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(teD;acwf Armjynf edik if aH &;vSKy&f mS ;rSK ordik ;f tusO;f )

(1948-2000)
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf
(teD ; acwf Armjynf Ed k i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ ord k i f ; tusOf ; )
(1948-2000)

0if ; wif h x G e f ;
a&;om;jyKpk o nf
pmtk y f r S w f w rf ;

pmtkyt f rnf
tarSmifMum;u Armjynf
( teD;acwf ArmjynfEikd if aH &;vSKy&f mS ;rSKordik ;f tusO;f 1948-2000 )

ûypka&;om;ol
0if;wifx
h eG ;f

pDpOfol
pGrf;NrdKif
yxrtBurd f
27 &uf? arv ? 2007 ckEpS f
tkyaf & (1000)

av;atmuftjyiftqif
udak rmifEikd f

pmpDpm&duk f
ud0k if;ode;f ? yDuEl

xkwaf 0ol
vl h abmifopf'rD u
kd &ufwpfygwD (jyefMum;a&;Xme)ESihf
tvif;tdrpf mapmif&aJ bmfrsm; (*syefEikd if )H

qufo,
G rf mS ,lvykd gu vdypf m
information@dpns.org PO Box 50
alinneain@hotmail.com AP Maesot
aalinneain@yahoo.com TAK 63110
swammyaing@yahoo.com THANLAND

wefz;kd -10 a':vm (pmydk ch ryg)


&nfp;l yef-um; aus;Zl;pum;

&nf p l ; csuf

trdEikd if aH wmftwGuf pGe@f vw


$ t
f epfemcH &Guaf qmifo,fy;kd oGm;=uol tmZmenftm;vk;H udk
±kdaoav;pm;pGm OD;!¸wf&if; teD;acwf ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ordkif;udk pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm avhvm
ok;H oyf =unfjh rifv=kd uoltm;vk;H eJ@/ ArmjynfEikd if aH &;ordik ;f udk tvG,q
f ;Hk tusO;f ±k;H òcHio
Hk &d edS m;vnf
vdk=uol tm;vkH;odk h æ

yef - um;csuf

ArmjynfEikd if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_ ordik ;f pOfukd jyefajymif;wl;azmf ±_ar#mEf ikd =f ua&;twGuf tkww
f csyf
oJwyGifhtjzpf ESvkH;oGif; ðypka&;om;rdygw,f? c|wf,Gif;r_/ wdrf;apmif;r_/ vpf[m vdktyfr_rsm;tay:
yGifhyGifhvif;vif; a0zeft}uHay;=ur_rSefor#udk av;pm;pGmóudqdk&if;/ aemif ydkrdkjynfhpkHatmif óud;yrf;
jznfhqnf;oGm;yghr,f?

aus;Zl ; rS w f w rf ;

'Dpmtkyf jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf tzufzufrS 0dkif;0ef;ulnDcJh=uoltm;vkH;eJ@ xkwfa0Ekdif&ef


tultnDay;=uaom “vlŒabmifopf'Drdku&ufwpfygwD jyef=um;a&;Xme ESifh tvif;tdrfpmapmif
&Jabmfrsm;” tygt0if (txl;ojzihf) tyifyrf;cH wm0ef,l pDpOfvkyfudkifaqmif&Gufay;cJhwJh
armif ‘pGrf;òrdif’ udk txl;aus;Zl; Oyum&wif&Sdyga=umif;?

0if ; wif h x G e f ;
pDpOfol.pum;
2006 ckEpS x f rJ mS q&m*suaf umh usaemfxo H @kd vlóuHyg;vmaom pmESihf
twl a&muf&Sdvmygw,f? pmudk zGifhzwf=unfhawmh q&m0if;wifhxGef;xHrSpm
jzpfygw,f? q&mpmxJrmS vGecf ahJ omoH;k ESpcf ef@xu J a&;xm;+yD;wJh ‘tarSmif=um;u
Armjynf’ vd@k acgi;f pOfay;xm;wJh pmrlEiS yhf wfouf+yD; qufvufaqmif&u G af y;zd@k
usaemfhudk tultnDawmif;vmygw,f?
pmrlrsm;udk usaemfzwf=unfv h ukd af wmh q&m0if;wifx h eG ;f u Armjynfordik ;f
1948-2000 vd@k ajymxm;ayr,fh 1938 ckEpS u f ae 2000 ckEpS t f xd twGi;f u
ordik ;f qdik &f m Ekid if aH &;tjzpftysuaf wG/ xdu k mv Ekid if aH &;jzpfpOfawG/ xdu k mvawG
twGi;f u Ekid if aH &;orm;awG&ŒJ aemufu, G u f twGi;f a&;awGukd Edu _ Ef u _d cf |wcf |wf
csOf;uyfjrifjy/ awG;jy/ aumufcsufjyxm;csufawG jzpfaewmawGŒ&ygw,f?
q&m0if;wifx h eG ;f u usaemfu h kd pmtkyt f jzpf zGŒJ pnf;ay;zd@k / yHEk ydS pf ufwifEikd f
wJth qifh r[kwaf wmif rdwLW pmtkyjf zef@Eidk &f ifyJ awmfyg+yD? 'Dpmrlukd pmtkyjf zpfatmif
udk&ifyJ =unfhvkyfay;ygvdk@ wm0efay;tyfvmygw,f?
usaemfvnf; usaemfxrf;&GuEf idk w f hJ tcef;u¾uae awmfveS af &;wm0ef
w&yftjzpf tav;teufxm;+yD; xkwaf 0vdo k /l tultnDay;vdo k rl sm;udk &atmif
&Sm+yD; yHEk ydS pf ufwif jzef@csEd idk o f nftxd wwfEidk o f r# tjrefq;kH jzpfatmif vufcv H yk f
aqmifygrnfhta=umif; *wdðycJhygw,f?
,ckuo hJ @kd q&m0if;wifx h eG ;f ðypka&;om;onfh “tarSmif=um;u Armjynf
(teD;acwf ArmjynfEidk if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_ordik ;f tusO;f 1948-2000” pmtkyu f kd yHEk ydS f
jzef@cs&d mwGif owfyo kH wf!e¸ ;f tustaygurf sm; &Syd gvrd rhf ,f? od@k aomf twwfEidk q f ;kH
ordkif;qdkif&m ta=umif;tcsuftvuf/ t"dy`m,fwdk@udk xdcdkufysufpD;apaom
owfyo kH wf!e¸ ;f wd@k uo kd m tav;xm; pDppf=unf±h r_ r_ sm;avmufom pma&;olEiS hf
usaemfwdk@ n‡dEd_if;wdkifyifum yxrt}udrftjzpf yHkESdyfjzef@csdvkduf&jcif;jzpfygw,f?

pG r f ; òrd i f
2007 ckESpf/ arv (1) &uf?
xkwfa0olwkd‹&JŒpum;

ordkif;trSefawGudk azmfxkwfcGifh vkH;0ray;bl;?


ordkif;trSm;awGudk ausmif;okH;jyÏmef;w,fqdkwJh uae@umvvdk tarSmif
acwf}uD;twGif;rSm æ

ordkif;trSefawGudk ajymjy axmufjyEdkifpGrf;wJh/ wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifwJh ouf&Sd


ordik ;f tbd"mef}uD;awG wOD;+yD;wOD; qk;H yg;uG,v
f eG af e&wJh 'Dae@vakd cwfq;dk
acwf=uyf}uD;xJrSm æ

q&m0if;wifhxGef;a&;om;ðypkvdkufwJh‘tarSmif=um;u Armjynf’qdkwJh
“teD;acwf ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ordkif;tusOf;(1948-2000)” [m
jrefrmEdkifiHudkcspfwJh/ jrefrmjynfolawGudkcspfwJh/ jrefrmjynfopfudk xkqpf
wnfaqmufcsif=uwJh rsKd;qufopfvli,fawGtwGuf/ ordkif;trSefawGudk
&SmazGw;l azmfcsio f w
l @dk twGuf wpkw
H &m aus;Zl;ðyygvrd rhf ,fv@dk ar#mv
f if,
h Hk
=unfygw,f?

q&m}uD; a'gufwmoef;xGef; !¸efjyajymqdkcJhzl;wJh “ordkif;oifwm rt


atmifvkd@” qdkwJhpum;udkvnf; tvGefudkyJ tav;teufðyygw,f?

q&m0if;wifhxGef;&JŒ tm;xkwfvkH;yrf;r_awG/ ordkif;qdkif&m b¾mwdkuf}uD;


twGif; q&m0if;wifhxGef;&JŒ jznfhpGufcsufawGudk *k%fðywefzkd;xm;pGmESifh
avhvmvdkolwdkif;twGuf tcuftcJawG=um;xJuyJ 'Dpmtkyfudk xkwfa0
jzpf=uwm jzpfygw,f?

ordkif;trSefrsm; rsm;rsm; azmfxkwf zl;yGifhEdkif=uygap?

vl Πabmif o pf ' D r d k u &uf w pf y gwD (jyef = um;a&;Xme)


tvif ; td r f p mapmif & J a bmf r sm; (*syef )

2007ckESpf arv(1)&uf?
rmwdum
&nfpl;yef=um; aus;Zl;pum;
pDpOfol.pum;
xkwfa0olwdk@pum;
1? ed'gef; .............................................................................................................................. 11
2? ordkif;aemufcHum;csyfrsm; ............................................................................................... 15

tydkif; ( 1 )
1948 - 1958 umv

1? vGwfvyfa&;udka=unmjcif; ............................................................................................. 72
2? vGwfvyfa&;&ump ArmEdkifiHtajctae ........................................................................ 75
3? vGwfvyfaom jrefrmEkdifiHawmfacgif;pOfatmufrSm ............................................................ 81
4? jynfwGif;ppf}uD; pwifaygufzGm;vmjcif; .......................................................................... 87
5? jynfwGif;ppfudk b,folp ................................................................................................. 90
6? jynfwGif;ppftp EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh qufwdkuf
ay:xGufvmcJhaom ppfrD;v#Hrsm; ...................................................................................... 98
7? u&ifhvufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;eJ‹ &efukeftpdk;& ............................................................ 120
8? 1951 - 52 ygvDref'Drkdua&pD taxGaxGa±G;aumufyJG ............................................... 139
9? jynfawmfompDrHudef;/ w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHawmf .................................... 142
10? 1955/ zqyv/ Auy/ yrnw eJ‹ jrefrmEkdifiHawmf .................................................... 162
11? +idrf;csrf;a&;/ tðywfwkdufa&;eJ‹ jrefrmEkdifiHawmf .......................................................... 169
12? 1956 ckESpf ygvDref'Drdkua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG/
tm%m& zqyv tuGJeJ‹ jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;aºuG;a=umfoH ..................................... 175
13? zqyv òyduGJjcif;/ yxrqkH;aom ppfwyftm%modrf;r_eJ‹
zqyv q,fESpfq,frdk; ed*kH;csKyfcsuf ........................................................................... 197
14? zqyv q,fESpf q,frdk;acwf ed*kH;csKyf ...................................................................... 226
tyd k i f ; (2)
1958-1962 umv

1? ppftkyfpk}uD;arG;zGm;jcif;/ ppftm%m&SifpepftwGuf Zmwfwdkufjcif; odk‹r[kwf


tdrfapmifhtpdk;&acwf ................................................................................................... 232
2? 1960 jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJ/ yxp/ OD;-Adkvf-ocif-q&m eJ@ ygvDrefacwfae0ifcsdef
jrefrmEkdifiHawmf&JΠtajctae ..................................................................................... 252
3? ygvDref'Drdkua&pDacwfed*kH;csKyfcsuf ............................................................................... 291

tyd k i f ; (3)
awmf v S e f a &;aumif p D a cwf
1962-1974

1? 1962 ckESpf ppfwyftm%modrf;r_ESifh Armjynfppftm%m&Sifpepf ed'gef; ....................... 304


2? rqv/ acwfajymif;awmfvSefa&;eJ‹ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;tajctae ..................................... 310
3? 7 &ufZlvdkifta&;tcif; (odk‹) ppftpdk;&&JŒvlowfyGJ ..................................................... 317
4? jrefrmhenf;jrefrmh[ef pyful;rwful;umveJ‹ ppftm%m&Sifpepf&JŒ
yGJOD;xGufajcvSrf;rsm; .................................................................................................... 324
5? awmfvSefa&;aumifpDacwf yxrESpftwGif; ArmEdkifiHtajctaetusOf;csKyf .................. 330
6? jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;eJ‹
EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;&JŒtoH/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpD&JŒoabmxm;trSef ........................ 336
7? +idrf;csrf;a&; awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;udk ed*kH;csKyf=unfhjcif; ................................................... 356
8? +idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;ysufjym;+yD;aemuf ppftpdk;&&JŒajcvSrf;rsm;eJ‹
ppftm%m&Sifpepfatmufu Armjynf .......................................................................... 359
9? awmfvSefa&;aumifpDacwf (okd‹r[kwf) ppftm%m&Sifpepf (yxrykdif;) ed*kH;csKyfcsuf ....... 408
tyd k i f ; (4)
jref r mh q k d & S , f v pf v rf ; pOf y gwD a cwf (ok d ‹ r[k w f )
wygwD t m%m&S i f p epf a cwf (od k @ r[k w f )
ppf t m%m&S i f p epf a cwf ('k w d , yk d i f ; )
(1974-1988)

1? wygwDtm%m&SifpepfeJ‹ tqufrjywfay:xGufvmwJh vlxkwkdufyGJrsm; ....................... 413


2? 1974 ZGef (6) tvkyform;oydwf}uD; .......................................................................... 416
3? OD;oef@psmyeta&;tcif; .............................................................................................. 418
4? 1975 ZGef (6) tvkyform;ESpfvnfoydwf}uD; ............................................................. 423
5? rd_if;&mjynfh ................................................................................................................... 426
6? rqv wGif;uae xGufay:vmwJhrD;awmufrsm; ........................................................... 427
7? rqvtkyfpkd;r_tapmykdif;umv&JΠjynfwGif;tajctae/ EkdifiHwumhtajctae .............. 430
8? rqvwygwDtm%m&Sifpepfacwf aemufykdif;umv ..................................................... 439
9? 1985 ckESpf 0ef;usiftajctae ..................................................................................... 445
10? rqvacwfae0ifcsdef ESifh a'0gvDcHoGm;&aomEkdifiHawmf ............................................... 448
11? &Spfav;vkH;ta&;awmfykH}uD; ay:xGef;vmjcif; ............................................................... 451
12? ppftm%m&Sifpepf/ wygwDtm%m&Sifpepf (26) ESpfwm ed*kH;csKyf ................................ 466

tyd k i f ; (5)
e0w/ etz acwf
1988-2000

1? e0w +idrfydvrf;pOfeJ‹ ta&;awmfykH}uD;&JŒ r+yD;qkH;ao;aomwkdufyGJpOf ............................ 480


2? EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ay:aygufvmjcif;eJ‹ EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ............................................. 487
3? 1989 ckESpf Armjynftajctae ................................................................................... 494
4? Auy }uD; òyduGJjcif;eJ‹ +idrf;tzGJŒawGpwifjcif; .................................................................. 498
5? wif;rmvmr_rsm;/ uGefz&efaw;&Sif;eJ‹ ArmjynfEkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ............................ 500
6? 1990 jynfha&G;aumufyGJ}uD; .......................................................................................... 510
7? 90 jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJ+yD;aemuf Armjynf ................................................................ 513
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

8? ajymif;vJvmwJh EdkifiHwumtajctaeeJ‹ e0w acwfOD; Armjynf&JŒ


pD;yGm;a&;/ EdkifiHa&;/ ppfa&;/ vlr_a&; bufaygif;pHktajctae .......................................... 522
9? trsKd;om;nDvmcH/ ppfwyf&JŒtm%mavmbeJ‹ ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;tajctae ................ 527
10? ppftpkd;&&JŒajcvSrf;rsm;/ azmufjyef,kwfrmr_rsm;/ EkdifiHa&;t=uyftwnf;rsm;eJ‹
'Drkdua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ tjzpftysufrsm; ................................................................. 538
11? etzacwf EdkifiHa&; xdyfwdkufyGJrsm;/ wif;rmr_rsm;eJ‹ Armjynf ...................................... 547
12? ouU&mZf 2000 ukeftxd e0w/ etz acwf ed*Hk;csKyfcsuf ...................................... 556

ed*kH; .................................................................................................................................. 558

usrf ; ud k ;

&nf!¸ef;udk;um; pmtkyfrsm; ....................................................................................... 560


t*FvdyfbmomeJ‹pmtkyfrsm; ........................................................................................ 561
*sme,fr*~Zif;pmapmifpmwrf;rsm; ................................................................................. 561

10 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ed'gef;
20 &mpk Armjynfordkif;udk t=urf;zsif;=unfhvdkufr,fqdk&if -
- 1901 ckESpfrS 1947 ckESpftxd[m udkvdkeDacwfArmjynfordkif;/
- 1948 ckESpfrS 2000 jynfhESpftxd[m vGwfvyfa&;a=unm+yD;acwf Armjynfordkif;/
wenf;tm;jzifh rsufarSmufacwf teD;acwf Armjynfordkif;vdk@ ajym&ygvdrfhr,f?
udvk ekd aD cwf Armjynfordik ;f [m ‘u|eaf cwfArmjynfordik ;f ’vd@k ajym&rSmjzpfovd/k vGwv f yf
a&;a=unm+yD;acwf Armjynfordik ;f [mvnf; ‘tarSmifacwf Armjynfordik ;f ’ vd@k yJ xyfqifzh iG q hf &kd rSm
jzpfygw,f?
tckazmfjyr,fh ordik ;f [m ‘tarSmifacwfArmjynfordik ;f ’ jzpfygw,f? tarSmifacwf Armjynf
ordkif;[m tarSmifxJuArmjynfta=umif;yJjzpfygw,f? tarSmifacwf Armjynfordkif;udk jyefvnf
=unfhvdkufwJhtcg -
- ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk pwifa=unmvdkufwJh 1948 ckESpfuae/ 1958 ckESpftxd
zqyv (10)ESpf q,frdk;acwf/
- 1958 ckESpfuae 1960 txd tdrfapmihftpdk;& ppftpdk;&acwf/
- 1960 uae 1962 txd yxpacwf/
- 1962 uae 1988 txd rqv ppftpdk;&acwf/
- 1988 ckESpfuae 2000jynfhtxd e0w/ etzacwf/
'DacwfawGudk xyf+yD;csKyf=unfhvdkuf&if
- zqyvacwf eJ@ yxpacwfu ygvDref'Drdkua&pDacwf/
- rqvacwfeJ@ e0w/ etzacwfu ppftm%m&Sifacwf/
- aemufq;kH tcsKyfu ygvrD ef'rD u kd a&pDacwfe@J ppftm%m&Sipf epfacwf qdw k mudyk J awGŒ&
vdrfhr,f?
ygvrD ef'rD ukd a&pDacwf}uD;atmufrmS arSmife@J rrJ J jzpfc&hJ wJh Armjynf[m ppftm%m&Sipf epf
acwfatmufrSm ydef;ydwfatmifarSmifwJhb0 usa&mufcJh&ygw,f?
ppftm%m&Sipf epf tarSmifatmufrmS Armjynf}uD;[m tqif;&Jq;kH / tiwfjywfq;kH / ±kyt f
qdk;qHk;/ temusif&qHk; jzpfcJhygw,f? tarSmifqHk;jzpfovdk t&Snf=umqHk;vnf;jzpfcJhygw,f? jzpfaeyg
w,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 11


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

Armjynf jynforl sm;&JŒ nnf;nLoH/ idak ºu;G oH/ tH}uw d o


f /H wufacguo
f /H ±ke;f uefo/H v_y&f mS ;
oHawG[mvnf; w&Hrvyf =um;ae&ygw,f? ppfreS w f hJ vGwv f yfa&;&JΠt&om Armjynf jynforl sm;
rcHpm;&ao;yg? at;jrwJh +idrf;csrf;a&;tppf&JŒ&o Armjynf jynfolrsm; rxdawGŒ&ao;yg? wef;wlnD
r#whJ tcGit hf a&;eJ@ ppfreS w
f hJ trsK;d om;aoG;pnf;nD!wG af &; rwnfaqmufEikd af o;yg? bma=umifv h /J
b,fvdkvJ/ bmawGjzpfcJh=uovJ?
rSefrSefuefuef jynfvnf=unfhjrif=uzdk@ oHk;oyf=uzdk@vdkygr,f? twdwfudk jyef=unfhwm[m
ordkif;udk jyef=unfhwmjzpfygw,f? ordkif;udk jyef=unfhvdkufwJhtcg æ

12 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

_idrf;csrf;a&;zcif}uD; a'gufwm ocifudk,fawmfrd+if;

vGwfvyfa&;ydokum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 13


13
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

1930 = 1941 wdk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;tvH

ocifu,
kd af wmifri_d ;f

ocifatmifqef; ocifjr

ocifp;kd ocifoef;xGef;

ocifA[def; ocifodef;az ocifEk


(odef;azjrifh)
14 14
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ordkif;aemufcHum;csyfrsm;
ordkif;udk jyefvnf=unfh±_ŒwJhtcg ordkif;aemufcHum;csyfrsm;udkyg jyefvnf,SOfwGJ qufpyf
=unfhzdk@vdkygw,f? 'grSvJ ydkrdkjynfhpHkyDovmrSmjzpfovdk obm0usus awG@Ekdif jrifEdkif ±_ŒrdEdkifrSmjzpf
ygw,f?
tjzpftysuw f ikd ;f [m ta=umif;&if;cH&=dS uygw,f? ordik ;f tjzpftysuw f ikd ;f [m a&Smifwcif
jzpfay:vm=uwmr[kwyf g? ta=umif;&if;cHawGuv kd nf; awGŒatmif&mS / aemufcu H m;csyaf wGe@J vnf;
wGJzuf=unfh/ obm0usus =unfhEdkifavav trSefw&m;eJ@ eD;avavjzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;acwf Armjynfordkif;udk=unfhzdk@ vGwfvyfa&;pwif a=unmr,fh (1948) ckESpf
eJ@wqufwnf; teD;qHk; (10) ESpfwmumvavmufqD aemufjyef=unfhzdk@ vdkygr,f? wenf;tm;jzifh
(1938) ckESpfavmuftxd jyefvnf=unfhzdk@ vdkygr,f?
1938 ckESpf[m ‘axmifhoHk;&mjynfhta&;awmfyHk}uD;’ ay:xGef;cJhwJhESpfyg? axmifhoHk;&mjynfh
ta&;awmfy}kH uD;udk 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }uD;u acgi;f aqmifcw hJ mjzpfygw,f? a&eHajrtvkyo f rm;xk&ŒJ
oydwfwdkufyGJawGeJ@ pwifvdkuf+yD;/ tvkyform;/ ausmif;om;/ &[ef;oHCm/ òrdŒaevlwef;pm;awGeJ@
awmifolv,form;awGyg wcJeuf wufwufºuGºuG yg0ifqifEGJcJh=uwJh +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒ qef@usifa&;/
trsKd;om;a&;eJ@ 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ ta&;awmfyHk}uD;jzpfygw,f? +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;rsm;[m
'Dta&;awmfyHk}uD;udk t=urf;zuf ESdyfpufòzdcGif;cJhygw,f? tvkyform;awG/ ausmif;om;awG/ &[ef;
oHCmawG/ ocifacgi;f aqmifawG tajrmuftrsm; zrf;qD;ESyd u f yG cf &H ygw,f? ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmif
udkatmifausmf usqHk;cJh&ygw,f? rE Wav;rSm tmZmenf (17) OD; ypfcwfowfjzwfcHcJh&ygw,f?
'Dta&;awmfyHk}uD; ay:xGef;cJhwJhumv[m +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;&JŒvufatmuf/ (91) Xme
tkyfcsKyfa&;umvtwGif;rSmyg? 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyHk}uD;aemufydkif; 1939 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (15)
&ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD ay:aygufvmygw,f? yxrqHk; taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;[m
ocifatmifqef;yg? v#KdŒ0SufygwDtjzpf &yfwnfcJh&ygw,f? ra&S;raESmif; ay:aygufvmwmu jynf
olŒta&;awmfyHkygwDyg? ajratmuftzGJŒtpnf;wcktjzpfeJ@yJ pwifcJh&wmyg?
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J jynfo@l ta&;awmfyykH gw[ D m 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }u;D uae jzmqif;
vmcJ=h uwJh tzGŒJ tpnf;ESpcf jk zpf+y;D / v#KŒd 0Sut
f jzpfe@J yJ &yfwnfc=hJ uum ESpyf gwpD vH;k &JΠacgi;f aqmifrsm;
[mvnf; yifr 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }u;D xJrmS ta&;}u;D wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifae=uolawG jzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ocifatmifqef;[m 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;&JŒ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;
jzpfcJhovdk jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwDudk acgif;aqmifzGJŒpnf;cJhol ocifjr[m 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;&JŒ

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 15


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

OuUÏ jzpfcyhJ gw,f? tJ't D csed rf mS 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }u;D [m ESpjf crf;uG+J y;D +yjD zpfygw,f? ocifApde/f ocif
xGef;tkyfOD;pD;wJh 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk; eJ@ q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; OD;pD;wJh 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;?
ocifatmifqef;/ ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f / ocifA[de;f / ocifoed ;f az/ ocifE/k ocifjr/ ocif
AaqG (OD;AaqG) wdk@[m ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;uyg?
uGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwDeJ@ yifr'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;wdk@[m 1300 jynfh
ta&;awmfyHk}uD;+yD;uwnf;u +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒtkyfpdk;oludk vufeufeJ@yg jyefvnfwGef;vSef wdkufcdkuf
EdkifrSjzpfr,fqdkwm av;av;eufeuf oabmaygufcJh=uygw,f? tJ'DtwGufvnf; tav;xm;jyif
qif=uygw,f?
1939 ckEpS rf mS 'kw, d urBmppf}uD;vnf; pwifc+hJ yDjzpfygw,f? Oa&myrSmyJ jzpfymG ;aeqJjzpf+yD;
tm&Sukd ppfr;D ra&mufao;yg? ‘t*Fvyd t f cufArmtcsu’f aºuG;a=umfox H u
G af y:vmygw,f? 1939
ckESpf atmufwdkbmvxJrSm ‘ArmhxGuf&yf*dk%f;’ udk a'gufwmAarmf&JŒ qif;&Jom;tzGJŒ/ ig;yGifhqdkif
tzGJ@eJ@ 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;wdk@ aygif;+yD;zGJŒvdkuf=uwmjzpfygw,f? 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk; tr_aqmif
tzGJŒ0ifawGjzpfwJh ocifatmifqef;/ ocifjr/ ocifEk/ ocifoef;xGef;wkd@ yg0ifvm=uovdk a'gufwm
Aarmf OuUÏ/ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;u ocifatmifqef;/ e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;wyfaygif;pktjzpf
zGJŒpnf; vdkuf=uwmjzpfygw,f?
'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k &JŒ vuf±;kH wyfrsm;eJ@ ausmif;om;or*~&ŒJ oHr%dwyfzŒJG rsm;[mvJ t*Fvyd f
udk vufeufuikd w f u
kd cf u
kd Ef idk &f ef &nf&, G +f y;D ppfa&;avhusirhf a_ wG wd;k +y;D avhusijhf yifqifvm=uygw,f?
‘Apdef-xGef;tkyf’ ocif*dk%f;uvnf; vufeufudkifwdkufcdkufEdkifa&; oabmxm; csrSwfjyif
qifvmygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;tquftoG,f&SmazG+yD; ppful,lrSjzpfr,fvdk@vJ qHk;jzwfxm;=uygw,f?
Edik if aH &;tzGŒJ tpnf; awmfawmfrsm;rsm;[m aAmfvw H ,
D mwyfawG xlaxmifxm;=uygw,f?
a'guw f mAarmf&ŒJ qif;&Jom;ygwu D "g;rwyf/ OD;apm&JŒrsK;d cspyf gwu D *VKefwyfz@JG xm;ygw,f? "m;rwyf
wdk@ *VKefwyfwdk@[m oufqdkif&mygwD&JŒ cg;ydkufaqmifwyfawGomjzpf+yD; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;&JŒ
vuf±Hk;wyfeJ@ ausmif;om;or*~&JŒ oHr%dwyfuawmh &nfrSef;csufjywfom;ygw,f? t*Fvdyfudk
vufeufudkifwdkufcdkuf&r,fvkd@ cH,lxm;ygw,f?
1940 ckEpS /f rwfv (29) &ufrmS ocifatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f wd@k acgi;f aqmifwhJ 'd@k Arm
tpnf;t±Hk;XmecsKyf tvkyftr_aqmifudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ[m tdENd,jynfuGef*&ufnDvmcHudk oGm;
wuf=uygw,f? tdE, dN jynftv,fyikd ;f &rf;*g;òrŒd rSmusi;f ywJh &rf;*g;nDvmcHyg? tdE, dN jynf uGe*f &uf&ŒJ
vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk avhvmcJ=h uovdk ‘uGe*f &uf’ acgi;f aqmif ae±l;eJ@vJ awGŒqHak qG;aEG;cGi&hf cJyh gw,f?
tdENd,jynf ‘vm[dk’òrdŒ uGef*&ufu }uD;rª;usif;ywJh w&m;yGJrSmvJ ocifatmifqef; pum;ajymcGifh
&cJhygw,f? ocifatmifqef;u ‘&rf;*g;’rSm ‘+Adwdo#e,fcsJŒpepfudk tdENd,eJ@Arm vufwGJtwlwdkuf
=urnf’ vdk@ ajymcJhovdk ‘aoG;xGufoH,dkr_r&SdbJ vGwfvyfa&;r&Edkif’vdk@ vm[dkòrdŒrSm ajymcJhygw,f?
ocifatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f wd@k tzGŒJ tdE, dN ujyefa&mufwt hJ cg tdE, dN roGm;cif ocif
atmifqef; a&;cJhwJhpmwef;udk 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;u xkwfjyefa=unmygw,f? Armhta&;eJ@ywf
ouf+y;D ‘Armjynftm; u|et f jzpfcsKyfcs,x f m;onfh Ekid if cH sJŒpepfòydysurf u
_ kd tm;xkw&f rnf? xked ,fcsJŒ
pepf. cHwyf}uD;jzpfaom (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;udk wdkufzsufI Armrsm;tvdkus ArmhtkyfcsKyfa&;udk

16 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tjrefq;kH &&S&d ef óu;d pm;&rnf? &nf&, G cf suwf l Ekid if aH &;tzGŒJ rsm;ESiyhf ;l aygi;f I aqmif&u G =f urnf? xk@d a=umifh
vnf; qif;&Jom;tzGŒJ / ig;yGiq hf ikd t
f zGŒJ ponfw@kd EiS yhf ;l aygi;f I Armhxu G &f yf*% kd ;f udk axmif+yD;+yD’ vd@k
azmfjyxm;ovdk ‘ArmjynfopfwiG f tvkyo f rm;/ v,form;rsm;. b0udk jr‡iw hf ifay;&rnf? v,fr
vkyfaom v,fydkif&Sifpepf zsufodrf;rnf? opfawm/ rD;&xm;/ a&a=umif;o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;/ owWK
wGi;f / pufrv _ yk if ef;}u;D rsm;/ b%fvyk if ef;ponfw@kd ukd jynfoyl ikd v f yk &f rnf? vlra_ &;wGif rde;f r a,musmf ;
wef;wltcGifhta&; cHpm;Ekdif&rnf? bmoma&;wGif vGwfvyfpGm ,Hk=unfudk;uG,fEkdif=u&rnf? tcrJh
ynma&;ESihf vli,frsm;.ynma&;ESihf vli,frsm;.,Ofaus;r_ pm&dwjW r‡iw hf ifa&;udk txl;apmihaf &Smuf
tm;ay;&rnf? vlenf;pkrsm;twGuf ,Ofaus;r_vGwfvyfcGifh&&Sd&aprnf’ vdk@vnf; azmfjycJhygw,f?
tJ'Dwkef;u jzpfay:vmp urBmppf}uD;udk e,fcsJŒtcsif;csif;wdkuf=uwJhppfvdk@ yxr oabm
xm;cJh=uygw,f? Armjynfudk e,fcsJŒppfyGJtwGif; qGJtoGif;rcH&zdk@ v_HŒaqmfv_yf&Sm;cJh=uygw,f?
'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }u;D xJu ta&;ygwhJ xufjrufwufºuw G hJ acgi;f aqmiftrsm;pk[m rmhupf f
0g' vuf0J0g'udk wdrf;!Gwfolrsm;/ ,Hk=unfolrsm; jzpfae=uyg+yD? rmhufpf0g'/ vuf0J0g'[m Arm
jynfudk (1931) ckESpfavmufrS pwifa&muf&Sdvmwmjzpfayr,fh pwifavhvm vufcH jzefcsdolrsm;&JŒ
tm;xkwfr_a=umifh vuf0Jt,ltq wdrf;!Gwf,Hk=unfolrsm; OD;pD;wnfaxmifcJhwJh e*g;eD pmtkyf
toif;&JŒaus;Zl;a=umifyh g? awmfawmfysŒH ES@H prd 0hf ifus,jf yef@pðyaeyg+yD? txl;ojzifh ArmjynfueG jf rLepf
ygwD zGJ@pnf;ay:aygufvm+yD;wJhaemufydkif; ydkrdkus,fjyef@euf±_dif;vmcJhygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u Armjynf
Ekid if aH &;orm;rSeo f r# rmhupf vf eD if0g'/ uGejf rLepfq&kd , S vf pf vuf00J g'rsm;eJ@ ywfoufqufpyfc=hJ u
zl;olcsn;f jzpfygw,f? trsm;pk}u;D [m vdv k v kd m;vm;vufccH =hJ uygw,f? óuu d Ef pS o f ufvaS =umif; enf;
trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ azmfjycJh=uzl;ygw,f?
a'gufwmodef;armifu e,l;bm;rm;owif;pmrSm rmhufpf0g' t,ltqaqmif;yg;rsm; a&;
om;cJo h vdk aemifrmS uGejf rLepfqef@usiaf &;tzGŒJ udk twdtvif; aºuG;a=umfxal xmifr,fh ocifApdef
vdk yk*~Kdvfuawmif uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;}uD;udk bmomjyefqdkcJhbl;ygw,f? ocifpdk;u ‘qdk&S,f
vpf0g'’/ ocifAv kd uf ‘um;vfrmhupf ’f / ocifoef;xGe;f u vDeifta=umif;jzpfwhJ ‘usrcspv f if’/ ocif
A[def;u ‘"e&Sifavmu’ pwJh pmtkyfrsm;udk a&;om;xkwfa0cJh=uovdk ocifodef;azu ‘bHk0g'ESifh
'dk@Arm’ udk wnf;jzwfcJh+yD; ±k&Sm;qdk&S,fvpfawmfvSefa&;ta=umif;udk ocifEku ‘vlrGJwdk@&JŒxGuf&yf
vrf;’ tjzpf a&;om;cJyh gw,f? tJ't D csed w
f ek ;f u ocifE[ k m ‘u|eaf wmfbo kH rm;’ vd@k a=unmcJ+h yD;/
ocifAaqG (OD;AaqG) uvnf; ‘avmuedAmŠ efwnfaqmufaeol pwmvif’ vd@k usL;&ifzh iG q hf kd a&;om;
cJhygw,f?
ocifatmifqef;udk,fwdkifuvnf; ajratmufygwD ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JΠtaxGaxG
twGi;f a&;rSL;jzpfovdk ‘urBmppfe@J Arm’ rSmæ vGwv f yfa&;rSm v$waf wmftwGi;f wGif tqdo k iG ;f ±Hrk #
ESifhr&? v$wfawmftqdkrSm 0g'jzef@±Hkavmufom&Sdonf? tvkyfvkyf&ayrnf?
e,fcsŒJ pepf/ "e&Sipf epf jzpfwkH ysuw f kH wnfwkH wnf;[laom avmu"Hw&m;rS rvGw?f "e&Sif
pepfonf tvkyform;rsm;udk zefwD;&.? e,fcsJŒpepfonf yxr rdrdtwGuf taptcdkif;rsm;vdkI
acwfynmwwfrsm;&Sv d matmif pDr&H .? od@k aomf xkt d vkyo f rm;rsm;ESihf ynmwwfrsm;onf tqifh
twef;jrifhvmaomf ‚if;wkd@udk zefwD;cJhaom e,fcsJŒpepfudk jyefIawmfvSef=uay.?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 17


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

vGwv f yfa&;wdu k yf tJG wGuf jyifqif&mY vlrsK;d tcsi;f csi;f ? vlwef;pm;tcsi;f csi;f ruGo J ifo h nfh
tcsed w f iG f ruGxJ u kd o
f nfo h rl sm;ESihf ruGu J aJG tmif vkyw f wfaom e,fcsŒJ pepf. y&d,m,fukd owdðy?
TuJo h @kd tcsed af umif; tajcaumif;wGif igw@kd .vGwv f yfa&;twGuf tjyif;txef tm;xkwf
=uygpdk@ &Jabmfwdk@[k aqmf=owyfvSef@cJhygw,f?
1940 ckESpf/ arvwGif om,m0wDrSm q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;
nDvmcHusi;f yygw,f? &J&aJ wmuf ajyma[mqH;k jzwf=uygw,f? 'Dom,m0wDnv D mcH qH;k jzwfcsuef @J
tnD nDvmcHt+yD;rSm c±dkifrsm;udk vSnfhvnfwifjya[majymwmawG vkyf=uygw,f?
1940 ckEpS /f ZGev f rSm [oFmwc±dik f ZvGeòf rŒd a[majymr_e@J ywfouf+y;D c±dik &f mZ0wf0ef ‘aZAD;
,m;’ u ocifatmifqef;udk zrf;qD;zd@k 0&rf;xkwyf gw,f? odumQ cswt hJ aeeJ@ zrf;qD;ay;Edik of u l kd qkaiG
‘ig;usyf’ay;r,fvdk@vnf; xkwfjyefa=unmvdkufygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefup+yD; ocifatmifqef; ajr
atmufv#Kd;+yD; v_yf&Sm;&ygawmhw,f?
1940 Zlvikd v f xJrmS &efuek w f uUov kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*~ (wuo) taqmuftODxrJ mS
'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k acgi;f aqmif/ uGejf rLepfacgi;f aqmif/ ausmif;om;or*~acgi;f aqmifrsm; v#K@d 0u S af wGŒ
qH=k u+yD; Armjynfvw G v f yfa&;twGu/f vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;twGuf aqG;aEG;n‡Ed id_ ;f =uygw,f?
tJ'aD qG;aEG;yGrJ mS yg0ifoal wGuawmh ocifatmifqef;/ ocifp;kd / ocifvaS z (aemif Adv k vf usmf )/ ocif
cifatmif/ ocifausmfpdef/ ocifA[def;/ udkAaqG/ udkxGef;tkyf/ udkvSarmif (aemif AdkvfaZ,s)/ rpPwm
*dk&S,f wdk@jzpfygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;twGuf vufeufeJ@t}uH^m%f&,lzdk@ w±kwfjynf uGefjrLepfygwD
XmecsKyf&Sd&m ,iftef;udkoGm;zdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufygw,f? tJ'DtwGuf vuf&Sd ajratmufudk v#Kd;ae&+yD
jzpfwhJ ocifatmifqef;eJ@ ocifausmpf ed u f kd wm0efay; a&G;cs,o f abmwlncD =hJ uygw,f? 'gayrJh wu,f
oGm;wJt h cg ocifausmpf ed f rvku d jf zpfawmhyJ ocifausmpf ed t f pm; ocifvòS rdif (aemif Adv k &f efatmif)
jzpfoGm;ygw,f?
1940 Zlvikd f (26) &ufrmS Armhxu G &f yf*% kd ;f acgi;f aqmif a'guw f mbarmf udk tpd;k &t=unf
!dyk suaf tmif a[majymr_e@J zrf;+yD; rE aW v;rSm ±H;k wifw&m;pGq J ykd gw,f? t*Fvyd &f ŒJ ±kyaf o;tpd;k &u
awmh eef;&if;0ef *VKefOD;apm tpdk;&yg?
ocifacgi;f aqmifawGawmfawmfrsm;rsm; om,m0wDnv D mcHt+yD; a[majymv_aH qmfra_ wGe@J
wa,muf+yD;wa,muf qufwu dk t
f zrf;cH=u&ygawmhw,f? ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f / ocifE/k ocif
wifw@kd tzrf;cH=u&ygw,f? ‘xGe;f tky-f Apde’f *d% k ;f bufuvnf; ocifn/D ocifcifarmifw@kd tzrf;cH
=u&ygw,f? emrnf}uD; ocifacgi;f aqmifawG axmifoiG ;f tusO;f csxm;cH&wm te,fe,ft&yf&yf
rSm jzpfvmygw,f?
ocifatmifqef;eJ@ ocifvSòrdifwdk@ESpfa,muf ±kyfzsuf+yD; ‘[kdifvD’ oabFmeJ@ (8-8-1940)
ae@rSm w±kwfjynfc&D;udk pwifygw,f? (24) &ufae@rSm w±kwfjynf ‘trGdKif’òrdŒudk qdkufa&mufoGm;
ygw,f? w±kwu f rl ifwefe@J *syefa&wyfyikd ef ufteD; trGKd irf mS pwnf;cs+y;D w±kwu f eG jf rLepfygweD @J tquf
toG,f&zdk@ óud;pm;ae=uwkef;rSm ygvmor#aiGukef+yD; aiGa=u;t=uyftwnf; óuH=uygw,f? Arm
jynfvSrf;+yD; aiGa=u;tultnDawmif;awmh b¾ma&;wm0efcH ocifvSaz (Adkvfvusfm) u vdkuf
tvSLcH&mrSm Armhxu G &f yf*% dk ;f }uD;udv k nf; tvSLcHryd gw,f? *syefvv kd m;ol a'guw f mode;f armif

