Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 21

Ferenc Papp

Ph.D. Dr.habil




Steel Buildings

DESIGN NOTES



Practice 2

LOADS AND EFFECTS










Written in the framework of the project TMOP 421.B JLK 29

Reviewed by
Dr. Bla Verci honorary lecturer


2012 Budapest

Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

2
2.1 General

The loads and effects in general are the subject of the course of Basis of the design
(BMEEOHSAT16) in the framework of the BSc education. Here the application of the
general knowledge to the design of simple halls is presented. The loads and effects should be
determined using the following design standards:
EN 1991-1-1:2005 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures Part 1-1: General actions.
Densities, self-weight, imposed loads for buildings (EC1-1-1);
EN 1991-1-2:2005 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. Part 1-2: General actions.
Actions on structures exposed to fire (EC1-1-2);
EN 1991-1-3:2005 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. Part 1-3: General actions. Snow
loads (EC1-1-3);
EN 1991-1-4:2007 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - General actions - Part 1-4:
Wind actions (EC1-1-4);
EN 1998-1:2008 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 1:
General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings (EC8-1).
In the present phase of the design procedure we are dealing with the basic loads and effects
which act on the building. The applied load cases and load combinations are discussed in the
sections which are denoted to the design of the structural members. In general the following
loads and effects should be taken into consideration in the case of a symmetric and duopitch
building:
dead loads;
o weight of the structural members;
o weight of the covering system;
o other dead load type loads;
meteorological loads and effects;
o snow load;
o wind effect;
imposed loads;
seismic effect;
fire effect.

2.2 Dead loads

2.2.1 Weight of the structural members

The self weight of the structural members should be taken on the base of the initial structural
parameters. The evaluation should follow the specifications of EC1-1-1. The density of the
steel material is 78,5 kN/m
3
. The dead loads which are based on the initial design parameters
should not be changed unless these initial design parameters have changed considerably. The
change is considerable if the effect of the change of any parameter on the design forces
exceeds by 3%. If the effect of the change is at the safe side, the modification of the initial
loads may be neglected. The theoretical self weight of the structural members of the frame is
automatically taken into consideration by the analysis software (Axis, ConSteel, FEM-
Design), but the self weight of the purlins and trapezoidal sheets or panels should be given by
the designer (DimRoof). The self weights of the additional elements (stiffeners, bolts, ect.) are
usually taken into consideration by 510% of the theoretical self weight.


Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

3
2.2.2 Weight of the covering system

The weight of the covering system of the roof and the walls should be evaluated according to
the layers specified in the preliminary drawing (see Figure 1.8 in Practice 1). The densities
of the materials may be found in the appropriate tables of EC1-1-1. The weights of structural
sections (purlin, wall beam, etc.) may be found in the product information of the producers.

2.2.3 Other dead load type loads

This type of loads refers to the loads which are acting regularly. Such loads are the weights of
the electrical and mechanical equipments, for example the weights of lighting, climate
technology. Such dead load is the weight of the earth layer of the special greenroof. These
type of loads should be specified by the mechanical engineer and the architectural engineer,
respectively. The applied intensity and the distribution of this type of loads should satisfy the
specifications of EC1-1-1. In present design project in lack of precise information we can
apply approximately 0,25kN/m
2
0,45kN/m
2
dead load which is totally distributed on the roof.

2.2.4 Application

2. LOADS AND EFFECTS
2.1 Dead loads
2.1.1 Weights of the structural members and the layers of the covering system
- external trapizoidal sheet : LTP 85 t=0.75mm
q
tr.ext
0.0804
kN
m
2
:=
- internal trapizoidal sheet: LTP 20 t=0.4mm
q
tr.int
0.0390
kN
m
2
:=
- heat insulation (mineral rockwool)

ins
1.5
kN
m
3
:=
density
t
ins
0.150 m :=
thickness
q
ins
t
ins

ins
0.225
kN
m
2
= :=
q
ins.other
0.100
kN
m
2
:=
- further layers for insulation
q
purlin
0.0579
kN
m
:=
- purlin: LINDAB Z 200 (t=2,0)
- main frame: automatically considered
2.1.2 Installation loads projected to the total area of the roof
- lightning
q
light
0.10
kN
m
2
:=
- building equipments
q
equip
0.15
kN
m
2
:=
- other loads
q
other
0.20
kN
m
2
:=


Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

4
2.3 Meteorological loads and effects

2.3.1 Snow load

2.3.1.1 Surface snow load

The snow loads on the building are determined by the specifications of EC1-1-4. In Hungary
the additional specifications of the Hungarian National Annex (HNA) should be considered.
The surface snow load may be calculated as follows:

- persistent and transient design situations:
k t e i
s C C s =
- exceptional design situation:
Ad t e i
s C C s =

where
s snow load on the horizontal ground [kN/m
2
];

i
shape coefficient;
C
e
exposure coefficient;
C
t
thermal coefficient;
s
k
characteristic value of the ground snow load [kN/m
2
]-ben;
s
Ad
exceptional value of the ground snow load [kN/m
2
]-ben.

The characteristic value of the ground snow load according to the specification HNA 1.5 is
the following:

|

\
|
+ =
100
A
1 25 , 0 s
k
but 25 , 1 s
k


where A is the height of the ground above the sea level in [m]. The exceptional value of the
ground snow load according to the specifications HNA 1.2 and 1.7 is the following:

k esl Ad
s C s =

where C
esl
is the exceptional snow load factor which is 2,0. The exposure factor C
e
depends on
the topography:

- windswept: C
e
= 0,8
- normal: C
e
= 1,0
- sheltered: C
e
= 1,2

Windswept topography: flat unobstructed areas exposed on all sides without, or little shelter
afforded by terrain, higher construction works or trees.
Normal topography: areas where there is no significant removal of snow by wind on construction
work, because of terrain, other construction works or trees.
Sheltered topography: areas in which the construction work being considered is considerably
lower than the surrounding terrain or surrounded by high trees and/or surrounded by higher
construction works.

In the present design project it is assumed that the snow is not prevented from sliding off the
roof, and the shape factor
i
may be taken from the Table 2.1.
Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

5
Tab.2.1 Shape factor for duopitch roof (free slip of the snow)
tet hajlsszge ( ) 0 30 30 < < 60 60

1
0,8 0,8(60-)/30 0,0

The thermal coefficient Ct should be used to account for the reduction of snow loads on roofs
with high thermal transmittance (> 1 W/m
2
K), in particular for some glass covered roofs,
because of melting caused by heat loss. In the present design C
t
=1,0 may be applied.

In regions with possible rainfalls on the snow and consecutive melting and freezing, snow
loads on roofs should be increased, especially in cases where snow and ice can block the
drainage system of the roof. In the present design this effect may be neglected.

2.3.1.2 Application

2.2 Snow load
2.2.1 Snow load for the persistent design situation
- height of the building ground
A
see
300 m :=
- charactheristic ground snow load
s
k.calc
0.25
kN
m
2
1
A
see
100 m
+
|

\
|
|

1
kN
m
2
= :=
s
k
1.25
kN
m
2
:=
- exposure coefficient (normal)
C
e
1.0 :=
- thermal coefficient
C
t
1.0 :=
- shape coefficient (<30 deg)

1
0.8 :=
- ground snow load
s
1
C
e
C
t
s
k
1
kN
m
2
= :=
2.2.2 Snow load for the exceptional design situation
- exceptional snow load coefficient
C
esl
2.0 :=
- exceptional snow load
s
Ad
C
esl
s
k
2.5
kN
m
2
= :=
- exceptional ground snow load
s
r

1
C
e
C
t
s
Ad
2
kN
m
2
= :=



2.3.2 Wind effect

2.3.2.1 Wind pressure on surfaces

The effect is specified in the EC1-1-4. The wind load is the compressive or the sucking load
which is caused by the wind effect. The wind load is perpendicular to the surface. The load
may affect on the external and the internal surfaces as well. Besides the normal wind load the
friction load of the wind effect may be considered. Any wind effect may be considered by a
simplified set of loads which is equivalent to the effect of the turbulent peak velocity. The
wind load belongs to the group of imposed loads. The wind effect depends on the following
parameters of the building:
dimensions;
shape;
Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

6
terrain properties;
size and arrangement of the openings;
dynamic properties.

The external and internal wind pressure may be calculated by the following expressions:

pe e p e
c ) z ( q w =
pi i p i
c ) z ( q w =

where
) z ( q
p
is the peak velocity pressure;
i e
z , z is the external and internal reference heights;
pi pe
c , c is the external and internal pressure coefficients.

