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MONGOLIA

Public Administration Country Profile


Division for Public Administration and Development Management (DPADM) Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) United Nations March 2004

All papers, statistics and materials contained in the Country Profiles express entirely the opinion of the mentioned authors. They should not, unless otherwise mentioned, be attributed to the Secretariat of the United Nations. The designations employed and the presentation of material on maps in the Country Profiles do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Table of Contents Table of Contents........................................................................................... 1 Mongolia....................................................................................................... 2 1. General Information ................................................................................... 3 1.1 People.................................................................................................. 3 1.2 Economy .............................................................................................. 3 1.3 Public Spending ..................................................................................... 4 1.4 Public Sector Employment and Wages....................................................... 4 2. Legal Structure .......................................................................................... 5 2.1 Legislative Branch.................................................................................. 5 2.2 Executive Branch ................................................................................... 5 2.3 Judiciary Branch .................................................................................... 6 2.4 Local Government.................................................................................. 7 3. The State and Civil Society .......................................................................... 8 3.1 Ombudsperson ...................................................................................... 8 3.2 NGOs ................................................................................................... 8 3.3 Civil Society .......................................................................................... 8 4. Civil Service .............................................................................................10 4.1 Legal basis...........................................................................................10 4.2 Recruitment .........................................................................................10 4.3 Promotion............................................................................................11 4.4 Remuneration ......................................................................................11 4.5 Training...............................................................................................11 4.6 Gender................................................................................................11 5. Ethics and Civil Service ..............................................................................12 5.1 Corruption ...........................................................................................12 5.2 Ethics..................................................................................................13 6. e-Government ..........................................................................................14 6.1 e-Government Readiness .......................................................................14 6.2 e-Participation ......................................................................................15 7. Links .......................................................................................................16 7.1 National sites .......................................................................................16 7.2 Miscellaneous sites................................................................................16

MONGOLIA
Mongolia Click here for detailed map

Government type Parliamentary Independence 11 July 1921 Constitution 12 February 1992 (click here) Legal system Blend of Soviet, German, and US systems of law; combines parliamentary system with presidential system; not accepted compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction Administrative divisions 21 provinces and 1 municipality
Source: The World Factbook - Mongolia

After seven decades of communist rule in Mongolia the nation's first free multiparty elections took place in July 1990. Since then important progress in consolidating democratic institutions has been made. In 1992 a new Constitution, firmly based on democratic values, was adopted. Like other transitional economies which lost large external subsidies from the Soviet Union, Mongolia experienced a sharp depression and increased poverty in the first part of the 1990s. Macroeconomic stability was first achieved in 1994. The latest parliamentary elections in June 2004 produced a victory for the Motherland Democratic Coalition (MDC) consisting of the main opposition parties, i.e. the Democratic Party, the Democratic New Socialist Party and the Republican Civil Will Party.
Source: European Commission (External Relations) Mongolia

1. General Information
1.1 People
Population Total estimated population (,000), 2003 Female estimated population (,000), 2003 Male estimated population (,000), 2003 Sex ratio (males per 100 females), 2003 Average annual rate of change of pop. (%), 2000-2005 Youth and Elderly Population Total population under age 15 (%), 2003 Female population aged 60+ (%), 2003 Male population aged 60+ (%), 2003 Human Settlements Urban population (%), 2001 Rural population (%), 2001 Urban average annual rate of change in pop. (%), 00-05 Rural average annual rate of change in pop/ (%), 00-05 Education Total school life expectancy, 2000/2001 Female school life expectancy, 2000/2001 Male school life expectancy, 2000/2001 Female estimated adult (15+) illiteracy rate (%), 2000 Male estimated adult (15+) illiteracy rate (%), 2000 Employment Unemployment rate (15+) (%), 1998 Female adult (+15) economic activity rate (%), 1998 Male adult (+15) economic activity rate (%), 1998 5.7ii 55 64
iii