18 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

odomG ; +yD; a'gufwmodef;armifu ‘qlZluD;’ udk ajymjywJhtwGuf ocifatmifqef; eJ@ ocifvSòrdif


"mwfyHkudk qlZluD;u ,loGm;+yD; trGdKifuae wdkusKdydk@Ekdifa&; pDpOfygawmhw,f? tJ'ga=umifh Armjynf
vGwfvyfa&;twGuf vufeufeJ@ tultnD&a&;/ w±kyfjynfuGefjrLepfygwDqD oGm;cJh=uwJh ocif
atmifqef;eJ@ ocifvSòrdifwdk@[m aemufqHk; *syefudka&mufoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
1940 ckEpS t f wGi;f rSm ‘Apde-f xGe;f tky’f *d% k ;f uvnf; *syefe@J tquftoG,&f zd@k óud;pm;ae
=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? *syefeJ@ tquftoG,f&+yD;wJhtcg tultnDtwGuf *syefu ,dk;',m;bufudk
ul;yg? [drk mS jynfjh ynfph pkH kH pDpOfaqmif&u G af y;r,fajymwJt h wGuf ocifApdeu f , kd w
f ikd f ,d;k ',m;oGm;&ef
óud;pm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh vrf;rSmyJ t*Fvdyftzrf;cHvdkuf&+yD; axmifwESpfusoGm;&ygw,f? ocif
Apdef tzrf;cH&+y;D aemuf usev f rl sm;u qufóu;d pm;=u&if; ocifatmifoef; (aemif Adv k pf }umf ) wa,muf
,dk;',m;udk acsmacsmarmarm a&mufoGm;ygw,f? aemifrSm *syefudk ppfynmoifrsm; v$wfEkdifa&;
tcdkiftrm aqmif&GufEdkifcGifh&oGm;=uygawmhw,f?
1941 ckEpS f ESpq f ef;ydik ;f a&mufawmh ocifjracgi;f aqmif+yD; t*Fvyd u f kd vufeufuikd af wmfveS f
zd@k A[dak jratmufawmfveS af &;tzGŒJ awG v#KŒd 0Suf zGŒJ pnf;ygw,f? A[kad jratmufawmfveS af &;tzGŒJ &JŒ
OuUÏtjzpf ocifjru wm0ef,l+yD; c±dkif (20) cGJ+yD; zGJŒpnf;ygw,f? 'DtzGJŒcGJawGxJrSm yg0ifcJh=uwJh
wcsKŒd aomacgi;f aqmifawG[m ‘'d@k Armtpnf;t±H;k ’ udpeP @J tzrf;tqD;cH=u&wmawGvnf; ay:vm
ygw,f? tzrf;qD;cH=u&wJh ocifacgif;aqmifawG axmifawGxJrSm renf;awmhyg? usefacgif;aqmif
trsm;pk[mvnf; v#KŒd 0Su+f yD; ajratmufvy_ &f mS ;r_awGuykd J tav;xm;+yD; vkyu f ikd vf y_ &f mS ;ae=u&yg
awmhw,f?
tJ'DvkdtcsdefrSm 1941 ckESpf rwfvxJrSm ocifatmifqef; *syefuae &efukefudk v#KdŒ0Suf+yD;
wacgufjyefvmcJhygw,f? ykodrfudk qefwifzdk@vmwJh ukefwifoabFmwpD;rSm oabFmt&m&Sda,mif
aqmif+yD; vdkufvmwmjzpfygw,f? ykodrfuae &efukefudkqif;csvm+yD; ouFef;u|ef;wae&mrSm
jynfo@l ta&awmfyykH gwD (yDtmyD) u ocifcspf (aemif ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwt D wGi;f a&;rSL;) eJ@ awGŒqHk
ygw,f? ocifcsp/f q&mxGe;f a&$w@kd &ŒJ tpDtpOfe@J jynfo@l ta&;awmfyykH gwu D acgi;f aqmifrsm;eJ@ aqG;aEG;
=uygw,f? *syefuay;r,fh tultnDta=umif;/ ArmrsK;d cspv f il ,fawGukd *syefvw $ +f yD; ppfynmoif
,la&;tpDtpOfawGta=umif; tao;pdwfaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? ocifatmifqef; oabFmeJ@tjyefrSm
ocifu, kd af wmfrid_ ;f 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k u ocifvaS z (aemif Adv k v f usmf )/ ocifA*sr;f (aemif Adv k v
f
a&mif)/ ocifat;armif (aemif Adv k rf ;kd )/ ausmif;om;or*~u udx k eG ;f &Sed f (aemif Adv k &f efEidk )f wk@d yxr
tokwftjzpf vdkufygoGm;jzpf=uygw,f?
aemifr=umrDrSmyJ 'kwd,tokwf/ wwd,tokwfawG qufvufydk@v$wfEkdif+yD; aemufqHk;
tokwf pwkwo ˆ w k f (11) OD;rSmawmh ‘Apde-f xGe;f tky’f *d% k ;f u acgi;f aqmif ocifxeG ;f tkyt f ygt0if
(6) OD;eJ@ q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;tzGJŒu (5) OD;yg0ifygw,f? ocif±_armif
(aemif Adv k af e0if;) [m tJ'aD emufq;kH okwrf mS ‘Apde-f xGe;f tky’f *d% k ;f &JŒtzGŒJ 0ifwOD;tjzpf ygvmwm
jzpfygw,f? ,d;k ',m;udjk zwf+yD; a&mufvmcJw h hJ Apde-f xGe;f tkyf *d%k ;f u ocifatmifoef; (Adv k pf }umF )/
ocifoef;wif (Adv k o f ef;wif)/ *syefukd ynmoiftjzpf a&muf&Sdae+yD;jzpfwJh udkaqmif; (aemif-Adkvf
xdef0if;) wdk@yg tm;vHk;aygif;vdkufawmh vl (30) jzpfoGm;ygw,f? ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 19


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

t±Hk;u (21) OD;eJ@ Apdef-xGef;tkyf 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;u (8) OD;jzpfygw,f? 'D (30) [m aemif
&JabmfoHk;usdyfvdk@ Armjynfordkif;rSm trnfxif&Sm;vmygw,f?
&JabmfoHk;usdyf[m ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf e,fcsJŒt*Fvdyfudk vufeufeJ@wdkufcdkufzdk@
*syefqDu&wJh ppfa&;tultnDudk &,lvufcH+yD; ppfynmudk oif,l=uygawmhw,f?
1941 ckEpS /f ZGev
f (22) &ufae@rmS *smrefemZDawG[m qkAd , D uf,el , D u H kd 0ifa&mufwu dk cf ukd f
ygw,f? qdAk ,D uf,el , D H emZD*smrefw@kd &ŒJ vufatmuf us rus[m wurBmvH;k eJ@ oufqikd w f hJ ta&;
jzpfvmygw,f? qdkAD,ufom 'DwdkufyGJrSmusqHk;oGm;cJh&if urBmhtem*wf[m emZDzufqpfrsm;vuf
atmuf jym;jym;arSmufoGm;&awmhr,fh taetxm;rsKd;jzpfygw,f?
1939 ckESpf pufwifbmvu pwifjzpfyGm;cJhwJh 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;[m qkdAD,ufudk emZD*sm
refwdk@u 0ifa&mufwkdufcdkufjcif; rðyrDtxd e,fcsJŒorm;tcsif;csif;=um; jzpfyGm;aewJhppf e,fajrvk
ppfuae/ vuQ%mwpwp pwifajymif;vJ oGm;ygawmhw,f? e,fcsJŒorm;csif;wdkufwJhppfuae
urBmzh ufqpftm%m&Sirf sm;u wzuf/ vGwv f yfciG rhf sm; 'Drukd a&pDe@J qk&d , S v f pfpepfukd umuG,w f hJ
tiftm;pkrsm;uwzuf t}udwfte,f,SOfòydif=uwJh urBmhppfyJG}uD;tjzpf ul;ajymif;oGm;ygawmh
w,f? urBmzh ufqpfpepfqef@usiaf &;twGuf urBmjh ynfot l m;vH;k eJ@qidk w f hJ ppfy}JG uD;toGijf zpfvmyg
w,f?
tJ'D 1941 ckESpf/ ZGefv pwkwWywfxJrSmyJ tif;pdefaxmifxJ a&muf&Sdae=uwJh ocifacgif;
aqmifawGjzpfwJh ocifpdk;/ ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifEk/ ocifvSabmf/ ocifav;armif/ ocifausmfpdef/
ocifcifatmif wkd@wawG[m urBmhtajctae/ ArmhtajctaeawGudk awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;=uygw,f?
ppfwrf;xkw=f unf=h uygw,f? tJ'pD pfwrf;[m Armhordik ;f rSm ta&;ygwhJ ‘tif;pdepf pfwrf;’ yg? tJ'D
ppfwrf;&JΠtcsKyfoabmuawmh urBmzh ufqpf0g'udk wdu k zf suaf &;/ urBmph pf}uD;twGi;f rSm r[mrdwf
rsm;eJ@ wGJzufwdkufcdkuf+yD; ArmhvGwfvyfa&;udk t&,la&;jzpfygw,f?
tif;pdepf pfwrf;yg oabmxm;udk tJ'aD xmifwiG ;f a&muf ocifacgi;f aqmifrsm;[m t*Fvyd f
tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfolrsm;qDudkvnf; pmwapmifa&;ydk@cJh=uovdk tjyifrSm&SdaewJh ocifacgif;rsm;qDudk
vnf; enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ ay;ydk@cJh=uygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm ocifatmifqef;eJ@ ArmhrsKd;cspfvli,f ocif
acgif;aqmiftcsKŒd [m *syefe@J qufr+d yD; *syefuakd wmif a&muf&adS e=u+yDjzpfygw,f? *syefukd ppfynm
oifrsm; apv$waf &;twGuf t"duwm0ef,lcJhwJh ocifjr/ ocifcspfwdk@acgif;aqmifwJh jynfolŒta&;
awmfyHkygwD}uD;[m *syefeJ@qufoG,frd=u&if; vufvGefaerdcJh=u+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifh 1941 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f v,frmS usi;f ywJh 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k uGe@f z&ifh (A[dak umfrwD
tpnf;ta0;) rSm axmifuvGwfcgp ocifoef;òrdif (ausmufqnf)/ ocifv_dif (a&eHacsmif;) wdk@vdk
yk*~KdvfawGu tif;pdefppfwrf;yg oabmxm;tjrifopfudk wifjyaqG;aEG;=uayr,fh ocifjr/ ocif
A[def; pwJhacgif;aqmifawGu rlvay:vpDtwdkif; ‘yxr t*Fvdyfe,fcsJŒudk qef@usifwdkufckduf/
aemufrS *syefwdk@. ajcvSrf;udk=unfh+yD; *syefudkygwdkufqdkwJh oabmxm;udkom twnfðyoifh
a=umif; &Sif;vif;wifjy+yD; vufcHvdkuf=uygw,f?
1930 ckEpS u
f wnf;u w±kwjf ynfuw kd ukd +f y;D w±kwjf ynfxaJ &muf&adS ewJh *syef[m ‘tm&Swu kd f
omwlnrD #a&;’ aºuG;a=umfoeH @J urBmt h a&SŒjcrf;wckv;kH udk pd;k rd;k odr;f ydu
k Ef idk zf Œkd tcdik tf rm=uH&,
G x f m;

20 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

+yD;yg+yD? 'gayr,fh 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;twGif; *syef[m w&m;0ifrygao;yg? tar&duefvnf;


w&m;0if rygao;yg?
qdkAD,ufudk emZD*smrefwdk@ 0ifwdkufcsdefup+yD; urBmppf}uD;&JŒta&;}uD; vuQ%majymif;vJ
vmovdk urBmppfrD;&JΠt&Sdef[mvnf; ydkrdkjyif;xefvmygw,f? ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf enf;
rsKd;pHkeJ@ óud;yrf;tm;xkwf v_yf&Sm;r_awG[mvnf; ododomom jrifhrm;vmcsdefrSm t*Fvdyf&JŒ ±kyfao;
tpdk;& *VKefOD;apm[mvnf; ol&JŒEkdifiHa&;t&Sdeft0g vdrfnmpdkufxlxm;Ekdifa&;twGuf Armjynf
bk&ifcH qma':refprpfeJ@ tay;t,lvkyf+yD; Armhta&;udkqdk&ef vef'efoGm;zdk@jyifygw,f? atmufwdk
bmvxJrSm tdkifpDtuf OD;wifxGwfudk twGif;0eftjzpfac:oGm;+yD; Armjynfqdkif&m twGif;0ef
‘atr&D’ eJ@awGŒ ‘csmcsD’ eJ@awGŒ vkyfygw,f? t*Fvdyfu ppf}uD;+yD;&if Armjynfudk 'dkrDeD,Htqifhxd
jr‡ifhwifay;ygr,fqdkwJh uwdukdawmifray;yg? yg;pyfuwdav;awmif r&cJhyg?
*syefa&muf ocifatmifqef;acgif;aqmifwJh &JabmfoHk;usdyf[m *syefodrf;xm;wJh [dkifeef
u|ef;rSm 1941 ckESpf/ =o*kwfvu atmufwdkbmvv,ftxd/ xkdif0rfu|ef;rSm atmufwdkbmv,f
uae 'DZifbmvqef;txd *syefuay;wJh ppfynmudk tcuftcJtrsK;d rsK;d yifyrf;qif;&Jr_ tzHzk =kH um;
uae oif,lae=uygw,f?
1941 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmrSm tar&duefydkif ‘[m0dkif,Du|ef;’ ykvJqdyfurf;udk tvpftidkuf AHk;
}uJwdkufcdkuf+yD; *syef[m urBmppf}uD;twGif; 0ifa&mufvmygawmhw,f? 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae@rSm
*syefu t*Fvyd /f tar&duefw@kd ukd w&m;0ifppfa=unmovd/k tar&duefuvnf; w&m;0if*syefukd
ppfa=unm+yD; urBmppf}uD;xJa&mufvmygawmhw,f? 'DZifbm (11) &ufae@rmS tar&duefu *smref
eJ@ tDwvDudkvnf; ppfa=unmygawmhw,f?
zufqpfemZDrsm;jzpf=uwJh *smref/ tDwvD/ *syef 0if±;kd pGe;f oH;k Ekid if H tiftm;pkuwzuf/ t*Fvyd /f
jyifopf/ tar&duef/ qkdAD,ufr[mrdwf tiftm;pkrsm;uwzuf/ wurBmvHk;v$rf;òcHwJh urBmppf}uD;
[m urBmhjynfoltm;vHk;eJ@ ywfoufvm&ygawmhw,f?
1941 ckEpS /f 'DZifbm (9) &ufae@rmS t*Fvyd t f pd;k &u 'd@k Armtpnf; t±H;k }u;D udk rw&m;oif;
tjzpf a=unm+yD;/ ocifacgif;aqmiftm;vHk;udk vdkufvHzrf;qD;ygw,f? t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk jywfjywf
om;om; qef@usi=hf uwJh ocifacgi;f aqmifreS o f r# axmifxaJ &muf&ifa&muf/ ra&muf&if ajratmuf
tjzpf v#dKŒ0Sufvkyfudkifv_yf&Sm;=u&ygawmhw,f? ay:ay:xifxif aexdkifvdk@r&awmhyg?
*syefzufqpfrsm;[m tvsit f jref ppfqiford ;f ydu k rf a_ wGvyk +f y;D tm&Sppfr;D udk t&Sed jf ri‡ vhf u
kd f
ygw,f? zdvpfydkifEkdifiHeJ@ ypdzdwfork'N&mwGif;&Sd u|ef;}uD;u|ef;i,fawGudk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufygw,f?
t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ orm;&JŒ ta&SŒzsm;a'oppfbuf tcdik t f rmpcef;}u;D jzpfwhJ puFmylcw H yf}u;D udk t*Fvyd f
rsm;ud, k wf ikd f wkev
f y_ t
f =hH ooGm;&avmufatmif taocH+yD; &ufyikd ;f twGi;f odr;f ypfvu kd Ef ikd yf gw,f?
'DZifbm (23) &ufe@J (25) &uf c&pPrwfae@rmS &efuek òf rŒd udk *syefu pwifA;kH }uw J u
kd cf u
kd yf gawmhw,f?
Armjynf}uD;[m ppfrD;v#H=um; twdtvif;a&muf&SdoGm;yg+yD?
t*Fvdyftpdk;&[m atmufArmEkdifiH&Sd tusOf;axmifawGxJ a&muf&Sdae=uwJh ocifacgif;
aqmifawGudk txufArmjynfaxmifawGqDcGJ+yD; ae&mtESH@ydk@ygw,f? *syeftultnDe@J ppfynmoif
=um;+y;D =uwJh &Jabmfo;kH usyd [ f m xkid 0f rfu|e;f uae befaumufòrdŒudk a&muf&Sdae=uyg+yD? *syefwdk@&JŒ

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 21


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

awmifydkif; ppfwyftrSwf (15) ppfwyf}uD;[mvnf; xkdif;EdkifiHxJa&muf&Sdaeyg+yD? trSwf (15) vuf


atmufcH 'D0DZHwyf (5) [m befaumufòrdŒrSm &JabmfoHk;usdyf a&muf&SdaepOfrSmyJ a&muf&Sdvm+yDjzpf
ygw,f?
1941 ckEpS /f 'DZifbm (26) &ufae@rmS befaumufòrdŒrSm ocifatmifqef;/ ocifxeG ;f tkyw f @kd
acgif;aqmifwJh &JabmfoHk;usdyf[m ArmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf aoG;udkazmuf opPma&aomufyGJusif;
y+y;D Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmf (bDtikd af t) udk pwifzŒJG pnf;vdu k =f uygw,f? bDtikd af t[m Armh
vufeufuikd w f yfrawmf&ŒJ rlvtpjzpfygw,f? Adv k af tmifqef;[m 'D bDtikd af tudk pwif acgi;f aqmif
zGJŒpnf;ay;cJholppfppfjzpfvdk@ wyfrawmf&JŒ zcift&if;ppfppfjzpfygw,f? ocifxGef;tkyfvnf; &Jabmf
oH;k usyd rf mS acgi;f aqmifwa,mufjzpfcahJ yr,hf ol[m ppfynmtpm; tkycf sKyfa&;ynmudo k m tav;
xm; oif,cl o hJ jl zpfygw,f? Advk bf ŒJG cH,o
l wfrw S =f uawmhvnf; Adv k b f ŒJG awmif rcH,cl yhJ g? bDtikd af t
pwifxlaxmif&mrSm yg0ifcJhwJh *syefAdkvf ‘qlZluD;’ uawmif Adkvfrdk;óud;tjzpf cH,lcJhygw,f?
bDtikd af t zGŒJ pnf;+yD;wmeJ@ ArmjynftwGi;f a&SŒajy;0ifa&muf+yD; jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gweD @J
qufoG,fbdk@/ ajratmufawmfvSefa&;tzGJŒ0ifrsm;eJ@ qufoG,fzdk@ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvfwm&m/ Adkvfvif;
,kef/ Adkvfrdk;!dkwdk@yg0ifwJh tzGJŒwckudk wm0efay; apv$wfvdkufygw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvqef;ydkif;rSmyJ Adkvfatmifqef;acgif;aqmifwJh bDtdkifat (ArmhvGwf
vyfa&;wyfrawmf) [m *syefwyfrawmfeJ@twl ppfa=umif;oHk;a=umif;cGJ+yD; xdkif;Arme,fpyfuae
ArmjynftwGi;f atmifjrifpmG 0ifa&muf=uygawmhw,f? bDtikd af t pwifzŒJG pnf;wke;f u &m*%ef;r#
om&Sdayr,fh a&;/ +rdwf/ xm;0,f/ armfvòrdifòrdŒawGudk odrf;ydkuf+yD;wmeJ@ tiftm;tqrwef wdk;yGm;
vmygw,f? ay;EkdifwJh vufeuftiftm;xuf vltiftm;u tqrwefrsm;jym;ae+yD; ppfcsD&mvrf;
wav#mufu &&mvufeufpGJudkif vdkufygvm=uwJh bDtdkifatwyfrawmf}uD;[m &efukefòrdŒudk
ra&mufao;ciftwGif;rSm oHk;aomif;ausmfav;aomif;eD;yg; wyfrawmf}uD;jzpfaeyg+yD?
*syefbufu ArmjynfppfyGJtwGuf t"duwm0ef,l&wJhwyfu trSwf (15) wyfrawmf
jzpfygw,f? trSwf (33) wyfreJ@ trSwf (55) wyfr[m/ trSwf (15) wyfrawmf}uD;xJrSm yg0ifyg
w,f? 'DtrSwf (15) wyfrawmf}u;D xJrmS yg0ifygw,f? 'DtrSwf (15) wyfrawmf}u;D wckv;kH udk OD;pD;
olu vufzwifeif *sife&,ftD;'g;jzpfygw,f?
1942 ckESpf ESpfqef; *syeft0ifrSmyJ e,fcsJŒt*Fvdyfrsm;[m olwdk@&J@ wynfhausmf ‘qmay:
xGef;’ Armjynftpkd;&udkyg olwdk@eJ@ wyg;wnf;ac:aqmif+yD; atmifjrifpGmqkwfcGmjcif;udk jyifqifyg
awmhw,f?
1941 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbmvxJu vef'efa&muf+yD; 'drk eD , D tH yk cf sKyfa&;ay;zd@k awmif;aewJh eef;&if;
0ef OD;apm[m 'dkrDeD,Hr&yJ vef'efuae tar&duefbuf vSnfht0if tar&duef&JΠ[m0dkiftDu|ef;
[dEk vdk v
l òl rdŒudk *syefu AH;k vm}uJomG ;vd@k òrdŒ}uD;wckv;kH ysupf ;D aewmudk jrifvu kd &f w,f? tm&Sa'o
udv k nf; ppfr;D ul;ae+yq D wkd mudvk nf; odvu kd &f w,f? 'ga=umifh Oa&mybufjyefvn S &hf if; ay:wl*jD ynf
vpPbGef;òrdŒta&muf *syefaumifppf0efcsKyf±Hk;oGm;+yD; olŒudk,fusKd;twGuf Armjynfudk *syef0ifr,f
qd&k if olu ulnyD ;l aygi;f r,fv@kd ajymowJ?h 'ga=umifh ygvufpwdik ;f / [dik zf mòrdŒudk OD;apmwd@k ta&muf/
toifah pmifah ewJh t*Fvyd af xmufvrS ;f a&;awGu OD;apmeJ@ OD;wifxw G u f kd zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f vdu k =f uyg

22 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf
w,f? Armjynfudk jyefrydk@awmhbJ ppfumvwav#mufvHk; ,l*ef'grSm tus,fcsKyfeJ@ xm;vdkufyg
w,f? 'ga=umifh ArmjynfrSm eef;&if;0ef OD;apmtpdk;&&JŒae&mrSm qmay:xGef;tpdk;&jzpfaewmjzpfyg
w,f?
'Dumvw0du k rf mS ‘jrif;jcpH pfwrf;’ xGuaf y:vmygw,f? ‘jrif;jcpH pfwrf;’[m ‘tif;pdepf pfwrf;’
&JΠtqufjzpfygw,f? tif;pdeaf xmifuae Ekid if aH &;orm; ocifacgi;f aqmifawGukd txufArmjynf
axmifawGqcD yGJ @kd wt hJ cg jrif;jcHaxmifa&mufomG ;&wJh ocifp;kd u axmifxrJ mS a&;om;wJh ppfwrf;jzpfyg
w,f? tJ'pD pfwrf;ygoabmxm;tjriftwdik ;f ocifp;kd [m axmifx&J dS &JabmfawG Ekid if aH &;orm;awG
udv k nf; csjywm aqG;aEG;wm oifwef;ay;wmawGuv kd nf; vkyyf gw,f? uGejf rLepf&aJ bmfrsm;eJ@ ocif
acgif;aqmif awmfawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; vufcHoabmuscJh=uw,fvdk@qkdygw,f? jrif;jcHppfwrf;&JŒ
oabmxm;tjrifu 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;jzpfwJh t*Fvdyftar&duefeJ@ uGefjrLepf±k&Sm;aygif;+yD;
r[mrdwfzGJ@um zufqpfemZD *smref/ tDwvDwdk@udk wdkufcdkufovdk/ ArmjynfrSm ArmawGuvnf;
zufqpf*syefudk eHywfwpf&efoltjzpf owfrSwf+yD; t*Fvdyftar&duefawGeJ@ twlwGJwdkuf&r,f?
r[mrdwfzGJΠyl;aygif;wdkuf&r,fqdkwmygyJ?
'ga=umifh tJ't D csed uf ArmjynfEidk if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;&J@ taetxm; udck jJG crf;pdwjf zm=unfh
vdu k rf ,fq&kd if t,ltq (3) ckawGŒ&ygr,f? tJ't D ,l tq (3) cktwdik ;f OD;wnfvy_ &f mS ; jzpfay:ae
=uwmudkvJawGŒ&ygr,f?
‘ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf’ qkdwJh t"du&nfrSef;csuf[m ruGJjym;=uayr,fhæ
yxrt,ltqu ‘Armjynfudk u|efðyxm;ol t*Fvdyfudkwdkuf&r,f? *syeftultnD&,l
+yD; t*Fvdyfudk t+yD;wdkif wdkufxkwfypf&if; Armjynf&JŒvGwfvyfa&;udk &,lEdkifvdrfhr,f’ qdkwmjzpf
w,f? jynfo@l ta&;awmfyykH gw&D ŒJ t,ltqjzpfovd/k tJ't D ,ltq oabmxm;twdik ;f um,uH
ajrmuf aqmif&Gufae=uolawGu ocifatmifqef;/ ocifvSaz (Adkvfvusfm)/ ocifvSòrdif (Adkvf&ef
atmif) eJ@ &JabmfoHk; usdyftiftm;pkawG jzpfygw,f?
'kw, d t,ltqu ‘Oa&myrSm qkAd , D ufu r[mrdwrf sm;eJ@aygi;f +yD; zufqpfawGukd t"du
xm;wdu k wf mrSewf ,f? ArmjynfrmS 'Dtajctaer&S?d vufawGŒrSm t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ [m igw@kd tm; r[m
rdwðf ycGirhf ay;? vGwv f yfa&;ay;r,fuwdðyyg? ppftwGi;f rSm cifAsm;wd@k e@J yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G f ygr,fv@kd
'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k &JŒ awmif;qkcd suu f kd y,fcs±rkH u/ ocifawGukd zrf;qD;axmifcsw,f? 'ga=umifh t*Fvyd f
awGukd raxmufcEH idk ±f rkH u jynfwiG ;f ppfðy&r,f? *syefusL;ausmaf &;orm; zufqpfrsm;udv k nf; ckcH
wdkufcdkuf&r,f’ qdkwmjzpfygw,f? ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh)/ ocifA[def;wdk@[m 'Dt,ltq&SdcJh
=uygw,f? 'Dt,ltqudk udkifpGJolawGvJ awmfawmfrsm;rsm;&SdcJhygw,f?
wwd,t,ltqopfu ocifp;kd eJ@ jrif;+cHppfwrf;axmufco H rl sm;&J@ (t*Fvyd u
f zrf;qD;xm;
vdk@ axmifxJa&mufae=u&ol ocifacgif;aqmif trsm;pk&JŒ) oabmxm;tjrifjzpfygw,f?
‘qdAk ,
D ufukd *smrefw@kd 0ifwu dk cf sed u
f p+yD; urBmppf}uD;&JŒvuQ%m[m tajccHup+yD; ajymif;
oGm;+y?D 'ga=umifh zufqpfqef@usiaf &; trsK;d om;vGwaf jrmufa&; vrf;pOftwdik ;f aqmif&u G =f u&r,f?
t*Fvdyfe,fcsJŒorm;udk zufqpfwdkufzsufa&;rSm r[mrdwfðyxm;Ekdif&r,f’ qdkwJh t,ltqjzpfyg
w,f? 'Dt,ltqudk tjyifrSm&Sdae=uwJh EkdifiHa&;orm;awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u ±kwfw&uf vufcH

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 23


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

Edkif=ujcif;r&Sdyg? t*Fvdyf&JΠzdESdyftkyfcsKyfr_atmufrSmom ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmaexkdifvmcJh&bl;olawGjzpf


awmh t*Fvyd u f /kd jyefvnf wGe;f vSew f u
kd cf u
kd af &; pdwaf pmae=uwmuwa=umif;/ *syefta=umif;udk
t*Fvyd t f a=umif;avmuf vufawGŒrod=uao;wmuwa=umif;/ *syeftay: ar#mv f ifch suxf m;ol
awG&Sdaeao;wma=umifhwa=umif; 'Dt,ltq[m topftpdrf;ozG,fjzpfaeygw,f?
bDtikd af twyfe@J *syefw@kd &ŒJ trSwf (55) wyfr}uD; armfvòrdiu f kd odr;f +yD;csed u f p+yD;/ *syefawG
u Armjynfudk vGwfvyfa&;a=unmay;r,f/ tkyfcsKyfa&;udkvnf; ArmawGudkyJtyfr,fqkdwJh uwd
udk pwifcsKd;azmufygawmhw,f?
bDtikd af twyfrsm;u ArmjynftwGi;f 0ifvmpOf odr;f ydu k rf w
d hJ a'owdik ;f rSm &yf&mG at;csr;f
a&;eJ@ +idrf0yfydjym;a&;twGuf tkyfcsKyfa&;awG zGJŒay;ygw,f? tJ'Daus;&Gm/ òrdŒe,f/ c±dkiftkyfcsKyfa&;
tzGŒJ awGukd ocifawG oufqidk &f ma'ou =oZmtm%m&So d al wG t&m&Sad [mif;awGe@J oifah vsmo f
vdk zGJ@pnf;ay;cJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh tJ'Dacwfumvudk bDtdkifat tkyfcsKyfa&;acwfumvvdk@ac:a0:
=uygw,f?
bDtdkifatwyfawG[m 1942 ckESpf rwfv (8) &ufae@rSm &efukefòrdŒudk odrf;ydkufrdygw,f?
bDtdkifatwyfu &efukefòrdŒudk t0ifapmayr,f *syefwyf trSwf (15) wyfrawmfu tvHk;t&if;
tiftm; ydkrdk}uD;wma=umifh trSwf (15) wyf&JŒvufatmufusa&mufoGm;ygw,f? trSwf (15)
wyfu/ bk&ifcHtdrfudk odrf;ydkuf+yD; rwfv (15) &ufae@rSm ume,fempl (Clolnee Yoshio Nasu)
acgif;aqmifwJh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk pzGJŒygawmhw,f?
t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ orm;uawmh ol&ŒJ eef;&if;0ef qmay:xGe;f tpd;k &udyk g wygwnf;ac:aqmif+yD;
&efukefu jynf/ rE Wav;/ aròrdŒ/ ppfudkif;c&D; taxmufaxmuf ajymif;a&$Œ±Hk;pdkuf&if; ‘atmifjrifpGm
qkwfcGmjcif;’ udk atmifjrifpGm ðyvkyfoGm;ygw,f?
‘bDtdkifat’ eJ@twlygvmwJh Adkvfrdk;óud;eJ@ olŒ&JŒ rDemrDuDuef;tzGJ@0if trsm;pk}uD;[m
Armjynf&ŒJ vGwv f yfa&;udk tjrefq;kH a=unmay;csiaf yr,fh Armjynfppfqifa&;udk t"du wm0ef,l
xm;wJh trSwf (15) wyfrawmf[m tapmydkif;u ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk oabmwlcJh&muae
oabmxm;ajymif;+yD; uef@uu G wf t hJ wGuf ‘bDtikd af t’ twGi;f rSmomru Adv k rf ;kd óud;wd@k vkd ‘rDemrD
*syef’ rsm;uyg rauseyfjzpfcJh&ygw,f? ‘bDtdkifat’ &JŒ vGwfvyfa&; a=unma&; ar#mfvifhcsuf[m
taumiftxnf razmfEikd af wmhwb hJ 0 a&mufomG ;&ygw,f? 'gayr,fh bDtikd af t[m bDtikd af todr;f
yduk rf &d mwav#mufukd ‘+idr;f csr;f a&;aumfrwD’ awGzŒJG +yD; bDtikd af ttkycf sKyfa&;tzGŒJ awG xlaxmifay;
cJhygw,f? bDtdkifat tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@awG[m oufqdkif&ma'orSm tm%m&tzGJŒawGozG,fjzpfwJh
twGuf &mxl;tm%m&vdkolawGvnf; enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ 0ifa&mufyg0ifvm=uwm&Sdygw,f?
bDtikd af ta=umifh &yf&mG at;csr;f wm/ olc;kd "m;jy awma=umifawG rxEkid w f m&So d vd/k bDtikd f
attkyfcsKyfa&;umvxJrSm bDtdkifata=umifh rsufESmysufp&m/ tjrifr=unfvifp&mawGvnf;
ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? ‘bDtdkifat’ u ajcvGefvufvGefvkyfcJhwmawGvnf;&Sdygw,f? txl;ojzifh
jrpf0u|ef;ay:a'owcsKdŒrSm jy\emay:cJhygw,f? +idrf0yfydjym;a&;twGufqdk+yD; vufeufawGvdkuf
odr;f wm/ ttyfcikd ;f wmvky&f if; u&iftrsK;d om;awGe@J jy\emjzpfc=hJ uygw,f? u&if-ArmvlrsK;d a&;
t"du±k%f;ay:cJh&ygw,f? u&iftrsKd;om;awGbufu =unfhr,fqdk&if tJ'D ‘bDtdkifat’ qdkolawG

24 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

[m EkdifiHa&;tay:pD;&r_tay:uae *syeftm;udk;eJ@ u&iftrsKd;om;awGtay: Adkvfusvmwm vlrsKd;


a&;zdESdyfowfjzwf/ t=urf;zufvmwmvdk@ jrif=uwmawG jzpfay:vmcJhw,f? ‘tdrfrJ’ e,frSm u&if
trsKd;om; ‘ref;a&$xGef;=um’ OD;pD;wJh trsKd;om;ckcHumuG,fr_ vufeufudkifwdkufyGJawG ay:cJh&w,f?
ajrmif;jre,frSmvJ Adkvfrdk;óud;wynfh uDrmwm; (Kimata) qdo k u l kd u&ifawGu owfjzwf
vdu k =f uw,fqw kd o hJ wif;tay:rSm ‘Adv k af usmaf Zm’ &JŒwyfuv kd w$ +f yD; ESrd ef if;cdik ;f wJt
h wGuf jy\em
ay:cJh&ygw,f? &Srf;jynfbufrSmvnf; bDtdkifatAdkvfwa,mufu wyfwwyfeJ@ &rf;um;oGm;wJht
wGuf rsufESmysufp&mjzpfcJh&w,f?
*syefwyfrsm;uvnf; ArmjynfwGif;a&mufwJh tcsdefup+yD; olwdk@wyfa&muf&m t&yfwkdif;
rSm zufqpfbDvl;±kyfudk tpG,fwjyL;jyL;eJ@ jyovmw,f? yg;±dkuf/ em;±dkuf/ vufonf;cGHcGm a&aEG;yl
avmif;/ aeylvSef;/ ouf}uD;&G,ftkdrSef; rod bkef;}uD;&[ef;rSef;rod ±dkif;±dkif;pdkif;pdkif; ðyrlqufqHwm
nOf;yef;ESdyfpufwmawG vkyfvm=uygw,f? atmufArmjynfwckvHk;uawmh *syefatmufa&muf
oGm;+yDjzpfayr,fh txufArmjynfuawmh t*FvdyfvufxJ &SdaeqJjzpfygw,f?
xif&Sm;wJhEkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmif trsm;pk}uD;[m txufArmjynf tusOf;axmifawGxJu
rxGufEkdifao;yg? rE Wav;axmifxJrSm ocifpdk;/ ocifA[def;/ ocifEk/ ocifjroGif/ ocifausmfpdefwdk@
wawG&+dS yD; rH&k mG axmifrmS ocifoef;xGe;f / ocifav;armif/ ocifApde/f ocifcifatmifw@dk wawG &S=d u
w,f? rdk;ukwfaxmifrSmu a'gufwmbarmf?
w±kwjf ynf cseaf u&Sw d t
f pd;k &ud,
k pf m;vS,f ‘*sief &,f0rf;’ u ocifEu k kd axmifxo J mG ;awGŒ
+y;D ‘w±kyjf ynfvu kd cf yhJ g? [dak &muf&if twlwv l yk &f atmif’ vd@k zw d af c:awmh ocifEu k ‘*sief &,f0rf;’
udk “ppf}uD;+yD;oGm;&if ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;ay;r,fvdk@ t*Fvdyftpdk;&u a=unmygap? Armjynfol
tm;vHk;u *syefudk wdkufcdkuf=uvdrfhr,f” vdk@qdkygw,f?
ocifpdk;/ ocifEk/ ocifA[def;eJ@ ocifausmfpdefwdk@awG w±kwfjynf ‘csKHuif;’ txd vdkufzdk@
tpDtpOfvkyf+yD;wJhtcsdefrSm *syefu w±kwf-Arm vrf;r}uD;udk jzwfawmufydwfqdk@xm;vdkuf+yDjzpf
vdk h tpDtpOfysufoGm;cJhygw,f?
*syefu &efukefudk odrf;ydkuf+yD;wJhtcg txufArmjynfòrdŒ}uD;awGqD csDwufodrf;ydkufyg
w,f? bDtdkifatwyfawGuvnf; *syefwyfawGeJ@,SOf+yD; wufygw,f// txufArmjynfòrdŒawGudk
vnf; *syef[m ava=umif;uae AHk;}uJwdkufcdkuf&if; atmifjrifpGmqkwfcGmae=uwJh t*Fvdyfwyf
r[mrdwfwyfrsm;tay: jyif;jyif;xefxef xkd;ppfqifygw,f? t*FvdyfawG rE Wav;uae qkwfcGm+yD;
rE Wav;axmif}uD;ay:rSm AHk;uscsdefrSm axmifrª;}uD;eJ@ tay;t,lvkyf+yD;/ ocifEk/ ocifpdk;/ ocif
A[def;/ ocifjroGif/ ocifausmfpdefwdk@wawG axmifuvGwfvm=uygw,f?
t*FvdyfwyfawGqkwf&if; ppfudkif;wHwm;}uD;udk csKd;+yD; rHk&Gmudk ta&muf *syefu AHk;t}uJrSm
rHk&GmaxmifudkzGifh+yD; v$wfypfvdkufvdk@ ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifav;armif/ ocifApdef/ ocifcifatmif
wdk@awGvnf; rHk&Gmaxmifuae vGwfvm=uygw,f?
ppftwGi;f rSm txufArmjynfrmS Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmifawG tjyeftvSef tquftoG,&f +yD;
pkpnf;rdae=uygw,f? ocifodef;azeJ@ udkausmf+idrf; (OD;ausmf+idrf;) wdk@ESpfa,mufvnf; rE Wav;udk
a&mufaeygw,f? ocifodef;azu jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD &efyHkaiGeJ@ t*FvdyfeJ@ *syefe,fcsJŒwdk@udk