Figure 2.1 shows the physical direction of the wind loads in the cases of wind sucking (-) and
wind pressure (+). It is noted that the summation of the wind loads should be done by these
physical directions.



Fig.2.1 Physical direction of the wind loads in the cases of wind
sucking (-) and wind pressure (+)

The reference heights may be determined using the following rules (see Figure 2.2):
if the height of the building (h) is not greater than the width (b) of the windward surface of
the building:
h z
e
= and
e i
z z = ;
if the height of the building (h) is greater than b but it is not greater than 2b:

- zone for height of b: b z
e
= and
e i
z z = ;
- zone for height of (h-b): h z
e
= and
e i
z z = .











Fig.2.2 Reference heights for plane buildings
(-)
sz
(+)
b b
h
h
h b b < h 2b
z
e
=h
b
z
e
=b

z
e
=h
maximum
height
maximum
height
Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

7
2.3.2.2 Peak velocity pressure

The peak velocity pressure may be calculated by the following expression:

b e p
q ) z ( c ) z ( q =

where
) z ( c
e
is the exposure factor;
b
q is the basic velocity pressure.

The basic velocity pressure may be calculated as follows:

) z ( v
2
1
q
2
b b
=

where the density of the air:

3
m
kg
25 , 1 =

and where the basic wind velocity:

0 , b season dir b
v c c v =

According to the Hungarian National Annex (HNA) the initial basic wind velocity and the
direction and season coefficients may be taken as
s
m
6 , 23 v
0 , b
= ; c
dir
=0,85 ; c
season
=1,0

The exposure factor is the ratio of the peak velocity pressure to the basic velocity pressure,
and it may be calculated by the following expression:

) z ( c ) z ( c )) z ( I 7 1 ( ) z ( c
2
0
2
r v e
+ =

where
) z ( c
r
is the roughness factor;
) z ( c
0
is the orography factor;
) z ( I
v
is the turbulence intensity.

The roughness factor depends on the reference height:
- if
min
z z < than
|
|

\
|
=
0
min
r r
z
z
ln k ) z ( c
- if
min
z z than
|
|

\
|
=
0
r r
z
z
ln k ) z ( c
where the terrain factor:
Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

8
07 , 0
II , 0
0
r
z
z
19 , 0 k
|
|

\
|
=
where [ ] m 05 , 0 z
II , 0
= , see the second category (II) in the Table 2.2. In the expression
0
z is the
roughness length and
min
z is the minimum height. These constants are given in the Table 2.2.

Tab.2.2 Roughness lengths and minimum heights
terrain category
0
z [m]
min
z [m]
0 Sea or coastal area exposed to the open sea 1
0,003 1
I Lakes or flat and horizontal area with negligible vegetation and
without obstacles
0,01 1
II Area with low vegetation such as grass and isolated obstacles
(trees, buildings) with separations of at least 20 obstacle heights
0,05 2
III Area with regular cover of vegetation or buildings or with isolated
obstacles with separations of maximum 20 obstacle heights (such
as villages, suburban terrain, permanent forest)
0,3 5
IV Area in which at least 15 % of the surface is covered with
buildings and their average height exceeds 15 m
1,0 10

When the average slope of the upwind terrain is less than 3, the orography factor may be
0 , 1 ) z ( c
0
= .

The turbulence intensity may be calculated by the following expressions:
- if
min
z z < than
|
|

\
|

=
0
min
0
I
v
z
z
ln ) z ( c
k
) z ( I
- if
min
z z than
|
|

\
|

=
0
0
I
v
z
z
ln ) z ( c
k
) z ( I
where the turbulence factor may be k
I
=1,0.

The exposure factor may be calculated using the Figure 4.2 of EC1-1-4 (see the graphics
below):

Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

9
2.3.2.3 Application

2.3 Wind loads
2.3.1 Basic velocity pressure
- initial parameters specified by the Hungarian NA
initial basic velocity
v
b0
23.6
m
s
:=
direction factor
c
dir
0.85 :=
season factor
c
season
1.0 :=
air density
1.25
kg
m
3
:=
- basic velocity
v
b
c
dir
c
season
v
b0
20.060
m
s
= :=
- basic velocity pressure
q
b
1
2
v
b
2
:= q
b
0.252
kN
m
2
:=
2.3.2 Peak velocity pressure
- parameters for terrain category (Category III)
z
0
0.3 m := z
min
5.0 m := z
0.II
0.05 m :=
- parameter for category II
- terrain factor
k
r
0.19
z
0
z
0.II
|