Mongolia
2,594 1,295 1,299 100 1.29 32 6 5 57 43 1.27 0.96 9.8 10.7 8.8 1.7 1.4

Kazakhstan
15,433 8,024 7,409 92 -0.36 25 14 9 56 44 -0.34 -0.41 11.7 11.7 11.7 0.9
i

Tajikistan
6,245 3,133 3,112 99 0.86

1 a

36 7 6
c

28 72 0.69 0.69
d

9.9 9.1 10.7 1.2


i

1 1 1 2 2

0.3i 13.7iii 62
i i
iv

0.4i 2.7iv 60 75
i i

e
1 2 2

78

Notes: i 1989; ii Based on registered unemployment from employment office records, On 31st December; registered unemployment from employment office records

Official estimates;

1997, Based on

1.2 Economy
GDP GDP total (millions US$), 2002 GDP per capita (US$), 2002 PPP GDP total (millions int. US$), 2002 PPP GDP per capita(int. US$), 2002 Sectors Value added in agriculture (% of GDP), 2003 Value added in industry (% of GDP), 2003 Value added in services (% of GDP), 2003 Miscellaneous GDP implicit price deflator (annual % growth), 2003 Private consumption (% of GDP), 2003 Government consumption (% of GDP), 2003
Notes:

Mongolia
1,262 515 4,044 1,651 28.1 14.9 57.0 4.7 63.0 18.9

Kazakhstan
24,205 1,636 85,347 5,769 7.6 39.2 53.1 7.9 55.7 11.5

Tajikistan
1,208 191 5,788 916

2 a

23.4 20.2 56.4


c

14.2 73.9 8.3

1 a

United Nations Statistics Division: Statistics Division and Population Division of the UN Secretariat; b Statistics Division and Population Division of the UN Secretariat; c Population Division of the UN Secretariat; d1 UNESCO ; d2 UNESCO; e1 ILO; e2 ILO/OECD 2 World Bank - Data and Statistics: a Quick Reference Tables; b Data Profile Tables ; c Country at a Glance

1.3 Public Spending


Public expenditures Education (% of GNP), 1985-1987 Education (% of GNP), 1995-1997 Health (% of GDP), 1990 Health (% of GDP), 1998 Military (% of GDP), 1990 Military (% of GDP), 2000 Total debt service (% of GDP), 1990 Total debt service (% of GDP), 2000
Notes: i Data refer to 1999

Mongolia
11.7 5.7 6.4 .. 5.7 2.5 .. 3

Kazakhstan
3.4 4.4 3.2 2.7i .. 0.7 .. 10.1

Tajikistan
3

.. 2.2 4.9 5.2 .. 1.2 .. 8.8

a a

b b

1.4 Public Sector Employment and Wages


Data from the latest year available

Mongolia 1991-1995

Mongolia 1996-2000

East Asia and Pacific average4 1996-2000

.. average4 1996-2000

Low income group average4 1996-2000

Employment
Civilian Central Government5 Sub-national Government5 (,000) (% pop.) (,000) (% pop.) (,000) (% pop.) (,000) (% pop.) (,000) (% pop.) (,000) (% pop.) (,000) (% pop.) (,000) (% pop.) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21.0 0.95 .. .. .. .. 4.9 0.21 .. .. 47.7 2.05 27.3 1.17 12.9 0.55 9.8 0.42 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.18 .. 13.1 0.53 .. 0.33 0.26 .. 0.30 0.16 .. 0.62 0.76 .. 0.91 0.63 .. 0.46 0.63 .. 0.46

Education employees

Health employees

Police

Armed forces

SOE Employees

Total Public Employment

Wages
Total Central gov't wage bill Total Central govt wage bill Average gov't wage Real ave. govt wage ('97 price) (% of GDP) (% of exp) (,000 LCU) (,000 LCU) .. 9.5 .. .. .. 23.3 11.4 324 324 .. 2.9 2.9 4.4 9.4 24.4 9.4 24.4 5.4 24.7