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 25


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

wòydifeuf wkduf&r,fqdkwJh oabmxm;pmwrf;rsm; a&;om;+yD; ‘wdkif;cspf’ ocifodef;az&JŒ wdkif;cspf


yHEk ydS w
f u
kd uf ae v#KŒd 0Suf ±du k Ef ydS x
f wk af 0wmawG pwifvyk af eygw,f? udak usm+f idr;f u jynfoŒl ta&;
awmfyHkygwD &efukefXmecsKyf&JΠwm0efay;csufeJ@ rdk;ukwfaxmifxJa&mufaewJh a'gufwmbarmfeJ@
awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;zdk@jzpfygw,f?
ocifoed ;f azeJ@ udak usm+f ird ;f [m tJ'w D ek ;f u a&$bu
kd kd ppfajy;tjzpf a&mufaewJh 'D;'kwOf ;D bcsKd
eJ@vnf; oGm;awGŒ=u+y;D Ekid if aH &;aqG;aEG;=uygw,f? rE aW v;em;u ‘uydik ’f &Gmudv k nf; wkid ;f cspf ocif
odef;azwdk@rdom;pk ajymif;a&$ŒoGm;=uvdk@ vdkufoGm;jzpf=uygw,f? tJ'D uydkif&GmrSmyJ axmifuvGwf
vm+yD; a&mufvm=uwJh ocifE/k ocifp;kd / ocifausmpf ed /f ocifjroGiw f @kd e@J twl ocifoed ;f az/ udak usmf
+idrf;wdk@ qHk=uygw,f? t*Fvdyfajy;±HkeJ@ vGwfvyfa&; ta&;awmfyHkr+yD;ao;? vGwfvyfa&;twGuf
qufvufwkdufyGJ0ifa&;udpPudk aqG;aEG;=uygw,f?
ocifEk/ udkausmf+idrf;wdk@u ArmjynfrSmae+yD; *syefeJ@yl;aygif;/ tm%mcGJa0,lum vHk;0vGwf
vyfa&;txd wdu k yf 0JG ifa&;oabmxm;udk udik pf w JG ,f? ocifp;kd / ocifoed ;f az/ ocifausmpf ed /f ocifjr
oGif wdk@u w±kwfwyfawGeJ@ twlvdkuf+yD; Armjynftjyifudk xGuf=ur,f? tJ'DurS w±kwf/ t*Fvdyf/
tar&duef pwJh r[mrdwfwyfawGeJ@ yl;aygif;+yD; *syefudkjyefwdkuf&if; vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&wJhtxd
wdkufoGm;=ur,fvdk@ qHk;jzwf=uw,f? tJ'DqHk;jzwfcsufeJ@tnD ocifpdk;/ ocifodef;az/ ocifjroGif
wkd@ vdkufoGm;=uayr,fh aemufqHk; ratmifjrifyJ jyefvSnfhvm=u&w,f?
1942 ckEpS /f arv (13) &ufae@rmS a'guw f mbarmf[m *syefawGe@J qufo, G rf +d yD;jzpfw,f?
ol@red ;f r a':cifrreJ@ wynfw h csKŒd u axmifr;ª / axmifq&m0efawGtultnDe@J rd;k ukwaf xmifuxkwf
vm+yD;wJhaemufydkif; a'gufwmbarmf[m *syefeJ@ qufoG,frdwmjzpfw,f? *syefu eef;&if;0ef
‘wd*k sK’d uvnf; a'guw f mbarmfvkd Ekid if aH &;orm;udk toH;k ðycsiaf ecsed f Armjynf&dS *sief &,f ‘tD'g;’
uvnf; Adv k rf ;kd óud;/ ocifxeG ;f tkyef @J bDtikd af ttkycf sKyfa&;/ +idr;f csr;f a&;aumfrwDqw kd mawGukd rsuf
aphaemuf+yD; ArmjynftkyfcsKyfa&;udk zGJŒpnf;csifaecsdef a'gufwmbarmftwGuf tuGufaumif;qdkuf
vmygw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ arvrSm rE Wav;/ ZGefvrSm wjynfvHk;udk *syefwyfawG[m xdef;csKyfodrf;ydkuf
vdkufEdkif+yDjzpfygw,f? ZGefv (3) &ufae@rSm ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk xlaxmifvdkufwma=umifh bDtdkifat
tkycf sKyfa&;acwf[mvnf; edÏw d o H mG ;&ygawmhw,f? 'ga=umifh bDtikd af t tkycf sKyfa&;acwf[m 1942
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Duae arvukeftxd (5) vavmufyJ =umcJhygw,f?
ocifodef;az[m ‘wdkif;cspfocifodef;az’ udk *syefawGu zrf;qD;ESdyfpuf+yD;/ olŒudk teH@cH
vdkufaewma=umifh ajratmufv#Kd;ae&wmuae jynfyqDxGufzdk@ cyfokwfokwfjyif&ygawmhw,f?
ocifoef;xGef;uvnf; ‘tdEdN,udkoGm;+yD; r[mrdwfrsm;eJ@ tquftoG,f&a&;twGuf óud;pm;zdk@’
ocifoed ;f azudk wdu k w f eG ;f aqG;aEG;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh ocifoed ;f az[m ocifwifa&$ (ausmufqnf)
eJ@twl tdE, dN udk xGucf mG oGm;jzpf+yD;/ 1942 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f xJrmS tdE, Nd udk a&muf&o dS mG ;+yDjzpfygw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (10) &ufae@rSm *syeftpdk;&u rDemrDuDuefudk zsufodrf;ypfvdkuf+yD;
Adkvfrdk;óud;udkvnf; ar*sm*sife&,f&mxl;wdk;ay;um *syefjynfjyefac:vdkufw,f? Adkvfrdk;óud;udk Arm

26 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jynfrSm rxm;csifawmh/ Adkvfrdk;óud;tcef; ukefoGm;+yDjzpfygw,f? ‘bDtdkifat’udkvnf; &rf;&rf;um;


um;vkycf w hJ mawG emrnfysucf w hJ mawGukd vufnK‡ ;d xk;d jy+yD;/ pnf;urf;r&Sd ta=umif;jycsuef @J tzsuf
odr;f cdik ;f w,f? 1942 ckEpS /f Zlvikd f (27) &ufae@rmS *syef{u&mZf trde@f t& *se&,ft;D 'g;u bDtikd af t
(ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf) udk bD'Dat (ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf) tjzpf ajymif;vJzGJŒpnf;ap
w,f? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf zGJŒpnf;ay:aygufcJhwJh wyfrawmfudk ArmhumuG,fa&;twGufyJ
&nfpl;wJh wyfrawmfjzpfatmif ajymif;vJypfvdkufwmjzpfw,f? Armjynfuae t*FvdyfawG xGufcGm
oGm;&+yDjzpfvdk@ t*FvdyfawG jyefr0ifvmatmif umuG,fzdk@omvdkawmhw,fqdkwJh oabmt"dy`m,f
eJ@ zGJŒpnf;apwmjzpfw,f? ta&twGufudkvnf; (3000) cef@txdyJ&Sdap+yD; AdkvfawZudk ppfaoem
ywd cef@w,f? AdkvfawZu ‘AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;’ qdkwJh emrnf&if;udkyJ jyefvnfoHk;pGJcJhygw,f?
Adkvfatmifqef;acgif;aqmif+yD; wyf&if; (3) ckudk rwnfum ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf (bD'Dat)
ay:ayguv f m ygw,f? wyf&if; (3) ckv;kH udv k nf; ysO;f rem;rSmyJ tajcpdu k af pcJyh gw,f? &efuek rf mS awmh
ppfOD;pD;XmecsKyf ppf±Hk;eJ@ r*Fvm'HkppfwuUodkvfwdk@ ay:aygufvmygw,f? &Jabmf (134) a,mufudk
a&G;+y;D r*Fvm'HAk v kd o
f ifwef; (yxrywf) tjzpfwufapcJyh gw,f? *syef ‘um0g&;DS rm;’ [m ppfwuUov kd f
ausmif;tkyfjzpfvmw,f?
'DAdkvfoifwef; (yxrywf) rsm;[m Armjynfordkif;rSm aemif ppfwyfordkif;rSm ‘&JabmfoHk;
usdyf’ +yD;&if ta&;ygt&ma&mufqHk;jzpfvm=ur,fh yk*~KdvfawGjzpfygw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufae@rSm *syefppftkyfcsKyfa&;vufatmufcH Armtpdk;&tzGJŒudk
*syefu zGJŒpnf;ay;ygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf a'gufwmbarmf? *syefudk vdkvm;oljzpfcJhwJh a'gufwm
odef;armifu b¾m0ef}uD;/ ocifxGef;tkyfu opfawmESifhowWKwGif;0ef}uD;/ ocifApdefu vrf;yef;
qufoG,fa&;0ef}uD;jzpfcJhovdk ocifjru jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;/ ocifoef;xGef;u v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;
0ef}uD;jzpfcJhygw,f? tm;vHk; (10) OD; &Sdygw,f?
*syefppftyk cf sKyfa&;umvtwGi;f rSm vli,frsm;tpnf;t±H;k wckvnf; zGŒJ pnf; ay:ayguv f m
ygw,f? wdkif;&if;om;vli,frsm; Avig;wefjynfh0a&;twGuf avhusifhðypkay;&efqdkwJh ta=umif;jy
csufeJ@ ay:vmwmyg? tJ'guawmh ‘tm&Svli,ftpnf;t±Hk;’ vdk@ vlodrsm;wJh ta&SŒtm&Swdkuf
vli,frsm; tpnf;t±Hk;yg? OuUÏu yk*HOD;b*srf;?
'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;uawmh ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;a&m/ Apdef-xGef;tkyf
'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;yg a'gufwmAarmf&JŒ qif;&Jom;ygwDeJ@yl;aygif;+yD; 1942 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (27)
&ufae@uwnf;u ‘'dk@Armqif;&Jom;tpnf;t±Hk;’ tjzpf xlaxmifvkdufygw,f? XmecsKyft}uD;
tuJtjzpf ocifEku wm0ef,lygw,f? 'ga=umifh *syefppftkyfcsKyfa&;&JΠvufatmufcH Armtpdk;&
tjzpf ay:ayguv f mwJt h cg 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k ESpjf crf;pvH;k u acgi;f aqmifrsm;a&m a'guw f mbarmf
&JΠqif;&Jom;ygwDua&m yg0ifaewmjzpfygw,f?
w±kwfjynfudkvnf; rvdkufjzpf tdENd,udk ocifodef;azeJ@ twloGm;zdk@udkvnf; zsufypfvdkuf
&wJh ocifpdk;uawmh tif;pdefppfwrf;/ jrif;+cHppfwrf; oabmxm;udkyJ +rJ+rJqkyfum *syefqef@usifha&;
ajratmufawmfvSefa&;vk;yfief;rsm;udk ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk udk,fpm;ðy+yD; qufvufvkyfudkif
aeygw,f? *syefuifaywdik pf pfyv k yd af wGu ‘ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw’D udk teH@c+H y;D vku
d af eovdk ocifp;kd

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 27


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

udkvnf; vdkufaewJhtwGuf ocifpdk;[m jrpf0u|ef;ay:/ zsmyHk/ a';'&J/ usKdufvwfe,fawGrSm vSnfh


vnf wdr;f a&Smif ajratmufcakd e&if;/ uGejf rLepfEikd if aH &;oifwef;yd@k cswm/ *syefqef@usiahf &; tiftm;pk
aqmif;wmawG vkyfae jyifqifaeygw,f?
axmifxrJ mS uwnf;u qdAk , D ufabmf&ADS pf&mZ0ifpmtkyu f kd bmomjyefc+hJ yD; tJ'pD mtkyu f ykd J
vufudkifðy&if; axmifwGif;rmhufpf0g'oifwef; ydk@csvmcJhwJh/ tif;pdefppfwrf;t,ltqrSm udk,fwdkif
ud, k u
f s yg0ifazmfaqmifow l OD;jzpfcw hJ hJ ocifoef;xGe;f uawmh tpd;k &tzGŒJ xJ 0ef}uD;tjzpf ±kyjf yvkyf
udkifae&if; ocifpdk;eJ@ v#KdŒ0SufqufoG,fum ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDacgif;aqmifwOD;taeeJ@ *syef
qef@usifa&;tiftm;pkawGudk e,fy,faygif;pHkrSm ðypkysKd;axmifaecJhygw,f?
ocifoed ;f azu tdE, dN rSm ‘ArmjynfwiG f jzpfysucf o hJ r#’ (What happened in Burma) qdw k hJ
pmtkyu f kd t*Fvyd v f akd &;om;+yD; 1942 ckEpS t f wGi;f rSmyJ xkwaf 0vdu k yf gw,f? tm&SppfrsuEf mS awGrmS
ajymufusm;ppfqifa&;twGuf t"duzGŒJ pnf;xm;wJh ‘zd@k 136 tzGŒJ ’ (Force 136) eJ@vnf; tquft
oG,frjywf vkyfaecJhygw,f? oleJ@twloGm;cJhwJh ocifwifa&$ (ausmufqnf) udkvnf; Armjynfw
acgufjyefv$wf+yD; tckdiftrmjyifqifr_awG vkyfaecJhygw,f?
1943 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvrSm *syefeef;&if;0ef *sife&,fwdk*sKdu *syeftxufv$wfawmf t}udrf
(80) ajrmuf tpnf;ta0;rSm Armjynfvw G vf yfa&;udk ESprf ul;rD a=unmay;r,fv@kd a=unmvdu k +f y;D
rwfvxJrmS a'guw f mbarmfacgi;f aqmifwhJ ArmtzGŒJ udk wdu k sKvd mzd@k zdwaf c:w,f? a'guw f mbarmf/
ocifjr/ Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ a'guw f m ode;f armif/ OD;ausm+f idr;f / Advk &f efEidk yf g (8) OD;tzGŒJ wdu
k sKu
d okd mG ;
=uw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufrSm pwifcJhwJh *syefppftkyfcsKyfa&; wESpfjynfhwJh 1943 ckESpf
=o*kwfv (1) &ufae@rSm *sife&,ftD;'g;u ppftkyfcsKyfa&;±kyfodrf;a=umif; a=unm+yD;/ tJ'Dae@rSmyJ
ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk a=unmcGifhay;vdkufw,f?
*syefay;wJv h w G v
f yfa&;twke@J twl *syefppfwyfu csKyfuikd x f m;jcif;cH&wJh *syefacwf ±kyaf o;
tpdk;&tzGJŒ[mvnf; vGwfvyfaomtpdk;&w&yftoGif zGJŒpnf;ay:aygufvmcJhw,f? a'gufwm
barmf [m t"dywdbŒJG udck , H &l if; 0ef}uD;csKyfwm0efukd ,lvu kd w
f ,f? ocifjru 'k0ef}uD;csKyf/ Adv k cf sKyf
atmifqef;u umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;/ a'gufwmodef;armifu b¾ma&;0ef}uD;/ ocifEku EkdifiHjcm;a&;
0ef}uD;/ ocifoef;xGef;u ajrESifhv,f,mpdkufysKd; a&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmw,f? tpdk;&tzJGŒudk ‘ArmhxGuf
&yf*kd%f;’ 0ifawGe@J zGŒJ pnf;vdu k w f ohJ abmjzpfw,f? *syefacwfrmS Armhvw G v f yfa&;udk todtrSwðf y
wJo h abm vkyfcJhayr,fh *syefppftm%mydkifawGuyJ ae&mwum óud;udkifAdkvfus=uw,f? *syef
ppfwyfutvdk&SdwJh pm;eyf&duQm u|J/ EGm;/ =uuf/ 0ufawGomru ‘ac|;wyfom;’ vdk@ ac:wJh tvkyf
orm; axmifaygif;rsm;pGmudkawmif tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&SdawGu zrf;qD;ay;=u&jyefw,f? t*F
vdyfudkvdkeDorm;awGae&mrSm *syefudkvdkeD0g'orm;awGu vma&mufaoG;pkyf=uw,f? umvwdk
twGif;rSmyJ trfbDaueJ@ trftufpfaupwJh *syefb¾mt&if;&Sif ukr`%Daygif; (50) avmuf[m
ArmhpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;awGxJvma&muf aoG;pkyfcJh=uw,f? Armjynf&JŒpD;yGm;a&;[m *syefacwf
twGif;rSm tqdk;0g;qHk;tajctaea&mufcJh&+yD; tppt&m&m &Sm;yg;jywfvyf =uyfwnf;rGJaw
cJh&w,f?

28 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

*syefuifaywdik af wG&ŒJ vufoaH jymifajymifEydS pf ufr/_ *syefppfom;awG&ŒJ zufqpfyyD D &rf;um;


vlrqefra_ wGatmufrmS wjynfv;kH ae&mtES@H 0Éf'u k cQ =H u&w,f? *syefay;wJv h wG v f yfa&;[m b,f
vdkvGwfvyfa&;vJqdkwm ezl;awGΠ'l;awGΠawGΗuH=u&yg+yD?
*syef0ifpuwnf;u *syefqef@usifa&; tjrif&Sdxm;=u+yD;om; uGefjrLepfawG[m *syefudk
wGef;vSefarmif;xkwfEkdifzdk@ wdk;+yD; jyifqiftm;xkwfwmawG vkyf=uygw,f? v#KdŒ0Sufajratmufenf;
awGeJ@yJ vkyfae=u&wmjzpfygw,f? *syefuvnf; *syefqef@usifa&;orm;rSefor#udk ykdufpdyfwdkuf+yD;
ESdyfuGyfzdk@ óud;pm;ygw,f?
‘*syefov l #K’d qdw k hJ pmtkyef @J ‘qk&d , S v
f pf0g'ESiehf o d #n;f ’ qkw d hJ pmtkyu f kd bmomjyefqckd w hJ hJ
‘vufyHwef;OD;bwif’udk *syefzufqpfawGu zrf;qD;ESdyfpuf owfjzwfvkduf=uygw,f?
Armjynfvw G v f yfa&;twGuq f wkd hJ &nfreS ;f csurf mS twlwjl zpfc=hJ uayr,fh 1942 ckEpS f 0ef;usif
avmuftxd tjrift,ltq oabmxm;uGjJ ym;aecJ=h uwJh Armjynf trsK;d om;Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmif
awGt=um;rSm wjznf;jznf;eJ@ *syefukd OD;wnfwu kd &f r,fqw dk hJ tjrifopfqD OD;wnfa&GŒvsm;pðyvm
yg+yD? tif;pdefppfwrf;t,ltqqD pkpnf;rdpðyvmyg+yD?
uGejf rLepfygwu D kd ud, k pf m;ðy+y;D ocifp;kd &JŒ vGwv f yfa&;a=unmpmwrf; trSwf (1) eJ@ trSwf
(2) [m Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pkawG=um; us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@ ysŒH ESvH mcJw h ,f? tJ'D ArmvGwv f yfa&; a=unm
pmwrf;awG[m urBmhtiftm;pkawG&JΠtaetxm;/ *syefzufqpfpepfudk wdkufzsufzkd@twGuf &Ekdif
or#aom r[mrdwfawGeJ@ yl;wGJvkyfaqmif=u&r,fh wm0efawGyg azmfjyxm;wJhtjyi/f zufqpf0g'
rkcsusqHk;&r,fqdkwmudkvnf; cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm oHk;oyfjyEdkifcJhygw,f?
ArmhwyfrawmftwGif;rSmvnf; uGefjrLepfygwD0ifawG uGefjrLepfvkdvm;olawG tHkeJ@usif;eJ@
&Sdaeovdk/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD&JŒ ,lepf0ifawGvnf; &Sdae=uygw,f? ay:ay:xifxifr[kwfyJ
v#KdŒv#KdŒ0Suf0SufeJ@ wnf&Sdae=uwmjzpfayr,fh udk,fhtpkeJ@udk,f EkdifiHa&;aqG;aEG;=uwm/ oifwef;
oGm;wuf=uwm/ v#KdŒ0Sufpmapmifpmwrf;awG jzef@a0=u avhvm=uwmawG us,fus,fjyef@jyef@
jzpfay:aeygw,f? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;vkyfaewJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkif ArmjynfuGefjrLepf
ygwD&JΠA[dkaumfrwD0ifwa,muftjzpf (1942) txd jzpfaeao;wmudk=unfh&if wyfrawmfxJrSm
uGejf rLepfygwt D iftm; b,favmuf}u;D cJo h vJqw kd m vG,v f , G u f ul l pOf;pm;=unfv h @kd &ygw,f? tJ'D
wke;f u Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;&JŒv#KŒd 0Suef mrnfu (udak emifcsK)d ? ocifoef;xGe;f emrnfu udb k armif?
wyfrawmfxrJ mS t}u;D tuJawGjzpfae=uwJh *syefjyef &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f ifawGukd jyef=unfrh ,f
qd&k ifvnf; ‘uGejf rLepf’ awGjzpfaewm renf;yg? Adv k &f efatmif/ Adv k af Z,s/ Advk &f xJ w G w f k@d [m uGejf rL
epfawGyg? Adkvfvusfm[mvnf; uGefjrLepfygwD pwifxlaxmifolwpfOD;jzpfygw,f? bD'DatAdkvfoif
wef; yxrywf/ 'kw, d ywfawGtwGi;f rSmvnf; uGejf rLepfawGtrsm;}u;D yg? Adv k Af xl;wd@k Adv k t f mVm0u
wdk@[m uGefjrLepf}uD;awGjzpfovdk/ Adkvfpdk;armif (Adkvfrª;cspfaumif;)/ Adkvfyk/ Adkvf&Jarmif/ Adkvfrif;'if/
Adkvfoef;a&$ pwJholawG[m uGefjrLepfawGyg?
jynfo@l ta&;awmfyykH gwb D ufu OuUÏtjzpf ocifjr OD;aqmifyg0ifaeayr,fh t"duv_y&f mS ;
aeolawGu ocifcspf (aemif ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwb D ufajymif;oGm;)/ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wd@k jzpfyg
w,f? wyfrawmfxJrSm jynfolŒta&;awmfyHk ,lepf0ifawGuawmh Adkvfarmifarmif/ Adkvfatmif}uD;/

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 29


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

Adv
k af tmifa&$/ Akv d cf spcf ikd /f Adv
k =f unf0if; pwJh Adv k af wGjzpfygw,f? Adv k af e0if;[m *syefjyeftyk pf u k ae
yJhxGufvm+yD;/ tJ'D,lepftkyfpkrSm acgif;aqmifozG,f ae&m&vmcJhygw,f? ,lepftkyfpk[m AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;udk pdwrf csyJ *syefjyefxu J yJxh u G v
f mwJh Adv
k af e0if;udk tm;ud;k w}u;D eJ@ q&marG; acgi;f aqmif
wifxm;wmvdk@qdkygw,f?
*syefppfwyfu tdENd,EkdifiHbufqDtxd csDwuf0ifa&mufEkdifzdk@ óud;pm;xm;ygw,f? +Adwdo#
wyf/ tar&duefwyfawGeJ@ &ifqdkifwdkufyGJqif&+yD; wyfvef aemufqkwfvm&ygw,f?
t"dywd}uD; a'gufwmAarmfu ‘waoG;woHwrdef@’ atmfaeayr,fh zufqpf[m urBmh
jynfoltm;vHk;&JΠqef@usifr_udkcH&+yD; tusbufqD ajymif;vJvmaeyg+yD?
tJ'tD csed rf mS ocifApdeef @J ocifxeG ;f tkyv f nf; *syefu vdr+f y;D ac:wmcH&&if; puFmyle@J *smAm;
u|ef;rSm wa,mufwae&mqDcGJ+yD; tus,fcsKyfcsxm;wm cHae&yg+yD? *syefudkqef@usifvdk@r[kwfyg?
*syefukd ,H=k unfveG ;f +yD; *syefe@J aygi;f +yD; olw@kd tm%m&atmif=uHpnf=u&if; *syeftvdrcf o H mG ;&wm
jzpfygw,f? t"dywd a'gufwmAarmfudk ðzwfcs+yD; olwdk@tm%m&a&; }uHpnf=upOf a'gufwmAarmf
udkom acgif;aqmiftjzpfvdkcsifaewJh *syefu olwdk@udk jynfyydk@+yD; z,f&Sm;vdkufjcif;yg?
tJ't D csed wf ek ;f u &Sad ewJh Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkawG&ŒJ tajctaeudk =unfv h u kd rf ,fq&kd if *syef
ay;wJh vGwfvyfa&;twkta,mif qdkif;bkwfatmufrSm ‘'dk@Armqif;&Jom;tpnf;t±Hk;’ }uD;[m
tm%m&tzGŒJ tpnf;}uD;ozG,jf zpfygw,f? tqifq h ifah om tkycf sKyfa&;tzGŒJ tpnf; }uD;i,fawGukd
‘'d@k Armqif;&Jom;tpnf;t±H;k ’ 0ifawGe@J yJ t"duxm;zGŒJ pnf;xm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh wu,ft h m%m
uawmh *syefppfwyfvufxJrSmyJ&Sdygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwDuawmh ajratmuftjzpfeJ@ &yfwnf
v_y&f mS ;ae=u&ygw,f? 'DygwED pS cf [ k m oabmobm0csi;f rwln=D uovdk jzpfwnfzŒJG pnf; ay:ayguf
vmyHkcsif;vnf;rwl=uyg? 1300 jynfhta&;awmfyHkt+yD;rSm ‘ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD’ tOD;qHk;ay:
ayguv f mygw,f? vlwef;pm;udt k ajccH+yD; tvkyo f rm;vlwef;pm;&JΠwyfO;D ygwt D jzpf ay:ayguv f m
wmjzpfovdk/ rmhufpfvDeif0g'udk vrf;!¸eftbd"rRmtjzpf udkifpGJ+yD; EdkifiHwumuGefjrLepfv_yf&Sm;r_
}u;D &JŒtpdwt f ydik ;f w&yftjzpfvnf;cH,u l m/ tqH;k wae@rmS vlwef;pm;rJh avmu}u;D qDtxd tquf
rjywf csDwufoGm;zdk@ ar#mfrSef;xm;wJh EdkifiHa&;ygwDjzpfygw,f?
jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDaemufrSm ay:aygufvmcJh+yD;/ EkdifiHa&;
ygwDwckqdkwmxuf EdkifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufwck/ EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;aqmifwmwckudk owfrSwf+yD;/ tJ'D
owfrw S xf m;wJh vkyif ef;aqmifwmudk umvwcktwGi;f rSm twly;l wGaJ qmif&u G o f mG ;=uzd@k tav;
ay; zGJŒpnf;xm;wJh tpktpnf;}uD;wck&JŒoabmudk ydk@aqmifygw,f? vlwef;pm;ygwDtjzpf wnf
axmifxm;wmr[kwfovdk vrf;!¸eftbd"rRmtjzpf jyÏmef;udkifpGJxm;wmvnf;r&Sdyg? 'gayr,fh
trsm;pk}uD;[m rmhufpfvDeif0g'udk ,Hk=unfolawG wdrf;!¸wfolawG/ vdkvm;olawG/ ,kH=unfwdrf;
!¸wfw,fvdk@ qkdolawGjzpfygw,f? 'D*&Dtedrfhtjrifhcsif;awmh rwlnD=uyg? t"duu t*Fvdyf
udkvdkeDtpdk;&udk vufeufpGJudkifðzwfcsEkdifa&;twGuf &nf&G,fzGJŒpnf;cJhwmjzpf+yD; ArmjynfvGwfvyf
a&;twGufudkyJ yef;wdkiftjzpf owfrSwfxlaxmifcJhwmjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh ocifA[def;vdk uGefjrL
epf xdyfoD;acgif;aqmifwOD;[m ‘jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD’ rSmvnf; ta&;}uD; acgif;aqmifwOD;

30 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tjzpfyg0ifaewmud=k unf&h if xif&mS ;ygw,f? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;vnf; ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD taxG


axGtwGif;a&;rª; eHygwf (1) jzpfvsufeJ@ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD xlaxmif&mrSm ta&;}uD;acgif;
aqmifwOD;tjzpf yg0ifaecJhygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;a&m ocifA[def;yg 1942 ckESpf aemufydkif;
jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD tpktwGif; rawGŒ&awmhyg?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD+yD;&if ta&;}uD;tiftm;pkwcktoGif jzpf
ay:wnf&v dS mwmu ‘Armhwyfrawmf’ yg? &Jabmfo;kH usyd ef @J pcJ+h yD; 1942 ck/ ESpq f ef;ydik ;f rSm tiftm;pk
w&yftoGif tcdik t f rmwnf&adS eyg+y?D Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;tygt0if &Jabmfo;kH usyd q f w kd mudk jyef=unfh
r,fqdk&ifvnf; oHk;yHkESpfyHkausmf[m rmufpf0g' vDeif0g' qdk&S,fvpftawG;tac: ,Hk=unfvufcH
ESpof ufoal wG jzpfae=uwJt h jyif/ trsm;pk}u;D [m ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw/D jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gwD
awGeJ@ wenf;r[kwf wenf; ywfoufae=uygw,f? bDtdkifatacwf/ bD'Datacwfwavsmuf
jzpfay:wnf&SdvmwJh ArmhwyfrawmftwGif;&Sd t=uyf/wyfAdkvf/ wyfom;awGxJrSmvnf; uGefjrLepf
ygwDeJ@ywfoufolawG/ jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwDtpkeJ@ ywfoufolawG tHkeJ@usif;eJ@&Sdaeygw,f?
b,fe@J rS rywfoufwhJ t=uyf/ wyfAv kd /f wyfom;/ wyfrawmfom; oufouf[m tifrwef enf;yg;
ygw,f? wyfrawmfudk,fwdkif trsdK;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_a=umifh ay:xGufvmwmjzpfawmh rsKd;cspfpdwf&Sd
olwdkif;[m trsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;eJ@ ywfoufaeygw,f? EdkifiHa&;eJ@ ywfoufae&ygw,f? EdkifiHa&;eJ@
ywfoufae+yDqdkuwnf;u tJ'Dwkef;u a&SŒwef;ta&mufqHk;jzpfaewJh uGefjrLepfygwD/ 'grSr[kwf
jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gww D @kd e@J wck od@k r[kwf wcke@J ywfouf+yD;om;jzpfomG ;ygw,f? ESpyf gwpD vH;k u
vnf; wyfrawmfwiG ;f pnf;±H;k a&;vkyif ef;udk tav;xm;vky=f uygw,f? txl;ojzifh Ekid if aH &;/ oabm
w&m;a&;udk avhvmvd=k u/ qnf;yl;jznfph nf;vd=k uwJh wyfrawmfom;awG[m olw@kd avhvmqnf;yl;
vdkwJh EdkifiHa&;oabmw&m;awGtwGuf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDqDudkom OD;wnf&ygawmhw,f?
bmvdk@vJqdkawmh tJ'Dvdk EdkifiHa&;oabmw&m;a&;udk oifwef;ay;Edkifwm/ a[majymydk@csEdkifwm
t"dutm;jzifh “uGejf rLepfygw”D eJ@ uGejf rLepfacgi;f aqmifawGyJ &Sw d thJ wGujf zpfw,f? Adv k &f efatmif
vdk yk*Kd~ vfuawmif “ocifA[de;f udk awGŒ&ifajymay;yg/ ole@J awGŒ&if olŒudk (Adv k &f efatmifu)kd Edik if aH &;
oifwef;ay;ay;yg?” vd@k vdv k ckd sicf sif wufwufºuGºuGe@J Adv k af usmaf Zmuwqifh rSmcJzh ;l owJ?h tJ'v D kd
oifwef;yd@k csEikd of l oabmw&m; ydik Ef ikd af =unufoal wG[m uGejf rLepfawGcsn;f omvd@k qd&k ravmuf
jzpfcwhJ ,f? ocifA[de;f uvnf; oifwef;yd@k csay;Edik w f ahJ e&mrSm emrnf}uD;/ ocifoef;xGe;f uvnf;
oifwef;jy oifwef;cs emrnf}uD;? ocifpdk; uvnf; a&mufav&m oifwef;zGifh+yD; oabmw&m;
oifwef;ay;avh&o dS ?l wyfrawmfwiG ;f u wyfr;ª wyfAv kd w
f pfcsKd@[m pepfwus pDpOfv#Kd@0u S +f y;D uGejf rL
epfygwu D yd@k cswhJ EdkifiHa&;oifwef;/ oabmw&m;a&;oifwef;rsm;udk oGm;wuf=uavh&Sdygw,f?
wyfrawmf}uD;wckvHk;&JΠt"duacgif;aqmifuawmh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;?
1944 ckEpS f azazmf0g&/D rwfva&mufawmh tdE, dN a&mufaewJh ocifoed ;f az[m ocifoef;xGe;f
eJ@ tcdkiftrm tquftoG,f&ae+yDjzpfygw,f? ocifodef;az[mvnf; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ
acgi;f aqmifwa,mufjzpfygw,f? ocifoef;xGe;f uwqifh ocifp;kd / Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifEw k @kd e@J
vnf; v#dKŒ0SufqufoG,frd+yDjzpfygw,f?
*syef0ifpuwnf;u *syefe@J jyoemay:cJh bDtikd af teJ@ jyoemay:cJzh ;l wJh u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 31


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

[m *syefqef@usifa&; pdwf"mwfwavsmufvHk; &SdaecJhw,f? a'gufwm pHpDzdk;/ apmpHzdk;oif/ apmbOD;/


apm[ife&D/ *|efqif/ uH}uD; wdk@[m xif&Sm;wJh u&iftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifawGjzpf=uw,f? apmpHzdk;
oif[m awmifib l ufrmS cd+k yD; ajymufusm;wyfpnf;±H;k aewJh t*Fvyd af r*smqD;*&if;eJ@ tquftoG,f
&Sdaew,f? Adkvfp}uFmuawmif olŒudk tdENd,bufudk ydk@ay;ygvdk@ pum;urf;vSrf;cJhzl;ygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u apmpHz;kd oife@J apm=um'k;d udk wyfrawmfwiG ;f odr;f oGi;f yg0ifapcJw h ,f?
apmpHzdk;oif[m wyfrawmfwGif;rSm Adkvf}uD;jzpfvmcJhovdk/ qif;[wf ppfwuUodkvfqif; apm=um'dk;
[m ppf0ef}uD;±Hk;rSm 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;jzpfvmcJhw,f? u&ifwyf&if;zGJŒ+yD; jrpf0u|ef;ay:udkvnf; u&ifArm
cspf=unfa&;tzGJŒawG apv$wf=uw,f? ocifEk eJ@ Adkvfvusfmwdk@&JŒ cspf=unfa&;c&D;awG atmifjrifcJh
w,f? Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f eJ@ apm=um'd;k / apm[ife&D/ *|eq f ifu}H uD;wd@k vkd u&ifacgi;f
aqmifawG usdwf0dkif;aqG;aEG;=u+yD; *syefudk rawmfvSefrD u&ifArmaoG;pnf;a&;udk &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&Sd
wnfaqmufcJh=uw,f?
1944 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufae@rSm *syefay;wJh ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; wESpfjynfhajrmufyGJ
*sLAvDa[mrSm usif;yw,f? t"dywda'gufwmbarmf rdef@cGef;ac|t+yD;rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u
“vGwfvyfa&;[m tay:,HvGwfvyfa&;yJ &Sdaeao;w,f? usKyfwdk@a&SŒquf+yD; pcef;oGm;EdkiftHk;rS
vGwfvyfa&;taumiftxnfudk jrif&vdrfhr,f” vdk@ zGifh[ajymqdkoGm;w,f?
*syefudk qef@usifwGef;vSef=uzdk@ Armhajray:uae 'DzufqpfawGudk t+yD;ydkif armif;xkwfEdkifzdk@
vufawGΠb0awGuae awmif;qdkvmaeyg+yD?
*syefawG ArmjynfwiG ;f ajceif;0ifa&mufrvmEdik cf ifuwnf;u *syefawG[m zufqpfawGjzpf
w,f? 'DzufqpfawGudk OD;wnfqef@usifwdkufckduf&r,fvdk@ EkdifiHa&; a&csdef&Sd&SdeJ@ óudjrifcJhwm[m
uGefjrLepfawGjzpfcJhw,f? óudjrifwJhtwdkif; óudvJajymcJhw,f? tif;pdefppfwrf;[m tcdkiftrmouf
aoygyJ?
óudjrifwJhtwdkif; zufqpf0g'udk qef@usifzdk@/ zufqpfawGwdkufxkwfzdk@ óudjyifcJhwmvnf;
uGejf rLepfawGyjJ zpfygw,f? tapmqH;k jyifqifpnf;±H;k aecJw h m/ tpDtpOf&&dS dS tiftm;pkaqmif; vkyaf qmif
aecJhwm uGefjrLepfawGjzpfaew,f?
1944 ckEpS x f aJ &mufawmh uGejf rLepfawG&ŒJ 'Dtjrifukd a,bk,stm;jzifh tm;vH;k vdv k u
kd od&dS
oabmayguf vufcHae&+yDjzpfygw,f? oabmw&m;a&;tajccHtm;jzifhawmh zufqpfqef@usifa&;
tjrif[m wpkwpnf; wnDw!Gwx f q
J D a&muf&v
dS mcJyh g+y?D oabmw&m;a&;tjrifuae vufawGŒ
qDoGm;zdk@vnf; pwifjyifqif=uyg+yD?
'kw, d urBmph pf}uD; wckv;kH &JŒtajctaeudk jyef=unfrh ,fq&dk ifvnf; qkAd , D ufppfrsuEf mS rSm
qdAk ,
D uf[m cHppfuae xd;k ppfu;l ajymif;vmaeyg+yD? *smrefemZDawGukd qkAd , D uftjyifa&mufatmif
wdkufxkwfypfvdkufEkdifyg+yD? tDwvDzufqpfawGvJ ±_H;edrfhoGm;+yDjzpfygw,f? w±kwfjynfrSmvnf;
*syefawGa&SŒrwdk;EkdifawmhyJ cHae&+yDjzpfygw,f?
±k&Sm;ppfrsufESmtjyif *smrefawGtay: 'kwd,ppfrsufESm topfwckudkvnf; r[mrdwf
ppfwyfawGu atmifjrifpGm zGifhvSpfEkdifcJh+yDjzpfygw,f? jyifopf ‘aemfref'D’ urf;ajcudk atmifjrifpGm
urf;wuf EkdifcJh+yD; jyifopf/ b,fvf*sD,Hwdk@udk csDwufwdkufcdkufae+yDjzpfygw,f?

