26 kilograms. 51. Now if we now use the weight method for counting molecules-52. remember, I told you that if you take the total weight of the stuff that you 53. want to have, and you divide it by the weight of a single molecule, that will 54. give you the number of molecules. 55. Well, if we take 12 grams of carbon-12, and we divide it by 1.9 56. times 10 to the minus 26 kilograms, we arrive at Avogadro's number, which is 57. the standard that's used to basically define Avogadro's number. 58. So that's carbon-12. 59. So what about water? 60. Well, of course, water is given by the molecular formula H2O. 61. H is a hydrogen atom. 62. There are two hydrogen atoms. 63. That's the reason for H2. 64. And a hydrogen atom basically consists of a single proton. 65. So then there's O, oxygen. 66. Oxygen consists of eight protons and eight neutrons.

67. That's 16 atomic mass units, which means that the molecular weight of 68. water, of an H2O, is 18 atomic mass units. 69. And if we then convert that to grams per mole, that turns out to be 18 70. grams per mole. 71. The 18 came from the number of atomic mass units that were present in the 72. ingredient in question. 73. So let's move on and go through some more cooking materials. 74. So what about sucrose? 75. So sucrose, which is the sugar that you buy in the grocery store that you 76. cook chocolate chip cookies with, that is given by the 77. chemical formula C12H22O11. 78. 79. C12H22O11. 80. So that consists of 12 carbons, 22 hydrogens, and 11 oxygens. 81. Now we already decided that a carbon, this is carbon-12, consists of 12 82. atomic mass units. 83. So hydrogen consists of one atomic mass units, and oxygen, we decided, 84. consists of 16 atomic mass units. 85. So if we want to know the total number of atomic mass units, what I have to 86. do is count up the total number in each of these things. 87. So it is 12 times 12. 88. That's the number of atomic mass units from carbon. 89. That's 144. 90. 22 atomic mass units from hydrogen, and 11 times 16 atomic 91. mass units from oxygen. 92. Now if we add these all up to each other, we get 342 93. total atomic mass units. 94. That 342 protons or neutrons that are present in a molecule of sucrose.

95. And that gives us a molecular weight of 342 grams per mole. 96. So you see, the reason that sucrose is so heavy is because there are just so 97. many protons and neutrons that are in each molecule. 98. So we can go on with this and do this for other substances. 99. So for example just to do one more let's do baking soda. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. So baking soda is something we'll come back to and discuss in more depth later on in this course. But the chemical name of baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. That has the chemical formula NaHCO3-Na is sodium, H, hydrogen, C, there's a carbon atom, and three oxygens. So it turns out that one atom of sodium has a molecular weight of 23 atomic mass units. Hydrogen is one atomic mass unit. Carbon, we've already said, is 12 atomic mass units. And each oxygen is 16. So three times 16 is 48. That's 48 atomic mass units. And if we add them all up, if we add up the total number of atomic mass units that is in one molecule of sodium bicarbonate, we get 84. So there are 84 atomic mass units per molecule, and that means that the molecular weight is 84 grams per mole. And so the origin of the numbers, and, really, the origin of the different number of molecules in the recipe that we just talked to is intricately connected to the molecular structure of the ingredients. And indeed, as you will see, when we go on with this course, much of cooking and the reactions of cooking are really connected to the molecules, how many there are, how they interact with each other, and how we manipulate them.

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So the Nestle Toll House Chocolate Chip Cookie recipe is my favorite recipe. And so I really enjoyed being able to count the number of molecules that were in each of the ingredients. For your homework this week, one of the things we're going to ask you to do is that we're going to give you a recipe, and we're going to ask you to count the number of molecules that are in it. And I just give you a little bit of advice. So you'll notice that in order to approach each ingredient, I needed to know two things. First, I needed to know the chemical name and the chemical formula for the ingredient. So for example, that baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. And secondly, we needed to know the molecular weight of each of the pieces of the chemical formula. So our advice to you is the following, is that you can always find out the chemical name of something by just googling It. If you just google the name of ingredient, it will tell you, oh, that's sodium bicarbonate. Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. And it will tell you the chemical formula for that as well. And once you've got the chemical formula, you can find out molecular weight of each of the atoms in the molecule by simply looking at the periodic table. And then, once you have that, you can put it all together, calculate the molecular weight of the ingredients, and find the number of molecules in your favorite recipe as well.