Average govt wage to per capita GDP ratio

Source: World Bank - Public Sector Employment and Wages

UNDP - Human Development Report 2002 Data refer to total public expenditure on education, including current and capital expenditures. As a result of a number of limitations in the data, comparisons of military expenditure data over time and across countries should be made with caution. For detailed notes on the data see SIPRI (2001). 4 Averages for regions and sub regions are only generated if data is available for at least 35% of the countries in that region or sub region. 5 Excluding education, health and police if available (view Country Sources for further explanations).
a b

2. Legal Structure

Early in 1992, a new Mongolian Constitution was adopted enshrining human rights
and the ownership of land and a state structure based on separation of power between legislative and judicial branches.
Source: European Commission (External Relations) - Political Situation

2.1 Legislative Branch


Unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms).6 Women in parliament: 8 out of 76 seats: (11%).7

The Parliament of Mongolia (the State Ikh Hural) is a unicameral parliament with 76 members. Members are elected from 76 election districts by direct votes, on the first-past-the-post system. According to the Constitution, parliamentary elections are held every 4 years. Speaker and Vice-speakers are elected by members of parliament through open votes.

Fact box: elections: Last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held July 2004) election results: seats by party MRP 72 out of 76 (50.3% of votes)8

Parliament approves the state budget annually. Fiscal year starts on the 1st January. The Government submits the budget to the Parliament. Parliament examines and approves the budget by every item. If necessary, it may make amendments to the state budget in the middle of the year (usually in April). The Government and Ministry of Finance submit the budget report to the Parliament. In most cases budget spending is approved as submitted by the Government and Ministry of Finance.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001) (edited)

2.2 Executive Branch


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural in consultation with the president elections: President nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a fouryear term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held May 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural.

The president is the head of state, commander in chief of the armed forces, and head of the National Security Council. He is popularly elected by a national majority for a 4-year term and limited to two terms. The constitution empowers the president to propose a prime minister, call for the government's dissolution, initiate legislation, veto all or parts of legislation (parliament can override the veto with a two-thirds majority), and issue decrees, which become effective with the prime minister's signature.

The government, headed by the prime minister, has a 4-year term. The prime minister is nominated by the president and confirmed by

Fact box: chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 July 2000)

6 7 8

Source of fact boxes if nothing else stated: The World Factbook - Mongolia Inter-Parliamentary Union - Women in National Parliaments European Commission (External Relations) - Political Situation

parliament. The prime minister chooses a cabinet, subject to parliament approval. Dissolution of the government occurs upon the prime minister's resignation, simultaneous resignation of half the cabinet, or after parliament vote for dissolution.
Source: U.S. Department of State - Background Notes

Powers, responsibilities and mission of the cabinet and its members are governed by the Constitution of Mongolia and the Law on Government. The cabinet and its provide members of action program and Government and the ministers are accountable to the Parliament and required to parliament with information on implementation of the cabinets matters of the moment in line with provisions of the Law on Law on Parliament.

The cabinet reports annually on implementation of its action program, quarterly on implementation of duties assigned by parliament, and weekly on matters of the moment to the Parliament. The head of each of the agencies is appointed by the government.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001) (edited)

2.3 Judiciary Branch


Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the president).

The 1992 constitution empowered a General Council of Courts (GCC) to select all judges and protect their rights. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body. Justices are nominated by the GCC and confirmed by parliament and president. The court is constitutionally empowered to examine all lower court decisions--excluding specialized court rulings--upon appeal and provide official interpretations on all laws except the constitution. Specialized civil, criminal, and administrative courts exist at all levels and are not subject to Supreme Court supervision. Local authorities - district and city governors ensure that these courts abide by presidential decrees and parliament decisions. At the apex of the judicial system is the Constitutional Court, which consists of nine members, including a chairman, appointed for 6-year terms. The jurisdiction of the nine members extends solely over the interpretation of the constitution.
Source: U.S. Department of State - Background Notes