32 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

1944 ckEpS /f =o*kwv f (4) &ufae@rmS Adv k af usmaf Zm (&Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f if) OD;pD;wJh yJc;l pHjywyf
&if;xJrSm AdkvfausmfaZmtdrf tdyfcef; AdkvfausmfaZm&JΠukwifay:rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwD taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; ocifpdk;wdk@ v#KdŒ0Suf+yD; awGŒqHkEkdifcJh=uw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmif
qef;&JΠtxl;wm0efay;csuef @J Adv k af usmaf Zm ud, k w f ikd f a';'&Je,f *Guav;&Gmta&mufomG ;+y;D zuf
qpfqef@usiaf &; ajratmufvyk if ef;awG v#KŒd 0Suv f yk af ewJh ocifp;kd udk ppft&m&Sid ,f ,leaD zmif;0wfqif
ap+yD; ac:xkwfvmcJhjcif;jzpfygw,f? ocifpdk;udk oGm;ac:a&;twGuf a';'&Jc&D;pOfudk tao;pdwfpDpOf
ay;olu ocifoef;xGe;f jzpfygw,f? Adv k af usmaf Zmtdrt f xd ocifp;kd udk ac:xkwv f mEdik +f yD;csed af &muf
rS Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u yJc;l udv k ma&muf tem;,lvnfywfw[ hJ efe@J yJc;l udak &mufvm+yD; ocifp;kd eJ@
awG@=uwmjzpfygw,f? AdkvfausmfaZm tdyfcef;xJrSm AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ ocifpdk;wdk@ oHk;&ufquf
wdkuf v#KdŒ0SufaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? 'Dordkif;0ifaqG;aEG;yGJ}uD;&JŒ &v'fuawmh zwyvtzGJŒ}uD; atmif
jrifpmG zGŒJ pnf;Ekid jf cif;jzpfygw,f? tJ'aD emuf Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f wd@k aqG;aEG;
n‡dE_dif; wdkifyif=u+yD; zufqpfwdkufzsufa&; jynfol@vGwfvyfa&; (zwyv) tzGJŒ}uD;&JŒ OD;pD;tzGJŒudk
zGŒJ Edik cf yhJ gw,f? wm0efcaJG 0,l=uwJt h cg Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u ppfa&;/ ocifp;kd u Edik if aH &;/ ocifoef;
xGef;u EkdifiHjcm;qufoG,fa&; jzpfvmygw,f? yxrqHk; yJcl;rSm pwifaqG;aEG;=upOfu ocifpdk;[m
uGejf rLepfygwu D kd uk, d pf m;ðy+yD;/ Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;uawmh jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gwaD &m wyfrawmf
a&mudk udk,fpm;ðyaqG;aEG;=uwmjzpfygw,f? t"dutm;jzifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m wyfrawmfudk
udk,fpm;ðyaqG;aEG;cJhwm jzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwDeJ@ ArmwyfrawmfqdkwJh t"dutiftm;pk
(3) pkudk tajccH+yD; (zwyv) qdkwJh trsKd;om;wyfaygif;pk}uD;udk zGJŒpnf;vdkufawmh wzGJŒv#if (3)
OD;pDeJ@ (9) OD;[m yxrqHk;aom ‘zwyv’ A[dkOD;pD;tzGJŒ0ifawGjzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS ocifpdk;/ ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifA[def;/ wyfrawmfrS AkdvfcsKyfatmif
qef;/ Adv k vf usmf / Akvd af e0if;? jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gwrD S ocifcsp/f OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f ? ocifp;kd u
Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmif/ Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u ppfa&;acgi;f aqmif/ ocifoef;xGe;f u taxGaxGtwGi;f
a&;rª;eJ@ r[mrdwfrsm;eJ@ qufoG,fa&; wm0efudkyg,lygw,f?
zwyvzGŒJ +y;D wmeJ@ wòyid ef uf/ pnf;urf;avsm&h &J jJ zpfaevd@k pHjywyf&if;awGzŒJG +y;D wnfaqmuf
ae&wJh wyfrawmfukd awmfveS af &;twGuf tcsed rf D jrefjrefajymif;vJ vmapzd@k Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u
uGefjrLepfygwDrS EdkifiHa&;au'gawGawmif;+yD; wyftoD;oD;xJ v#KdŒ0SufoGif;wmvkyfygw,f?
ocifoef;xGef;eJ@ n‡dE_dif;+yD; t"duwyfrª;/ wyf=uyf acgif;aqmifawGudk EdkifiHa&;eJ@ awmfvSefa&; ynm
ay;a&;awGudk vkyfaqmifapygw,f?
‘tm&Svil ,ftpnf;t±H;k ’ xJuv kd nf; wcsKŒd vli,frsm;udk ðryfEaHS e&mcsxm;ay;+y;D tpDtpOf&&dS dS
v_yf&Sm;apygw,f? r[mrdwfrsm;eJ@ qufoG,fa&;wm0efudkyg,lxm;wJh ocifoef;xGef;[m tdENd,
rSm&SdaewJh ocifodef;azrSwqifh (zwyv) taeeJ@ Force 136 (t*FvdyfwyfzGJΠ136) eJ@ tquf
toG,f w&m;0if&&Sdvmygw,f? ‘zwyv’ taeeJ@ tdENd,a&muf ocifodef;azeJ@ 0dkif,mvuf
tquftoG,f vkyEf ikd v f movdk Force 136 eJ@ zwyv wd@k wywf (2) }udrf 0dik , f mvuf qufo, G f
a&; yHkrSefvkyfEkdifvmcJhw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 33


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

zwyv tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;&JŒ ‘e,fcsŒJ zufqpf'jr *syefv±l ikd ;f rsm;udak rmif;xkw=f u’ qkw d ahJ =unm
pmwrf; trSwf (1) udk v#KdŒ0Suf+yD; xkwfjyefjzef@jzL;vdkufygw,f?
*syefawG 0ifvmpuwnf;u ajratmufawmfvSefa&; enf;emawGeJ@ zufqpfqef@usifa&;
vkyif ef;awGvyk af ecJw h hJ uGejf rLepfygwaD =umifh oabmw&m;a&;0g'jzef@csad &; ynmay;a&;awG twdik ;f
twmwcktxd jynfhpHkae+yD;jzpfygw,f? ta&;}uD;vSwJh ajymufusm;tajccHa'o azmfxkwfa&;eJ@
ajymufusm;wyfzGJŒawG zGJŒpnf;a&;udkvnf; jyifqifEdkifcJh+yD; vdktyfwJh ppfoifwef;rsm;udkvnf;
aus;vuf awm&Gm a'oawmfawmfrsm;rsm;txd pnf;±Hk;ydk@csxm;Ekdif+yD;jzpfygw,f?
'Dvkd a&&Snaf jratmufawmfveS af &; enf;emawGe@J vkyu f ikd af qmif&u G &f wma=umifh awmfveS f
a&; rqifEEJ$ ikd af o;rDtcsed t f wGi;f rSmudk ay;cJ&h wJh t&if;tES;D awGvnf;&Scd yhJ gw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepf
ygwD0if &JabmfcspfwD; (ac: ) &Jabmfodef;wef (ppfudkif;) (Adkvfrª;}uD;apmjrifh&JŒtudk&if;) [m *syef
uifaywdik af wG&ŒJ tzrf;cH&+yD; n‡O;f yrf;ESyd pf ufrr_ sK;d pHu k kd owW&d &dS &dS ifqikd &f if;/ ppfuikd ;f wHwm;}uD;ay:rSm/
*syef"m;csufatmufrSm {&m0wDjrpf}uD;twGif; vnfjywf+yD; acgif;uscJh&ygw,f? &uf&ufpufpuf
towfccH &hJ ygw,f? 1942 ckEpS t f wGi;f rSmyg? *syefqef@usiaf &;v_y&f mS ;r_awGa=umifh tapmqH;k zrf;qD;
cH&olawGxrJ mS ocifausmpf ed /f ocifazaX;/ ocifjroef;/ q&m&m*sef wd@k vnf; ygcyhJ gw,f? olw@kd [m
vnf; uGejf rLepfawGjzpfcyhJ gw,f? awmifi/l jzL; ocifoef;azvnf; &uf&ufpufpuf tESyd pf ufccH &hJ w,f?
1944 ckESpf/ pufwifbm/ atmufwdkbmvxJrSm ocifoef;xGef;&JΠpepfwus tpDtpOfeJ@
±kyfjy0ifvkyfaewJh 0ef}uD;qdkwJh tumtuG,feJ@ ocifAdkvf/ ref;0if;armifwdk@OD;aqmifwJh rsKd;cspf&Jabmf
wodkufudk ppfynmavhvmzdk@ awmfvSefa&;vkyfief;awGvkyfaqmifzdk@ tdENd,EdkifiH ocifodef;azqD
v$wEf ikd cf yhJ gw,f? u&ifrsK;d cspw f a,mufvnf;jzpf wd;k wufwt hJ jrif&o dS v l nf;jzpfwhJ ref;0if;armif[m
ocifoef;xGef;udk,fwdkif arG;jrLa&G;cs,fcJhwmyg? txufArmjynfwdkif;rª;jzpfwJh Adkvfrª;Axl;eJ@ ocif
oef;xGe;f csw d qf ufrrd d pDpOf+yD; tdE, dN yd@k a&;udk wokw+f yD;wokwf pDpOfaqmif&u G Ef ikd cf yhJ gw,f? Adv k rf ;ª
cspaf umif;/ Adv k t f ;kH armif/ OD;ausm&f if (aemif ygarmuQO;D ausm&f if) wd@k [m tJ'v D ekd nf;eJ@ tdE, dN a&muf
cJ=h uwJoh al wGyg? &cdik Af v kd !
f xkd eG ;f wd@k tzGŒJ ryg/ tm;vH;k (30) &Sw
d ,fqykd gw,f? 'D&aJ bmfawG[m aemif
(avxD;) &JabmfawGvdk@ trnfxif&Sm;vmcJh=uygw,f? Armjynfordkif;rSm ta&;ygolawGjzpfcJh=uyg
w,f? trsm;pk}uD;[m uGefjrLepfawGjzpf=uygw,f?
pufwifbmvxJrSmyJ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf;/ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvf&JxGËfwdk@ a';'&JudkoGm;+yD;
zwyv}uD;&JŒ EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif ocifpdk;eJ@ awGŒ=u+yD; pnf;±Hk;a&;qdkif&m tao;pdwfvkyfief;awG
xyfnEd‡ id_ ;f aqG;aEG;jzpf=uygw,f? atmufwb kd mvxJrmS Advk af tmif}uD;/ Adv k af rmifarmif/ ocifcspef @J
&efukefbaqGwdk@ ocifpdk;eJ@ v#KdŒ0SufawGŒqHk=uum uGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD/ wyfr
awmfw@kd wygww D nf;tjzpfy;l aygi;f +y;D ‘awmfveS af &;wyfO;D ’ zGŒJ =ujyefygw,f? zwyv}u;D [m v#KŒd 0Suf
trsKd;om; wyfaygif;pktzGJ@csKyf}uD;tjzpf ajcvSrf;&Sd&Sd ouf0ifv_yf&Sm;aeyg+yD?
1944 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvxJrSm *syefudk qef@usifwdkufcdkufwJh vufawGŒwdkufyGJawGuawmh
&cdkifwdkif;rSm pwifay:aygufvmygw,f? &cdkifwdkif;[m yx0Dtaetxm;t& r[mrdwf+Adwdo#awG
tckdiftrmwyfcsxm;wJh tdENd,eJ@ e,fedrdwfcsif;qufpyfae+yD; zufqpfawmfvSefa&;twGuf 1942
ckESpf ESpfv,favmufuxJu ocifodef;az/ ocifwifa&$wdk@ tdENd,rul;cif ocifpdk;/ ocifwifjrwdk@

34 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

rif;jym;bufa&mufvm&if;/ tapmqHk; pnf;±Hk;jyifqifcJh=uovdk Adkvf&efatmifwdk@ a&mufvmawmh


vnf; pnf;±Hk;a&;vkyfcJh±Hkru vufeufwcsKdŒeJ@ &HyHkaiGawGyg ay;tyfxm;cJhwJh wdkif;jzpfygw,f? &cdkif
wd@k Armqif;&Jom; tpnf;t±H;k acgi;f aqmifawG[m ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J tquftoG,, f x
l m;
=u+yD; AkHaygufomausmf/ udkvSausmfwdk@[m jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwDeJ@ qufoG,fxm;=uygw,f?
OD;!dkxGef;/ OD;ausmfjr/ OD;bpH/ OD;pdE Wm/ OD;ynmoD[/ OD;atmifomOD;/ OD;ausmf&ifwdk@[m &cdkifawmf
vSefa&;acgif;aqmifawGjzpfygw,f? zwyv eJ@ qufoG,fvkyfudkifae=uolawGvnf;jzpf=uygw,f?
r[mrdwaf wGbufuvnf; ArmjynfppfrsuEf mS zGizhf @kd yxrqH;k wdu k o f ifw h w
hJ ikd ;f vd@k owfrw S f
xm;+yD;/ 1944 tukefrSm ppfawGc±dkif ar,k/ ukvm;wefjrpfzsm;teD;rSm&SdwJh *syefawGudk pwifxkd;
ppfqifygw,f? r[mrdwfawG ukvm;wefjrpfzsm;teD;rSm&SdwJh *syefawGudk pwifxdk;ppfqifygw,f?
r[mrdwaf wG ukvm;wefjrpfjzwfrul;Edik cf if Adv k =f umvSatmif acgi;f aqmifwhJ &cdik u f muG,af &;wyf
awGu *syefudk aoewfajymif;vSnf+yD; wdkufygw,f? &cdkifzufqpfawmfvSefa&;eJ@ acgif;aqmiftjzpf
wm0ef,lxm;wJh Adkvf!dkxGef;[m r[mrdwf (136) acgif;aqmif ar*smu±l;eJ@twl avxD;óudqif;
a&muf&Sdae+yDjzpfygw,f? Adkvf=umvSatmifeJ@aygif;rd+yD; wyfopfawGzGJŒvdkuf=uygw,f? OD;pdE WmeJ@
AHkaygufomausmf wdk@udk rif;jym;bufrSm avxD;eJ@csay;+yD; vdkif;,if; (LION) tzGJŒemrnfeJ@
wdkuf=uygw,f? ausmufjzLbufrSmvnf; ocifodef;azv$wfvdkufwJh OD;bapmwdk@tzGJŒ[m 1945
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DrSm avxD;eJ@qif;Edkifvm+yD;jzpfygw,f? oHwGJudkwm0ef,l&wJh OD;ausmf&ifu &efukef
ajymif;wm0ef,l&vdk@ ol@vufatmuf usefvlrsm;u qufwm0ef,l=uygw,f? azazmf0g&DvrSm
rif;jym;/ ajryHkbufrSm wdkufyGJawG wdkufyGJawG pdyfvmyg+yD?
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;udk wjynfvHk;qifE$Jzdk@ aemufqHk;awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;qHk;jzwfr_awGvkyfzdk@
1945 ckESpf/ rwfvqef;rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tdrfrSm awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifawG v#KdŒ0SufawGŒqHk
aqG;aEG;=uygw,f? (3) &ufqufwdkuf npOfaqG;aEG;=u+yD;aemuf wjynfvHk;&JΠEdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif
ocifp;kd / wjynfv;kH ppfa&;acgi;f aqmif Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ wjynfv;kH &JΠEdik if jH cm;qufo, G &f ;wm0efcH
ocifoef;xGe;f tjzpf owfrw S +f yD;wJt
h jyif/ ppfwikd ;f }uD;awG owfrw S cf aJG 0ydik ;f jcm;=u+yD; wdik ;f tvdu k /f
a'otvdkuf EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif ppfa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;udkyg owfrSwfcGJa0 wm0efcsxm; zGJŒpnf;
vdkuf=uygw,f? t"dutm;jzifh wdkif;}uD; (7) wdkif;/ a'ooHk;ckcGJ+yD; wjynfvHk;twGuf zufqpfawmf
vSeaf &;}uD; qifEzJ$ @kd rwfv (27) ae@tjzpf owfrw S vf ukd yf gw,f? ppfwikd ;f rsm;&JΠEdik if aH &;acgi;f aqmif
awG[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDucsnf;jzpf+yD; ppfa&;acgif;aqmifawG[m Armhwyfrawmfucsnf;
jzpfygw,f? wdkif;tvdkuf EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifawG[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfucsnf;jzpfygw,f? wdkif;
tvdu k f Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmifawG[m ocifp;kd / ocifA[de;f / ocifcsp/f ocifAode;f wif/ ocifwifxeG ;f /
ocifwifjr/ udkpH!Gef@wkd@jzpf=u+yD; ppfa&;acgif;aqmifawG[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ Adkvfarmifarmif/
Adkvfapm=um'dk;/ Adkvfae0if;/ AdkvfausmfaZm/ AdkvfwifxGef;/ Adkvf&JxGËf/ AdkvfrSL;atmif/ AkdvfrSL;Axl;/
Akdvfcif!dk wdk@jzpf+yD; wdkif; (2)/ wdkif; (3) qufoG,fa&;wm0efcHu Akdvfvusfmjzpfygw,f? OD;AaqGeJ@
OD;ausmf+idrf; u &efukefwm0efcHjzpfygw,f?
&cdkifawmfvSefa&;orm;awG&JΠpGrf;yum;eJ@ 1944 ckESpf ESpfukefydkif;u pwifvdkufwJh zufqpf
awmfveS af &;atmifyaJG wGa=umif/h r[mrdww f yfawG[m &cdik w f ikd ;f udjk zwf+y;D ArmjynftwGi;f atmifjrif

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 35


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

pGm0ifa&mufvmEdkif+yDjzpfygw,f? rHk&GmeJ@ a&$bdkbuftxd r[mrdwfwyfawG xdk;ppfqifvmcJh+yDjzpfyg


w,f? AHk;=uJav,mOfawGeJ@ AHk;}uJwdkufcdkufvdkuf tajrmuf}uD;awG wifhum;awGeJ@yg ypfvdkuf wuf
vdkufeJ@ 0ifvmcJhygw,f? &efukefòrdŒudkvnf; r[mrdwfwyfu AHk;}uJwdkufcdkufwmawG tqufrjywf
vkyfvmygw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dvqef;ydkif;a&mufawmh txufArmjynf a&0ifwZ,fe,fbufrSm
*syefawGu a[mf0pfZm ajrjyifypftajrmuf}uD;awG jzef@cGJcsxm;+yD; t}uD;tus,f ckcHae=uwm
a=umifh/ r[mrdwfwyfawG a&SŒrqufwufEdkifjzpf=uygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u ppfudkif;e,frSm
‘ygwDwyf’ qdkwm&Sdygw,f? zufqpfqef@usifa&; awmfvSefa&;qifE$JEdkifa&;twGuf EdkifiHa&; ppfa&;
oifwef;ay;+yD; v#KŒd 0Supf mG zG@J pnf;xm;wJh ajymufusm;wyfjzpfygw,f? a'ocHawGuawmh ‘ygww D yf’
vd@k yaJ c: =uygw,f? tJ'D ‘ygww D yf’ rSmEkid if aH &;rSL;/ 'k Ekid if aH &;rSL;eJ@ ppfa&;wm0efc/H 'kppfa&;wm0efc&H dS
ygw,f? wyf&JŒ t"duyk*~dKvf (4) OD;yg? tifzmppfrsufESmudk ydk@ay;aewJh *syef&JŒ v#KdŒ0Sufaxmufydk@
pcef;xJu vufeufawGudkyg enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ &,lpkaqmif;wJhwm0efudkvnf; 'DwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;[m
tpDtpOf&&dS dS vkyu f ikd af e=uygw,f? Adv k rf LS ;Axl;eJ@vnf; csw d qf ufrrd d qufo, G x f m;ygw,f? Adv k rf LS ;
Axl; uvnf; uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmif wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifwa,mufjzpfovdk/ ygwDwyfu ta&;
}uD;yk*K~ v
d f (4) OD;vH;k [mvnf; uGejf rLepfawGjzpf=uygw,f? &Jabmfvid_ /f Adv k o f rd ;f OD;/ Akv
d uf siaf rmife@J
&JabmfjrifhaqG wdk@jzpfygw,f?
zufqpfqef@usiaf &;awmfveS af &;orm;awGukd ae&mray;csiaf yr,fh a&SŒrwufEikd f tcuftcJ
jzpfaewJh r[mrdww f yfuwyfrLS ;[m ygww D yfukd ‘aqG;aEG;n‡Ed id_ ;f &efwufvmyg’ vd@k ta=umif;=um;
ygw,f? tdE, dN a&muf ocifoed ;f azeJ@ rH&k mG wm0efcu H qufo, G &f ef emrnfaygux f m;wJw h yfu Edik if H
a&;rSL; &Jabmfv_dif vdkufoGm;ygw,f? aqG;aEG;r_ tqifrajyjzpf+yD; &Jabmfv_difudk r[mrdwfwyfu
zrf;xm;vdkufygw,f? &Gmopf}uD;rSmcsKyfxm;vdkufygw,f? t*FvdyfawGu “ppfa&;udpPom aqG;aEG;
csiw f m/ 'ga=umifh vufeuf&a&;udp/P yl;aygi;f wdu k af &;udpaP wGukd ppfa&;wm0efcH vmaqG;aEG;yg” vd@k
xyfta=umif;=um;vmvd@k ppfa&;wm0efcH Adv k o
f rd ;f OD;eJ@ 'kppfa&;wm0efcH Adv k u f siaf rmifw@kd xyfvu kd f
oGm;=uygw,f? t*Fvyd w f yfu ume,fwa,mufu vufcaH wGŒqHyk gw,f? ppfa&;wm0efcH ESpOf ;D u
*syefwyf&JΠwyfcsxm;yHkeJ@ axmufydk@pcef;awGta=umif; tao;pdwfajymjywJhtjyif ajryHkygqGJjyyg
w,f? t*Fvyd w f yfume,fu *syefawG&w dS hJ ppfuikd ;f awmif±;kd udk AH;k =uJ+yD;&Si;f vif;zd@k pDpOfxm;a=umif;
ajymjyvmwJhtwGuf/ ppfajy;'kuQonf jynfolvlxk odef;csD&SdaewJh ppfudkif;awmif±dk;udk AHk;r=uJzdk@
ta=umuftuef jiif;cHkaqG;aEG;&ygw,f? aemufqHk;rSm *syefuifaywdkif±Hk;&SdwJh usKdufvwfacsmifudk
om AHk;=uJzdk@ t*Fvdyfbufu tav#mhay;oGm;ygw,f? ppfa&;udpPawG aqG;aEG;=u&mrSm tqifajy
ae+yD; aemufqHk; ume,fu “cifAsm;wdk@ EdkifiHa&;&nf&G,fcsufubmvJ” vdk@ ar;w,fqdkygw,f?
ppfa&;wm0efcH Adkvfodrf;OD;eJ@ Adkvfusifarmifu “vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; csufcsif;&zdk@yJ” vdk@ ajzvdkuf=u
awmh/ ume,f}u;D u “wqifch si;f 'drk ed , D qH kd awmfa&mayg’h vd@k tajym/ ‘'drk eD , D [ H m t*Fvyd &f ŒJ udv k ekd yD ”J
vdk@wkef@jyefajymqdkvdkuf=uwJhtwGuf/ ume,f}uD; aqGŒaqGŒckef+yD; 0kef;ueJx&yfum a'goeJ@ }udrf;
armif;qJqdkygawmhw,f? +yD;awmh “rif;wdk@[m *syefppfAdkvfawGjzpfvdk@ ckcsdefup+yD; oHk@yef;tjzpf
zrf;vdu k +f yD” wJ?h aemufrS ppfa&;wm0efcEH pS af ,muf odvu kd &f wmu 'Dume,f}uD;[m +Adwo d #tifyg

36 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

,mtwGi;f 'drk eD , D t H qifeh @J yg0ifae&wJh =opa=w;vsEikd if o H m;wOD; jzpfaew,fqw kd mygy?J Adv k o f rd ;f OD;
eJ@ Adkvfusifarmifu aemufqHk; vufeuftjzpf tdENd,&Sd ocifodef;azwdk@qDydk@aeus pum;0Sufudk
xkwfoHk;ajymqdkayr,fh “pum;0Suf [kwfr[kwf txufwifjyr,f? ckawmhzrf;w,f” qdk+yD; a&$bdkeJ@
tke;f awm t=um;u qm;awmif&mG udk wef;yd@k vu kd yf gw,f? ‘qm;awmif’ &Gmudak &muf+yD;aemufyikd ;f
“pum;0SufrSefw,f? 'gayrJh ppfAdkvfawGjzpfvdk@ ppfoHk@yef;yJ” qdk+yD;/ yg;udkufvdk@ em;udkufwJhoabm
npf+yD; qufcsKyfxm;vdu k yf gw,f? ‘qm;awmif’ uae usm;rif;}uD;&Gmem;&Sd tcsKyfpcef;udk ae&ma&$Œ
+yD; ajymif;csKyfxm;ygw,f?‘ygwDwyf’ &JŒ ta&;}uD;yk*~dKvf (4) OD;rSm (3) OD;u tcsKyfcHae&yg+yD?
Adkvfodrf;OD;eJ@ Adkvfusifarmif[m ‘usm;rif;}uD;’ &Gmem;u tcsKyfpcef;rSm tcsKyfcHae&wkef;
tjyifxGuf acs;yHk; ao;yHk;oGefcGifht&rSm usefaecJhwJh 'kEkdifiHa&;rª;qD pmwapmifa&;+yD; ydk@vdkuf=uyg
w,f? “'dk@awmhtzrf;cHae&+yD vufeufapmifhraeeJ@ &SdwmeJ@yJwdkuf=u” qdkwJh ta=umif;=um;pmyg?
pmu 'k Edik if aH &;rSL;qD qdu k q f u
kd òf rduòf rduf a&mufomG ;ayr,fh 'kEikd if aH &;rSL;[m olŒzmom rqH;k jzwfEidk ?f
ppfudkif;u xwdkufwm rE Wav;uóudrod&if rE Wav;emEdkifwma&m/ wdkif;rSL;cGifhðycsuf&,lzdk@vdkwm
a&ma=umifhyg/ wdkif;rSL; AdkvfrSL;Axl;qD tpD&ifcHvdkufygw,f? Adkvfrª;Axl;eJ@ txufArmjynfqdkif&m
ygwaD cgi;f aqmifawG n‡Ed id_ ;f =u+yD; wnDw!Gww f nf; qH;k jzwfcsucf svu kd =f uygw,f? tJ'q D ;kH jzwfcsuf
uawmh txufArmjynftaeeJ@ wwdkif;vHk; wdkufyGJ0if&r,fh (,-&uf) [m rwfv (8) &ufvdk@
owfrSwfvdkuf&jcif;yJjzpfygw,f?
'Dvdk owfrSwfvdkuf&wm&JΠwjcm;ta&;}uD;tcsuf wcsufuawmh r[mrdwfwyfawG[m
csi;f wGi;f udjk zwf+yD; rH&k mG bufu xd;k qif;vmr,fh ppfa=umif;wa=umif;/ a&$bv kd iG jf yifujkd zwf+yD; a&$bkd
bufu xdk;qif;vmr,fh ppfa=umif;wa=umif;eJ@ ppfudkif;bufudk OD;wnfxdk;ppfqifvmae+yDjzpfwJh
twGuf/ r[mrdwfwyfawG ppfudkif;udk rodrf;ydkufEkdifrD ArmhawmfvSefa&;tiftm;pku awmfvSefa&;
pzdk@ vdktyfvmwmvJygygw,f?
wjynfvHk;twGuf owfrSwfxm;wJh rwfv (27) &ufae@rwdkifrD txufArmjynfwdkif;u
AdkvfrSL;Axl; acgif;aqmifwJh awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pk[m rwfv (8) &ufae@udk ajymif;vJowfrSwf+yD;
awmfvSefa&;udk apm+yD; qifvdkuf=u&ygw,f?
tJ'Drwfv (8) &ufae@nrSmyJ ppfudkif;ygwDwyfu 'kEdkifiHa&;rSL;&Jabmf[m ppfudkif;&JΠyxr
qH;k aom zufqpfqef@usiaf &; wku d yf aJG c:oHukd vufypfA;kH eJ@ziG +hf yD; atmifjrifpmG pwifvu kd Ef ikd yf gw,f?
*syefawG&JΠtajrmufpcef;udk vufypfAHk;awGudkyJ tqufrjywfoHk;+yD; &JabmfjrifhaqG acgif;aqmifwJh
awmfvSefa&;wyfu atmifjrifpGm odrf;ydkufvdkuf=uygw,f? tajrmufawGtm;vHk;udkvnf; zsufqD;
ypfvdkufEdkifygawmhw,f?
tJ'DusawmhrS zrf;qD;xm;wJh Adkvfodrf;OD;eJ@ Adkvfusifarmifudkvnf; r[mrdwfwyfu jyef
v$waf y;±Hrk u wyfcw JG cGeJ @J ac:vmcJ=h uygw,f? um;oGm;r&wJah e&mrSm xrf;pifukd a0gvyk +f yD; ukvm;
ppfom;awGu xrf;yd;k yd@k =uw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? tJ'aD emuf ppfuikd ;f a'owckv;kH wdu k yf aGJ wGe@J v#o H mG ;
ygw,f? r[mrdwfwyfawGvnf; *syefawGr&SdawmhwJh ppfudkif;udk atmifjrifpGm 0ifa&mufvm=uyg
awmhw,f?
rwfv (8) &ufae@ukd awmfveS af &;&uftjzpf owfrw S v f u kd &f +y;D Advk rf ª;Axl; ud, k w f ikd f wyfawG

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 37


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

jzef@csum *syefawGudk wdkufcdkuf&if; ausmufqnfbufqD xGufvkduf=uygw,f? wyftoD;oD;[m


rE aW v;òrdŒ vrf;ay:rSm/ r[mjrwfrek b d &k m;}uD;tem;rSm/ &efuif;awmifajcw0du k rf mS wdu
k yf aJG wGwu kd f
cJ=h uygw,f? tcsed af pm+yD; qifEv J$ u
kd &f wJth wGuf wjynfv;kH &JΠawmfveS af &;tpDtpOf rxdcu kd &f av
atmif Adkvfrª;Axl; u “a'gufwmAarmfeJ@wuG AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; wdk@onf *syef±kyfao;rsm;jzpfae
onf? jynfolwdk@udk *syefzufqpfwdk@u ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;ae=uonfudk vufydkufIom =unfhae=u
onf? xdk@a=umifh olwdk@.acgif;aqmifr_udk r,Hk=unfawmhyJ jynfolŒtultnDjzifhom *syefudk
awmfvSefvdkuf+yD” qdkwJhoabmyg a=unmcsufudkvnf; xkwfjyefa=unmvkdufygw,f?
AdkvfAxl;&J@ *syefawmfvSefa&;owif;a=umihf &efukefrS *syefawG v_yfv_yf &Sm;&Sm;jzpfoGm;=u
ygw,f? AdkvfAxl; a=unmwJhtwdkif; “olŒpdwful;eJ@ol awmfvSefwmvm;/ ArmhwyfrawmfwckvHk;
awmfveS af &;a&SŒajy;vm;” qdw k m ok;H oyf=uw,fqykd gw,f? *syefppfXmecsKyfu ArmhwyfrawmfwiG ;f
&Sd *syeft=uHay;t&m&SdcsKyf ar*sm*sife&,f q0grdkwdkeJ@ uDwm*sD;rm;wdk@u Armhwyfrawmf[m wkduf
&nfcdkuf&nf&Sdw,f? tpGrf;jycsifaew,f? 'ga=umifh Armhwyfrawmfudk vufeufodrf;r,fhtpm;
,Hk=unftm;ay;wJhtaeeJ@ vufeufcJ,rf;awmifxyfay;+yD; ppfrsufESmawGrSm edyGefwyfawGeJ@twl
,SOf wm0efay;oifhw,fvdk@ t=uHay;wifjy=uygw,f? *syefppfaoemywd vufzwifeif *sife&,f
u0gbDu tJ'Dtqdkudk vufcHvdkufygw,f?
awmfvSefa&;twGuf jyifqifxm;+yD;+yDjzpfwJh AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ Akdvfvusfm/ Adkvfae0if;/
AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvf&efEdkif/ Adkvfva&mif/ Akdvf&efatmif pwJh wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifawG[m tJ'DtcGifh
ta&;udk toH;k cs+yD; rwfv (17) &ufae@rmS a&$w*d b kH &k m; taemufr'k f tqif;uGi;f jyif;rSm &efow l u kd f
zdk@ ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ Armhwyfrawmf ppfxGuftcrf;tem; usif;yygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u
teD;qH;k &efol a&G;wdu k =f uqdw
k hJ t"dyg` ,yf gyg ppfxu
G rf ed @f ceG ;f ajym+yD; wyfawGukd tpDtpOf&&dS dS txGuf
cdkif;vdkufygawmhw,f? oludk,fwdkifvJ (22) &ufae@rSm aetdrfuxGuf+yD; owfrSwfxm;&mwyfqD
vdkufygoGm;ygawmhw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ rwfv (27) &ufae@rSm jynfvHk;u|wfordkif;0if zufqpfawmfvSef a&;}uD;udk
pwifqifE$Jvdkuf=uyg+yD?
t*Fvdyf zdk@136 eJ@ armifhbufwef&JΠppfXmecsKyfudkvnf; 0dkif,mvuftquftoG,feJ@
ta=umif;=um;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
ocifoef;xGe;f uvnf; olŒ&JŒ Edik if jH cm;qufo, G af &;wm0efuykd g xrf;aqmif&if; ocifA[de;f /
ocifoef;azwkd@eJ@twl awmifilc±dkifbufrSm awmwGif;ajymufusm;wyfzGJŒrsm;udk OD;pD;um zufqpf
awmfvSefa&; wdkufyGJawG=um; udk,fwdkifudk,fus yg0ifqifE$Jygawmhw,f?
u&iftrsKd;om;rsm;[mvnf; zufqpf*syefqef@usifa&;wdkufyGJtwGif; zwyv }uD;eJ@twl
wufwufºuGºuG yg0ifcJh=uygw,f? woD;yk*~vtjzpf yg0ifcJh=uolawGvnf; trsm;}uD;yg? jynfolvl
xkw&yfv;kH yg0ifc=hJ uwJh jynfv;kH u|wv f uQ%maqmifwhJ *k%af jymifwhJ zufqpfawmfveS af &;}uD;[m
Armjynfordkif;rSm ta&;}uD;wJh tvSnfhtajymif;}uD;wckvJyJ jzpfygw,f?
zufqpfawmfvSefa&; tiftm;pktm;vHk;udk ‘zwyv’qdkwJh wpkwpnf;wnf;aom trsKd;
om;wyfaygif;pktzGJŒcsKyf}uD;tjzpf tcdkiftrmwnfaqmuf+yD; zufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD;udk tus,f

38 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jyef@qHk; qifE$JcJh=uwmjzpfygw,f? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD; qifE$JpOfrSm zufqpfawmfvSefa&;atmif


vHawmftjzpf owfowfrw S rf w S f toH;k ðycJ=h uwmu teDa&mifatmufcaH y:rSm =u,fjzLwyGihf tvH
awmfjzpfygw,f? ArmjynfzufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD;[m urBmhzufqpfawmfvSefa&;&JΠtpdwftydkif;
w&yftjzpfvnf; *k%f,lp&mjzpfcJhygw,f? r[mrdwfwyfrsm;eJ@ ajcvSrf;&Sd&Sd yl;aygif;wdkufyGJqifEdkif±Hk
ru/ r[mrdww f yfrsm;ud, k w f ikd uf tH=h o& rSww f rf;wif&avmufatmif &Gy&f yG cf |ecf |ef wdu k yf qJG ifEikd f
cJhygw,f? vufawGŒppfajrjyifrSm Armhwyfrawmf[m rsKd;cspfArmhwyfrawmftjzpf wdkufpGrf;&nfudk
jyEkdifcJhovdk Armjynf te,fe,ft&yf&yfu ajymufusm;wyfzGJŒrsm;/ ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifA[def;/
ocifoef;azwdk@ OD;pD;wJh jzL;/ awmifil/ ±dk;rwa=umu &Jacgifajymufusm;rsm;[mvnf; zufqpf*syef
awGudk pHcsdefwif&avmufatmif rsKd;ðzwfacsr_ef; okwfoifwdkufyGJqifEdkifcJhygw,f?
avxD;&JabmfawGuvnf; owfrw S x f m;&m awmfveS af &;a'otwGi;f r[mrdww f yfawGe@J
twlqif;+y;D wdu k yf 0JG ifEidk cf =hJ uygw,f? ArmjynfppfajrjyiftwGi;f ar*sm *sief &,fpvif;&JΠ'D0ZD H (14)
wyfrsm;/ ar*sm*sief &,f0if;*dw&f ŒJ wyfrsm;/ tar&duef txl;wyfzŒJG acgi;f aqmif ume,fr&J &D ŒJ wyfzŒJG
rsm;/ tar&duef *sife&,fpwD;0Jvf&JŒwyfrsm;/ tdENd,wyfrsm;/ w±kwfwyfrsm;/ zdk@(136) wyfzGJŒrsm;
yg0ifwdkufcdkufcJh=uygw,f? t*Fvdyfrsm;[m ava=umif;uvnf; t}uD;tus,f AHk;}uJwdkufcdkufwm
awGvkyfcJhygw,f?
*syefawmfveS af &;tprSm *syefawG&ŒJ zrf;qD;jcif;cHvu kd &f wJh OD;AaqG vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf
vHk;yef;tm;xkwfzdk@ wm0efus&m wdkif; (3) udk rvkdufEdkifawmhwJh OD;ausmf+idrf;[m &efukefrSmyJ vSnfh
vnfa&Smifwdrf;&if; &efukefwm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifygw,f?
*syefrsm;[m {+yDv (23) &ufae@rSm t"dywda'gufwmAarmftpdk;&tzGJŒudk ac: +yD; &efukef
òrŒd uae qkwcf mG ygw,f? a'guw f mAarmfe@J twl vdu k o
f mG ;=u&olawGuawmh ocifjr/ ocifE/k AE<Kv
OD;pdef/ OD;xGef;atmif/ Adkvf&efEkdifeJ@ a'gufwmb[efwdk@ wawG jzpfygw,f? *syefawGu &efukefuae
qkwfcGm+yD; armfvòrdifrSm ±Hk;pkduf/ aemuf rk'Hkajymif;±Hk;pdkuf&if; qkwfcGmygw,f? rk'Hkta&mufrSmawmh
ocifjr/ ocifEkwdk@ aomifwifusef&pfcJh+yD; a'gufwmAarmfom *syefjynftxd ygoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ {+yDv (30) &ufrSm rsKd;cspfwyfrawmfu &efukefudk pwif0ifa&mufygw,f?
t*Fvdyfwyfu arv (3) &ufrS &efukefudk 0ifa&mufvmEdkifayr,fh/ olwdk@odrf;wmtjzpf tom;,l
a=unmygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm *syefeJ@wdkufyGJawGuawmh t}uD;tus,f qifEJ$ae&qJjzpfygw,f? jynf
olŒta&;awmfyHkygwDu “ArmhawmfvSefa&;wyfrawmfu &efukefòrdŒudk xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufxm;+yD
jzpfa=umif;/ òrdŒolòrdŒom;tm;vHk;. vHkòcHa&;twGuf wm0ef,la=umif;” a=unmcsufxkwfygw,f?
Akv
d af e0if;[m arv (6) &ufae@rS jrpf0u|e;f ay:wyfrsm;udk Akv d wf ifazxHtyfE+HS y;D &efuek u f q kd if;vm
wmjzpfayr,fh Adkvfae0if;wynfhausmf Akdvfatmif}uD;u Adkvfae0if;eHrnfeJ@ &efukefòrdŒudk Armhwyfr
awmfu odrf;ydkufvdkufa=umif; a=unmcsufudk Armvdk t*Fvdyfvdk (2) bmom eJ@arv (7) &ufae@
ae@pGJeJ@ vufjrefajcjrefvkyf+yD; urBmudk a=unmygw,f? t*Fvdyfvdkbmomjyefcsufudkawmh *sme,f
ausmfOD;cspfarmifeJ@ OD;cifarmifvwfwdk@u jyefqdka&;om;ay;&w,fvdk@qdkygw,f? ‘&efukef tprf;
toHvi$ ±hf ’kH vd@k trnfwyf+yD; toHvi$ Xhf me ,m,DziG +fh yD; a=unmvdu k wf hJ tJ't
D oHvi$ ahf =unmcsuf

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 39


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

udk tdENd,a&'D,dkeJ@ bDbDpD toHv$ifhXmeawGuwqifh xyfqifh toHv$ifhay;vdkufwma=umifh urBmh


udka=unm+yD;jzpfoGm;ygw,f? Akdvfatmif}uD;&JΠAdkvfae0if; od'<dwifay;csufjzpfygw,f?
tJ'v D dk zufqpfawmfveS af &;umv}uD;twGi;f rSm awmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;=um;rSm/ txl;
ojzifh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD=um;rSm EkdifiHa&;t,ltqESpfck jzpfay:
uGJjym;vmjyefygw,f?
wcku “zufqpfwdk@udk tºuGif;rJhwkdufcdkufacsr_ef;a&;onfomy"me/ zufqpf wdk@udk
tjywftowf wdkufcdkufEkdifwmeJ@tr# t*Fvdyfwdk@eJ@ vGwfvyfa&;twGuf pm&if;&Sif;&mrSm
+idrf;csrf;pGm+yD;pD;Ekdifvdrhfr,f” jzpf+yD; tjcm;wckuæ
“zufqpfw@kd ukd tºuGi;f rJw h u kd cf u
kd af csre_ ;f a&;[m y"mer[kw/f olw@kd um; ±_;H zd@k aocsmae+yD?
udk,fhtm;udk,fðzef;wD;ovdk vkyfzkd@rvdk? jyefvmr,fh t*Fvdyfe,fcsJŒudk ckcHwdkufcdkufa&;om y"me/
xkdwdkufyGJtwGufom óudwifjyifqifxm;&r,f” qdkwmjzpfygw,f?
t,ltqESpcf k jyif;xefvmwJt h cg wzufu avmavmq,f wdu k x
f w k &f r,fh *syefukd wdu
k f
rxkwfyJ rvmao;wJh t*Fvdyfudkjyefcszdk@ vufeufpkxm;&r,f ajymaeolawG[m um,uHajrmuf
tm;jzifh *syefolv#KdŒ? *syefudk rwdkuf&Jvdk@ a&Smifae&ef qifajcay;jcif;vdk@jrifovdk/ wzufuvnf;
t*Fvdyfvufu +idrf;csrf;pGmvGwfvyfa&;&,lEdkifw,fajymum *syefudkwdkufxkwfa&;wckwnf; rJae
olawG[m t*Fvdyfudk vufeufcst±_H;ay;r,fholawGjzpfw,f/ t*Fvdyfudk vufeufcst±_H;ay;r,fh
olawGvdk@ pGyfpGJajymqdk=uygw,f?
*syefawGqkwfcGmoGm;&vdk@ &efukefòrdŒay:udk EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifawG awmfawmfrsm;rsm;
a&mufvm=uygw,f? t*Fvdyfppfwyfu *sife&,fcsdef;Am; (General Chambers) uvJ &efukefòrdŒudk
ppftkyfcsKyfa&; tm%mydkiftjzpf olu tkyfcsKyf&vdrfhr,fvdk@ w&m;0ef}uD;a[mif; OD;jrbl;/ OD;bOD;wdk@
a&SŒrSm a=unmajymqdkvmygw,f?
urBmrSm qkdAD,ufwyfeDawmf&JΠtifrwef}uD;us,fwJh wkdufyGJatmifyGJ owif;awGa=umifh
qdkAD,uf,leD,H[m EdkifiHwumjynfolrsm;=um; *k%foduQm}uD;rm;vmcJhovdk/ ArmjynfrSmvnf;
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m jynfolawG=um; *k%ftwufqHk;tcsdefjzpfvmcJhygw,f? ArmjynfrSm
*syefzufqpfawGudk wdkufypf&r,fvdk@ pjrifcJhwm[m uGefjrLepfawGjzpfcJh+yD;/ wdkufyGJawGtwGif;rSm
vnf; &Gyf&Gyfc|efc|efwkdufjycJh=uEkdifawmh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkawG=um;
=oZmt&Sdef}uD;rm;vmcJhygw,f?
‘awmfvSefa&;wyfOD;’ uae wygwDwnf;jzpfa&; aqG;aEG;=uwJhtcg uGefjrLepfygwDu
jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwDacgif;aqmifwpkudk wygwDwnf;jzpfcsif&if uGefjrLepfygwDwGif;odk@ jynfolŒ
ta&;awmfyHkygwD0ifrsm; wOD;csif;0if=uzdk@eJ@ ocifcspf/ ocifAaqG (OD;AaqG) wdk@udk vufcHEdkifayr,fh
OD;ausmf+idrf;udkawmh vufrcHEkdifbl;vdk@qkdowJh? aemufqHk;rSm wygwDwnf; rjzpfEkdifawmhyJ ysufoGm;
cJhygw,f?
*syefawmfvSefa&;+yD;&if EdkifiHa&;wdkufyGJawG[m ta&;}uD;vmawmhr,fvdk@ jrifwmu
wa=umif;/ wav#mufvHk; ajratmuftjzpfeJ@ &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;vm&wmuae w&m;0ifvlxk=um;
&yfwnfv_yf&Sm;vmEdkifwmudku }uD;us,fwJhatmifyJGwckjzpfw,fvdk@ odjrifcH,lvdkufwma=umifhyg/