\
|
|

0.07
0.215 = :=
- reference height
z H
f
9.019 m = :=
- roughness coefficient
z z
min
>
c
r
k
r
ln
z
z
0
|

\
|
|

0.733 = :=
- orography coefficient (plane country, slope less than 3 degs)
c
0
1.0 :=
- turbulence coefficient (no specific rule)
k
I
1.0 :=
- turbulence intensity
I
v
k
I
c
0
ln
z
z
0
|

\
|
|

0.294 = :=
- exposure factor
c
e
1 7 I
v
+ ( ) c
r
2
c
0
2
1.643 = :=
q
p
c
e
q
b
0.414
kN
m
2
= :=
- peak velocity pressure
The peak velocity pressure can be determined or checked using the Figure 4.2 of the EN
1991-1-4:
reference height
z 9.019 m =
terrain category III
exposure factor by graphics
c
e.graphics
1.63 :=
peak velocity pressure
q
p.graphics
c
e.graphics
q
b
0.411
kN
m
2
= :=




Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

10
2.3.2.4 External pressure coefficient

The external pressure coefficients depend on the reference height and the size of the loaded
area A, which is the area of the structure that produces the wind action in the section to be
calculated. The external pressure coefficients are given for two loaded areas:
-
1 , pe
c is for area of 1.0 m
2
as local coefficient;
-
10 , pe
c is for area of 10.0 m
2
as overall coefficient.
Between the two limit areas (for 1m
2
<A<10m
2
) the following interpolation may be used (see
Figure 2.3):
A lg ) c c ( c c
10 10 , pe 1 , pe 1 , pe A , pe
=

Fig.2.3 Interpolation of the external pressure coefficient

In the present design project the interpolation may be neglected. For the design of the
trapezoidal sheet the c
pe.1
may be used, while for the design of the purlins and the main frames
the c
pe.10
may be used. The external pressure coefficients are given in tables. The tables for
symmetric buildings with duopitch roofs are contained in the following Annexes:

- Annex 1: Wind effect on vertical walls of the building
- Annex 2: Cross wind effect on the roof (=0)
- Annex 3: Longitudinal wind effect on the roof (=90)

Notes for application of the tables
The tables of the external pressure coefficients have more rows (one row belongs to one slope)
where there are two sub-rows (for example one + and one - values). It is an important rule
that for one roof plane (actually for the half roof) the sub-rows should not be changed. For
example in the Annex 2 for roof slope of 5
o
there are two sub-rows which define four
combinations:


Zones of the roof
F G H I J

=5
o


c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1

1 -1,7 -2,5 -1,2 -2,0 -0,6 -1,2 -0,6 -0,6 +0,2 +0,2
2 -1,7 -2,5 -1,2 -2,0 -0,6 -1,2 -0,6 -0,6 -0,6 -0,6
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0,6 -0,6 +0,2 +0,2
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0,6 -0,6 -0,6 -0,6


The automatic use of the tables may lead to a large number of wind load cases. At the design of
simple buildings the designer may select the most dangerous case by a decision based on his
experience and intuition.


c
pe,1



c
pe,10

0,1 1,0 10,0 log
10
A[m
2
]

Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

11
2.3.2.5 Application

2.3.3 External wind pressure
2.3.3.1 Cross wind (0 degree)
Initial parameters
- size of the building
width perpendicular to the wind direction
b
0
d
a
36 m = :=
width parallel to the wind direction
d
0
b 20 m = :=
height
h
0
H
f
9.019 m = :=

0
h
0
d
0
0.451 = :=
- size factor
- size of the zones
e
0
2 h
0
18.038 m = :=
e
0.4
e
0
4
4.51 m = :=
e
0.10
e
0
10
1.804 m = :=
-slope of the roof (approximately) 10 deg
Indeces used below
A,B,... mark of the wall and the roof zone
0; 90 mark of the wind direction in degree
1;10 mark of the loaded area (1m
2
or 10 m
2
)
Wind pressure on the walls
According to Annex 1:
- interpolation factor (between h/d=1 and h/d=0,25)