The Law on Claims against Illegal actions of State Administrative Organs or Officials for Infringement upon Civil Rights and the Law Resolving Claims against State Organs or Officials have been approved in 1992. According to these laws every citizen of Mongolia may submit their claims against an organ or official to a higher organ or official directly supervising the former. If the citizen is not satisfied with decision of the higher organ or official they may appeal to a court. The Parliament of Mongolia included creation of an independent administrative court system (specialized administrative court) where citizens can appeal over any administrative decisions as an item in its agenda for 2001. As current courts are overloaded with civil and criminal cases they attach less importance and time for claims over administrative decisions and labor disputes. Therefore scholars, researchers and lawyers view the creation of the administrative court system as a progress in ensuring rights of civil servants and resolving citizens claims over illegal decisions made by administrative organ or official.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001)

2.4 Local Government Mongolias administrative division consists of the city of Ulaanbaatar and 21 provinces: 1) the capital city is divided into 9 districts. Districts are divided into khoroos, and 2) provinces are divided into counties, counties into baghs. The capital and provinces have Citizens Representative Meeting (Local parliament) elected every 4 years. Governors exercise executive power in the capital and provinces and are appointed by the PrimeMinister as recommended by Citizens Representative Meetings. Local administrations provide support for Governors.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001)

Mongolia's constitution provides autonomy to local governments and sets out an administrative structure for democratic local governance. However, this level of devolution of authority has not been realized. Barriers include inertia left from decades of central planning, and a lack of understanding by citizens at the grassroots, of their responsibility to guide and monitor their local governments. In addition, there is no ability except in the major cities to raise enough revenues to be self-reliant. Local revenue is generated from scant collections of vehicle taxes, and taxes on the use of natural resources, and other sources, which in rural areas, are dwarfed by central revenues. Another centralizing tendency is the fact that skilled civil servants are in short supply in the country, and most of them work in the central government.
Source: UNDP - Human Development Report Mongolia 2003

3. The State and Civil Society


3.1 Ombudsperson In Mongolia, the idea of the ombudsman was raised by a member of the parliament in early nineties, but it was rejected as being allegedly an inappropriate system for Mongolia. Today, many elements of the ombudsman institution may be found in the work of the Parliamentary Commission for Human Rights, the National Audit Office, and other independent human rights organizations.
Source: International Foundation for Election Systems - The Institution of the Ombudsman in the Former Communist Countries (2002)

In December 2000, parliament adopted a Law on a National Commission for Human Rights in December 2000. In case of violations of human rights the members of the commission shall act as an ombudsman. In other words, the commissions activities are based on the same principles as those of ombudsman.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001)

3.2 NGOs On January 31, 1997 the parliament passed Mongolias first law on NGOs. This law established a favorable legal environment for the NGO community in Mongolia, and also contains numerous provisions which are consistent with international norms of human rights and are supportive of fundamental principles of transparency and accountability in a democracy.
Source: The Asia Foundation - Building Legal Institutions In Mongolia (2000)

The number of non-governmental organizations has been increasing for last 5-6 years (2001) and their scope of activities is expanding. Especially NGOs to protect the right of the child and women NGOs are very active. Citizens watch group concerned with the execution of government services and activities of NGO groups are in their infant stage of development. Tax payers and consumers associations are developing. The Law on Government [Article 19] provides that: the Government may have its own tasks fulfilled by non-governmental organizations and perform of certain tasks on a contractual basis, using their services and labor. Favorable environment conducive for cooperation between the state and non-governmental organizations, assignment of some duties to NGOs on a contractual basis has been created. For example, attempting to make parliament more open to the public and the electorate, the Parliament and its Administration Office have successfully been cooperating with non-governmental organizations under contract for the last four years.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001)