40 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

1945 ckESpf/ arv (3) &ufae@rSm &efukefòrdŒ Am;u&mvrf;rSm ‘ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD’ qdkwJh


qdkif;bkwfudk uGefjrLepfygwDu w&m;0ifwifvdkufygawmhw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwD&JŒt&Sdef[m tifrwef}uD;cJhovdk uGefjrLepfygwDwGif; 0ifvdkolawGvnf;
tvGerf sm;wJu h mvyg? ArmjynfrmS xif&mS ;wJh Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmifreS o f r# uGejf rLepf0g'eJ@ ywfouf
cJh=ubl;ovdk uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@vnf; ywfouf,SufEG,fcJh=uzl;ygw,f? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifawGxJrSm
qdk&if Akdvf&efatmif/ Adkvfvusfm/ AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvf&JxGÉf/ AdkvfausmfaZm/ Adkvfva&mif/ Adkvfwm&m
pwJholawG[m uGefjrLepfygwD0if awGjzpfcJh=uygw,f? Adkvfae0if;awmif uGefjrLepfygwD0iftjzpf
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umvtwGif;rSm ocifpdk;qD tqdkðycJhzl;ygw,f? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifr[kwfwJh
AdkvfawGxJrSmqkd&ifvnf; AdkvfAxl;/ AkdvftmVm0u wdk@utp Adkvfcspfaumif; (AdkvfrSL;cspfaumif;)/
Adkvfyk/ Adkvfoef;a&$/ Akdvf&J'if/ Akdvfrif;'if/ oHr%dAdkvfarmifarmif/ Adkvfodef;wef/ Adkvfatmifrif;/
Advk rf sK;d jrif/h Advk af t;aiG/ Akv d af tmifaz/ Adv k wf ukd af tmif/ Adv k tf ;kH armif (avxD;) wd@k awG[m uGejf rLepf
ygw0D ifawGyg? Adv k pf aH iG (OD;cspv
f id_ f rqv A[dEk ikd if aH &;wuUov kd af usmif;tky}f uD;) vnf; uGejf rLepfyg
wD0ifczhJ ;l ovd/k Adv k af omif;'ef (umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf-av) wd@k vnf; uGejf rLepfygweD @J ywfoufc=hJ u
zl;ygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygwu D ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwq D ikd ;f bkwuf kd Am;u&mvrf;rSm w&m;0ifwifvu kd wf hJ
tcg OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;AaqGwdk@uvvnf; ocifjrudk OuUÏ tjzpfwifajr‡muf+yD; jynfolta&;awmfyHk
ygwDtpk0ifrsm;udk pkpnf;um ‘Armjynfqdk&S,fvpfygwD’ qdkif;bkwfudk ra&S;raESmif;wifzdk@ óud;pm;
tm;xkwfvm=uygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ Armjynfqdk&S,fvpfygwD tòydiftqdkif wnf&Sdvmyg+yD? Armjynf
uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ acgi;f aqmifawGtjzpf vlx=k um;xif&mS ;vmwmu ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f / ocif
odef;az (odef;azjrifh)/ ocifA[def;/ ocifAodef;wif/ &Jabmfbwif ac: *dk&S,f/ ocifoef;òrdif/ ocif
oef;az (awmifil)/ ocifZif/ ocifwifxGef;/ ocifjroGif/ ocifwifjrwdk@ jzpf=uygw,f?
Armjynfqdk&S,fvpfygwD&JŒ acgif;aqmifawGtjzpf wufwufºuGºuG v_yf&Sm;ay:vGifvm
wmu OD;ausm+f idr;f / OD;AaqG/ OD;udu k }kd uD; (aemif-ode;f av;q,fuu kd }kd uD;)/ ocifwif/ ocifausm'f eG ;f /
OD;vSarmif/ Adkvfcifarmifav;/ &efukefAaqGwdk@ jzpf=uygw,f? Akdvfae0if;/ Akdvfarmifarmif/ Adkvf
atmif}uD;/ bHkaygufomausmfwkd@vnf; acgif;aqmifawGtjzpf yg0ifvm=uygw,f// uGefjrLepfygwDu
rmhufpfvDeif0g'udk vrf;!¸eftbd"rRmtjzpf twdtvif;cH,lusihfoHk;+yD; tvkyform;vlwef;pm;&JŒ
wyfOD;ygwDtjzpf tcdkiftrm &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;ygw,f?
‘qdk&S,fvpfygwD’ uawmh &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; wdwdyy cH,lxm;wm rawGŒ&yJ qdk&S,fvpfa&;
&nfrSef;csufawGudk aºuG;a=umfae=uwmawmhawGŒ&ygw,f?
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D rmhuv f eD if0g' oabmw&m;oifwef;awGay;+yD;/ qdAk , D uf,el , D H
uGefjrLepfygwD (abmfvf&SDApf) orkdif;tusOf;csKyfudkydk@cs&if/ qkd&S,fvpfygwDuvnf; qdkAD,uf,leD,H
(abmfvf&SDApf) ordkif;tusOf;csKyfudkyJ r&&atmif&Sm+yD; oifwef;ydk@csw,fvdk@qdkygw,f?
Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkawGt=um; pnf;±H;k a&;eJ h wyfrawmfwiG ;f pnf;±H;k a&;yg tòyid t f qdik f pnf;±H;k
v_yf&Sm;=uygw,f? jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwD&JΠta&;}uD;acgif;aqmif (&JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifjzpf=ur,fh

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 41


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

yk*~dKvfawGudk *syefydk@a&;udpP aqmif&GufcJhwJh t"duacgif;aqmif) ocifcspfuawmh qdk&S,fvpfyg


wDbufrSmraeyJ ArmuGefjrLepfygwDbuf w&m;0ifa&mufvmcJhygw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ arv (17) &ufae@rSm qif;rvm;pDrHudef;ac: puULjzLpDrHudef; xGufay:vmyg
w,f? *syefawGt0ifrSm e,fcsJŒt*Fvdyfwdk@eJ@twl vdkufygxGufajy;oGm;+yD; tdENd,EkdifiH ‘qif;rvm;’
òrdŒrSm ±Hk;pdkufaecJhwJh qif;rvm;tpdk;& (Armjynfppfajy; tpdk;&) u a&;qGJcJhwJh pDrHudef;jzpfygw,f?
('kwd,urBmppf}uD;+yD;&if/ usifhokH;zdk@ +Adwdo#ygvDrefudk wifjytwnfðycsuf&,lxm;+yD; jzpfw,fqdk
wJh) 'DpuULjzLpDrHudef;&JŒ tcsKyfoabmuawmh Armjynfudk t*Fvdyfu qufvufu|efðyxm;a&;jzpf
ygw,f?
t*FvdyfwyfawG[m olwkd@odrf;ydkufxm;or# ae&ma'oawGtm;vHk;rSm ppfbufqkdif&m
òrdŒjytkyfcsKyfa&;udk xlaxmifxm;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? ArmEdkifiHqdkif&m òrdŒjytkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJŒawGudk
t*Fvdyfvdk (Civil Affairs Service Burma) vdk@ac:ygw,f? twdkaumuf CASB jzpfwma=umifh
uufpbDtkyfcsKyfa&;vdk@ac:ygw,f? uufpbDtkyfcsKyfa&;udk +Adwdo#AdkvfcsKyf ‘[l;bwf&ef@’ u OD;pD;
tkyfcsKyfygw,f? 1944 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D (1) &ufup+yD;/ uufpbDudk/ ta&SŒawmiftm&Sqkdif&m r[m
rdwfwyfrsm;&JΠaoemywd armifhbufwefvufatmufrSm v$Jajymif;+yD;/ r[mrdwfwyfrsm;&JΠvuf
eufudkifwyfawG tcdkiftrm&Sdaeovdk/ wzufu zwyvtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;eJ@ ArmvufeufudkifwyfawG
vnf; wnf&Sdaeygw,f? 1945 ckESpf/ arvukefrSm ta&;}uD; EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmiftm;vHk; &efukefudk
jyefvnfa&muf&v dS m=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? zufqpfawmfveS af &;wdu k yf aJG wGuawmh a'oawmfawmfrsm;
rsm;rSm qufqifEaJG e&qJjzpfygw,f? weoFm&Dwikd ;f wwdik ;f vH;k [m zufqpfatmufrmS yJ &Sad eygao;
w,f? *syefrsm;[m ppfawmif;jrpf ta&SŒbufurf;wav#muf cHppfa=umif;rsm; wnfaqmuf+yD;
acgi;f rmrm wdu k cf u kd =f uqJjzpfygw,f? yJc;l ±d;k rawmifwef;eJ@ awmtkyaf wGtwGi;f pk±;kH rdaewJh trSwf
(28) *syefwyfr}uD;&JΠ*syefwyfom;rsm;[m r[mrdwfwyfr}uD;rsm;eJ@ ArmzufqpfawmfvSefa&;
tiftm;pkawG ydwq f @kd xm;wJh &efuek -f rE aW v; vrf;r}uD;twdik ;f twif;xd;k azmuf+yD; ppfawmif;jrpf
ta&SŒbufurf;qD jzwful;Edkifzdk@ óud;pm;ae=uqJ jzpfygw,f?
1945 ckEpS /f ZGev f xJrmS +Adwod #vufeufuikd w f yfrsm;&JŒ aoemywd/ ta&SŒawmift&Sqikd &f m
r[mrdwfwyfrsm;&JΠppfaoemywdcsKyf armifhbufwef[m t&yf&yftajctaersm;udk ppfaq;avh
vmzd@k &efuek òf rdŒudk a&mufvmygw,f? ZGev f (16) &ufae@rmS Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f wd@k
eJ@ awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;ygw,f? t"du aqG;aEG;wmu ArmvufeufudkifwyfawG&JŒ tem*wfta&;jzpfyg
w,f?
1945 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (20) &ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ygwD&JΠ'kwd,t}udrf
uGef*&ufudkusif;yw,f? ocifoef;xGef;u obmywdtjzpfaqmif&Guf+yD; usif;yygw,f? udk,fpm;
vS,feJ@ {nfhonfaygif; (200) ausmfavmuf wufa&muf=u+yD;/ olŒrdef@cGef;xJrSm zufqpfwdkufzsuf
a&;eJ@ jyefvnfxal xmifa&; tvky}f uD; (2) ck&w dS ,fqw kd mudk tav;wifazmfjyoGm;&if; 'Dtvky}f uD;
ESpfckudk +yD;atmifvkyfzdk@ ‘trsKd;om;tpdk;&’ w&yfvdkw,f? trsKd;om;tpdk;&w&yfay:aygufzdk@ ppftkyf
csKyfa&; tjrefqHk;&yfpJzdk@ vdkw,fqdkwm &Sif;jyygw,f? (1) ppftkyfcsKyfa&;tjref&yfpJzdk@/ (2) ,m,D
trsK;d om;tpd;k &zGŒJ pnf;/ a&G;aumufyt JG jrefq;kH usi;f y+y;D wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf}u;D ac: zd@k / (3) wdik ;f ðy

42 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jynfðyv$wfawmf}uD;u ArmEdkifiHtkyfcsKyfa&; a&;qGJzdk@qdkwmudk xkwfazmf&Sif;vif;oGm;w,f? taxG


axGtwGi;f a&;rª; ocifp;kd u ‘Edik if aH &;vkyif ef;pOf’ udk zwf=um;wifoiG ;f ygw,f? uGejf rLepfygw[ D m
wdik ;f &if;om;"e&Sirf sm;eJ@ yl;aygi;f +yD; vGwv f yfa&;vkyif ef;udk aqmif&u G &f mrSm b,fawmhrS rpGe@f vw $ f
tyfwhJ tcsuf (3) csuu f kd twGi;f a&;rª; tpD&ifcpH mxJrmS azmfjyoGm;ygw,f? tJ'guawmh (1) uGejf rL
epfygwD oD;jcm;xlaxmifciG &fh jdS cif;/ (2) tvkyo f rm;/ v,form;rsm;tusK;d twGuf pnf;±H;k &mrSm uGejf rL
epfygwu D kd "e&Sirf sm;u taESmuft,Surf ay;a&;/ (3) vlrsK;d a&;nD!w G rf t
_ wGuf xlaxmifxm;aom
tzGJŒcsKyfwGif tvkyform; v,form;wdk@udk,fpm; uGefjrLepfygwDu vGwfvyfpGm a0zefcGifh&Sdjcif;wdk@
jzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JΠ'kwd,uGef*&ufudk (20) &ufuae (27) &ufae@txd usif;yyg
w,f? usif;yaewJhumvtwGif; Zlvdkif (26) &ufae@rSm t*Fvefa&G;aumufyGJrSm ‘tufwvD’
acgi;f aqmifwhJ avbmygwD tEdik &f wufvmygw,f? avbmygwD tEkid &f wufvmjcif;[m Armjynf/
tdENd,jynfwdk@&JΠvGwfvyfa&;twGuf aumif;wJhtvm;tvmyJvdk@ ,lqcJh=uygw,f? Zlvdkif (27)
&ufae@ uGef*&ufaemufqHk;ae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[dkaumfrDwDtopfudk a&G;cs,fwif
ajr‡muf=uygw,f? A[dkaumfrwD0if (22) OD;eJ@ A[kdaumfrDwD pnf;±kH;a&;rSL; (9) OD; / aygif; (31) OD;
jzpfygw,f// uGefu&ufu ygwDtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ocifpkd;ukd tdrfaxmifa&; pnf;rsOf;azmuf
ysufr_eJ@ ygwD0iftjzpfu (2) ESpf&yfpJxm;zkd@ qkH;jzwfvkdufwJhtwGuf taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf
‘ocifoed ;f az’ jzpfvmygw,f// ocifoed ;f az tdE, dN u a&mufrvmao;cif ‘ocifjroGi’f ukd ,m,D
wm0efay;ygw,f//
'DuGefu&ufu qkH;jzwfvkdufwJh EkdifiHa&;vrf;pOfuawmh +idrf;csrf;pGmajymif;vJa&;vrf;pOf
(ba&muf'gvrf;pOf) jzpfcyhJ gw,f// 'kw, d urBmppf}uD;t+yD; ay:ayguv f mwJh Ekid if w
H um tajctae
ajymif;vJvmr_udk ta=umif;ðy+yD; +Adwed Ef idk if rH mS wufvmwJh avbmtpk;d &eJ@ aphpyfaqG;aEG;um Arm
jynf&JΠvGwfvyfa&;ukd &,la&;jzpfygw,f//
uGefu&uf usif;yaewJh Zlvkdif (20) &ufrSmawmh awmifileJ@yJcl;=um; &xm;vrf;/ um;vrf;
wav#muf zufqpfawmfveS af &; tiftm;pkrsm;eJ@ *syefw@dk &ŒJ wku d yf aGJ wG t}uD;tus,f ay:ayguaf e
ygw,f? Zlvkdif (20) uae =o*kwfv (4) &ufae@txd jzpfyGm;cJhwJh 'DwkdufyJGawGukd ‘ppfawmif;jrpf
0Sr;f wkud yf ’GJ tjzpf ppforkid ;f rSm armfueG ;f wifc&hJ ygw,f? zufqpf*syefaygi;f (6272) a,muf usq;Hk cJh
&mrSm (3500) ausm[ f m ArmhawmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;u acsre_ ;f okwo f ifcw
hJ mjzpf+yD; *syefo@Hk yef;
aygif; (740) ukd zrf;qD;&rdw,fvkd@ r[mrdwfppfXmecsKyfukd,fwkdifu todtrSwfðy a=unmcJh&yg
w,f//
1945 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (6) &ufeJ@ (9) &ufae@rSm *syefjynf [D±kd&SD;rm; eJ@ e*gpuDòrdŒukd
tar&duefu tEkjrLAk;H }uJygw,f// vlaygi;f ode;f eJ@csD aoqk;H cJ&h +yD; wurBmvk;H wkv H y_ o
f mG ;cJ&h ygw,f?
qkAd , D ufuvnf; *syefudk =o*kwv f (8) &ufae@rmS ppfa=unm+yD; *syeford ;f xm;wJh refcsL;&D;,m;ukd
0ifa&mufwu dk cf u
dk cf yhJ gw,f// =o*kwv f (8) &ufae@rmS ppfa=unm+yD; *syeford ;f xm;wJh refcsL;&D;,m;
ukd 0ifa&mufwkdufckdufcJhygw,f? =o*kwfv (12) &ufae@rSm ppfyGJt±_H;}uD; ±_H;ae+yDjzpfwJh *syef[m
vufeufcszkd@ enf;vrf;&Sm+yDjzpfygw,f// tJ'Dae@ =o*kwfv (12) &ufae@rSmyJ Armhwyfrawmf acgif;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 43


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

aqmif (10) OD;&JŒ xkwjf yefa=unmcsuf ArmjynfrmS xGuaf y:vmcJyh gw,f/ “ArmEkid if t H wGi;f acgi;f aqmif
=ur,fh yk*~Kdvftaygif;eJ@ wkdif;oljynfom;taygif; pdwf0rf;uGJjym;jcif;r&SdyJ/ zufqpfwkdufzsufa&;
jynfolŒvGwfvyfa&;tzJG@csKyftwGif; 0ifa&mufvkyfukdifum ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;eJ@ jyefvnfxl
axmifa&;vkyfief;t&yf&yfukd wnDw!Gwfwnf; aqmif&Guf=u&ef jyif;xefpGm wkdufwGef;vkdufyg
a=umif;” vkd@ azmfjyE_d;aqmfxm;ygw,f? AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ AkdvfcsKyfvusFm/ AkdvfaZ,s/ Akdvfae0if;/
Akdvfarmifarmif/ Akdvfatmif}uD;/ AkdvfausmfaZm/ Akdvf&JxGËf/ AkdvfrSL;atmif/ AkdvftmVm0u/ wkd@ (10)
OD;u vufrSwfa&;xkd; xkwfjyefcJhwmjzpfygw,f//
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuvJ ‘vGwfvyfa&;eJ@ jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;’ ukd aºuG;a=umfcJhovkd/
wyfrLS ;}u;D (10)OD;uvJ ‘vGwv f yfa&;eJ@ jyefvnfxal xmifa&;’ ukyd J aºu;G a=umfwu dk w f eG ;f xm;ygw,f?
1945 ckEpS /f =o*kwv f (14) &ufrmS zufqpf*syefu ¹cGi;f csurf &Sv d ufeufcsa=umif; a=unm
vkdufygw,f// 'kwd,urBmppf}uD; w&m;0if+yD;qkH;oGm;yg+yD? wurBmvkH; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om jzpfoGm;
=uygw,f//
AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ wuG zwyv A[kdOD;pD;tzJGŒ0ifawG =o*kwfv (16) &uf (17) &uf
ESpf&ufwkdifwkdif tpnf;ta0;awGxkdif=uygw,f? A[ef; ‘aeol&def’ ±kyf&Sif±kHrSm vlxktpnf;ta0;
yGJ}uD;udk ‘zwyv’ u OD;pD;usif;yzkd@ qkH;jzwfvkduf=uygw,f//
1945 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (19) &ufrSm orkdif;0if ‘aeol&def’ vlxktpnf;ta0;}uD; ay:xGef;
vmcJyh gw,f? jyifqifcsed f (2) &ufom&cJah yr,fh vlxak omif;csD wufa&mufcw hJ hJ aeol&ed f vlxt k pnf;
ta0;yGJ}uD;[m +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;udk twdtvif; pdefac:vkdufwJh vlxkqENjyyGJ}uD;vnf;jzpfyg
w,f? zwyv tzGJ@csKyf OuUÏ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u obmywdvkyf+yD; zwyv taxGaxGtwGif;
a&;rSL; ocifoef;xGef;u twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf aqmif&GufcJh=uygw,f? ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif
tm;vHk;avmufeD;yg; wufa&mufcJh=uygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD0ifrsm;a&m Armjynfqdk&S,f
vpfygwED , G rf sm;yg wufwufºuGºuG wufa&mufc=hJ uygw,f? e,fcsŒJ +Adwo d #&ŒJ puULjzLtkycf sKyfa&;udk
tjyif;txef uef@uGufcJh=uygw,f? trsKd;om;tpdk;&zGJŒay;&ef/ ppftkyfcsKyfa&;&yfpJ+yD; òrdŒjytkyfcsKyf
a&;xlaxmif&ef/ trsK;d om;,m,Dtpd;k & tkycf sKyfaepOftwGi;f t&G,af &mufow l ikd ;f rJay;Edik w
f phJ epfe@J
a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf jzpfay:vmr,fh wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu tajccHOya'a&;qGJ&ef/ twWvef
wma=unmcsufudk axmufcH+yD; tJ'Da=unmcsufeJ@tnD ArmEdkifiHudk tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif vGwf
vyfwEhJ idk if t
H jzpf todtrSwðf y&ef pwJh ta&;}uD;awmif;qdck surf sm;udk yGiyhf iG v hf if;vif; az:xkwcf =hJ u
ygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh (1) ,m,Dtpd;k &zGŒJ pnf;a&;eJ@ wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmfac:a&;/ (2) wEdik if v H ;kH
trsK;d om;nD!w G af &;eJ@ (3) rsK;d cspAf rmhwyfrawmfukd todtrSwðf y+y;D ArmhwyfrawmfopfzŒJG a&;jzpfyg
w,f?
'Daeol&deftpnf;ta0;}uD;rSmyJ zwyv tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udk vuf&SdA[dkOD;pD; tzGJŒ0if (21) OD;
uae (36) OD;txd wd;k csŒJ zGŒJ pnf;vdu k yf gw,f? apmbOD;/ ref;bcdik /f b&momwd@k vkd u&iftrsK;d om;acgi;f
aqmifrsm;yg0ifc=hJ uovdk OD;atmifZaH 0/ OD;ausm&f ifw@dk vkd &cdik t f rsK;d om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;vnf; yg0ifchJ
=uygw,f? OD;baz/ OD;yk/ aysmb f , G f OD;jrwk@d vkd vusmf Edik if aH &;orm;a[mif;}uD;awGuv kd nf; xnfo h iG ;f
zGŒJ pnf; yg0ifapcJyh gw,f? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u obmywdred @f ceG ;f tzGirfh mS udk &Si;f vif;oGm;wmuawmh

44 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

“zwyvtzG@J csKyf[m ygwt D zGŒJ tpnf;r[kw/f vGwv f yfa&;udk t&,lwu kd yf 0JG ifv=kd uwJh wyfrawmf/
uGejf rLepfygw/D jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gww D @kd yl;aygi;f +yD; 1944 ckEpS /f =o*kwv f u pwifzŒJG pnf;cJjh cif;jzpf
a=umif;/ tzGŒJ csKyfo@kd vlrsK;d bmomra&G; wdik ;f oljynfom;wdik ;f yg0ifEikd af =umif;/ tzGŒJ csKyf[m b,ftzGŒJ
tpnf; b,fygwD&JŒ rlydkiftzGJŒrSr[kwfa=umif;/ wdkif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf wwdkif;jynfvHk; aoG;
pnf;zdk@ zGJŒcJhjcif;jzpfa=umif;/ tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;taejzifh r[mrdwftiftm;pkrsm;eJ@ qufoG,fcJha=umif;/
rwfv (27) &ufup+yD; zufqpfudkawmfvSefcJh=ua=umif;/ &cdkifbufrSmvnf; &cdkifawmfvSefa&;
orm;rsm;u zufqpfuakd wmfveS cf =hJ ua=umif;/ awmfveS af &;rSm ucsi/f csi;f / u&if trsK;d om;rsm;vnf;
yg0ifc=hJ ua=umif;” jzpfygw,f? wqufwnf;rSm ‘wyfrawmfe@J aysmufusm;rsm;&JŒ wdu k cf u
kd rf a_ =umifh
r[mrdww f yfrsm; &efuek u f t kd a&mufjrefcjhJ cif;jzpfa=umif;/ aemufq;kH ppfawmif;jrpf0rS ;f wav#mufrmS
&Gyf&Gyfc|efc|ef wdkufcJha=umif;/ zufqpfawmfvSefa&;wdkufyGJrsm;udk r[mrdwfrsm;u todtrSwfðy
cs;D usL;cJ&h a=umif;/ 'Dwu kd yf aJG wGa=umifh Armjynfukd vkycf siw f ikd ;f vkyvf @kd r&bl;qdw k m odvmwJt h wGuf
+Adwo d #tpd;k &u cifAsm;wd@k csi;f om nD!w G +f yDajym=u? vGwv f yfa&;vdck siaf wmif ay;r,fqw kd hJ pum;
rsK;d ajymvm&a=umif;/ urBmt h ajctae[m odyaf umif;vm+yDjzpfa=umif;’ awGuv kd nf; &Si;f jyajymqkd
cJhygw,f? zwyv taxGaxGtwGif;a&rSL; ocifoef;xGef;uvnf; 'kwd,urBmppf+yD;aemuf urBmh
+idr;f csr;f a&;wnfaqmuf&efe@J Armjynfvw G v f yfa&;udk t&,l&ef&nf&, G af =umif; ajym=um;+yD; urBmh
+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vGwfvyfaom Armjynfacgif;pOfeJ@ azmfjyxm;wJh zwyvtzGJŒcsKyf&JŒ oabmxm;
a=unmcsufudk zwf=um;cJhygw,f?
tJ'ga=umifh aeol&deftpnf;ta0;}uD;[m/ zwyv}uD;uOD;aqmif+yD; jynfolvlxkw&yf
vH;k u qef@usiu f ef@uwG v f u kd w f hJ vlxtk iftm;jyyG}J u;D jzpfovd/k Armjynfvw G v f yfa&;twGuf tvdk
tyfq;kH awmif;qdck surf sm;udk csrw S af zmfxw k f aºuG;a=umfEikd cf w hJ hJ ordik ;f 0if Ekid if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_}uD; jzpfchJ
ygw,f? zwyv tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udk,fwdkif&JŒ oabmxm;tjrifuvnf; vGwfvyfa&;udk +idrf;csrf;wJh
enf;eJ@ &&SdEdkifvdrfhr,fvdk@ ,lqar#mfvifhxm;cJhygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD 'kwd,uGef*&ufu
csrSwfvdkufwJh EdkifiHa&;vrf;pOfeJ@ qef@usifuGJjym;r_ r&Sdwm awGŒEdkifygw,f?
‘aeol&ed ’f acwf}uD;xJrmS ‘zwyv’ tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;[m tiftm;cdik rf mawmifw h if;vSwhJ trsK;d
om;wyfaygif;pk}uD; tppftrSefjzpfcJhygw,f? OuUÏtjzpf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u wm0ef,l+yD; taxG
axGtwGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf ocifoef;xGef;u aqmif&Guf&if; OD;yJhnDnD xrf;EdkifcJh=uygw,f? 'ga=umifh
tJ'aD cwfukd taemufwikd ;f owif;pmawGuawmif ‘qef;ESio hf ef;acwf’ vd@k uifyeG ;f wyfa&;om;cJ=h u
ygw,f?
aeol&ed t f pnf;ta0;}uD;&JΠt&Sed ef @J Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f / armifb h ufwefw@kd
&JΠaqG;aEG;xm;cJhcsuftquftjzpf Armhvufeufudkifwyfrsm;ta&; aqG;aEG;zdk@ r[mrdwfppfaoem
ywdcsKyfvnf;jzpf/ uufpfbD tkyfcsKyfa&;&JŒ tjrifhqkH;tm%mydkifvnf;jzpfwJh ‘armifhbwfwef’ u
‘zwyv’ ud, k pf m;vS,af wGukd olŒppfXmecsKyfwnf&&dS m uEND (oD[)kd udk vma&mufz@kd zdw=f um;vm
ygw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (4) &ufae@rSm armifhbufwefeJ@aqG;aEG;zdk@ zwyv udk,fpm;vS,f
tzGJŒtjzpf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGef;/ Akdvfae0if;/ Akdvfvusfm/ AdkvfaZ,s/ AdkvfausmfaZm/

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 45


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

Akv
d af rmifarmif/ Adv k af Zmfrif; (aemif-Adv k rf LS ;csKyf armifarmifausm0f if;)/ OD;baz/ apmbOD;}u;D / OD;!dx k eG ;f
(&cdkifAdkvf!dkxGef;) wdk@ (11) OD; uENDòrdŒudk oGm;=uygw,f? pufwifbm (6) &uf/ (7) &uf ae@awGrSm
awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? tJ'DaqG;aEG;yGJudk Armjynfppfajy;tpdk;& (qif;rvm;tpdk;&) &JŒ
t=uHay;yk*~Kdvftjzpf OD;wifxGÉfvnf; vma&mufwufygw,f? tJ'DaqG;aEG;yGJ&JŒ &v'ftjzpf
‘uENDpmcsKyf’ xGufay:vmygw,f? ‘uENDpmcsKyf’ t& rsKd;cspfArmhwyfrawmfrS vufa&G;pifwyfom;
(5200)/ t&Hwyfom; (3000)/ Adkvf (200)/ t&HAdkvf (200) udk Armjynf +Adwdo#vufatmuf&Sd
Armhwyfrawmftjzpf zGJŒpnf;zdk@ armifhbwfwefu oabmwlcJhovdk/ usefArmhvufeufudkifwyfom;
rsm;udk &Sif;vif;zsufodrf;ay;zdk@‘zwyv’ }uD;eJ@ wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifawGu oabmwlnDcJh=u
ygw,f? tiftm; (2) aomif;avmuf&w dS hJ ArmhawmfveS af &;rsK;d cspw f yfrawmf wyfzŒJG }uD;udk zsuo f rd ;f
+yD; t+rJwef; ‘Armhwyfrawmf’ tjzpf uENDpmcsKyft& ajymif;vJzGJŒpnf;&ygawmhw,f?
t+rJwef; w&m;0if Armhwyfrawmf}uD;tjzpf ajymif;vJzGJŒpnf;wJhtcg AdkvfcsKyf atmifqef;
udk,fwdkif wyfudkqufvufOD;pD;+yD; ppfa&;acgif;aqmifrvm;/ zwyv tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udkyJ OD;pD;+yD; EdkifiH
a&;acgi;f aqmifvyk rf vm;/ wckcu k ykd J jywfjywfom;om; a&G;cs,&f awmhr,ft h ajctaejzpfvmygw,f?
Armjynf&JŒtaetxm;t& EdkifiHa&;wdkufyGJawG ta&;}uD;vmawmhr,fvdk@ ,Hk=unf,lqwJhtwGuf
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m EdkifiHa&;udkyJ a&G;cs,fvdkufygw,f?
wyfuxGufr,fvdk@ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m a&G;cs,fqHk;jzwfvdkufayr,fh oludk,fwdkif OD;pD;
wnfaxmifcw hJ hJ ppfwyftay: oHa,mZOf}uD;vSwma=umihf olŒtpm;wyfukd OD;pD;Edik rf ,haf cgi;f aqmif/
wyfrawmf}uD;udk Edik if aH &;&nfreS ;f csurf eS rf eS ef @J rSerf eS u f efuef a&SŒaqmifweG ;f wifEikd rf ,fh acgi;f aqmif
udk tav;teufxm;+yD; &SmazGcJhygw,f? tJ'Dvdk t&nftcsif;jynhf0wJh acgif;aqmifrsKd;vufxJudkyJ
wyfut kd yfEcHS sicf yhJ gw,f? 'ga=umifh Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;[m yxrqH;k uGejf rLepfacgi;f aqmif ocifA[de;f
udk a&G;cs,fcJhygw,f? ocifA[def;udk wyfudkOD;pD;a&;twGuf v$Jay;zdk@ uGefjrLepfygwDudk w&m;0if
awmif;wJhtcg uGefjrLepfygwDuvnf; ygwD&JΠta&;}uD;EdkifiHa&;vkyfief;awGa=umifh v$Jray;EdkifcJhyg?
ocifA[de;f udrk ay;Edik &f if 'kw, d ol@pw d óf uu d f ‘ocifoef;az (jzL;)’ udk v$aJ y;zd@k awmif;qdjk yefygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygwu D ocifoef;azudv k nf; ray;Ekid af =umif; ta=umif;jyefcyhJ gw,f? 'ga=umifh ocifA[de;f
a&m ocifoef;azyg r&wJhtwGufa=umifh aemufqHk;rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m AkdvfvusfmudkyJ
wyfrawmfacgif;aqmiftjzpf a&G;cs,f wm0efay;vdkuf&ygw,f? Adkvfae0if;udk AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;
,H=k unfrr_ &Scd yhJ g? ppf+yD;puqd&k if Adv k af e0if;udðk zwfypfz@dk awmif Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; pOf;pm;qHjk zwfczhJ ;l
w,fqdkygw,f? EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifwcsKdŒudkawmif xkwfazmfwdkifyifcJhygw,f? twdkifyifcH&wJh EdkifiH
a&;acgif;aqmifawG (ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifAodef;wif) wdk@u uae@vdktcsdefrSm nD!Gwfa&;ta&;
}uD;a=umif; azsmif;zsajymqdck =hJ uwJt h wGuf Adv k af e0if;udk xkwzf ,fypfwhJ tqifx h d ra&mufcw hJ mvd@k
qdkygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; wyfuxGuv f u kd w f t hJ wGuf Armhwyfrawmf&ŒJ t}u;D tuJ[m Adv k v f usmf
jzpfvmcJyh gw,f? topfjyefvnfzŒJG pnf;vdu k wf hJ wyf&if;awGxrJ mS uGejf rLepfygw0D if/ qk&d ,
S vf pfygwD
0ifawG qufvuf&SdaecJhygw,f?

46 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m wyfuxGufvdkuf&ovdk wyfrawmf[mvnf; ‘zwyv’ tzGJŒcsKyf


}uD;twGif;uae w&m;0ifxGufvdkuf&ygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm uENDpmcsKyft& wyfuxGufvdkuf&ol
awG trsm;}uD;ay:cJhovdk EkdifiHa&;udkyJ aZmufcsvkyfzdk@ wyfuxGufvdkufolawGvnf; awmfawmfrsm;
rsm; ay:cJhygw,f? r=umrDrSmyJ zufqpfwdkufzsufa&;jynfolŒvGwfvyfa&; (zwyv) tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udk
vnf; zufqpfqef@usiaf &;jynfoŒl vGwv f yfa&; (zqyv) tzGŒJ csKyf}u;D vd@k trnfajymif;vJac:ygw,f?
zqyvtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;[m wrsKd;om;vHk;&JŒ wyfaygif;pktzGJŒcsKyf}uD;tjzpf &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;cJhyg
w,f? 'DtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;twGif;rSm t"dutiftm;pktjzpf wnf&Sdaewmu vuf0Jtiftm;pk jzpfcJhyg
w,f? vusfmtiftm;pkrsm;[m aemufrS us,fus,fjyef@jyef@zGifh+yD; zGJŒpnf;vdkufwJhtcgrS ygvm=u/
a&mufvm=uolawGjzpfygw,f? vuf0t J iftm;pkawGxrJ mS vnf; t"du tckid t f rmwnf&adS ewmu
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J Armjynfq&kd , S v f pfygwjD zpfygw,f? 'DygwED pS cf [ k m ‘zqyv’ tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;
twGi;f rSm twlwnf&adS eovd/k tòydit f qdik t f jzpfvnf; wnf&adS ecJ=h uygw,f? vusmf orm;Edik if aH &;
orm;a[mif;}uD;awG[m trsm;tm;jzifh EdkifiHa&;usm;ao}uD;awGjzpfygw,f?
zqyv tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;&JŒ tzGŒJ cGaJ wG[m ArmjynftES@H tjym; w&m;0ifzŒJG pnf; ay:ayguv f mcJh
ovdk uGefjrLepfygwD/ qdk&S,fvpfygwDwdk@&JŒ tzGJŒcGJawG[mvnf; a'otESH@ zGJŒpnf;ay:aygufvmcJhyg
w,f? 1945 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (29) &ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ jynfolŒtm%m*sme,f
pwifxkwfa0 xGufay:vmygw,f?
atmufwdkbmvv,frSm ppfajy;bk&ifcH qma':refprpf &efukefudk jyefa&mufvmygw,f?
wjynfv;kH u qef@usiu f ef@uu G af ewJh puULjzLpDru H ed ;f udk tpG,x f w k zf @kd óu;d pm;ygw,f? atmufwb kd m
(16) &ufae@rSm tkyfcsKyfa&;wm0efawGudk pwifvufcH aqmif&Gufygw,f? ppftkyfcsKyfa&;eJ@ ppfzuf
qdkif&mòrdŒjytkyfcsKyfa&; ±kyfodrf;vdkufwJhtwGuf uufpfbDtkyfcsKyfa&;acwf tqHk;owfoGm;ygw,f?
qma':refprpfu bk&ifcHwOD;wnf;tm%mydkifwJh puULjzLtkyfcsKyfa&;udk pwifygw,f?
ppf}uD;twGi;f ysupf ;D qH;k ±_;H cJ&h wJh +Adwod #e,fcsŒJ ydik f ukex f wk vf yk if ef;rsm;/ o,f,yl @kd aqmifa&;vkyif ef;
rsm;eJ@ pufr_vufr_vkyfief;rsm;udk t"duxm;+yD; ‘jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;’ vkyfzdk@jyifygw,f? cspfwD;
awGeJ@ ajr&Sif}uD;i,fawGuvnf; olwdk@ydkifqdkifcJhwJh ajr,mawGeJ@ v,faxmufcpyg;awGudk v,fo
rm;awGqDu twif;t=uyf jyefvnfvk,uf ,liifzdk@ tm;xkwfvm=uygw,f?
qma':refprpfu bk&ifc&H ŒJ twdik yf ifcH tr_aqmiftzGŒJ eJ@ twdik yf ifcH Oya'ðyv$waf wmfzŒJG zd@k
jyifygw,f? todtrSwfrðy&if rjzpfawmhwJh zqyv tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udk puULjzLpDrHudef;rSm yl;aygif;
aqmif&Gufzdk@ bk&ifcHu zdwf=um;aqG;aEG;ygw,f?
‘zqyv’u Ekid if jH yefvnfxal xmifa&;eJ@ w&m;r#wwJah &G;aumufyJG tjrefusi;f yEkid af &;udk
&nf&G,f+yD; tr_aqmifaumifpDrSm yg0ifzdk@ oabmwlygw,f? atmufwdkbm (19) &ufrSm bk&ifcHeJ@
oGm;a&mufawGŒqH+k yD; zqyv 0ef}uD;avmif; (11) OD;pm&if;udk ay;tyfygw,f? bk&ifcu H oabmrwl
yJ jiif;y,fvdkufygw,f? bk&ifcHeJ@ zqyvwkd@ xdyfwdkuf yÉdyuQ pwifygawmhw,f?
bk&ifcu H ‘zqyv’ wGi;f a&mufae=uwJh vusmf Ekid if aH &;orm;a[mif;}u;D rsm;udv k nf; &mxl;
jy+y;D zJx
h w
k &f if; olŒpdwóf uu
d f ‘tr_aqmifaumifp’D zGŒJ vdu k yf gw,f? ppfajy;tpd;k &tzGŒJ 0ifa[mif; qmay:
xGe;f / qmxGe;f atmifausmef @J qm*|e0f u kd /f qmruf';l *Jw@kd ukd tr_aqmifaumifp0D ifawGtjzpf cef@tyf

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 47


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

vdu k yf gw,f? zqyv uaexGu+f yD; &mxl;,l=ur,fh rsK;d cspyf gwu D OD;btke;f / OD;at;/ OD;yke@J ref;bcif
wd@k uv kd nf; aumifp0D iftjzpfcef@tyfygw,f? rsK;d cspyf gwu D yJjzpfwhJ OD;vGe;f / qif;&Jom;ygwu D OD;om
,m0wDarmifarmife@J OD;&efatmifqo kd w
l @kd tjyif r=umcifurS Armjynfjyefa&mufvmwJh ocifxeG ;f tkyf
udkvnf; tr_aqmifaumifpD0iftjzpf cef@tyfa&G;cs,fvdkufygw,f? olŒpdwfóuduf ‘Oya'ðyaumifpD’
qdkwmudkvnf; zqyv tjyifbufa&muf&Sdae=uwJh vusfmEdkifiHa&;orm;}uD;rsm;eJ@ zGJŒpnf;vdkufyg
w,f? (1945 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbm (1) &ufae@rSm cg;ydkufaqmif bk&ifhtwdkifyifcH ‘tr_aqmifaumifpD’
xGufay:vmcJh+yD; 'DZifbm (31) &ufae@rSm ykwfoif!dk ‘Oya'ðyaumifpD’ jzpfwnfvmcJhygw,f?)
1945 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (1) &ufae@rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;acgif;aqmif+yD; ‘jynfolŒ&Jabmf
wyfzGJŒ) zGJŒpnf;ay:xGef;vmygw,f? +Adwdo#vufatmufcH ‘Armhwyfrawmf’udk uENDpmcsKyft&
zGJŒpnf;&mrSm yg0ifcGifhr&wJh &Jabmfa[mif;awGudk tajccH+yD; bDtkdifat/ bD'Dat&Jabmfa[mif;awG/
awmfvSefa&;orm;awGeJ@yg pkpnf;zGJŒpnf;vdkufwm jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh 0g'tm;jzifh uGefjrLepf0g'
,Hk=unfola&m r,Hk=unfolyg yg0ifvmcJhygw,f? ppfwyfzGJŒpnf;yHktwdkif; zGJŒpnf;cJh+yD;/ ppfaoemywd
eJ@ OuUÏtjzpf Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ 'kw, d aoemywdtjzpf Adv k rf LS ;atmif jzpfygw,f? OD;pD;aumfrwD
0ifawGuawmh AdkvfxGef;vif;/ Adkvfva&mif/ Adkvfzdk;uGef;/ AdkvfAwif/ AdkvfvSat;/ Adkvfwiftkef;/
Adkvfodef;wef/ Adkvfatmifrif;/ Akdvfykwdk@wawGjzpfygw,f? jynfolŒ&JabmfwyfzGJŒxJudk &Jabmfa[mif;
awGomru/ &JabmfopfawGyg 0ifa&mufvm=uwJhtwGuf umvr=umrDtwGif;rSmyJ wyfzGJŒ0if
wodef;ausmf&SdvmcJhygw,f? ppfa&;avhusihfr_awGvkyf=uygw,f? ppf,leDazmif;awG 0wfqif=uyg
w,f? òrdŒ&GmtESH@ ay:aygufvmygw,f?
bk&ifcu H ‘jynfo@l &aJ bmf’ udk zqyv&JŒ cg;ydu k af qmifwyfzŒJG vd@k ,lqygw,f? wdik ;f jynfqyl l
atmif v_yf&Sm;aeolawGvdk@ orkwfygw,f? ,leDazmif;r0wf&/ ppfa&;ravhusifh&trdef@awGxkwf+yD;
trdef@qef@usifolawGudk zrf;qD;ta&;,lygw,f? jynfolŒ&Jabmfudk ysufatmifzsufygw,f? 'gayrJh
ysufatmifrzsufEdkifyg?
zqyv}uD;xJudk jynfolŒ&Jabmf[m tiftm;pkwcktjzpf yg0ifvmcJhygw,f? zqyv}uD;eJ@
bk&ifct H pd;k &=um; wif;rmr_awG[m wqif+h yD;wqifh wd;k vmcJyh gw,f? bk&ifc&H ŒJ ‘tr_aqmifaumifp’D
eJ@ ‘Oya'ðyaumifpD’ [m vlxk=um;=oZmr&Sdyg? zqyv }uD;&JŒ =oZmom wkd;wufjrifhrm;vmcJhyg
w,f? bk&ifcHtpdk;&[m puULjzLpDrHudef;t& jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;tay: wdk;+yD; zdESdyfwmawGvkyfyg
w,f? zqyv tzGJ@csKyf}uD;u ,m,D=um;jzwftpdk;&zJGŒpnf;a&;/ wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf ay:xGef;
a&;/ puULjzLpDrHudef;yg pD;yGm;a&;y±dk*sufrsm; zsufodrf;a&;pwJh rlvawmif;qdkcsufawGudk vlxktif
tm;eJ@zdzdpD;pD; qufvufawmif;qdk v_yf&Sm;ygw,f?
1946 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&D (21) &ufae@rmS wrsK;d om;vH;k &JŒ wyfaygi;f pk}uD;jzpfwhJ zqyv tzGŒJ csKyf
}uD;u vlxw k ode;f ausmw f ufa&mufwhJ puULjzLtkycf sKyfa&; uef@uu G yf }JG uD;udk usi;f yygw,f? 'Duef@
uGuq f ENjyyG}J uD;[m bk&ifct H yk cf sKyfa&;udo k m udik v
f y_ vf ukd Ef ikd wf mr[kw/f t*Fvefavbmtpd;k &udyk g
wkefv_yfoGm;apcJhygw,f? OuUÏ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ocifoef;xGef;wdk@
OD;pD;wJh ‘zqyv’ &JŒ yxrqHk;nDvmcHudkvnf; a&$wd*Hktv,fypP,HrSm wcrf;wem; usif;yygw,f?