0

0
0.25 ( )
0.75
0.268 = :=
- pressure coefficients

c
pe.A.0.10
1.2 := c
pe.B.0.10
0.8 := c
pe.C.0.10
0.5 :=
c
pe.D.0.10
0.7 0.1
0
+ 0.727 = := c
pe.E.0.10
0.3 0.2
0
+ ( ) 0.354 = :=
- wind pressures
w
A.0.10
c
pe.A.0.10
q
p
0.497
kN
m
2
= := w
B.0.10
c
pe.B.0.10
q
p
0.331
kN
m
2
= :=
w
C.0.10
c
pe.C.0.10
q
p
0.207
kN
m
2
= := w
D.0.10
c
pe.D.0.10
q
p
0.301
kN
m
2
= :=
w
E.0.10
c
pe.E.0.10
q
p
0.146
kN
m
2
= :=
Wind pressure on the roof
Annex 2 contains the pressure coefficients for roof slope of 10 deg which were interpolated
linearly between 5 and 15 degrees given by the EN 1991-1-4.
For roof zones of F-G-H there are two cases: wind sucking and wind pressure.
zones of F-G-H
- wind sucking
c
pe.F.0.1
2.25 := c
pe.F.0.10
1.30 :=
w
F.0.1
c
pe.F.0.1
q
p
0.931
kN
m
2
= := w
F.0.10
c
pe.F.0.10
q
p
0.538
kN
m
2
= :=

Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

12
c
pe.G.0.1
1.75 := c
pe.G.0.10
1.0 :=
w
G.0.1
c
pe.G.0.1
q
p
0.724
kN
m
2
= := w
G.0.10
c
pe.G.0.10
q
p
0.414
kN
m
2
= :=
c
pe.H.0.1
0.75 := c
pe.H.0.10
0.45 :=
w
H.0.1
c
pe.H.0.1
q
p
0.31
kN
m
2
= := w
H.0.10
c
pe.H.0.10
q
p
0.186
kN
m
2
= :=
- wind pressure
c
pe.FGH.0
0.1 := c
pe.I.0.1
0.50 :=
w
FGH.0
c
pe.FGH.0
q
p
0.041
kN
m
2
= := w
I.0.1
c
pe.I.0.1
q
p
0.207
kN
m
2
= :=
c
pe.I.0.10
0.50 := c
pe.J.0.1
0.65 :=
w
I.0.10
c
pe.I.0.10
q
p
0.207
kN
m
2
= := w
J.0.1
c
pe.J.0.1
q
p
0.269
kN
m
2
= :=
c
pe.J.0.10
0.4 :=
w
J.0.10
c
pe.J.0.10
q
p
0.166
kN
m
2
= :=
2.3.3.2 Longitudinal wind direction (90 degrees)
Initial parameters
- size of the building
width perpendicular to the wind direction
b
90
b 20 m = :=
width parallel to the wind direction
d
90
d
a
36 m = :=
height
h
90
H
f
9.019 m = :=
- size factor

90
h
90
d
90
0.251 = :=
- size of the zones
e
90
2 h
90
18.038 m = := e
90.2
e
90
2
9.019 m = := e
90.4
e
90
4
4.51 m = :=
e
90.5
e
90
5
3.608 m = := e
90.10
e
90
10
1.804 m = :=
Wind pressure on the walls
According to Annex 1
- size factor

90
h
90
d
90
0.251 = :=
- wind pressures
c
pe.A.90.10
1.2 := c
pe.B.90.10
0.8 :=
w
A.90.10
c
pe.A.90.10
q
p
0.497
kN
m
2
= := w
B.90.10
c
pe.B.90.10
q
p
0.331
kN
m
2
= :=
c
pe.C.90.10
0.5 := c
pe.D.90.10
0.7 :=
w
C.90.10
c
pe.C.90.10
q
p
0.207
kN
m
2
= := w
D.90.10
c
pe.D.90.10
q
p
0.29
kN
m
2
= :=
c
pe.E.90.10
0.3 :=
w
E.90.10
c
pe.E.90.10
q
p
0.124
kN
m
2
= :=

Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

13

Wind pressure on the roof
According to Annex 3
c
pe.F.90.1
2.1 := c
pe.F.90.10
1.45 :=
w
F.90.1
c
pe.F.90.1
q
p
0.869
kN
m
2
= := w
F.90.10
c
pe.F.90.10
q
p
0.6
kN
m
2
= :=
c
pe.G.90.1
2.0 := c
pe.G.90.10
1.30 :=
w
G.90.1
c
pe.G.90.1
q
p
0.828
kN
m
2
= := w
G.90.10
c
pe.G.90.10
q
p
0.538
kN
m
2
= :=
c
pe.H.90.1
1.2 := c
pe.H.90.10
0.65 :=
w
H.90.1
c
pe.H.90.1
q
p
0.497
kN
m
2
= := w
H.90.10
c
pe.H.90.10
q
p
0.269
kN
m
2
= :=
c
pe.I.90.1
0.55 := c
pe.I.90.10
0.55 :=
w
I.90.1
c
pe.I.90.1
q
p
0.228
kN
m
2
= := w
I.90.10
c
pe.I.90.10
q
p
0.228
kN
m
2
= :=



2.3.2.6 Internal pressure coefficient

Internal and external pressures shall be considered to act at the same time (but external
pressure may act without internal pressure). The internal pressure coefficient (c
pi
) depends on
the size and distribution of the openings (windows and doors). When in at least two sides of
the buildings (walls or roof) the total area of openings in each side is more than 30 % of the
area of that side, the actions on the structure should not be calculated from the rules given
here.

For a building with a dominant face the internal pressure should be taken as a fraction of the
external pressure at the openings of the dominant face. A face of a building should be
regarded as dominant when the area of openings at that face is at least twice the area of
openings and leakages in the remaining faces of the building considered. When the area of the
openings at the dominant face is twice the area of the openings in the remaining
faces,

pe pi
c 75 , 0 c =

When the area of the openings at the dominant face is at least 3 times the area of the openings
in the remaining faces,

pe pi
c 90 , 0 c =

where c
pe
is the value for the external pressure coefficient at the openings in the dominant
face. When these openings are located in zones with different values of external pressures an
area weighted average value of c
pe
should be used.

In the present design project we may assume that there is no dominant face and the
distribution of the openings is uniform. In this case the internal pressure coefficient may be
calculated as follows:
Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

14
if 25 , 0 d / h
- if 33 , 0 than 35 , 0 c
pi
=
- if 9 , 0 > than 3 , 0 c
pi
=
- if 9 , 0 33 , 0 < than 14 , 1 726 , 0 c
pi
=
if 0 , 1 d / h
- if 33 , 0 than 35 , 0 c
pi
=
- if 95 , 0 > than 5 , 0 c
pi
=
- if 95 , 0 33 , 0 < than 37 , 1 802 , 0 c
pi
=

The opening ratio in the expressions may be calculated with the following term:

=
A
A
neg


where
neg
A is the area of openings where c
pe
is negative or zero and

A is the area of all


areas.

2.3.2.7 Application

2.3.4 Internal wind pressure
2.3.4.1 Parameters of the openings
- area of openings in the side walls
width of the area of windows
L
w.s
23.2 m :=
height of the area of windows
h
w.s
1.2 m :=
A
s
L
w.s
h
w.s
27.84 m
2
= :=
- area of openings in the end walls
windows
width of the area of windows
L
w.e
12.6 m :=
height of the area of windows
h
w.e
1.2 m :=
A
e.w
L
w.e
h
w.e
15.12 m
2
= :=
industrial door
width of the door
b
w.d
5.0 m :=
height of the door
h
w.d
4.6 m :=
A
e.d
b
w.d
h
w.d
23 m
2
= :=
A
f
A
e.w
A
e.d
+ 38.12 m
2
= :=
2.3.4.2 Cross wind effect (0 degree)
- initial parameters
area of all openings
A
sum
2 A
s
A
f
+ ( ) 131.92 m
2
= :=
area of openings with negative or zero external pressure
A
neg.0
A
s
2 A
f
+ 104.08 m
2
= :=


Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

15
opening ratio

0
A
neg.0
A
sum
0.789 = :=
- pressure coefficients
for h/d=0.25

c
pi.0.0.25
0.726 1.14
0
0.173 = :=
for h/d=1.00
c
pi.0.1
0.802 1.37
0
0.279 = :=
c
pi.0
c
pi.0.0.25

0
c
pi.0.1
c
pi.0.0.25
( ) + 0.202 = :=
- wind pressure

w
i.0
c
pi.0
q
p
0.083
kN
m
2
= :=
2.3.4.3 Longitudinal wind effect (90 degrees)

- initial parameters

area of openings with negative and zero external wind pressure coefficient
A
neg.90
A
f
2 A
s
+ 93.8 m
2
= :=
opening ratio