3.3 Civil Society Mongolia launched democratic reforms and promulgated the principles of democracy in its 1992 Constitution. In the general provision of the Constitution it is stated that: We, the people of Mongolia shall cherish the goal creating and development of humane, democratic civil society. The Constitution of Mongolia (article 16) promulgates the freedom of belief, expression, speech, press and peaceful march. The Law on Press Freedom approved

on January, 1999 provides that the purpose of the law is to ensure freedom of expression, speech and press promulgated in the Constitution of Mongolia. The media shall be responsible for its publications and broadcasting. The State shall not control or monitor the content of such publications and broadcasting. In the Constitution, Law on Freedom of the Press and Media and other related laws there are several provisions guaranteeing freedom of publication and speech. In 1999 a law was adopted to prohibit state ownership over media and to establish a publicly owned media. However, the National Television and Radio are still under government control, as parliament is still to adopt the law on this matter.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001)

4. Civil Service

nder the project Reforms in the Public Administration and Civil Service the public sector structure was changed in 1996 to having 9 ministries and over 60 agencies. Each ministry was to have a Minister, a Sate Secretary, departments and divisions. In 2000, the number of ministries increased to 12, and a position of the Deputy Minister was adopted.
Source: World Bank - Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2003) (edited)

4.1 Legal basis Article 46 of the Constitution states: A civil servant shall strictly follow the law, work for the benefit of the people and in the interest of state as a citizen. A civil servant is provided with working condition and guarantees ensured by Law. The Public Service Act of 1995 establishes and regulates the public service, providing for posts and their requirements, the legal status of employees, and performance measures.9 It gives detailed provisions on classification, positions, grades, working conditions and guarantees of civil servants. Civil servants of Mongolia divided into political, administrative, special and technical categories of which administrative civil servants are professional cadre who took an oath. Status, working conditions and guarantees of political and special service servants are regulated by their respective laws. For example, the status of members of parliament and members of cabinet are governed by the Law of Parliament, Law on Government; the status of judges, prosecutors are governed by the Law on Courts and Law on Prosecutors respectively and the status of police officers is regulated by the Law on Police Service.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001)

4.2 Recruitment Amendment to the Law on Civil Service Official Gazette, 1999, No. 26(105), pp. 369 Amends Law on Civil Service and instructs employers to fill a vacant post of a government servant on the basis of selection through a vacancy notice and in a transparent manner, and provides for fines in case of breach of recruitment rules.
Source: International Labour Organization - NATLEX

Provisions of law require enrolment and promotion of administrative civil servants based on skills, education, professional training and experience. Each year civil servants and interested persons may take a civil service examination which is publicly announced. Successful examinees are selected to fill state service vacancies, these requirements of law, in general, is carried out in real life. Cases when heads of agencies are trying to recruit his or her fiends and friends are not rare.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001)

International Labour Organization - NATLEX

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No procedure on selection of the management level civil servants was adopted, so there is and absence of a proper mechanism of selection, and the civil servants lack of competence and expertise. Also there are still many cases when the issue with registration of the people, who passed the Civil Service Qualification Exams and their appointment to the open vacancies in government institutions, is not transparent and fair.
Source: World Bank - Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2003)

4.3 Promotion
Source: Institution - Title

4.4 Remuneration
Source: Institution - Title

4.5 Training Government Resolution adopting the Progamme on Civil Servants' Training and Capacity Building (No. 96 of 1999) Official Gazette, 1999, No. 37(116), pp. 708-714 Adopts comprehensive Programme on Civil Servants' Training and Capacity Building, and instructs ministries, government agencies and municipal administrative authorities to organize capacity-building courses and seminars for civil servants in accordance with the guidelines of the Programme. Also requires the Minister of Finance to provide annual budget resources for such training.
Source: International Labour Organization - NATLEX

There is only one state funded institution training civil servants and improving their qualifications - the Academy of Management. But its capacity, accessibility of the training and boarding facilities, level of refurbishment, services and students vacancies are not satisfactory to meet the current needs. Although it is needed to employ in the public service only the people with a bachelors or higher level of education, there are more than 15,000 civil servants, who have just a basic or special secondary education and who need further training in public management.
Source: World Bank - Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2003)