48 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vlxw k ode;f ausmef @J wjynfv;kH ud, k pf m;vS,f (1200) ausmf wufa&mufwn hJ v D mcH}uD;rSm vH;k 0vGwf
vyfa&;twGuf qufvufwdkufyGJ0ifa&;/ ajr,mjy\emajz&Sif;a&;/ e,fcsJŒt&if;tESD;rsm;udk jynf
olyikd o f rd ;f a&;/ touf (18) ESpf jynfo h wl ikd ;f rJqENay;cGi&hf a&;/ wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf ac:,lusi;f y
Ekid af &; pwJh ta&;}uD;qH;k jzwfcsuaf wG csrw S Ef ikd cf =hJ uygw,f// 'Dnv D mcH}uD;rSmyJ Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk
wrsKd;om;vHk;&JŒacgif;aqmif OuUÏtjzpf wifajr‡mufcJhygw,f?
1946 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&DvrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[dkaumfrDwDtpnf;ta0; usif;yyg
w,f? +idrf;csrf;pGmajymif;vJa&;jzpfwJh ‘ba&muf'g0g'’ udk w&m;0ify,fzsufypfvdkuf=uygw,f//
ba&muf'g0g'trSm;/ ygwDwGif;a&mufvmcJhykHZmpfjrpfudk/ &SmazGazmfxkwfokH;oyfa0zef=u&if;u/
ud, k w f ikd f wufwufºuGºuG vufcjH zef@cscd o hJ wl OD;jzpfcw hJ hJ ocifp;kd [m wjcm;olrsm;tay:om jypfwif
±_wcf sa0zef+y;D *d% k ;f cGx
J u G o f mG ;ygw,f? uGejf rLepfygwD (Armjynf) qkw d hJ ‘tvHeyD gw’D udk cG+J y;D xlaxmif
vdkufygw,f? ocifpdk;eJ@twl ocifwifjr/ a':apmjr pwJh A[kdaumfrDwD0if (7) OD; ygoGm;ygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygwD uGrJ oGm;a&;twGuf ocifA[de;f ud, k wf ikd f twefwefóud;pm;cJah o;ayr,fh ocifp;kd wd@k
u “tacsmiform;awGe@J jcm;em;r_onf t}u;D qH;k aomawmfveS af &;vkyif ef;jzpfonf?” vd@k aºu;G a=umf
+yD; cGJxGufoGm;ygw,f? tvHeDygwDudk ‘zqyv’ uvnf; vufcHjcif;r&SdwJhtwGuf tvHeDtpk0if
rsm;[m zqyv}uD;&J@ tjyifbufukd a&muf&o dS mG ;ygw,f? tvHeyD gw[ D m “tvHeu D u
kd ikd +f yD; wyfO;D
a&SŒuxGuu f m &Gy&f yG cf |ecf |ef awmfveS af &;wdu k yf aJG wGukd qifEjJG y&r,f” qdw k hJ tmabmfe@J twl vuf0J
pGef;v_yf&Sm;r_awGudk tqufrjywf azmfaqmifygawmhw,f?
1946 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&v D (28) &ufae@rmS bk&ifc&H ŒJ ‘Oya'ðyaumifp’D tpnf; ta0;usi;f y
ygw,f? bk&ifcHu vuf!dk;xkd; cef@tyfxm;wJh Oya'ðyaumifpD0iftm;vHk;vdkvdk[m ‘zqyv’
qef@usifa&;orm;awGjzpf=u+yD; ‘zqyv’ tzGJŒcsKyfudk tjyif;txef a0zefwdkufcdkuf=uygw,f?
bk&ifcHudk,fwdkifuvnf; zqyvudk òzdcGJzdk@ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk ppftwGif;vlowfr_eJ@
zrf;qD;ta&;,lzdk@ uvdrfuuspf^m%feJ@ =uHpnftm;xkwfvmygw,f? 'Dt=uH,kwfudk vufawGŒ
taumiftxnfazmfEdkifa&;twGuf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr,fh e,fcsJŒtvdkus yk*~KdvfwOD;vnf; ay:
aygufvmygw,f? tJ'Dyk*~Kdvfuawmh ‘ocifxGef;tkyf’ ygyJ?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ twl ppfcsDcJhwJh ocifxGef;tkyf[m AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk oxHkc±dkif
aygifòrdŒe,f oJjzLukef;aus;&Gm ukvm;ol}uD;owfcJhr_eJ@ ta&;,lzdk@ bk&ifcHxHwifjyygw,f? Oya'ðy
aumifprD mS vnf; bk&ifcu H kd wdu k w f eG ;f wJth jyif w&m;±H;k wif ppfaq;ta&;,lr,fq&kd if rsujf rifouf
aotjzpf oludk,fwkdif oufaocHygr,fvdk@ ,kwf,kwfrmrm tqdkðyvmcJhygw,f? t*Fvdyfbk&ifcH&JŒ
trsKd;om;pDrHudef;0ef}uD;jzpfwJh ocifxGef;tkyf&JŒ e,fcsJŒtvdkus trsKd;om;opPmazmufvkyf&yf[m
wjynfvHk;udk tHh=ooGm;apcJhygw,f?
ocifoef;xGef;u AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;bufrS jywfjywfom;om;&yfwnfum ppftwGif;u
ocifxeG ;f tkyf ud, k wf ikd af &;cJw h hJ ‘u|Eykf . f pGe@f pm;cef;’ pmtkyx f u J qDavsm&f mtcef;awGukd t*Fvyd f
bmomjyefqkd+yD; +Adwdo#ygvDrefu ygvDreftrwf '±dkif;bwf (Tom Driberg) wdk@qD ydk@vdkufygw,f?
ocifxeG ;f tkyu f ,kd wf ikd f ppfajrjyifrmS / b,fvkd ud, k xf v d ufa&muf vkyu f ikd cf whJ ,fqw kd mawG/ tm;yg;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 49


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

w& pmtkyfxJ a&;oGif;azmfjyxm;cJhcsufawGudk xkwfE_wf+yD; wdwdusus bmomjyefqdkay;vdkufwm


jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh ‘ocifxeG ;f tky&f ŒJ ppftwGi;f &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfrr_ sm;a=umifh olŒudk tr_aqmif
aumifpDu xkwfy,fypfr,fvm;’ vdk@ tudk;tum;ðy ar;EkdifcJhw,fqkdygw,f?
aemufq;kH rSm Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk zrf;qD;ta&;,lr,fq&kd if jynfow l &yfv;kH tHºk uGvmrSm/
tHºk uGvmcJ&h if tHºk uGru _ Ekd rdS ef if;ypfz@kd tdE, dN wyfawGuv kd nf; ac:,lv@kd r&Edik rf mS wGucf surf +d yD;/ bk&ifcH
[m t=uHtpnfukd vufav#mv h u
kd &f ygw,f? bk&ifc&H ŒJ t=uH,w k f ±_;H edrohf mG ;&ovdk ocifxeG ;f tkyf
vnf; tJ'Dtcsdefup+yD; &moufyef EkdifiHa&;aooGm;&ygawmhw,f? vlxkcsOfzwf jzpfoGm;&ygawmh
w,f?
1946/ arv (18) &ufae@rSm tif;pdefc±dkif ‘xef;wyifta&;tcif;’ }uD;ay:aygufvmyg
w,f? ‘jynfol@&Jabmf’ wcsKdŒ tzrf;cH&wmudk rauseyfwJhtwGuf jynfol@&Jabmfrsm;/ awmifol
v,form;rsm;u pDwef;vSnfhvnf qENjy=uwmudk ykvdyfu aoewfeJ@ ypfcwfòzdcGif;cJhygw,f?
v,form;}uD; (4) OD; aoewfxdrSef aoqHk;cJh&wJhtwGuf vlxktHkºuGr_}uD; jzpfvmcJhygw,f?
zqyvtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;u bk&ifcHtpdk;&&JŒ vkyf&yfudk tjyif;txef uef@uGuf±_wfcswJhtjyif
pHpk rf;a&;tzGŒJ wckvnf; apv$wyf gw,f? uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ jynfo@l tm%m*sme,fuvnf; ‘xef;wyif
aoewfypfr_ ta&;tcif;}uD;’ ta=umif; jyif;jyif;xefxef uef@uGufa&;om;ygw,f? &efukefvlxk
}uD;[m armfawmf,mOfor*~u um;rsm;eJ@ xef;wyifudk csDwufoGm;a&muf+yD; tiftm;jy=uyg
w,f?
vlwef;pm;toD;oD;&JŒ rauseyfcsufawG 'D*&Djrifhoxuf jrifhvmygw,f? v,form;rsm;&JŒ
tiwfjy\emajz&Sif;a&;/ vufikwfv,fajrvufrvGwfa&;/ trawmfa=u;&&Sda&;/ t&m&Sdqdk;
ol}uD;qdk;wdk@&JŒ !‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_u vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJawG ay:aygufvmygw,f?
rcHr&yfEdkifwJh a'oawGrSmqdk&if &&mvufeuf pGJudkifykefuefr_awGawmif ay:aygufvmcJhyg
w,f? ‘&ckdifolykef’ eJ@ ysOf;rem;e,frSm ‘v,fa0;v,form;olykef}uD;’ ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f?
+Adwo d #avabmtpd;k &[m 0rf;udu k af ew,fqw kd hJ qma':refprpfukd t*Fvef jyefac:vdu k &f
+yD; ArmtrsKd;om;acgif;aqmifawGeJ@ tqifajyEdkifr,fh bk&ifcHopfudk &SmazGa&G;cs,f&ygawmhw,f?
bk&ifco H pf rcef@Eikd rf D ‘qm[ife&DEu d_ ’f qdo k ul kd acwWb&k ifct H jzpfvw $ yf gw,f? zqyvtzGŒJ }uD;&JŒ
=oZm[m vlxk=um;rSm wufaeygw,f? e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;rSm tajccHpdwf"mwfcsif; wlnDae=uay
r,fh zqyvwGi;f &Sd uGejf rLepf-qk&d , S v f pfawG&ŒJ tm;òydirf e_ @J tjrifqikd &f m oabmxm;qkid &f m uGjJ ym;
r_awGuawmh xkeJ@xnfeJ@ jzpfay:vmaeygw,f? zqyv qdkwJh wyfaygif;pkqdkif;bkwfwckwnf;
atmufrSmjzpfayr,fh t"du ygwD}uD;ESpfckjzpfwJh uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ qdk&S,fvpfygwD[m olŒpnf;±Hk;a&;
eJ@ol/ olŒtiftm;eJ@olvnf; tòydiftqdkif wnf&Sdae=uygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ OD;aqmifr_
atmufrSm vlwef;pm;tvdkufqdkif&m or*~awG&Sdae=uovdk qdk&S,fvpfygwDatmufrSmvnf;
vlwef;pm;tvdkuf zGJŒpnf;xm;wJh ‘tpnf;t±Hk;’ awG pifòydifwnf&Sdaeygw,f? aemufxyf zqyv
tzGJŒcsKyftwGif;rSm ta&;}uD;tiftm;pkwcktjzpf jzpfwnfyg0ifvmwmuawmh 1945 ck 'DZifbm
(1) &ufae@rSmrS pwifzGJŒpnf;vdkufwJh jynfolŒ&JabmfwyfzGJŒjzpfygw,f?

50 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ qkd&S,fvpfygwD/ jynfolŒ&Jabmf tzGJŒ (3)


zGŒJ &J@ nD!w G af &;udk tav;xm;cJyh gw,f? 'D (3) zGŒJ udk tajcwnf+yD; ‘vuf0n J !
D wG af &;’ udk tcdik t f
rmzGJŒpnf;vdkcJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh taumiftxnfray:cJhyg?
zqyvtzGŒJ csKy}f u;D twGi;f rSm ygwt D zGŒJ tpnf;rsm;tjyif OD;Ek/ OD;baz/ 'D;'kwOf ;D bcsK/d [oFmw
OD;jr/ OD;wifxGÉfwdk@vdk xif&Sm;wJh woD;yk*~vrsm;vnf; ta&;}uD;ae&mawGrSm yg0ifae&m&xm;yg
w,f? 1946 ckESpf pufwifbmvrSm ordkif;0if taxGaxGoydwf}uD; pwifygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@
qkd&S,fvpfawGu oydwfudkqdkif;iHxm;csifwJh oabmt,ltq&Sdygw,f? wzufu vufeufpk
aqmif;jyifqif+yD;rS taxGaxGoydwf}uD;udk ykvdyfoydwftxd jr‡ifhwifqifE$Jvdkw,fvdk@ ta=umif;jy
ygw,f?
uGejf rLepfawGu vufeufpak qmif;+yD;atmif apmifzh rkd vd/k taxGaxGoydw}f uD;udk euf±id_ ;f ap
&r,f? ykvdyfoydwftxdomru ppfwyfoydwftxd jr‡ifhoGm;&r,fvdk@ awmif;qdkaºuG;a=umfygw,f?
v,form;ta&;rSmvnf; OD;ausm+f ird ;f / ocifwif wd@k u awmifov l ,form;awG awmif;qdck su&f atmif/
v,f,mrvkyfyJ oydwfarSmuf&r,fqdkygw,f? uGefjrLepfawGu awmif;qkdcsuftwdkif; vufikwf
vuf&if; v,ftwif;0ifxGefa&; ajr&Siftdrf0dkif;a&;/ y±kd*sufqefawGvk,l+yD; tiwfjy\em ajz&Sif;
a&;udk ‘wdkufyGJvrf;pOf’ tjzpf wifygw,f? vlxkwdkufyGJvrf;pOfqdkwmudk csrSwfygw,f?
pufwifbmv (5) &ufrSm acwftqufquf udkvdkeDvufyg;aptac:cH toHk;awmfcHcJh&wJh
ykvdyfrsm;uawmif oydwfarSmuf+yD; vlxkwdkufyGJtwGif; yg0ifvmygw,f? ykvdyfoydwf}uD; atmif
jrifpGmay:vmcJhygw,f? pufwifbm (23) &ufrSm OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;bazwdk@ wm;qD;aewJh=um;xJu
tr_xrf;aygif;pHk oydwf}uD; xyfrHxGufay:vmygw,f? pufwifbmwvvHk; oydwfawG wvHk;+yD;w
vHk; tqufrjywf ay:aygufcJhygw,f? ausmif;om;awGuvnf; oydwfarSmuf+yD; ppfulay;=uyg
w,f? taxGaxGoydwf}uD;[m ordkif;wGifavmufatmif }uD;us,fcJhovdk udkvdkeD,E W&m;}uD;[m
vnf; wcgwnf;&yfpJoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
a':refprpfae&mrSm wm0ef,lzdk@ bk&ifcHtopftjzpf qm[l;bwf&ef@ Armjynf a&mufvm
wJhtcg pufwifbm taxGaxGoydwf}uD;eJ@ óudqdk+yD;om;jzpfoGm;ygw,f? qm[l;bwf&ef[m
zqyv &JΠt&Sdef=oZmudk wGufcsufrd+yD;jzpfovdk/ taxGaxGoydwf}uD;&JΠ'Dv_dif;t[kefa=umifhyg
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twdik yf ifcH tr_aqmifaumifpo D pf zGŒJ pnf;a&;udk tay;t,lvyk yf gw,f? tr_aqmifaumifpaD [mif;
udk zsufodrf;ypf+yD; tr_aqmifaumifpDopfrSm zqyv udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifa&; zdwf=um;ygw,f?
t&if zqyv u awmif;qdkcJhwJh twdkifyifcH0ef}uD; (11) ae&mtxd ray;ayr,fh zqyv OuUÏ
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk twdkifyifcH tr_aqmiftzGJŒrSm 'kwd,OuUÏtjzpf ay;ygw,f? umuG,fa&;eJ@
jynfyqufoG,fa&;XmeawGudkvnf; OD;pD;zdk@ay;ygw,f? bk&ifcH&JŒoabmeJ@ zqyv qef@usifa&;
Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;twGi;f u yk*K~ v d t f csKŒd udv k nf; zqyveJ@ tay;t,lvyk +f yD; xnfo h iG ;f zGŒJ pnf;
apygw,f? zqyv acgi;f aqmifawGu taxGaxGoydw}f uD;udk jyefveS &f iS ;f vif;ay;zd@k wm0ef,cl &hJ yg
w,f? qm[l;bwf&ef&JŒ ajz&Sif;yHk[m =oZmt&SdqHk; zqyvtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udkvnf; auseyfatmif
tqifah e&mrSet f wdik ;f todtrSwðf yvdu k +f yD; jzpfomG ;ovd/k +Adwod #tpd;k & rajz&Si;f Edik w
f hJ taxGaxG

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 51


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

oydwf}uD;udkvnf; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;acgif;aqmifwJh zqyv}uD;eJ@ acgif;wnfay;vdkuf+yD;om;jzpf


oGm;ygw,f?
tr_aqmifaumifpDwGif; 0ifa&; oabmwl+yD;wJhtcg zqyvtzGJŒ}uD;twGif; ae&mcGJa0r_
jy\em ay:vmygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu uGefjrLepfESpfa,muf/ qdk&S,fvpfESpfa,muf/ AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;eJ@ =um;wa,mufjzpfa&; tqdkðyygw,f? (uGefjrLepf ESpfa,mufjzpf&if ocifodef;azeJ@
ocifoef;xGef;0ifa&;vdk@ qdkygw,f?) OD;ausmf+idrf; wkd@u uGefjrLepfwa,muf/ qdk&S,fvpfwa,muf/
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ =um;wa,mufvdk@ tqdkðy+yD; zsufvdkufygw,f? (&nf&G,fcsufu tpdk;&tzGJŒ
twGif; uGefjrLepfawG tm;}uD;rvmEdkifa&;vdk@qdkygw,f)? uGefjrLepfygwDuzqyv =um;jzwftpdk;&
zGJŒEkdifa&;omt"du/ uGefjrLepfESpfa,muf 0ef}uD;jzpfa&;[m t"dur[kwfqkdwJh tjrifeJ@tav#mhay;
vdu k w f ,fqydk gw,f? ocifoed ;f azudk wm0efay;vdu k yf gw,f? tJ't D csed w
f ek ;f u ocifoef;xGe;f [m
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JΠtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;jzpfaeyg+yD? ygwDtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;wm0ef
udk zdzpd ;D pD; aqmif&u G Ef ikd zf @kd &nf&,
G +f yD; zqyv taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;wm0efu E_wx f u
G v f u kd v
f @kd
vpfvyfvmwJh zqyv taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;ae&mtwGuf ocifodef;azeJ@ OD;ausmf+idrf; ,SOfòydif
ta&G;cH=u&if; OD;ausm+f idr;f u tEkid &f um zqyvtaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; jzpfaeyg+yD? ocifoed ;f az
u zqyv&JΠwGJzuftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; jzpfygw,f?
pufwifbm (27) &ufrmS bk&ifct H r_aqmifaumifpo D pf (tpd;k &tzGŒJ opf) w&m;0if zGŒJ pnf;
ay:aygufvmygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ ocifjr/ ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh)/ OD;baz/ ref;bcdkif/
OD;atmifZaH 0/ qmarmif}u;D / OD;wifxÉG w f @kd yg0if=uygw,f? uGejf rLepfygwu D ocifoed ;f az (ode;f azjrif)h
[m v,f,meJ@opfawm0ef}uD; jzpfvmygw,f? Ekd0ifbmrSm ocifApdef/ *VKefOD;apm/ aysmfbG,fOD;jr/
apmbOD;}uD;wd@k xyfryH g0ifvmygw,f? Ekid if jH cm;u jyefvnfa&mufvm=uwJh ocifApdeef @J *VKefO;D apm
wdk@[m bk&ifcHcef@awGjzpf=uygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m olŒt&SdefeJ@ taxGaxGoydwf}uD;udk
jyefveS af tmifvyk &f &if; tcuftcJawG óuH&ovdk wnf&adS e+yD;jzpfwhJ ‘v,form;olyek ’f awG tay:
vnf; t=urf;zufESdyfuGyf&r_awGvkyf&&if;/ a0zefvuf!dk;xdk;p&mawG ay:aygufvmcJh&ygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwDu AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tay: a0zefwmawG ay:xGufvmygw,f? a0zefcsuf
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bk&ifcH tr_aqmiftpd;k &tzGŒJ &JŒ udik w f , G af jz&Si;f yHu
k dk ‘jynfoŒl tm%m*sme,f’ uae ‘oydwt f a&;
awmfyHkESifh e,fcsJŒorm;wdk@. rsufvSnfhjyyGJ}uD;’ vdk@ a&;om;a0zefygw,f?
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uGejf rLepfygw[ D m zqyv =um;jzwftpd;k &udk axmufcaH e&muae qefusiw f vhJ rf;pOfukd ul;ajymif;
vmwm[m &mxl;r&wJh ocifoef;xGe;f &JΠya,m*vd@k qk&d , S v
f pfawGu pGypf =JG uygw,f? wygww D nf;
zGJŒpnf;&ef óud;pm;=uwkef;u ‘ausmf+idrf;udkawmhvufrcHEdkif’ vdk@ jiif;y,fjcif;cHcJh&wJh OD;ausmf+idrf;u
“uGejf rLepfawG[m Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;udak wmif opPmazmuftjzpf xdyg;wdu k cf ukd af e=u+yD; zqyv
tpd;k &udòk zcd sz@kd óu;d pm;ae+yjD zpfa=umif; 'ga=umifh 'D&efudk ckuwnf;u zsupf ;D ypfz@kd vakd =umif;” zqyv
wGif;rSm wdwdvif;vif;ajymqdkvmygw,f? wufwufºuGºuGvnf; tm;xkwfjyifqifygw,f? “rvdk

52 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vm;tyfwJh om;i,fudkr&&Sdzdk@ udk,f0efaqmifaepOftwGif;rSmudk ae@aphvaphtxd }uD;&ifhcGifhrðyyJ


zsucf s&r,f? om;av#musap&r,f” qdw k hJ t,ltq&Sw d hJ OD;ausm+f idr;f [m vufO;D r_&&dS dS ajcvSr;f vSr;f
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ru Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;udk e,fcsŒJ eJ@y;l aygi;f oGm;ol opPmazmufyrm olw@kd *sme,fu a&;om;ajymqdk
aewm[m tvGe}f uD;rm;wJt h jypfjzpfwt hJ wGuf zqyv tvkyt f r_aqmiftzGŒJ u ta&;,l&r,f”
vd@k wifjyygw,f? OD;bazeJ@ 'D;'kwOf ;D bcsKw d @kd u OD;ausm+f ird ;f udk axmufc=H uygw,f? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;
udk,fwdkifuawmh =um;ujzefajzvdkygw,f?
‘jynfo@l tm%myg a&;om;csuaf wGukd ±kyo f rd ;f +yD; awmif;yef&r,f’ vd@k zqyv tvkyt f r_
aqmiftzGJŒu uGefjrLepfygwDudk awmif;qdkygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu r±kyfodrf;yg? rawmif;yefyg?
'kwd,uGef*&ufuwnf;u twdtvif;azmfjya=unmxm;cJhzl;+yD; ‘ygwD oD;jcm;xlaxmif
wnf&cdS iG &hf jdS cif;’ qdwk hJ tajccHru
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udk xkwfy,fa=umif; a=unmvdkufygw,f?
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wdkif;jynf&JŒ trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ pwifòydtufjcif;jzpfygw,f?
ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh) vnf; =um;jzwftpdk;&tzGJŒu E_wfxGufvdkuf&ygw,f? +Adwdo#
tpd;k &[m zqyv udk tm%mwd;k wd;k +yD; ay;vmygw,f? bk&ifc&H ŒJ tr_aqmifaumifpD oabmuae
uufbdeufoabm ajymif;vJay;vmygw,f? wjznf;jznf; ‘zqyv =um;jzwftpdk;&’ ozG,f
jzpfvmygw,f? 'k OuUÏ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m 0ef}uD;csKyfoabmjzpfvmcJhygw,f? qdk&S,fvpf
OD;ausmf+idrf;[mvnf; jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; jzpfvmygw,f?
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w,f? ae&mwum wGifus,fvmygw,f? zqyvxJu uGefjrLepfawGudk xkwfy,fypfvdkufwJh
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tay: rauseyfcsuaf wGvnf; jyif;xefvmygw,f? jynfoŒl &Jabmfvnf; ESpyf ikd ;f uGo J mG ;&ygawmhw,f?
Akv
d of ed ;f wef/ Adv k af tmifrif;wd@k acgi;f aqmifwt hJ ydik ;f u wyfet D jzpfcaJG xmifygw,f? wyfeeD @J jynfoŒl
&Jabmf pifòydifjzpfvm=uygw,f? ysOf;rem;bufrSm t&ifuwnf;u wnf&Sdae+yD;jzpfwJh ‘v,form;
wyfrsm;’ eJ@ wyfeDaygif;+yD; wyfeDtjzpf yl;aygif;zGJŒpnf;vdkufygw,f? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if Adkvfwm&m
wdk@[m wyfeDjzpfvmygw,f? wyfeDeJ@ jynfol@&Jabmf[mvJ &efolozG,f jzpfvm=uygw,f?
ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;rSm a&SŒwef;ta&mufqHk;jzpfwJh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m 1946 ckESpf
azazmf0g&DvxJrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ tvHeDygwDtjzpf (2) ydkif;uGJ oGm;cJh&ovdk/ atmufwdk
bm (10) &ufae@rSm zqyv}uD;xJuae uGefjrLepfygwDudk xkwfy,fvdkufjcif;tm;jzifh zqyv

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 53


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

}uD;vnf; pwifòyduGJvmcJh&ygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuae tvHeDygwDtjzpf cGJxGufr_a=umifh


ygwDtuGJ pdwfxdcdkufcJh&wJh ocifA[def;[m usef;rma&;qdk;0g;vm+yD; rE Wav; rdb&yfxH jyefaq;0g;
ukocHae&wke;f / aq;±Hw k uf ae&wke;f / aygirf ek @f xyk v f mwJh owif;pmjzwfyikd ;f xJu ‘uGejf rLepfygwu D kd
zqyv}uD;xJu xkwfy,fvdkufjcif;’ owif; trSwfrxif zwfrdoGm;&mu t}uD;tus,f pdwfxd
cdu
k of mG ;&&Smygw,f? tJ'o D wif;udk odvu kd &f wm[m Ek0d ifbm (19) &ufae@yg? Ek0d ifbm (20) &ufae@
rSm Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; rE aW v;a&mufvm+yD; ocifA[de;f udk vlrrmvm=unfrh ,fqw kd ohJ wif; ocif
A[de;f odvu kd &f wJt h cg “igoŒl udrk awGŒcsib f ;l ? vmcGirhf ay;yge@J ” vd@k olŒZeD;udk wzGzaG jym&if; wnvH;k
rtdyaf wmhy/J pum;rajymawmhyJ jyif;jyif;xefxef a=uuGeJ musn;f cHpm;oGm;&if; Ek0d ifbm (20) &uf
t±k%w f ufrmS uG,v f eG qf ;kH yg;oGm;&&Smygw,f? (20) &ufae@ Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef; a&mufvmwJt h cg
tavmif;udyk J jrifciG &hf ygawmhw,f? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;ud, k w f ikd v
f nf; a=ua=uuGu J JG cHpm;oGm;cJ&h yg
w,f?
uGejf rLepf-qd&k , S v f pf yÉdyuQ[m qd&k , S v
f pfrsm;u zqyvqdw k hJ pnf;±H;k a&; vufeufenf;
eJ@a&m zqyv =um;jzwftpdk;&qdkwJh tm%mvufeufenf;eJ@a&m toHk;ðy wdkufcdkufwJhtwGuf
‘zqyv-uGefjrLepf’ yÉdyuQtoGif ay:vGifcJh&ygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwDu olwdk@&JΠrlv&Sd+yD; rltwdkif; v,form;xGefwHk;wdkufyGJ/ qefvkyGJ/ tvkyf
orm; oydww f ukd yf aJG wGukd oufqikd &f m or*~awGuae t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &;tjzpf azmfxw k f
qifE$Jygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;u jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; tm%mudkoHk;+yD; òzdzsuf[ef@wm;ESdyfuGyfygw,f?
e,fcsJŒorm;&JŒ pmtkyfpifacsmif=um;uae ‘yDtdkyDat (POPA) ac: jynfolŒ+idrf0yfydjym;r_ xdef;odrf;
a&;tufOya' yk'rf (5) udk zqyv pm;yGaJ y:,lvm+y;D / vufeufozG,f toH;k ðycJyh gw,f? OD;ausm+f ird ;f
eJ@ yk'fr (5) [m cGJr&atmif jzpfvmygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkif bk&ifcH&JŒ tr_aqmifaumifpD tpdk;&tzGJŒtwGif; 0ifoGm;&wJh
twGuf zqyv XmecsKyfudk ocifEku OD;pD;tkyfcsKyfaeygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;[m ðryfae+yD; vGwfvyf
a&;wdkufyGJ0ifzdk@ vufaES;ae&if EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifr_ tqifhae&m uGefjrLepfvufxJ a&mufoGm;Edkif
w,f? vGwv f yfa&;udk uGejf rLepfawGu ,lay;wmrjzpfyJ zqyv u ,lay;wmom jzpfcsiw f ,fqw kd hJ
oabmxm;tjrifeJ@ OD;Eku OD;ausmf+idrf;eJ@aygif;+yD; AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;qD tqdkwckwifygw,f? tJ'D
tqdkuawmh wESpftwGif; ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk t*Fvdyfu a=unmay;zdk@/ a=unmray;&if
zqyv ud, k pf m;vS,af wG tpd;k &tzGŒJ wGi;f uae E_wx f u
G +f y;D tEkenf;eJ@ tm%mzDqefz@kd jzpfygw,f?
+Adwo d #e,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &; vGwv f yfa&;twGuf OD;wnfóud;yrf;wJah e&mrSm Edik if aH &;tiftm;
pkawG=um;xJrmS 1946 ckEpS /f atmufwb kd mvup+yD; t,ltqESp&f yf vrf;pOfEpS &f yftjzpf uGjJ ym;pGm
jzpfwnfay:ayguv f mcJyh gw,f? zqyvtzGŒJ csKyf}uD;&JŒ ‘aygi;f vnf;aygi;f rnf/ wdu k v f nf;wku d rf nf’
udkvdkeDpepf qef@usifa&;vrf;pOfeJ@ uGefjrLepfwdk@&JŒ “udkvdkeDorm;rsm;udk vlxkvlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_
rsm;/ wdu k yf rJG sm;/ aemufq;kH rv$rJ a&Smifomjzpfvmv#if vufeufuikd w f u kd yf rJG sm;jzifh qef@usiw f ukd cf u kd f
&rnf” qdkwJh udkvdkeDpepfqef@usifa&;wdkufyGJvrf;pOfjzpfygw,f? 'Dvrf;pOfESpf&yf tjrifESpf&yf&JŒ
yËdyuQ[m yk*~Kdvfa&;yËdyuQ/ tzGJ@tpnf;csif;qdkif&m tòydiftqdkif yËdyuQawGeJ@twl jyif;xefonf;
xefvmcJhygw,f?