90
A
neg.90
A
sum
0.711 = :=
- internal pressure coefficient
for h/d<0.25
c
pi.90
0.726 1.14
90
0.085 = :=
- wind pressure

w
i.90
c
pi.90
q
p
0.035
kN
m
2
= :=



2.4 Imposed loads

The imposed loads are specified by the EC1-1-1. The determination of the imposed loads
should be based on careful examination of the design situation and extended consultations
with the design partners (mechanical designer, electrical designer, etc.). The roof structures
are classified into categories. The standard orders a distributed and a concentrated fictive load
to every category. In the present design situation the walking on the roof is not allowed,
except maintenance and repairing work, therefore the roof belongs to the category H. Table
2.3 shows the design imposed loads for the category H.

Tab.2.3 Imposed loads for roof of category H
slope of roof

distributed load
(

2 k
m
kN
q
concentrated load
[ ] kN Q
k

o
10
0,4 1,0
o
20
0 0
Notes: between the two limits linear interpolation may be used

The imposed load and the snow load shall not be considered to act at the same time. Since the
effect of the snow load is greater, the imposed load may be neglected in the present design. It
is noted that the concentrated imposed load (Q
k
) may be relevant at the design of the trapezoid
sheet and the purlins, but it is considered by the design software (DimRoof).

Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

16

2.5 Seismic effect

The seismic effect is specified by the EC8-1. Due to the earthquake the displacement and the
acceleration of the ground is changing in time. The seismic design of the buildings is based on
the consideration of the ground acceleration. The acceleration has vertical and horizontal
components, but in Hungary the vertical component may be neglected. The horizontal
component of the ground acceleration depends on the reference peak ground acceleration of
type A ground:

gR I g
a a =

where a
gR
is the reference peak ground acceleration of type A ground (see Figure 2.4),
I
is
the importance factor given in Table 2.4. The building in the present design project may
belong to importance category I or II.

Tab.2.4 Importance categories of buildings
importance category importance factor

I

I. Buildings of minor importance for public safety, e.g. agricultural
buildings, etc.
0,8
II. Ordinary buildings, not belonging in the other categories. 1,0
III. Buildings whose seismic resistance is of importance in view of
the consequences associated with a collapse, e.g. schools,
assembly halls, cultural institutions etc.
1,2
IV. Buildings whose integrity during earthquakes is of vital
importance for civil protection, e.g. hospitals, fire stations,
power plants, etc.
1,4


Fig.2.4 The reference peak ground acceleration of type A ground in Hungary

The effect of ground acceleration to the building structure depends on the type of the response
spectra. In Hungary the Type 1 should be applied, which assumes a heavy earthquake with an
epicentre relatively far from the building. For the elastic design method (modal analysis) the
following response spectra may be used:

Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

17
(

+ =
3
2
q
5 , 2
T
T
3
2
S a ) T ( S T T 0
B
g d B

q
5 , 2
S a ) T ( S T T T
g d C B
=
)
`

=
g
C
g d D C
a ;
T
T
q
5 , 2
S a max ) T ( S T T T
)
`

=
g 2
D C
g d d
a ;
T
T T
q
5 , 2
S a max ) T ( S T T
where q is the behaviour factor, T [sec] is the period time of the structure, =0.2 is the limit
factor, and S and T
B
, T
C
and T
D
are given in the Table 2.5.

Tab.2.5 Parameters for Type 1 response spectra
ground type description of stratigraphic profile S T
B
T
C
T
D

A
Rock or other rock-like geological formation, including at
most 5 m of weaker material at the surface.
1,0 0,15 0,4 2,0
B
Deposits of very dense sand, gravel, or very stiff clay, at
least several tens of metres in thickness, characterised by
a gradual increase of mechanical properties with depth.
1,2 0,15 0,5 2,0
C
Deep deposits of dense or medium-dense sand, gravel or
stiff clay with thickness from several tens to many
hundreds of metres.
1,15 0,20 0,6 2,0
D
Deposits of loose-to-medium cohesion less soil (with or
without some soft cohesive layers), or of predominantly
soft-to-firm cohesive soil.
1,35 0,20 0,8 2,0
E
A soil profile consisting of a surface alluvium layer with
vs values of type C or D and thickness varying between
about 5 m and 20 m
1,4 0,15 0,5 2,0

2.6 Fire effect

The fire effect on the building is specified by the EC1-1-2. In the present design project the
standard (ISO) fire curve should be considered at the design of the main frame.