4.6 Gender The Constitution grants equal rights to men and women. The government has committed itself to various international conventions on rights and the equality of women, and has established the National Council for Gender Equality in 2001 to monitor and support the implementation of policy and to promote women and gender equality.
Source: World Bank - Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2003)

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5. Ethics and Civil Service


5.1 Corruption 2003 CPI Score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business people and country analysts and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt).
Corruption Perceptions Index
2003 CPI Score Surveys Used Standard Deviation High-Low Range Number Inst. 90 percent confidence range

Rank 1 # 133

Country Highly clean Mongolia Highly corrupt 9.7 .. 1.3 8 .. 8 0.3 .. 0.7 9.2 - 10.0 .. 0.3 - 2.2 4 .. 6 9.5 - 9.9 .. 0.9 - 1.7

Source: Transparency International - Corruption Perceptions Index 2003 Surveys Used: Refers to the number of surveys that were used to assess a country's performance. 17 surveys were used and at least 3 surveys were required for a country to be included in the CPI. Standard Deviation: Indicates differences in the values of the sources. Values below 0.5 indicate agreement, values between 0.5 and c. 0.9 indicate some agreement, while values equal or larger than 1 indicate disagreement. High-Low Range: Provides the highest and lowest values of the sources. Number Institutions: Refers to the number of independent institutions that assessed a country's performance. Since some institutions provided more than one survey. 90 percent confidence range: Provides a range of possible values of the CPI score. With 5 percent probability the score is above this range and with another 5 percent it is below.

The Governments Policy Document on Good Governance for Human Security provides under Action Priority 11 to improve responsibility mechanisms for public service and decisively combat corruption, bribery and crime. Series of anticorruption measures have been undertaken over the past year (Oct. 2003). Thus, the Government established the National Council and adopted the National Programme to Combat Corruption. In March 2003 the National Anti-Corruption Conference was organized in cooperation with the UNDP Office in Mongolia. Development of a new Law against Corruption is underway. Over the recent months four roundtables have been organized with the active participation of the executive and the judiciary, civil society and media, parliamentarians and private sector to reflect on their contribution to combating corruption in Mongolia. In addition there has been a widespread discussion in the press and among the general public.
Source: 58th Session of the General Assembly (Third Committee) - "Crime prevention and criminal justice (10/2003) (edited)

According to Minister of Justice and Interior Ts. Nyamdorj at a roundtable discussion on the role of judiciary in March 2003, the judicial organizations are making steps towards preventing corruption. First of all, in order to eliminate bureaucracy at the medium level of the administrative hierarchy, the number of authorizations was reduced from 650 to 95 in the country. A centralized national professional supervising office was created instead of 17 ministerial offices. The investigation body with the office of the general prosecutor investigates the cases relating to the police officers. According to the minister, licences of about 20 lawyers and public notaries failing to meet professional and ethical requirements were abolished. Ts. Nyamdorj stated that the government was taking measures to root out conditions for possible corruption. The impartial judges and the laws without loopholes would

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contribute greatly to combating corruption. He noted that not only the state organizations but the citizens and the entire society should be a part in the fight against corruption. According to him, an independent organization designed to fight corruption could be established under the prosecutor's organization since the prosecutors are nominated by the president, and enjoy independence from local authorities.
Source: Transparency International ( BBC Monitoring Service) - Mongolian justice minister outlines anti-corruption policy (3/2003)

The Law of Mongolia Against Corruption, adopted in 1996, defined corruption as an act of receiving bribes, abuse of official position and power for personal material and other gains, offering of commission or preferential terms and advantageous position by individual, legal person for that purpose. However, according to a 2001 National Integrity Systems report by Transparency International ordinary people gave differing answers to what actually corruption and bribery mean. In many cases, perception of corruption for some people is not corruption in the eyes of others. However, on prevalence of corruption in present day Mongolian society 48.8% of respondents think customary, 44.2% think widespread, 4.4% random and 1.5% found it difficult to answer.
Source: Transparency International - National Integrity Systems (2001) (edited)

5.2 Ethics
Source: Institution - Title

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6. e-Government

e-Government Readiness Index: The index refers to the generic capacity or aptitude of the public sector to use ICT for encapsulating in public services and deploying to the public, high quality information (explicit knowledge) and effective communication tools that support human development. The index is comprised of three sub-indexes: Web Measure Index, Telecommunications Infrastructure Index and Human Capital Index.