54 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef;acgi;f aqmifwhJ zqyv tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;[m awmif;qdck suf (3) &yfukd bk&ifcH
uaewqifh +Adwdo#tpdk;&qD Edk0ifbmvxJrSmyJ ay;ydk@vdkufygw,f? awmif;qdkcsuf (3) &yfuawmh
(1) vuf&Sdtr_aqmiftzGJŒudk vHk;0tm%m&Sdaom =um;jzwftpdk;&tjzpf ajymif;vJay;&rnf? (2)
wdkif;ðyjynfðy v$wfawmfzGJŒpnf;a&;twGuf a&G;aumufyGJ}uD; usif;y&rnf? (3) Armjynftm; vHk;0
vGwv f yfaom wdik ;f jynftjzpf wESpt f wGi;f jzpfap&rnf[k a=unmay;&rnfqw kd mjzpfygw,f? 1947
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D (31) &ufae@ aemufqHk;xm;+yD; a=unmay;&ef rvdkufavsmygu tpdk;&tzGJŒrS E_wf
xGufr,fvdk@vnf; azmfjyvdkufygw,f?
zqyv&JŒ wESpt f wGi;f vGwv f yfa&;aºuG;a=umfoeH @J vGwv f yfa&;wku d yf tJG wGuf uGejf rLepf
ygwDu axmufcHcJhygw,f? yËdyuQawG uGJvGJr_awG=um;xJuae axmufcHvdkufwmjzpfygw,f?
1946/ 'DZifbmrSm +Adwdo#tpdk;&u Armtpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒudk vef'efvma&muf
aqG;aEG;zdk@ zdwf=um;&ygw,f? 'DZifbm (20) &ufrSm eef;&if0eftufwvDu “u|Ekfyfwdk@onf "eo
[m,e,ftwGif;Y raevdkolrsm;tm; ae&rnf[krwm;vdkyg? Armjynfolwdk@onf olwdk@qENt&
olw@kd . aemifa&;udk qH;k jzwfprD =H u&efjzpfygonf?” vd@k ygvrD efatmufvw $ af wmfrmS a=unmay;&yg
w,f?
vef'efukd roGm;cif Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u jynfo/l zqyv/ wyfrawmfw@kd ukd toif&h =dS uyg/
pnf;vH;k nD!w G =f uygv@kd rSm=um;owday;ygw,f? jynfoŒl &Jabmfuv kd nf; toifjh yifz@kd rSm=um;xm;cJh
ygw,f? 1947 Zefe0g&D (2) &ufae@rmS Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;wd@k tzGŒJ tdE, dN jynf e,l;a'vDukd av,mOf
eJ@ pwifc&D;xGufygw,f? e,l;a'vDrSm owif;pmq&mawGu “ArmhvGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_rSm tEk
enf;oHk;rvm;/ t=urf;enf;oHk;rvm;” ar;=uygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfu “tajctaet&yJ/ u|efawmfwdk@
uawmh vufraES;ygb;l ” vd@k ajzcJyh gw,f? Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef; acgi;f aqmifwhJ ud, k pf m;vS,t f zGŒJ rSm
yg0ifolawGuawmh/ ocifjr/ OD;baz/ OD;wifxGËf/ ocifApdefeJ@ *ÏKefOD;apmwdk@jzpfygw,f? ocifApdefeJ@
*ÏKefOD;apm[m bk&ifcHu a&G;cs,fv$wfwmjzpfygw,f? t=uHay;tjzpf vdkufygoGm;=uolawGu
awmh OD;ausmf+idrf;/ Akdvfp}uFm/ ocifcspf (a';'&J)/ OD;b&if rdwˆDvmwkd@ jzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ OD;wnfcsuftwGuf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuvnf; 1947 ckESpf
Zefe0g&v D xJrmS yJ ‘aemufq;kH wdu k yf vJG rf;pOf’ udck srw S +f y;D ‘zqyv uGejf rLepf nD!w G af &;wnfaqmuf
oGm;&ef’ qH;k jzwfvu kd yf gw,f? e,fcsŒJ orm;udk t+y;D wdik f wdu k x
f wk af &;twGuf jyifqifygw,f? e,fcsŒJ
orm;wdu k x f wk af &;twGuf vGwv f yfa&;v_y&f mS ;r_reS o f r#ukd yl;aygi;f tm;jznfzh @kd oabmxm; csrw S f
ygw,f?
Zefe0g&D (9) &ufae@rmS vef'efukd Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;wd@k a&mufygw,f? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;
wdk@&JŒ vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf; ta&;qdkr_udk tm;jznfhbdk@ ArmjynfwGif;uae vGwfvyfa&;eJ@ e,fcsJŒqef@
usifa&; tiftm;jyyGJ}uD; usif;yqifEGJygw,f? (10) &ufae@rSm v,form;ae@/ (11) &ufae@rSm
jynfolŒ&Jabmfae@/ (12) &ufae@rSm vcpm; tr_xrf;aygif;pHkae@/ (13) &ufae@ trsKd;orD;ae@/ (14)
&ufae@ tvkyo f rm;ae@/ (15) &ufae@ ausmif;om;ae@/ (16) &ufae@ zqyv ae@ pojzifh ae@tvdu k f
cGJ+yD; qENjy tiftm;jyv_yf&Sm;=uygw,f? tJ'Dv_yf&Sm;r_awGxJrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuvnf;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 55


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

yl;aygif;tm;jznfh yg0ifcJhygw,f? tJ'DumvtwGif;rSm ‘&&if&r&&ifcs’ aºuG;a=umfoH xGufay:vmcJh


ygw,f?
Zefe0g&D (13) &ufae@rmS Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;eJ@ tufwvDw@kd pwifaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? aqG;aEG;
aepOfumvtwGi;f rSm ‘Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;onf &Sr;f jynfvx l .
k ud, k pf m;vS,rf [kw’f vd@k &Sr;f jynf
apmfbGm;tcsKdŒu vef'efudk oHóud;±dkufygw,f? &Srf;jynfu OD;bZH (tif;av;)/ OD;azcif/ OD;xGef;jrifh
pwJh vli,fawGu vlxktpnf;ta0;ac: +yD; &Srf;jynfvlxkudk,fpm;vS,fjzpfw,fqdkwJh qHk;jzwfcsuf
udkcsrSwf+yD; oHóud;jyef±dkufygw,f?
Zefe0g&Dv (27) &ufae@txd aqG;aEG;yGJ (10) }udrfusif;y+yD; ‘atmifqef;-tufwvDpm
csKyf’ xGuaf y:vmcJyh gw,f? pmcsKyfukd ud, k pf m;vS,w f zGŒJ wnf; twlyg0ifaqG;aEG;cJ=h uwJh ocifApdeef @J
*ÏKefO;D apmwd@k u yg0ifvuf rSwx f ;kd jcif;rðyyJ uef@uu G cf =hJ uygw,f? (Armjynfjyefa&mufwahJ emufvJ
0ef}uD;tjzpfuae E_wfxGufoGm;=uygw,f)
pmcsKyfyg oabmwlnDcsufawGt& tr_aqmifaumifpD[m =um;jzwftpdk;&tjzpf todt
rSwðf ycH&+yD; =um;jzwftpd;k & tm%m&vmygw,f? +Adwo d #vufeufuikd f wyfawGrt S y/ umuG,af &;
qdkif&m vufeufudkifwyfawGeJ@ EkdifiHjcm;a&;Xmeudk AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; acgif;aqmifwJh =um;jzwf
tpdk;&u tkyfcsKyfcGifh&ygw,f? udk,fydkif b¾ma&;tkyfcsKyfr_udk &&Sdygw,f? Armtpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,f
r[mrif;}uD;wOD; vef'efrSm xm;cGifh&ygw,f? jynfreJ@awmifwef;a'o tem*wf ta&;twGuf
awmifwef;a'o&JŒqEN,l&ef oabmwl=uygw,f? t&G,fa&mufolwdkif; rJay;EkdifwJhpepfeJ@ a&G;
aumufwJh wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf ac:cGifh&cJh&ygw,f? wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf&JŒ tqHk;tjzwfudk
+Adwdo#ygvDrefrSm twnfðyzdk@ wifoGif;&r,fvdk@ oabmwlcJh=uygw,f?
azazmf0g&v D qef;rSm Advk cf sKyfatmifqef; Armjynfjyefa&mufvmygw,f? Armjynf jyefa&muf
a&mufcsi;f atmifqef;-tufwvD pmcsKyfe@J ywfouf+yD; wdik ;f jynfukd wm0ef,l &Si;f vif;ajym=um;&m
rSm ‘vGwv f yfa&;r&cJah o;a=umif;/ od@k &mwGif enf;vrf;udo k m&&Scd ahJ =umif;/ ,if;enf;vrf;udk taumif
txnfazmf&eftwGuf wwdkif;wjynfvHk; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfzdk@vdka=umif;’ vdk@ twdtvif; xkwfazmf
oGm;cJhygw,f?
1947 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&D (5) &ufae@txd &efukefòrdŒ Aifweftxdrf;trSwf cef;rrSm u&if
trsKd;om;uGef*&uf usif;yygw,f? u&iftrsKd;om; (700) ausmf wufa&mufygw,f? tJ'DrSm
u&ifA[dktzGJŒcsKyf (KCO) eJ@ u&ifvli,frsm;tpnf;t±Hk; (KYO) aygif;+yD;/ ‘u&iftrsKd;om;tzGJŒ
csKyf’ (KNU) zGJŒpnf;EdkifcJhygw,f? uGef*&ufrSm autif,luvJ atmifqef;-tufwvDpmcsKyfudk
uef@uGufa=umif; +Adwdo#eef;&if0efqDudk oHóud;±dkufygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;[m Ekid if w H 0ef;oGm;+y;D wdik ;f &if;om;rsm; pnf;vH;k a&;/ twlwuG jynfaxmif
pk}u;D xlaxmifa&; a[majymygw,f? yifvn kH vD mcH}u;D ay:vmygw,f? &Sr;f jynfyifvòkH rŒd rSm &Sr;f / ucsi/f
csif; udk,fpm;vS,fawG pka0;=uygw,f? u&ifeJ@ u&ifeDu avhvmoltjzpfyJ wufa&mufygw,f?
autif,lu z'dk0D&Dausmf/ oxHk OD;vSaz/ apmpHau;eJ@ OD;cspfwD;wdk@ avhvmoltjzpf wufa&mufyg
w,f? yifvHknDvmcH}uD;&JΠ&v'ftjzpf ordkif;0if yifvHkpmcsKyf xGufay:vmcJhygw,f? azazmf0g&Dv
(12) &ufae@rmS yifvpkH mcsKyfukd vufrw S af &;xd;k +yD; awmifwef;eJ@ ajrjyef@ waygi;f wnf; vGwv f yfa&;

56 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

&,la&; qHk;jzwfEkdifcJh=uygw,f? yifvHkpmcsKyfudk ArmEkdifiHtpdk;&udk,fpm; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ &Srf;/


ucsif/ csif; udk,fpm;vS,f (22) OD;u vufrSwfa&;xdk;chJygw,f?
yifvHknDvmcHusif;yaepOftwGif;rSmyJ &Srf;/ ucsif/ csif; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;[m “awmifwef;
om;rsm;pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;OD;pD;tzGJŒ’ udkvnf; zGJŒpnf;cJh=uygw,f? OuUÏ [m pyfa&$odkufjzpf+yD;
'k OuUÏ u qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif jzpfygw,f?
tJ'u D mvtwGi;f rSm wzufu trsK;d om;aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;twGuf óud;yrf; tm;xkwrf _
awGawGŒ&ovdk/ rSefrSefuefuefvrf;a=umif;qDa&muf&Sda&;udk wGef;wifEdk;aqmfay;r_awG awGŒ&ovdk/
tjcm;wzufrSm aoG;uGJr_awG tm%mòydifqdkifr_awG *dk%f;*%v_yf&Sm;r_awG[mvnf; tqufrjywf
qufvufjzpfay:aecJhygw,f?
atmifqef;-tufwvDpmcsKyfa=umifh uGejf rLepfygwu D ‘rdwaf qGatmifqef;b,fv’J qkw d hJ
pmtkyfudk xkwfa0+yD; owday;&if; EkdifiHa&;t,ltqawGudk wifjyygw,f?
tm%mwydik ;f &jzpfaewJh zqyvtzGŒJ }uD;twGi;f rSm qd&k , S v f pf-jynfoŒl &Jabmf yËdyuQ[m
ay:ay:xifxif jzpfwnfvmae+yD; qdk&S,fvpfygwDuvnf; “atmifqef; cg;ydkufaqmifwyf jynfolŒ
&Jabmf” “zufqpfatmifqef;b,fvJ”pwJh a=unmcsufawG xkwfjyefvmwmawGŒ&ygw,f? e,f
awGrSm uGefjrLepf-qdk&S,fvpfyËdyuQ xdyfwef;a&mufaeovdk/ jynfol@&Jabmf-qkd&S,fvpf&efyGJawG
vnf; xdy+f yJ acgi;f uGt J ajctae ay:ayguaf eygw,f? jynfoŒl &Jabmfbufu Adv k pf ed rf eS f acgi;f aqmif
+yD; ‘iSufzsm;wdkufzsufa&; jcifrsKd;ðzwfa&;pDrHudef;’ vdk ‘qkd&S,fvpfrsKd;ðzwfa&;pDrHudef;’ awmif toH
xGuv f mcJyh gw,f? qd&k , S v
f pfawG&ŒJ npfywfrr_ sK;d pHu k kd rcHEikd v
f eG ;f vd@k vd@k qykd gw,f? tJ'pD rD u H ed ;f ocifEk
em;aygufoGm;+yD; aròrdŒa&mufaewJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk ta&;w}uD; ac:,lwdkif=um; ajz&Sif;cJh&
w,fqdkygw,f? AdkvfpdefrSefu jynfol@&JabmfwyfzGJŒudk EdkifiHa&;ygwDw&yftoGif ajymif;vJwnf
aqmufz@kd Adv k cf sKyfukd wifjyem;ylwthJ cg Advk cf sKyfatmifqef;u cg;cg;oD;oD; jiif;y,fc±hJ rkH u “uGejf rLepf
ygww D &yf&+dS yD;jzpf&if aemufxyfygwo D pf raxmif&bl;? rif;wd@k vkd oabmxm;rsK;d igrh mS &Scd &hJ if tapm
}uD;uwnf;u pifòydiyf gwaD xmifcrhJ mS ayg?h raxmiftyfraxmifaumif;vd@k raxmifyaJ ecJw h mjzpfw,f?
rif;wdk@vnf;raxmif&bl;?” vdk@ jywfjywfom;om; ydwfyifwm;jrpfcJhygw,f? wqufwnf;rSmyJ
“wm;r&vd@k ZGwaf xmifcsiw f ,fq&kd ifvnf; axmif=uayg?h 'gayrJh iguawmh b,fawmhrS rygEikd b f ;l ?”
vdk@ ,wdjywf ydwfajym+yD; olŒ&yfwnfcsufudk azmfxkwfjyocJhw,fvdk@qdkygw,f?
1947 ckESpf/ rwfvrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD OD;pD;wJh ‘jzL;awmifolv,form; uGef*&uf’
jzL;e,frmS usi;f yygw,f? Zefe0g&/D azaz:0g&x D rJ mS yJc;l e,frmS awmifov l ,form;rsm;&JΠqeford ;f yG/J
qefvkyJG/ v,form;wkdufyGJawG ay:ayguf+yD;cgp tajctaerSm usif;ywmjzpfygw,f? yJcl;e,f/
ykodrfe,f ‘qefodrf;yGJ’ ‘qefoydwfxm;jcif;’ wdk@udk jynfolŒ&JabmfeJ@ qdk&S,fvpfrsm; zqyvrsm;
ud, k w f ikd f yg0ifqifEcJG =hJ uygw,f? tJ'v D y_ &f mS ;r_rsm;udk uGejf rLepfygwu D axmufccH +hJ yD; jzL;uGe*f &ufrmS
ygwDtoD;oD;&JŒ &duQmwdkufyGJtajctaeawGudk qef;ppf+yD; &duQmwdkufyGJrsm; z±dkz&Jrjzpfap&? pepf
wuspnf;±Hk;+yD; wdkufwJhwdkufyGJrsm;jzpfapa&;/ y±dk*sufbkwfwdk@udkom t"duOD;wnfwdkufwJh e,fcsJŒpD;
yGm;a&;pepfudkom OD;wnfwdkufwJh wkdufyGJrsm;jzpfapa&;wdk@twGuf EdkifiHa&;&nf&G,fcsufudk csrSwf
qHk;jzwfwm vkyfygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 57


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

qdk&S,fvpfawGu 'DqefvkyJGawG[m zqyvtpdk;&udk t=uyftwnf;jzpfatmif uGefjrLepf


awGu vkyfaqmifapwm/ wcsKdŒe,fawGrSm qdk&S,fvpfeJ@ jynfolŒ&JabmfawG[m vlxk}uD; uGefjrLepf
awGbuf ygroGm;apa&;twGuf tzGJŒcsKyfu !¸ef=um;csufr&rDtwGif; qefvkyGJawGrSm a&m¹yGrf;+yD;
yg0ifaqmif&u G cf whJ m/ {+yDv a&G;aumufyeJG m;eD;+yDr@kd zqyveJ@ vlxu k kd vSn&hf efwu dk af y;+yD; uGejf rLepf
awG vlxkaxmufcHr_&atmif &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&Sd vkyfaqmifwmvdk@ jrif=uygw,f? twdtvif; pGyfpGJ
ajymqdkwmawGvnf; vkyfygw,f?
atmifqef;-tufwvD oabmwlncD sut f & ppf+yD;acwf Armjynf&ŒJ yxrqH;k aom ‘wdik ;f ðy
jynfðy v$waf wmfa&G;aumufy’JG udk 1947/ {+yDvrSm usi;f yygw,f? pkpak ygi;f ae&m (255) ae&m&Scd ahJ y
r,fh (182) ae&mtwGufyJ jynfrrSm,SOfòydif a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf=u&wmjzpfygw,f? usef (73)
ae&m[m vlrsKd;pkrsm;eJ@ ujym;rsm;twGuf oD;oef@ csefxm;cJGa0ay;cJh&ygw,f? u&iftrsKd;om;rsm;
(24) ae&m/ &Srf;trsKd;om;rsm; (23)/ ucsiftrsKd;om;rsm; (7)/ csif;trsKd;om;rsm; (7)/ u&ifeDtrsKd;
om;rsm; (2)/ tjcm; awmifwef;a'o wdik ;f &if;om;rsm; (6) ae&meJ@ t*Fvyd -f Arm ujym;rsm; (4)
ae&m/ pkpkaygif; (73) ae&mjzpfygw,f?
'Dwdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJudk *VKefOD;apm/ ocifApdef/ a'gufwmbarmfwdk@
‘apmpdefarmf’ *dk%f;u oydwfarSmufovdk/ ocifpdk;&JŒ tvHeDygwDuvnf; oydwfarSmufygw,f?
apmbOD;}uD; acgi;f aqmifwhJ autif,u l vnf; oydwaf rSmuf uef@uu G cf yhJ gw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepf
ygwDu ygw&D ŒJ vrf;pOfcsjyEkid af &;eJ@ v$waf wmfwiG ;f rSm ygw&D ŒJ toH azmfxw k Ef idk af &;twGu&f nf&, G +f y;D
0ifa&muf ,SOòf ydif ta&G;cs,cf yH gw,f? ae&mtm;vH;k rSm r,SOòf ydiyf /J ae&mtenf;pkuav;rSmyJ vuf
a&G;piftrwfawGeJ@ ,SOfòydifygw,f? ysOf;rem;c±dkif (&rnf;oif;c±dkif) rSm (6) ae&m ,SOfòydifta&G;cs,f
cH&m rSm (4) ae&m tEdkif&cJhw,fqdkygw,f?
ArmjynfrtwGuf ae&m (182) ae&mrSm zqyvu (171) ae&m/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD
u (7) ae&m/ woD; yk*~vu (4) ae&m tEdkif&&Sda&G;cs,fcHcJh=u&ygw,f?
arv (23) &ufae@rmS zqyvu ‘y%mrjyifqifrn _ v
D mcH}uD;’ udk usi;f yygw,f? zqyv
tvkyt f r_aqmif (11) OD;/ A[dOk ;D pD;0if (25) OD;/ c±dik uf ,
kd pf m;vS,f (30) OD;/ zqyv trwf (45) OD;/
aygif; (111) OD;yg aumfrDwDzGJŒpnf;+yD; tajccHOya'rl=urf; a&;qGJa&;udk pDpOfygw,f?
1947 arvxJrmS yJ u&iftrsK;d om;rsm; tusK;d pD;yGm;udk umuG,af pmifah &Smufz@kd / u&iftrsK;d
om;rsm;&JŒ autif,'l t D kd tzGŒJ }uD;ay:ayguv
f mygw,f? (=o*kwv f rSm autif,'l t D ukd ae autif
'Dtdk vdk@ emrnfajymif;vJ ac:a0:ygw,f)
ZGefvrSm wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf tpnf;ta0;}uD; pwifusif;yygw,f? zqyv }uD;xJu
jynfolŒ&Jabmftrwfrsm;u ,leDazmif;0wfeJ@ v$wfawmfwufvmovdk qdk&S,fvpfygwD0iftrwf
rsm;uvnf; umuD,el aD zmif;0wf+yD; v$waf wmfwufvm±Hrk u vnfp;D teDawmif wyfqifvmvdu k f
=uygao;w,f? uGefjrLepftrwf (7) OD;vnf; yg0ifwufa&mufygw,f? ocifEkudk v$wfawmf OuUÏ
tjzpf a&G;cs,fygw,f? tajccHOya'a&;qGJa&; aumfrwDawGzGJ@=uygw,f? zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccH
Oya'rlawGukd Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u ZGev f 16 &ufae@rmS wifoiG ;f +yD; v$waf wmfu wnDw!Gwx f J
twnfjyKygw,f? zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk Oya'rl=urf;udk aqG;aEG;=uwJhtcg uGefjrLepftrwfawGvJ

58 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

yg0ifaqG;aEG;cJhygw,f? wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu a&;qGJxm;wJhtkyfcsKyfa&;rSm AsL±dkua&pD


taqmufttHkudk rzsufyJ rlvtwdkif;xm;wmeJ@ ywfouf+yD; uGefjrLepfygwD&JΠudk,fpm;vS,f
uGejf rLepftrwfrsm;u ‘jyifqifcsu’f wifoiG ;f cJ=h uygw,f? 'gayr,fh zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w G af &;
r&&Sdao;csdefrSm e,fcsJ@orm;eJ@ azmufjyefa&;orm;awGudk toHk;cs&ef vufeufay;ovdk jzpfrSm
pdk;vdk@qdk+yD; ‘jyifqifcsuf’awGudk ±kyfodrf;cJhw,fqdkygw,f?
1947 ckESpf/ ZGefv (18) &ufae@rSm ‘ArmEdkifiHudk vGwfvyfaom orRwEdkifiHawmftjzpf
xlaxmif+yD; +Adwdo# "eo[m,tkyfpktjyifbufwGif oD;jcm;vGwfvyfpGm aexdkifjcif;ðyrnf’ qdkwJh
qHk;jzwfcsufudk wnDw!Gwfwnf; qHk;jzwfcJh=uygw,f? tJ'DqHk;jzwfcsufudk udkvdkeDe,fcsJŒorm;
t*Fvyd af wG rcHr&yfEikd jf zpf=uw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? +Adwo d #ygvrD efrmS ‘c&Geb f -D jr’ b¾ma&; oabm
wlnDcsuft& ArmEdkifiH&oHk;aiG&JΠvdkaiGtwGuf axmufyhH&efxm;cJhwJh uwdudkawmif jyefvnfzsuf
odr;f zd@k atmf}uD;[pfus,f ajymcJ=h uw,fqykd gw,f? wu,fu ‘c&Geb f -D jr’ pmcsKyf[m Armjynfu
emwJph mcsKyfjzpfygw,f? (wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmfa&G;aumufyJG jyifqifusi;f yaecdu k u f mvrSm csKyfqckd hJ
wJh pmcsKyfjzpf+y;D / Armjynfbufu =um;jzwftpd;k & b¾ma&;0ef}u;D ocifjreJ@ +Aw d o d #bufu ‘c&Geb f ’D
qdo k l ud, k pf m;ðyvufrw S x
f ;kd cJw
h hJ b¾ma&;qdik &f m pmcsKyw
f ckjzpfygw,f? ppf+y;D acwf ArmEdik if x H al xmif
a&;twGuf +Adwed u f a&$'*F g; (18) oef; acs;iSm;ay;a&;eJ@ Armjynfu òrdŒjytkycf sKyfa&;omru Arm
Edik if rH Smusef&SdcJhwJh taxGaxGypPnf;rsm;&JΠukefusaiGudkyg +Adwdeftm; jyefvnfay;oGif;&ef oabm
wlnDcsufjzpfygw,f?)
+Adwo d #e,fcsŒJ orm;awG[m Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;vdk trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmifwa,mufukd jref
jrefqefqef z,f&Sm;csifvm=uygw,f? ppf+yD;puvnf; vlowfr_eJ@zrf;qD;+yD; z,f&Sm;a&; ratmifr
jrif jzpfcJh+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;uvnf; +Adwdo#wdk@&JŒajcvSrf;udk wae@wjcm; ydkrdkod&Sdae+yD jzpfygw,f?
zqyv wGif; azmufjyefa&;orm;wcsKdŒ&JŒ ajcvSrf;awGudkvnf; odjrifem;vnf aecJh+yDjzpfygw,f?
(om"utm;jzifh +Adwo d #e@J y;l aygi;f a&;udk tjyif;txeftm;xkwaf ewJh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&; 0ef}uD;
OD;bazudk zqyvtzGŒJ csKyfuae xkwyf ,fc&hJ +y;D +yD jzpfygw,f? Adv k cf sKyftud&k if; OD;atmifoef; qd&k , S f
vpfygw0D ifwek ;f uvnf; Adv k cf sKyuf “urBmrSm qd&k , S v
f pfygwq D wkd m tacsmiform;awGAs” vk@d ajym+y;D
rESpfòrdŒa=umif; jyocJhzl;w,fqdkygw,f?)
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m e,fcsJŒorm;&JŒajcvSrf; azmufjyefa&;orm;rsm;&JŒ ajcvSrf;awGudk
wm;qD;zd@k ‘nD!w G af &;vufeuf’ eJ@ wm;qD;ckczH @kd jyifygw,f? zqyv-uGejf rLepfn! D wG af &;udk jyefvnf
wnfaqmufzdk@ pdkif;jyif;pDrHvmcJhygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDuvnf; 1947 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvuwnf;u
aemufqHk;wdkufyGJvrf;pOfcs+yD; zqyv-uGefjrLepf nD!Gwfa&; wnfaqmuf&ef aºuG;a=umfxm;+yD;
jzpfygw,f?
+Awd od #e,fcsŒJ orm;&JŒ ppfwyftwGi;f vufeufwu kd uf b&if;*ef; (200) eJ@ cJ,rf; rD;ausmuf
tajrmuftrsm; cdk;xkwfcH&wJhowif;/ aysmufqHk;aea=umif;owif; ZGefv (24) &ufae@rSm xGufay:
vmygw,f? (t*Fvdyfppfwyf&JΠppfOD;pD;csKyf vufzwifeif *sife&,fb&pf udk,fwdkif b&if;*ef;awG
OD;apmvufxJ a&mufoGm;a=umif; od+yD;jzpfygw,f?)

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 59


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

t*Fvyd pf pfwyftwGi;f u b&if;*ef;tvuf (200) eJ@ cJ,rf;rD;ausmufawG cd;k xkwcf &H a=umif;
owif;udo k wif;pmrsm;uvnf; pmvH;k rJ}u;D awGe@J azmfjycJ=h uygw,f? jynfoŒl tm%m*sme,f/ uGejf rL
epfowif;pmwk@d uvnf; 'Dowif;udk ta&;}u;D owif;tjzpf tav;wifazmfjycJ=h uygw,f? om,m0wD
e,fbufrmS vnf; 'Dowif;[m ysŒH ES@H aecJyh gw,f? t*Fvyd pf pfwyfe@J wm0ef&t dS &m&S}d u;D rsm;[m olw@kd
udk,fwdkif yl;aygif;yg0ifvkyfaqmifxm;cJhwJh udpPjzpfwJhtwGuf vlxk=um;rSm 'Dowif;[m awmrD;
yrmysHŒESH@aeayr,fh bmrSta&;,laqmif&Gufr_ rvkyfyJ rodusKd;u|H vkyfaecJh=uygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;[m ‘aygi;f jcif;aygi;f v#if uGejf rLepfygwED iS o
hf m aygi;f rnf’ qdw k hJ rde@f ceG ;f udk
twdtvif;ajym=um;vm+yD; uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ nD!Gwfa&;wnfaqmufzdk@ jyifqifvmcJhygw,f?
Zlvdkifv (13) &uf òrdŒawmfcef;rrSm rdef@cGef;ac|wJhtcgrSmvnf; ‘ArmjynfrSm vltrsKd;rsKd;
tcsif;csif;ruGJzdk@/ vli,fydkif;jzpfwJh vuf0Jorm;tcsif;csif; ruGJ=uzdk@ owday;vdkw,f’ vdk@
xyfqifhzGifh[jyef ygw,f? òrdŒawmfcef;r aemufqHk; rdef@cGef;&Snf}uD; ajym=um;t+yD;rSm zqyv
uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&; twGuf aqG;aEG;=uzdk@ ocifoef;xGef;qDudkvnf; w&m;0if&ufcsdef;ay;
zdwf=um;vdkufygw,f?
Zlvikd v f (19) &uf reuf 10 em&D 37 rdepfrmS trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmif}uD; Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;
wd@k wawG vl,w k rf mrsm;&JΠvky=f uHowfjzwfjcif;udk cHvukd =f u&ygawmhw,f? =um;&olwikd ;f wkev f y_ f
oGm;=u&ovdk 0rf;enf;yufvuf ,lóuH;r&jzpfcJh=u&ygw,f?
tJ'Dae@naerSmyJ aysmufqHk;aew,fqdkwJh vufeufawGudpPeJ@ywfouf+yD; *VKefOD;apmtdrf
udk aomif;use;f r_ ESrd ef if;a&;wyfe@J &Jrsm;u 0ifa&muf&mS azGygw,f? vufeufawGuv kd nf; azmfxw k f
&SmazG odr;f qnf;rdc+hJ yD; OD;apmeJ@ OD;apmtdr&f dS vltm;vH;k udvk nf; zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f cJyh gw,f? 'gayr,fh
tJ'Dtcsdeftxd AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ acgif;aqmifawGudk b,folvkyf=uHowfjzwfcJhovJqdkwm
wdwu d susrajymqdEk ikd =f uao;ygb;l ? qd&k ,S vf pfawGu “'gæuGejf rLepfawGvufcsuaf erSmvd@k wD;wd;k
0g'jzef@ pGypf =JG uovdk jynfoŒl &Jabmfrsm;uvnf; aoewfwjyifjyif jzpfc=hJ uw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? tajc
tae[m twdr;f tapmif;rcHEikd af vmufatmif ±_yaf xG;aecJ+h yD; ajcwvSr;f rSm;v#if owf=ujzwf=ueJ@
jynfwGif;ppfrD; xawmufvmEdkifwJh taetxm;jzpfygw,f? tJ'DtajctaerSm AdkvfcsKyfwdk@vkyf=uH
cH&+yD; aemufw&ufrmS yJ awmufavmifvmvke;D jynfwiG ;f ppfuw kd m;qD;zd@k uGejf rLepfygwD taxGaxG
twGi;f a&;rSL; ocifoef;xGe;f u “wu,fvyk }f uHrw _ &m;cH[m e,fcsŒJ orm;eJ@ e,fcsŒJ vufyg;aprsm;
omjzpfa=umif; vufrSwfa&;xdk; xkwfjyefa=unmvdkufygw,f? w&m;cHtppftrSef e,fcsJŒorm;udk
rD;armif;xdk;jy+yD; EdkifiHa&;tjrif &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;eJ@ rSefrSefuefuefaxmufjyay;cJhygw,f? ypfrSwfrSef
&Smr&yJ od@k avm od@k avm jzpfae=uwJh jynforl sm; 0if;ueJ&iS ;f ueJ jzpfomG ;+yD; e,fcsŒJ tay: rke;f wD;r_
aZmif; [kef;ceJa&mufoGm;oavmuf e,fcsJŒorm;wdk@tzdk@ xdwfvef@wkefv_yfoGm;cJh&ygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@ vkyf=uHcH&+yD;+yD;csif; bk&ifcHqm[l;bwf&ef@u OD;Ekudk tpdk;&zGJΠcdkif;yg
w,f? ocifEkacgif;aqmifwJh tpdk;&tzGJΠay:aygufvmygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@ vkyf=uHowfjzwfcH&r_}uD; aemufuG,frSm +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;awG
trSefyJ twGif;usus ywfoufcJhygw,f? t*Fvdyfppfwyfudk,fwdkif yg0ifywfoufcJhygw,f? Armjynf
&Sd t*Fvdyfppfwyf t&m&Sdrsm;u vufeufawG cdk;xkwfay;jcif;eJ@ywfoufcJhovdk t*Fvdyfppfwyf&JŒ

60 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

wm0eft&Sq d ;kH Akv


d cf sKyf/ Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf}u;D rsm; axmufvrS ;f a&;tzGŒJ &JŒ t}u;D qH;k wm0ef&o dS rl sm;[m aysmuf
qHk;oGm;w,fqdkwJh vufeufawG OD;apmxH a&mufoGm;rSef;odvsufeJ@ zHk;zHk;zdzdvkyfxm;cJh=uygw,f?
tvdw k l tvdyk gvyk cf =hJ uwmjzpfygw,f? &nf&, G cf sut f rSeu f Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;vdk e,fcsŒJ qef@usif
a&;tjrif&Sdol ppfrSefwJh wdkif;cspfjynfcspfpdwf&Sdol trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifwa,mufudk z,f&Sm;ypf+yD;/
OD;apmvdk tm%m±l; tvkad wmf&w d a,mufvufxJ Armjynfukd xm;csicf w hJ mjzpfygw,f? qufvuf
+y;D udv k ekd ðD ycsiaf ecJ=h uwmjzpfygw,f? tJ'v D kd wm0efukd vuf&ZJ uf&J xrf;aqmifEikd rf ,fo h [ l m OD;apm
jzpfw,fqw kd m ,H=k unf+yD; ,l*ef'guae Armjynfjyefac:vm/ a&mufa&mufcsi;f tpd;k &tzGŒJ wGi;f oGi;f
ay;/ wav#mufv;kH Adv k cf sKyfw@kd ukd twdu k t f cHvyk af eapcJw h m jzpfygw,f? yxrqH;k t}udrf vlowfr_
eJ@ pGJcsufwifz,f&Sm;a&; ratmifjrifcJh&yJ EdkifiHa&;enf;vrf;t& óud;yrf;wmawG ±_H;edrfcJh&wJhtwGuf
ppfwyfu ppfwyfenf;eJ@ óud;yrf;zd@k vufeufawGxw k af y;+yD; vky=f uHa&;vrf;udk taumiftxnfay:
apcJhwmjzpfygw,f? vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; &,l+yD; "eo[m,xJvnf; rae&efqHk;jzwfvdkufwJhtay:
rausrcsrf;jzpfcJh=u&wJh e,fcsJŒorm;awG[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u zqyv-uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&;
wnfaqmufEikd zf @kd vuf0n J !D w G af &;wnfaqmufEikd zf @kd tcdik t f rmajcvSr;f awG vSr;f vmwJt h cg vky=f uH
a&;udk jrefjrefqefqef taumiftxnfay:atmif tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufðyay;vdu k =f uwmjzpfygw,f?
vkyf=uHr_a=umifh OD;apmtpdk;& wufvmEkdifv#if wufvm/ rwufvmEdkifawmif OD;apmwdk@vdk
vlawGvufxJ vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmufawG tajrmuftrsm;&Sdaeapjcif;tm;jzifh jynfwGif;ppfrD;
awmufavmifvmap&ef &nf&G,fcJhyHkvJ&ygw,f? vkyf=uHa&;oufoufavmuftxdqdk&if vufeuf
tenf;i,f usnftenf;i,f xkwfay;±HkeJ@ vHkavmufEdkifrSef;odygvsuf tJ'Dacwfu taumif;qHk;
avmufjzpfaewJh b&if;*ef; pwif;*ef; tvuf (200) ausmfeJ@ usnfqH odef;csD xkwfay;cJhwmudk
=unfhr,fqdk&if e,fcsJŒorm;awG&JŒ oabmxm;[m jynfwGif;ppfjzpfa&;qdkwm &Sif;aecJhygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ azmfxw k af xmufjycsuaf =umifh wkev f y_ of mG ;cJ&h wJh e,fcsŒJ bk&ifc[ H m ocifEk
udk tpd;k &zGŒJ ap+y;D wmeJ@wòyid ef uf t*Fvyd q f ef@usiaf &; vlxt k ºkH urG }_ u;D rsm; jzpfay:rvmapa&;twGuf
,Of,Ofaus;aus; pum;vH;k awGo;kH +yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ekukd jyif;jyif;xefxef owday;wm;cJw h ,fv@kd qykd g
w,f? tJ'o D wday;csuu f awmh “owif;pmrsm;u pmvH;k rJ}uD;rsm;jzifh qufvufa&;oGm;=urnfqkd
v#if vGwfvyfa&;twGuf qdk;0g;aom tusKd;oufa&mufr_rsm; jzpfvmzG,f&Sda=umif;” vdk@ owday;
w,fqdkygw,f? =um;jzwftpdk;& 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEkuvnf; vkyf=uHr_eJ@ywfouf+yD; t*Fvdyfppfwyf
&JŒ yg0ifywfoufaer_udk zHk;zHk;zdzd vkyfay;cJhovdk um,HuHajrmuf aqmuf&GufcJh&ygw,f? “vkyf=uHr_
}uD;wGif t*Fvyd w f @kd yg0ifywfoufaeonft h a=umif;udk owif;pmrsm;rSjzpfap/ vlxak [majymr_rsm;
rSmjzpfap vH;k 0pGypf aJG jym=um;jcif;rðy=u&ef owday;cJo h vdk ta&;ydik f (c±dik 0f ef) rsm;udv k nf; txufyg
twdkif; ajymqdkpGyfpGJolrsm;tm; vdktyfovdkta&;,l&ef !¸ef=um;xm;cJhw,fvdk@qdkygw,f? (tajc
taerSefawGudk odvmygvsuf/ zHk;zHk;zdzd vkyfay;cJhwm[m “vGwfvyfa&;twGuf taESmuft,Suf
jzpfrSmpdk;vdk@qdkygw,f? t*Fvdyfwdk@&JΠppfwyfyg0ifywfoufaer_udk t*Fvdyfwdk@u zHk;zHk;zdzd atmif
atmifjrifjrif vkyEf ikd o f mG ;cJjh cif;[m tJ'w D ek ;f u ocifEak cgi;f aqmifwhJ Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;uvnf;
jynfoludk todray;yJ zHk;zdxm;cJh=uwma=umifhjzpfygw,f)

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 61


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

nD!Gwfa&;a&mifjcnfudk jyefvnfjrif&csdefrSmyJ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; vkyf=uHcHvdkuf&wm[m


wwdkif;wjynfvHk;&JΠuH=urRmudk qdk;0g;oGm;apcJhovdk uGefjrLepfygwD twGufvnf; tifrwef}uD;rm;
wJh qH;k ±_;H epfemr_}u;D jzpfcyhJ gw,f? uGejf rLepfygwu D Zlvikd f (30) rSm ‘vH;k 0vGwv f yfa&;od@k ’ pmwrf;xkwf
ygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu ‘zqyv nD!Gwfa&;’ twGuf olwdk@&JŒ (47) ckESpf Zefe0g&D qHk;jzwfcsuf
aemufq;kH wdu k yf vJG rf;pOftwdik ;f qufvufóud;yrf;ygw,f? ocifEek @J ocifoef;xGe;f wG+J yD; vlowf0g'
±_wfcsyGJw&m;awG ysOf;rem;e,frSm a[mygw,f? ‘nD!Gwfa&;’ w&m;yGJawGvnf; e,ftESH vdkuf+yD;
a[mygw,f?
Advk cf sKyfatmifqef;wd@k r&Sad wmhwt hJ cg zqyvtzGŒJ }uD;xJrmS qd&k , S v f pfawG yd+k yD;wGiu
f s,f
vmcJhygw,f? tm%m&t0dkif;t0ef;rSm qkd&S,fvpfawG trsm;pkjzpfvmcJhygw,f? ocifEku 0ef}uD;
csKyfjzpfayr,fh zqyvtzGJ@csKyf OuUÏ jzpfayr,fh ygwDvufudkifr&Sd jzpfygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwD&JΠoabmxm;u zqyv-uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&;t&trd wnfaqmuf+yD;
nD!Gwfa&;tm;eJ@ e,fcsJŒorm;udk jywfjywfom;om; wdkufxkwfa&;/ vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;jzpfygw,f?
zqyv-uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&; wnfaqmufEdkifzdk@ &Edkifor#enf;vrf;pHkukd &SmazG+yD;/ ocifoef;xGef;
uae zqyvOuUÏ ocifEq k D vdyrf +l y;D zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w G af &;twGuf =o*kwv f (14) &ufae@
ae@pGJeJ@ yxrqHk;w&m;0if ay;pm ay;ydk@urf;vSrf;ygw,f? zqyvtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; OD;AaqGu
vufrw S af &;xd;k +yD; OD;Ekqu D wqifh uGejf rLepfygwu D kd ‘zqyv&JŒjyefpm’ =o*kwv f (25) &uf ae@peJG @J
jyefygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu vkdufem&r,fh nD!Gwfa&;tajccHtcsuf (5) csufudkvnf; azmfjyxm;
ygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu pufwifbm (8) &ufae@pGJeJ@ zqyv&JŒjyefpmudk jyefvnf&Sif;vif;wJhpm
('kwd,ay;pm) tjzpf ocifEku wqifh ay;jyefygw,f? zqyvu awmif;qdkwJh nD!Gwfa&;tajccH
(5) csuq f w kd mudk wke@f jyef&iS ;f vif;jy+yD; nD!w G af &;twGuf aqG;aEG;=uzd@k tcsed f ae@&uf csed ;f qdak &;udk
wdkufwGef;awmif;cHxm;ygw,f?
'Dumv=um;xJrSm (47) =o*kwfv (29) &ufae@rSm ‘vusfmz&D;rif;’ pmcsKyf ay:xGufvmyg
w,f? vusfmz&D;rif;pmcsKyfu umuG,fa&;oabmwlnDcsuf pmcsKyfjzpfygw,f? 'D umuG,fa&;
oabmwlncD supf mcsKyf[mvnf; c&Geb f -D jr b¾ma&;oabmwlncD supf mcsKyfvkd Armjynfbufu
emcJh&wJhpmcsKyfjzpfygw,f?
1947/ pufwifbm (24) &ufae@ nae (3) em&D (29) rdepfrSm wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf
OuUÏ pyfa&$ou kd u f aemufq;kH twnfðyvufrw S af &;xd;k vdu
k +f yD;/ Armjynf&ŒJ yxrqH;k aom zGŒJ pnf;
tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya' (1947) ay: xGuv f mcJyh gw,f? v$waf wmf yxrnDvmcH (9-6-47) ae@uae
wwd,t}udrfnDvmcH (24-9-47)ae@txd (108) &uftwGif; +yD;pD;atmifa&;qGJcJh=uwJh zGJŒpnf;
tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'jzpfygw,f? 'DtajccHOya'xJrSm tm;enf;csufawGvnf; yg0ifaecJhw,fvdk@qdk
ygw,f?
+Adwo d #tpd;k &JΠzdwaf c:csut f & atmufwb kd mvxJrmS Armjynf =um;jzwftpd;k & 0ef}uD;csKyf
ocifEk vef'efudkoGm;a&mufygw,f? ocifEkacgif;aqmifwJh udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒrSm umuG,fa&;0ef
}uD; AdkvfvusfmeJ@ AkdvfxGef;vif;wdk@wawGvnf; vdkufygoGm;=uygw,f? ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;
twGuf t+yD;tydkif aqG;aEG;vufrSwfa&;xdk;=uzdk@jzpfygw,f? ArmEdkifiHqdkif&m tm%mydkiftzGJŒudk
eef;&if;0eftufwvDu acgif;aqmifaqG;aEG;jyygw,f?
62 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

atmufwdkbm (17) &ufae@rSm ‘Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf’ udk vufrSwfa&;xdk;zdk@ oabmwlnD


vdkuf=uygw,f? 'DpmcsKyft& +Adwdo#tpdk;&u udkvdkeDArmEdkifiHudk vGwfvyf+yD; tcsKyftcsmtm%m
ydkifwJh ‘jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEdkifiH’ tjzpf oabmwlvdkuf&+yD; jrefrmEdkifiH,m,Dtpdk;&uvnf;
ukv d ekd aD cwf ArmEdik if o H rdik ;f wav#muf +Adwo d #tpd;k &u ArmEdik if u H ,kd pf m; csKyfqx kd m;cJw h hJ Edik if w
H um
oabmwlncD suf pmcsKyfreS o f r#ukd qufcw H m0ef,v l ukd &f ygw,f? pmcsKyfaygi;f (170) ausm&f ydS gw,f?
pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ywfouf+yD;awmhvnf; +Adwo d #uv kd ekd o
D rm;rsm;&JΠpD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk vGwf
vyfwJh jrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&u ta&;,laqmif&Gufr,fqdk&if +Adwdo#tpdk;&eJ@ a&S;OD;pGm wdkifyifn‡dE_dif;+yD;
w&m;r#wwJh av#mfa=u;ay;ygr,fvdk@ wm0ef,lcJh&ygw,f? b¾ma&;eJ@ywfouf+yD;awmhvnf;
udkvdkeDacwfwav#muf ArmEdkifiHeJ@ywfouf+yD; ukefuscJh&w,fqdkwJh aºuG;+rDudpPtm;vHk;udk jrefrm
EdkifiHu jyefqyfzdk@ wm0ef,lcJh&ygw,f? +Adwdefudkqyfzdk@ usyfaiG (35) ukaÉ (6) oef;/ tar&duefudk
tacs;tiSm;ypPnf;rsm;twGuf a':vm (5) oef; jyefqyfa&;tjyif tdENd,tifyg,mrS jrefrmEdkifiHudk
cGx
J w k jf cif;rðycif tr_xrf;cJ=h uwJh tdE, dN eJ@ygupPwef tr_xrf;awGtwGuf ay;qyf&ef&w dS hJ yifpifvpm
(6 ukaÉ 9oef;) udkvnf; wm0ef,lcJh&jyefygw,f?
umuG,af &;twGuv f nf; vusmzf &D;rif;pmcsKyft& +Adwed Ef ikd if u H jrefrmEdik if u H kd a&a=umif;
oGm;vma&;eJ@ umuG,af &;qdik &f m ppfoabFmeJ@ ppfarmfawmf (37) pif; v$aJ jymif;ay;zd@k oabmwlc+hJ yD;/
jrefrmtpdk;&u +Adwdo# "eo[m,0if ppfrpf&SiftzGJŒrsm;eJ@ "eo[m,tzGJŒ0if ppfoabFm ppfav
,mOfrsm; jrefrmEdkifiHrSmqdkufuyfcdk0ifcGifhudk vufcHoabmwlcJh&ygw,f? umuG,fa&;qufqHr_udk
(3) ESpfom uef@owfoabmwlcJhygw,f?
Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf[m ‘vGwfvyfa&;’ todtrSwfðycH&wmmuvJGvdk@ Armjynfbufu
epfem&r_awG tajrmuftjrm;&Scd w hJ mawmif atmufwb kd m (23) &ufae@rmS +Adwo d #ygvrD efrmS ‘jynf
axmifpo k rwjrefrmEdik if v H w G vf yfa&; Oya'=urf;’ wifoiG ;f wJh tcg/ Armjynfukd u|eðf yxm;a&;om
vdv k m;cJw h hJ uGeq
f maA;wpfygwaD cgi;f aqmif}uD; ‘0ifpwefcsmcs’D u tjyif;txef qlnu H ef@uu G cf yhJ g
w,f? Armjynfukd vGwv f yfa&;ay;vdu k &f if aoG;acsmif;pD; jynfwiG ;f ppf}u;D jzpfvrd rhf ,fv@kd vnf; óuw d if
a[mudef;xkwfvdkufygw,f? +Adwdo#ygvDrefrSm Oya'=urf;udk twnfðyzdk@ rJcGJqHk;jzwfcJh=uygw,f?
(228) rJ (114) rJeJ@ qHk;jzwf twnfðycJh=uygw,f?
tJ'aD tmufwb kd m (23) &ufae@rmS yJ ArmjynfrmS vnf; zqyvqd&k , S vf pfrsm;u uGejf rLepf
ygwu D v dk ufrcHEikd af =umif; zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w G af &;udk y,fcsvu kd =f uygw,f? qd&k , S v f pfacgi;f
aqmif ocifomcifu vufrSwfa&;xdk;+yD; ‘jyef=um;pm’udk ay;ydk@ ta=umif;jyefcJhygw,f?
zqyvtzGJŒ}uD;u Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfeJ@ ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;a=unmzdk@ jyifygw,f?
Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyf csKyfqakd &;twGuf ocifEk vef'efroGm;cifuwnf;u ‘vGwv f yfa&;tcrf;tem;
pDpOfr_aumfrDwD’udk zGJŒpnf;xm;+yD;jzpfygw,f?
Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyf w&m;0ifxGufay:vmwJhtcg ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu jyif;jyif;xef
xef uef@uGufygw,f? Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf[m ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk todtrSwfðycH&wmuvGJ
vd@k pD;yGm;a&;t&/ b¾ma&;t&/ umuG,af &;t& wzufowf tav#mah y;vdu k af vsmcJ&h wJh pmcsKyf
vdk@jrifygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 63