Fig.2.5 Unified fire compartment of the isolated main frame structure
Standard fire curve
Required resistance: 15 min
Unprotected
Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

18

The required fire resistance is 15 minutes, R15, which means of fire resistance class IV and
one floor building. All the steel structural members (I sections) of the main frame are
unprotected, and they are imposed to fire effect at four sides. The main frame is examined for
fire effect as an isolated structure, and the room which is specified by the frame is a unified
fire compartment (see the Figure 2.5).

2.7 Application

2.4 Imposed load
- service class of the roof: H
- slope of the roof: =10
o

- imposed load
surface distributed load
q
k
0.4
kN
m
2
:=
concentrated load
Q
k
1.0 kN :=
2.5 Seismic effect
- importance category of the building: II.

I
1.0 :=
- importance factor
-seismic zone Esztergom region
- horizontal component of the reference peak
ground acceleration

a
gR
0.15 g 1.471
m
s
2
= :=
- ground type
C
ground factor
S 1.15 :=
parameters of the response spectra
T
B
0.2 := T
C
0.6 := T
D
2.0 :=
2.6 Fire effect
- applied temperature-time curve: standard (ISO)
- category of fire resistance: IV (simple building)
- required limit for fire resistance (R15)
t
fi
15 min :=
- type of the passive fire protection: "unprotected I section exposed to fire at four sides"
- fire compartment: "internal room determined by the main frame structure"



Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

19
Annex 1
External pressure coefficient for vertical walls
(for case of h<b)

zones
A B C D E

h/d
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1

1
-1,2 -1,4 -0,8 -1,1 -0,5 0,8 1,0 -0,5
0,25
-1,2 -1,4 -0,8 -1,1 -0,5 0,7 1,0 -0,3





w
b
d
D E
e/5
e
A B C
e/5
A B
Top view
side
h
A B C
A B
h
Side zones for e<d:
) h 2 ; b min( e =
Side zones for e>d:


Note
In the case of rectangular building b is the width of the side which is affected by the wind,
and d is the width of the perpendicular side. The wind may affect to the longitudinal side
(=0
0
) and to the front side (=90
0
), respectively.
0
Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

20
Annex 2
External pressure coefficients of roof due to cross wind ( =0
0
)
(for case of h<b)

zones
F G H I J


c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1

+0,2 +0,2 +0,2 +0,2
0*
-1,8 -2,5 -1,2 -2,0 -0,7 -1,2
-0,2 -0,2 -0,2 -0,2
-1,7 -2,5 -1,2 -2,0 -0,6 -1,2 +0,2 +0,2
5
+0,0 +0,0 +0,0 +0,0 +0,0 +0,0
-0,6 -0,6
-0,6 -0,6
-1,3 -2,25 -1,0 -1,75 -0,45 -0,75 -0,4 -0,65
10**
+0,1 +0,1 +0,1 +0,1 +0,1 +0,1
-0,5 -0,5
-0,3 -0,3
-0,9 -2,0 -0,8 -1,5 -0,3 -0,3 -0,4 -0,4 -1,0 -1,5
15
+0,2 +0,2 +0,2 +0,2 +0,2 +0,2 +0,0 +0,0 +0,0 +0,0
* given for the case of sharp eaves of flat roof (no parapet or curved eaves)
** given by linear interpolation between slopes of =5
0
and =15
0






e/10 e/10
h

w
=0
0

w
G H J I
F
F e/4
e/4
Ridge
b
Ferenc Papp
Steel Buildings Loads and effects

21
Annex 3
External pressure coefficients of roof due to longitudinal wind
( =90
0
)
(for case of h<b)

F G H I
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1

+0,2 +0,2
0*
-1,8 -2,5 -1,2 -2,0 -0,7 -1,2
-0,2 -0,2
5
-1,6 -2,2 -1,3 -2,0 -0,7 -1,2 -0,6 -0,6
10**
-1,45 -2,1 -1,3 -2,0 -0,65 -1,2 -0,55 -0,55
15
-1,3 -2,0 -1,3 -2,0 -0,6 -1,2 -0,5 -0,5
* given for the case of sharp eaves of flat roof (no parapet or curved eaves)
** given by linear interpolation between slopes of =5
0
and =15
0










h
=90
0

w
w
G
H
I
F
H
e/2
e/10
Ridge
G
F
e/4
I
e/4