6.1 e-Government Readiness

e-Government Readiness Index


0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
ol ia na an n of R ep .o Ja pa D PR C hi st za kh s on g rg yz jik is ta n ta n f

re a,

re a,

Ka

Ko

Web Measure Index: A scale based on progressively sophisticated web services present. Coverage and sophistication of stateprovided e-service and e-product availability correspond to a numerical classification.

Source: HUnited Nations World Public Sector Report 2003H

Web Measure Index

Telecom. Infrastructure Index

Ko

Ky

Human Capital Index

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Telecommunications Infrastructure Index: A composite, weighted average index of six primary indices, based on basic infrastructural indicators that define a country's ICT infrastructure capacity. Primary indicators are: PCs, Internet users, online population and Mobile phones. Secondary indicators are TVs and telephone lines.

gy zs ta n

go lia

of

ea ,R

ea ,D

Ka z

Ko r

Source: HUnited Nations World Public Sector Report 2003H

Human Capital Index: A composite of the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio, with two thirds of the weight given to adult literacy and one third to the gross enrolment ratio.

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Ko r

Ky r

Ta jik is ta n

hi na

ak hs ta

Ja pa

M on

PR

ep .o

Ta

e-Participation Index: Refers to the willingness, on the part of the government, to use ICT to provide high quality information (explicit knowledge) and effective communication tools for the specific purpose of empowerring people for able participation in consultations and decision-making both in their capacity as consumers of public services and as citizens.

e-Participation Index 6.2 e-Participation


0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

K az ak

K or ea

e-information: The government websites offer information on policies and programs, budgets, laws and regulations, and other briefs of key public interest. Tools for disseminating of information exist for timely access and use of public information, including web forums, e-mail lists, newsgroups and chat rooms.

Source: HUnited Nations World Public Sector Report 2003H

e-information
14 12 10 8 6 4

e-decision making

K or ea

e-decision making: The government indicates that it will take citizens input into account in decision making and provides actual feedback on the outcome of specific issues.

2 0

az ak hs ta n K or ea ,D PR of K or ea ,R ep .o f K yr gy zs ta n

Source: HUnited Nations World Public Sector Report 2003H d

e-consultation: The government website explains e-consultation mechanisms and tools. It offers a choice of public policy topics online for discussion with real time and archived access to audios and videos of public meetings. The government encourages citizens to participate in discussions.

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Ta jik is ta n

M on go lia

hi na

Ja pa n

.o f K yr gy zs ta n Ta jik is ta n

na

ol ia

Ja pa

C hi

hs ta n

,D PR

of

,R ep

on g

e-consultation

7. Links

7.1 National sites Authority President Parliament Government Ministries Topic http://gate1.pmis.gov.mn/president/ http://www.parl.gov.mn/ http://www.pmis.gov.mn/ http://www.pmis.gov.mn/gov_eng.htm

Provinces

http://www.pmis.gov.mn/pro_eng.htm

7.2 Miscellaneous sites Institution Asian Development Bank (ADB) Asia Foundation European Union (EU) International Labour Organization (ILO) - NATLEX Mongolian Foundation for Open Society United Nations in Mongolia United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) World Bank (WB) Topic http://www.adb.org/Mongolia/default.asp http://www.asiafoundation.org/Locations/mongolia.html http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/mongolia/intro/index.htm http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.home http://www.opensocietyforum.mn/ http://www.un-mongolia.mn/ http://www.undp.mn/ http://www.worldbank.org/mn

Eurasianet.org

http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/mongolia/index.shtml

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