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@ usqHk;cJh&t+yD; (11) &uftuGmrSm xkwfjyefa=unmcJhwJh Armjynf


uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ ‘vH;k 0vGwv f yfa&;od@k ’ pmwrf;ygoabmxm;tajccH Edik if aH &;tESpo f m&wd@k e@J vnf;
ajzmifhajzmifh}uD; qef@usifaewJh pmcsKyfjzpfygw,f? e,fcsJŒorm;ydkif vkyfief;}uD;rsm;udk jynfolydkifvkyf
v#if avsmfa=u;ay;ygr,fvdk@ oabmwlxm;&jcif;/ t*Fvdyfppfrpf&Sifrsm;udk qufvufxm;&Sdzdk@
oabmwlxm;jcif;/ t*FvdyfppfoabFm/ ppfav,mOfrsm;udk ArmjynfrSm qdkufuyfcGifhðyxm;&jcif;/
ppfavsmfa=u;rsm; ay;&jcif;wdk@tay:rSm wcsufcsif; axmufjya0zefcJh+yD; ArmhtusKd;pD;yGm;udk xdcdkuf
epfemapwJh pmcsKyftjzpf av;av;eufeuf qef@usifuef@uGuf=uygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ‘e,fcsJŒorm;udk qufvufwdkufyGJqif/ zqyv-uGefjrLepf
nD!Gwfa&;udk t&trdwnfaqmuf udk,fhtiftm;eJ@udk,f Armjynf&JŒvGwfvyfa&;udk a=unm&,l
a&;jzpfygw,f? Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ umuG,af &; bufaygi;f pHk trScD u kd if;wJh vGwv f yfa&;/ wenf;tm;jzifh
vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;udk azmfaqmifcsifcJhygw,f?
zqyvu =um;jzwftpdk;& tm%mudkqkyfudkif&if; Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfudk csKyfqdk/ aphpyf
vduk af vsmwJh enf;udu k sio hf ;kH / vGwvf yfwhJ tcsKyftcsmtm%mydik f Edik if w H cktjzpf todtrSwðf ycH+yD;
vGwfvyfa&;udk&,lzdk@ vufawGΠvkyfudkifaqmif&GufcJhygw,f?
‘zqyv’wd@k &,lvufc=H ur,fh vGwv f yfa&;[m Ekid if aH &;t& vGwv f yfayr,fh vGwv f yfa&;
a=unmcGi&hf Edik af yr,fh pD;yGm;a&;t&rvGwv f yf/ udv k ekd aD ESmifóu;d awG wJxm;jcif;cH&wJh vGwv f yfa&;vd@k
uGefjrLepfygwDu ±_jrifoHk;oyfxm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh EdkifiHa&;t& vGwfvyfr_uae pD;yGm;a&;t&yg
vGwv f yfa&; udv k ekd aD ESmifóud;rSeo f r# t+yD;tydik f jzwfawmuf ±ke;f xGuEf ikd af &;awGtwGuf qufvuf
csDwufEdkifzdk@ zqyv-uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&; wnfaqmufEkdifa&;[m ta&;}uD;w,fvdk@ qufvuf
oabmxm;cJhygw,f? zqyvuGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&;twGuf qufvufóud;yrf;v_HŒaqmfygw,f?
1947/ Ekd0ifbm (7) &uf trsKd;om;ae@rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku “jynfol@&Jabmf/ qdk&S,fvpf/
uGejf rLepfawG aygi;f rdatmif u|eaf wmfu, kd wf ikd f tpGr;f uke}f udK;pm;r,f”vd@k rde@f ceG ;f ac|jyvdu k wf t hJ cg
wjynfvHk;vef;vef;qef;qef; jzpfrd=ujyefygw,f?
1947/ Edk0ifbm (17)&ufrSm zqyv XmecsKyfu zqyv-uGefjrLepf nD!Gwfa&;vkyfief;
&yfpv J ukd +f yDv@kd a=unmygw,f? “uGejf rLepfygwu D aemufausmudk "m;eJ@x;dk aoma=umif”h vd@k vnf;
pGyfpGJxm;ygw,f?
'D=um;xJuyJ uGefjrLepfygwDu zqyvtzGJŒcsKyfu nD!Gwfa&;udky,fcsapumrl nD!Gwf
a&;udk r&raeóud;pm;rnf” vd@k azmfjy+yD;/ taxGaxGtwGi;f a&rSL; ocifoef;xGe;f &JŒ aemufq;kH jyefpm
tjzpf jyef=um;vdkufygw,f? jyef=um;wJh&uf[m 47 ckESpf/ 'DZifbm (8) &ufae@jzpfygw,f?
'DZifbm (20) &ufae@rmS zqyv jynfv;kH u|wf 'kw, d nDvmcHrmS uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ nD!w G f
a&;urf;vSr;f csuu f kd vufrcHEikd af =umif; aemufq;kH twnfðyvdu k =f uygw,f? tJ'n D vD mcHrmS OD;ausm+f ird ;f
u uGefjrLepfygwDudk }udrf;0g;±Hkru “vGwfvyfa&;&wm[m bdvyfavbmtpkd;&&JŒ aus;Zl;a=umifh”
vdk@ qdkygw,f? qkd&S,fvpfacgif;aqmif OD;udkudk}uD;uvnf; pm;yGJudkvufoD;eJ@xk+yD; uGefjrLepfygwDudk
ppfa=unmcJw h ,fqykd gw,f? qk&d , S vf pfacgi;f aqmif}uD; ‘ocifwif’ uvnf; Akv d vf usmf udk twif;
oufaoxl+yD; uGefjrLepfygwDudk pGJcsufwifcJhw,f qdkygw,f?

64 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w G af &;urf;vSr;f csuf zsuo f rd ;f cHvu kd +f y;D wJah emuf uGejf rLepf-qk&d , S f
vpfwdk@&JŒ yËdyuQ[m ydkrdkonf;oefjyif;xefvm&muae EdkifiHw0Srf;vHk; ysHESH@v$rf;òcHoGm;cJhygw,f?
txufrSm azmfjycJhwJhtwdkif; 1938 ckESpfuae 1947 ckESpfukeftxd (10) ESpfwm/ wenf;
tm;jzifh vGwv f yfa&;a=unmcge;D umv/ ArmjynfEikd if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_ordik ;f &JΠta=umif;&if;jrpf tjzpf
tysuf tcsufaemufcH ordkif;rSefor#awGudk pkpnf;aygif;csKyf ed*Hk;csKyf=unfhr,fqdk&if/ yxrqHk; Arm
jynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ tJ'Daemuf jynfolŒta&;awmfyHktzGJŒ}uD; ay:xGef;vmwmawGŒ&ygr,f? 'dk@Arm
tpnf;t±Hk;}uD;xJrSm ðryfESHyg0ifae&if;/ t*Fvdyfe,fcsJŒorm;vufatmufuae ArmjynfvGwfvyf
a&;twGuf ajratmuftzGJŒtpnf;}uD;ESpfcktjzpf v#KdŒ0Suf&yfwnf+yD; óud;yrf;tm;xkwf aqmif&Guf
cJh=uygw,f?
ArmjynfEikd if aH &;rSm vuf0t J iftm;pkrsm;&JŒ tcef;[m a&SŒwef;ta&mufq;kH jzpfvmcJo h vdk
rmhufpfvDeif0g'/ qdk&S,fvpf0g'/ vuf0JtawG;tac: t,ltqrsm;[m us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ jzpf
wnf&SifoefvmcJhygw,f? rmhufpfvDeif0g'udk vrf;!¸eftawG;tac:tjzpf ckdifcdkifrmrm cH,lqkyf
udkifolawG tzGJŒtpnf;awGay:vmovdk/ a&yef;tpm;qHk;0g'wckudk ay: jyLvmtjzpf udkifpGJvmol
awG tzGJŒtpnf;awGvnf; ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? ,Hk=unfol/ wdrf;!¸wfol/ vdkvm;ol toHk;csol
awGvnf; toGifo¿mefrsKd;pHkeJ@ jzpfwnfay:aygufvmcJhygw,f?
t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ tpd;k &udk qef@usiwf u kd cf u
kd zf @kd vufeufuikd t f iftm;pkwckvnf; ay:xGuv f m
cJyh gw,f? tJ'guawmh ‘wyfrawmf’ yg? *syefzufqpfawG&ŒJ tultnDe@J Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmif
+yD; xdkif;e,fajray:rSm pwifarG;zGm;cJh&wJh wyfrawmfyg?
'kw,d urBmppf}uD;twGi;f rSm t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ tpd;k &udk armif;xkwzf @kd óud;pm;=u&if; zufqpf
*syefwdk@&JŒvufatmuf (3) ESpfavmufusa&mufcJh&jyefygw,f? *syefawGay;wJh a&$&nfpdrfvGwfvyf
a&;&JŒ t&omudk Armjynfjynfolrsm; ezl;awGŒ 'l;awG@ óuHawGŒcHpm;cJh&zl;ygw,f? zufqpf*syefawG
udk qef@usifwGef;vSefarmif;xkwfzkd@ uGefjrLepfawGu pwifóud;yrf;v_HŒaqmf tm;xkwfcJh=uygw,f?
‘uGejf rLepfygw-D jynfoŒl ta&;awmfy-Hk wyfrawmf’ tiftm;pk (3) ck pkpnf;+y;D ‘zwyv’ }u;D ay:xGe;f
vmcJyh gw,f? zwyv wyfaygi;f pktvHawmf}uD;udk v$ix hf +l yD; u&if/ ucsi/f csi;f wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;tyg
jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk; tnD!GwfqHk; qifE$JcJh=uwJh ordkif;0if zufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD; ay:xGef;cJhyg
w,f? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD;rSm r[mrdwftiftm;pkrsm;eJ@vnf; vufwGJEdkifcJhygw,f?
zufqpfawmfveS af &; atmifjrifpmG qifE+J$ yD;csed rf mS / Armjynfukd jyefvnfu|eðf yzd@k udv k ekd t
D &Sif
ocifa[mif; t*Fvyd rf sm; jyefvnfa&muf&v dS mygw,f? ta&SŒtm&SrmS tcsKŒd aom udv k ekd v
D ufatmuf
cHEkdifiHrsm; 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;t+yD; udk,fhEdkifiH&JŒvGwfvyfa&; udk,fh[mudk,fa=unm+yD; &,lEdkifcJh=u
wm&Sdygw,f? urBmppf}uD;twGif; zufqpfrsm;udkwdkufxkwf&if; jyefvnf0ifa&mufvmwJh udkvdkeD
t&Siaf [mif;rsm;udv k nf; wqufwpyfwnf; qufvufwu kd yf 0JG if armif;xkw+f yD; ud, k v hf w
G vf yfa&;
udk,fa=unmEdkifcJh=uwJh EdkifiHrsm;vnf;&Sdygw,f? 'gayr,fh ArmjynfrSm tJ'DvdkrvkyfEdkifcJh=uyg?
puULjzLpDrHudef;eJ@ jyef0ifvmwJh e,fcsJŒt*Fvdyfrsm;udk vufcHcJh&ygw,f? uufpfbDacwfudk
jzwfoef;cHcJh&ygw,f? 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;t+yD;rSm/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHktzGJŒ[mvnf; Armjynfqdk
&S,fvpfygwDtjzpf ay:aygufvmygw,f? zwyv wyfaygif;pk}uD;[m ‘zqyv’ trnfajymif;+yD;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 65


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

tiftm;t}uD;qHk;jzpfvmygw,f? rlv uGefjrLepf/ qkd&S,fvpf/ wyfrawmftiftm;pktjyif vusfm


EdkifiHa&;orm;}uD;awG[mvnf; ‘zqyv’ xJ tHkeJ@usif;eJ@ a&muf&Sdvmygw,f? zqyv}uD;[m
=oZmt}uD;qHk; wyfaygif;pk}uD;jzpfvmygw,f?
e,fcsŒJ t*Fvyd af wG[m ‘zqyv’ }uD;&JŒ nD!w G af &;udk ròydòydatmifczJG @kd enf;rsK;d pHek @J óud;pm;
cJyh gw,f? bk&ifct H r_aqmifaumifp&D mxl;jy+yD; cGyJ gw,f? tenf;pkygomG ;ygw,f? zqyvtzGŒJ }uD;&JŒ
OuUÏ vnf;jzpf/ trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD;vnf; jzpfvmwJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ukd z,f&Sm;Edkifzdk@
óud;pm;ygw,f? aumufuspfwJh EdkifiHa&;enf;emudkoHk;+yD; ‘w&m;±Hk;Oya'a=umif;’ t& ppftwGif;
vlowfra_ wGe@J óud;pifwifa&; =uHpnfygw,f? ratmifjrifcyhJ g? ocifxeG ;f tkyv f kd tm%mavmb}uD;
olwa,mufukd Edik if jH cm;tusO;f axmifxJ xnfx h m;&muae jyefac:/ 0ef}uD;wae&may;/ e,fcsŒJ tvdk
us opPmazmufwa,mufjzpfatmif vkyEf ikd cf ahJ yr,fh vlxt k ºkH uGEikd w f hJ tajctaea=umifh vufav#mh
cJ&h ygw,f? 'gayr,fh Edik if aH &;enf;emeJ@ rvkyEf ikd cf whJ hJ Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; z,f&mS ;a&;[m/ t*Fvyd pf pf
wyfu ppfwyfenf;emoHk;+yD; vufeufawGcdk;xkwfay;/ vkyf=uHa&;vrf;a=umif;eJ@ taumiftxnf
azmfapcJhwJhtcg AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@wawG a&wdrfepfcJh&ygw,f? e,fcsJŒvufyg;apvkyfoGm;wJh
OD;apm[mvnf; tm%mavmb}uD;ol wa,mufjzpfcJh+yD; ,l*ef'gtusOf;axmifuae e,fcsJŒwdk@
udk,fwdkifjyefxkwfvm/ 0ef}uD;wae&may; arG;jrLxm;jcif;cHcJh&oljzpfygw,f? e,fcsJŒwdk@ AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef; udk z,f&Sm;csifwm[m zqyv}uD;udk òzdcGJzdk@tjyif ppfrSefwJh trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif
wa,mufukd z,f&mS ;+yD; aphpyfa&;orm;awGvufxJ tm%ma&mufaeapcsiw f mtjyif uGejf rLepfe@J
nD!Gwfa&;wnfaqmufoGm;rSm a=umuf&GHŒwJhtwGuf jrefjrefqefqef ,kwfrmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkawG tajctaeudk =unfhvdkufwJhtcg/ EdkifiHa&;tpOftvmt}uD;qHk;
uGejf rLepfygw}D u;D [m ocifp;kd &JΠtm%mavmb *d% k ;f *%0g'a=umifh ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J tvHeD
ygwt D jzpf uGo J mG ;cJ&h ygw,f? vuf0pJ eG ;f rif;rJv
h yk [ f efawGusio hf ;kH cJw
h hJ tvHe[D m tapm}u;D uwnf;
u rw&m;oif;a=unmcHcJh&+yD;aemufqHk;rSm/ tOD;qHk;aom awmcdktzGJŒtpnf;jzpfaecJhygw,f?
t+rJwef;vufeufudkifwyfrawmftjzpf ay:aygufvmcJhwJh wyfrawmf[mvnf; ‘uEDN’
pmcsKyft& jyifqifzGJŒpnf;cJh&+yD; t*FvdyfvufatmufcH ppfwyftjzpf oGwfoGif;cHcJh&um/ zqyv&JŒ
tjyifpnf;a&mufomG ;cJ&h wJh wyfrawmfom;rsm;/ bDtikd af t/ bD'aD t a[mif;rsm;/ &Jacgiaf jymufusm;
awmfvSefa&; &Jabmfa[mif;rsm;udk pkpnf;+yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u ‘jynfolŒ&JabmfwyfzGJŒ’ tjzpf
ay:aygufapcJhygw,f? jynfolŒ&Jabmf[m zqyv tzGJŒ}uD;xJrSm tiftm;pkwcktjzpf ay:aygufvm
cJhygw,f?
qkd&S,fvpf OD;ausmf+idrf; wdk@&JΠtm;xkwfr_eJ@ zqyv trsKd;om;wyfaygif;pk}uD;xJuae
uGefjrLepfygwD z,fxkwfcH&wJhtcg zqyv}uD;xJu jynfolŒ&Jabmf[mvnf; (2) ydkif;uGJoGm;cJhyg
w,f? wydik ;f u ‘wyfe’D tjzpfcaJG xmif+yD; t*Fvyd u f q kd ef@usiaf e=uwJh v,form;wyfrsm;eJ@ oGm;yl;
aygif;ygw,f? trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ òyduGJcJh&ygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@ usqHk;+yD;wJhtcg
trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ wdk;wdk;+yD; òyduGJcJh&ygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;wd@k vky=f uHrcH&cifrmS Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;&JΠacgi;f aqmifre_ @J wkid ;f &if;om;
aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;twGuf yifvpkH mcsKyf csKyfqEkd ikd cf yhJ gw,f? vGwv f yfa&;twGuf atmifqef;-tuf

66 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

wvDpmcsKyf csKyfqckd yhJ gw,f? atmifqef;-tufwvD pmcsKyfe@J ywfouf+yD; ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D


axmufjya0zefcJhygw,f? ‘rdwfaqGatmifqef; b,fvJ’ vdk@ owday;cJhygw,f? autif,luvnf;
uef@uGufcJhygw,f? atmifqef;-tufwvD pmcsKyft& ay:xGef;vmwmuawmh wdkif;ðyjynfðy v$wf
awmfa&G;aumufyGJeJ@ wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfjzpfygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; usq;kH +y;D wJah emuf ocifEk =um;jzwftpd;k & ay:ayguv f mygw,f? zqyv
tzGJŒ}uD;xJrSm aemufqHk;usef&Sdwmuawmh qkd&S,fvpf/ jynfolŒ&JabmfeJ@ qdk&S,fvpf=oZmcH tpnf;
t±Hk;rsm;/ woD;yk*~vausmfEdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;jzpfygw,f? zqyv}uD;udk t"dutkyfpD;v$rf;rdk;
xm;wmu qkd&S,fvpfrsm;jzpfygw,f? zqyv-uGefjrLepf nD!Gwfa&;udk y,fcsqef@usifcJhwm[m
vnf; t"dutm;jzifh qdk&S,fvpfrsm;yJjzpfygw,f? qkd&S,fvpfxJrSmu vusfmqdk&S,fvpf*dk%f;u
t"dujzpfygw,f?
+Adwdo#e,fcsJŒvufatmufuae vGwfvyfa&;t&,l=ua&;rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD
OD;wnfa&SŒ±_ tm;xkwfóud;yrf;oGm;wJh vrf;a=umif;u ba&muf'g0g'vufcHcJhwJh (6) vavmufu
vJ+G yD;/ e,fcsŒJ orm;udk jywfjywfom;om; wdu k yf qJG ifomG ;a&;/ vlxw k u kd yf JG enf;aygi;f pHek @J a&m/ zqyv
=um;jzwftpdk;& tm%mudkifpGJ+yD; e,fcsJŒorm;udk armif;xkwfypfEdkifa&;jzpfygw,f? e,fcsJŒorm;eJ@
raphpyfyJ awmfveS af &;enf;eJ@ ud, k v hf w G v f yfa&;udk ud, k af =unmEdik af &;jzpfygw,f? aemufq;kH umv
rSm Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; eJ@awmif n‡Ed id_ ;f wdik yf ifxm;wmu wdik ;f ðyðynfðyv$waf wmfukd olyek v f w$ af wmf
tjzpftoGiaf jymif;/ toHviG ±hf u kH okd rd ;f ydu
k uf m awmfveS af &;enf;eJ@ vGwv f yfa&;udk urBmudk a=unm
zdk@vdk@qdkygw,f? zqyv-uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&;udk jyefvnfwnfaqmuf+yD;+yD;csif;/ taumift
xnfazmf=uzdk@awmif pDpOfn‡dE_dif;xm;+yD;+yDqdkygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwD wav#mufvHk;aecJhwJh vrf;
a=umif;[m ba&muf'g (6) vavmufuvG+J y;D wdu k yf vJG rf;a=umif;twdik ;f jzpfygw,f? uGejf rLepfw@kd &ŒJ
aemufq;kH wdu k yf vJG rf;pOfqw kd m[mvnf; e,fcsŒJ orm;udk tðywfwu kd af &;yJjzpfovd/k ‘vH;k 0vGwv f yf
a&;odk@’ qkdwJh A[dkaumfrDwD qHk;jzwfcsufqdkwm[mvnf; e,fcsJŒorm;udk tav#mhray;a&; raphpyf
a&;eJ@ EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ umuG,fa&; vHk;0O\Hk trSDtcdkuif;wJh wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk; udk,fh=urRm
ud, k zf efw;D cGi&hf wdS hJ vGwv f yfa&;udk awmif;qdak ºuG;a=umfxm;ygw,f? Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfukd uGejf rL
epfygwDu qef@usif±_wfcscJhwm[m EdkifiHa&;t& vGwfvyfa&; a=unmEdkifwmu vGJvdk@/ EdkifiHa&;t&
vGwv f yfwmuvGv J @kd usew
f mawG tav#mah y;cJ&h epfemcJ&h w,fv@kd ,lq=unfjh rif oabmxm;cJv h @kd
jzpfygw,f?
OD;Ektygt0if qkd&S,fvpfvusfm*dk%f;om;rsm; tompD;&cJhwJh zqyv}uD;&JΠvGwfvyfa&;
&,la&;vrf;a=umif;u wckv;kH taeeJ@ òcHi+kH yD; oH;k oyf&r,fq&kd if wdu k yf rJG qifyJ e,fcsŒJ orm;eJ@ aphpyf
+yD; at;aq;nifompGmeJ@ &,la&;jzpfygw,f? zufqpfawmfveS af &;+yD;ump vufeufawG t*Fvyd q f D
rtyfyJ odk0Sufxm;/ vdktyf&if vufeufudkifwdkufcdkufzdk@ tqifoifhjyifxm;&r,fvdk@ pum;tm;jzifh
aºuG;a=umfcJhbl;ayr,fh um,uHajrmuf OD;wnfaqmif&GufoGm;wmu ‘aphpyfa&;enf;eJ@ vGwfvyf
a&;’ vrf;a=umif;u t"dujzpfcyhJ gw,f? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;ud, k w f ikd vf nf; tJ'v D rf;a=umif; xJrmS
tapmydik ;f umvawGrmS a&muf&adS ecJyh gw,f? “yHo h ulom;rpm;bl;vm;/ vnfv;DS om;rSpm;rSmvm;”
vdk@ ar;cJhzl;w,fqdkygw,f? aemufydkif;rSm e,fcsJŒorm;&JŒ ajcvSrf;udk wp wp wdk;wdk;+yD; jrifvm&+yD;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 67
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

wJth cgrmS / Adv


k cf sKyfu zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w G af &;vky+f yD; awmfveS af &;enf;qD a&SŒ±_vmwmawGŒ
&ygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; r&Sad wmhwahJ emufyikd ;f rSm/ qk&d ,
S v
f pfrsm; tompD;&cJw h hJ zqyv}uD;[m
e,fcsJ@orm;eJ@ aphpyfa&;vrf;udkyJ vdkufcJh+yD; wpdkufrwfrwf EdkifiHa&;tm%mudkyJ zufwG,fxm;cJhyg
w,f? zqyv =um;jzwftpdk;&tm%meJ@ vlxkwdkufyGJawGudk òzdcGJcJhygw,f? qef@usifbuf EdkifiHa&;
tiftm;pkawGtay: vufOD;r_&Sd&Sd ESdyfuGyfEdkifzdk@ =uHpnfvHk;yrf;aecJhygw,f? vGwfvyfa&; ra=unm&
ao;ayr,fh/ zqyv [m tm%m& tzGJŒtpnf;toGif jzpfaecJhygw,f? +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒrsm;[m
Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyfeJ@ zqyv vufxJ tm%mv$Jay;rSmjzpfygw,f?
ud,k af xmifxm;cJw h hJ ql;ajimifah wG ud,
k o f xd m;vd@k vm;/ ud,k zf efw;D xm;wJh tcsut
f vuf
awG udk,fóudwifodaevdk@ vm;awmhrajymwwfyg? e,fcsJŒorm; xdyfoD;}uD;jzpfwJh 0ifpwefcsmcsDu
“Armjynfudk vGwfvyfa&;ay;vdkuf&if aoG;acsmif;pD; jynfwGif;ppf}uD;ay:vmvdrfhr,f” vdk@ óudwif
edrdwfzwfay;+yD; jzpfygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwDu zqyvuGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&;udk wnfaqmufzdk@ wzufowf tvHv$ifhxl
xm;wm awGŒ&ygr,f? trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ òyduGJaewJhvuQ%mawG wae@wjcm; xGufay:
vmaewJh=um;u wifxm;wJhtvHjzpfaeygw,f? uGefjrLepf-qkd&S,fvpf yËdyuQ/ qkd&S,fvpf-jynf
olŒ&Jabmf yËdyuQawG ay:vGifvmaeygw,f? ‘1947 ckESpf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'’ }uD;[m
vnf; tqifoifh&Sdae+yDjzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;a=unmzdk@twGuf &ufa&G;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?

68 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEkdifiHawmftvH (1948)

yxrqHk; jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEkdifiHawmftpdk;&
acgif;aqmifwcsdKΠ(1948 = 1951)

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH
yxrqHk;orw}uD; pyfa&$odkuf yxrqHk;0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH yxrqHk; jynfxJa&;ESifhw&m;a&;0ef}uD;Xme


'k0ef}uD;csKyf Adkvfvusfm OD;ausmf+idrf;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 69
69
1952 ckESpf a&G;aumufyGJrSay:xGufvmaom tpdk;&tzGJŒ0iftcsdKŒ

EdkifiHawmforw a'gufwm OD;bOD; EdkifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek

OD;baqG Adkvfcifarmifuav;
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;Xme jynfxJa&;Xme0ef}uD;

OD;cifarmifvwf ref;0if;armif ocifwif


w&m;a&;ESifh o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;ESifh v,f,majrjynfolydkifðy
jynfol@0efxrf;Xme0ef}uD; vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;Xme0ef}uD; vkyfa&;Xme0ef}uD;

70
1956 ckESpf a&G;aumufyGJrSay:xGufvmaom tpdk;&tzGJŒ0iftcsdKŒ

EdkifiHawmforw ref;0if;armif EdkifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek

OD;baqG ocifwif OD;ausmf+idrf;


'k0ef}uD;csKyf 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifh 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifh
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;Xme0ef}uD; jynfol@vkyfief;Xme0ef}uD; trsdK;om;pD;yGm;a&;Xme0ef}uD;

Adv
k cf ifarmifav; ocifomcif OD;cifarmifvwf
b¾ma&;ESihf jynfxJa&;Xme0ef}uD; w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
tcGefawmfXme0ef}uD;
71
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

tydkif; ( 1 )
1948 = 1958 umv

vG w f v yf a &;ud k a -unmjcif ; /

jrefrmouU&mZf 1309 ckeSpfjymodkvqkwf (9) &uf/


c&mZfouU&mZf 1948 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (4) &uf/
eHeuf (4) em&D rdepf (20) tcsdefrSm æ

vGwfvyfaomjrefrmEdkifiHtjzpf urBmudka=unmvdkufygw,f? t±k%fwufcgp ESif;zGJzGJav;


awGusaeqJ aumif;uifatmufrmS òrdŒawmf&efuek &f ŒJ bk&ifct H rd af wmf0if;a&SŒrSm tm%mvGaJ jymif;wJh
tcrf;tem;usif;yygw,f//
Armajray:rSm ESpfaygif; (120) ausmfv$ifhxlxm;cJhwJh +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;wdk@&JΠ,leD,H*suf
tvH[m wjznf;jznf; rav#mcsif av#mcsifeJ@ av#muscJh&+yD;/ 1947 ckESpf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccH
Oya'eJ@twl ay:ayguv f mcJw
h hJ jrefrmEdik if aH wmf&ŒJ tvHopf[m wjznf;jznf; jrifw h ufviG x
hf l ae&m
,lvdkufygw,f?
wdkif;ðyjynfðy v$wfawmftwGif;usif;ywJh vGwfvyfa&;tcrf;tem;yGJukd ArmjynfuGefjrLepf
ygwD taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; ocifoef;xGef;eJ@ uGefjrLepftrwfrsm;vnf; wwfa&muf=uygw,f?
tpdk;&tzGJŒ0iftrwfrsm;vnf; wwfa&muf=uygw,f//
vGwv f yfa&;tcrf;tem; usi;f ywJt h cg tcrf;tem;pifjrifah y:rSm ÁajENou d mQ xnf0gpmG eJ@
cef@cef@}uD;xdkifae=uoltrsm;pkum;/ ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;wdkufyGJw
avsmuf a&SŒwef;tcef;u wdkufyGJqifzl;olawGr[kwfyJ/ EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:t&/ pnf;±kH;a&;t&
vnf; xif&Sm;=uolawGr[kwf/ tpOftvmt&vnf; xufjrufxif&Sm;=uolawGr[kwfyg// ppfppf
ayguaf yguf a&wGu=f unfrh S ocifEt k ygt0if vGwv f yfa&;wdu
k yf tJG wGi;f a&SŒwef;tcef;u yg0ifczhJ ;l
ol vufwzufpmawmifr&Sdbl;qdkygw,f//
vGwfvyfa&;a=unmt+yD;rSm xGufay:vmcJhwJh EdkifiHawmf[m ‘jynfaxmifpkorw jrefrm
EdkifiHawmf’ jzpfygw,f?

72 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vGwv f yfaom jrefrmEdik if &H ŒJ tvHawmf[m teDa&mifaemufcaH y:rSm vuf0aJ 'gihf tjyma&mif
pwk*HeJ@/ tjyma&mifpwk*HuGufxJ =u,fyGifh (6) yGifh&SdwJh tvHawmfjzpfygw,f/ tv,f&Sd =u,fyGifh
}uD;wyGifhudk =u,fyGifh (5) yGifhu 0ef;&Hxm;ygw,f// =u,fyGifh}uD;u jrefrm/ rGef/ &cdkif udk&nf!¸ef;+yD;/
=u,fyiG hf (5) yGiuhf &Sr;f / csi;f / ucsi/f u&if/ u,m;udk &nf!e¸ ;f w,fv@kd qykd gw,f? tajccH+y;D vdu k ef m
usifhoHk;rJh Oya'u “1947 ckESpf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'” jzpfygw,f//
wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfudk ,m,DygvDreftjzpf owfrSwf+yD;/ ygvDref'Drdkua&pDpepftwdkif;
taumiftxnfazmf usifhoHk;tkyfcsKyfoGm;r,fjzpfygw,f//
EdkifiHawmf[m jynfaxmifpkorwEdkifiHawmfvdk@ uifyGef;wyfac:a0:ayr,fh/ 1947 ckESpf
zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkajccHOya'vm ‘jynfaxmifpk’ ykHo¿mef[m “wjynfaxmifqefwJh jynfaxmifpk”
yHo
k ¿mefrsKd ;jzpfaew,fv@kd zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'qdik &f m u|r;f usio f rl sm;u tuJjzwfc=hJ uyg
w,f//
yxrqH;k orw}u;D tjzpf anmifa&$apmfbmG ;}u;D p0fa&$ou kd u
f akd &G;cs,+f y;D / yxrqH;k 0ef}u;D csKyf
‘ocifEk’ jzpfvmygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEktpdk;&tzGJŒrSm æ
Adkvfvufsm - 'k0ef}uD;csKyfeJ@umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;/
OD;wifxÉG f - EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;Xme0ef}uD;/
OD;ausmf+idrf; - jynfxJa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
OD;wif - b¾ma&;eJ@ tcGefawmfXme0ef}uD;
OD;b*srf; - w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
ocifwif - pdkufysdK;a&;eJ@ aus;vufpD;yGm;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
Adkvfzdk;uGef; - jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;0ef}uD;Xme0ef}uD;
OD;jr([omFw) - trsdK;om;pDrHudef;Xme0ef}uD;
OD;ndKxGef; - jyef=um;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
OD;udkudk=uD; - ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;eJ@ axmufyHha&;Xme0ef}uD;
ref;0i;farmif - pufr_vufr_eSifh tvkyform;Xme0ef}uD;
OD;xGef;jrifh - &Srf;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;
apmpHzdk;oif - u&ifjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;
qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif - ucsifjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;
p0f0À - u&ifeDjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;
OD;0rf;ol;armif - csif;a&;&mXme0ef}uD;
AdkvfpdefrSef - Xmevufudkifr&Sd0ef}uD; - wdk@jzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;ae@rSm “atmifapownf;” vdk@O'gef;csDwJh vGwfvyfa&; a=unmpmwrf;udk
xkwfjyefa=unmvdkufygw,f?
TtcsdefrSpI igwdk@. rlvtydkifjzpfaom vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;ukd igwdk@jyef,l+yD; wdkif;&if;om;
taygif;wdk@ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfvsuf tcGifhta&; tqifhtwef;wlnDonfh jynfaxmifpkorwEdkifiH
awmf}uD;udk wnfaxmif+yDvdk@vnf; a=unmaºuG;a=umfvdkufygw,f//

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 73


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

orwp0fa&$odkuf&JŒ o0%fv$m 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk&JŒ o0%fv$m/ 'k0ef}uD;csKyf Adkvfvufsm&JŒ


o0%fv$mwdk@udkvnf; zwf=um; a=unmvdkufygw,f//
orw}uD;&JŒ o0%fvmG rSm “,ck u|Eyfk w f @dk vufqyk v f ufuikd f tydik &f &S+d yDjzpfaom vGwv f yf
a&; qkx;l r*Fvm}uD;onfum; vufeufpu JG ikd I
f tiftm;jcif;òydiu f m t=urf;zufrj_ zif&h &Sad om vGwf
vyfa&;qk}uD;r[kwfrlI +AdwdefEdkifiHESifh rdwfo*F[tjzpfodk@ a&muf=uonfESifhtnD cspf=unfav;
jrwfpGm aphpyfnd‡E_dif;I &&Sdtyfaom vGwfvyfa&; r*Fvmqk}uD;yifjzpfawmhonf?” vkd@ azmfjycJh+yD;/
0ef}uD;csKyf&JŒ o0%fvGmrSm “,ck u|Efkyfwdk@. EdkifiHawmf}uD;Y vlrsdK;a&;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/vlrsdK;pk
tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ EkdifiHa&;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ wOD;jcif;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif; rnD!Gwfr_rsm;
roifhwifhr_rsm; &SdzG,frvdk+yD? u|Ekfyfwdk@. Zmwdjzpfaom TEkdifiHawmf}uD;. tusdK;udka&SŒ&_I jynf
axmifpkEdkifiHawmfol EdkifiHom;wdk@tm; udk,fusdK;udkriJhuGufyJ/ nD!Gwf=u&efESifh óud;yrf;=u&ef ,ck
u|Efkyfwdk@u wdkufwGef;Ekd;aqmftyfygonf” vdk@ aºuG;a=umf azmfjyxm;ygw,f?
'k0ef}uD;csKyf Adkvfvufsmuawmh olŒ&JŒo0%fvGmxJrSm EdkifiHawmf&JŒopPmukd apmifhod±kdao
a&;eJ@ywfowf+yD; “tu,fI EdkifiHawmf&Sd vuf0Jtiftm;pkwdk@ wnDw!GwfxJ&Sdygu ajymifajrmuf
atmifjrif&ef ruGmvSrf;vSawmhaom qdk&S,fvpf0g'}uD;twGuf aqmif&GufusifhoHk;=ujcif;omv#if
EdkifiHawmf.opPmudk apmifhod±dkaoonfrnfownf;” vdk@ teufzGifh azmfusL;oGm;ygw,f//
wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf (,m,DygvrD ef) rSmvnf; orw}u;D eJ@ 0ef}u;D csKyfw@kd u rde@f ceG ;f pum;
awG ajym=um;=uygw,f? orw}uD; p0fa&$odkufu tpdk;&&JΠ0g'vrf;pOfeJ@ywfowf+yD; &Sif;vif;rdef@
=um;&mrSm ‘jrefrmjynfaxmifpw k iG f t&if;&Si0f g'udk ydwyf ify,fzsuI f Edik if aH wmf. vkyif ef;aqmifwm
t00udk wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;om ydkifqdkifcGifh&Sdaom qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHwnfaqmuf&efjzpfayonf//”
qd+k yD; twdtvif; azmfjyoGm;ovdk ‘Tjynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if w H iG f &S&d o
dS r#aom Edik if o H m;rsm;onf
zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'wGiyf g&o dS nft h wdik ;f wOD;ESiw hf OD; tcGit hf a&;csi;f wln=D uap” vd@k vnf;
orw&JŒ tm%mpufukd usio hf ;kH +y;D xkwjf yefa=unmoGm;ygw,f? 'Ge;f p¾m;/ olawmif;pm;/ bk&m;u|ef
ausmif;u|ef/ oifcsdwdk@udkvnf; ‘,ae@rSpI a&S;trif;rif;wdk@. tm%mpufudk u|Efkyfy,fzsufI
xdo k wl @kd . oabmtwdik ;f vkyv f akd om tvkyrf sKd ;pHu k kd vGwv f yfpmG vkyu f ikd Ef ikd =f uap’ vd@k trde@f csrwS f
a=unmvdkufygw,f//
Edik if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEu k vnf; vGwv f yfa&;rde@f ceG ;f }uD;udk wcrf;wem;ajym+yD; ‘u|Eyfk f
wdk@wawG[m 'Dae@up+yD; EdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;wckwnf;udkom &wmr[kwfygbl;// jynfaxmifpkjrefrm
EkdifiHwdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;&JŒ pnf;vHk;r_udkyg xyf=uyfruGm&jcif;jzpfygw,f’ vdk@ teuft"dy`g,fzGifhqdk
vdu k yf gw,f? vGwv f yfa&;ausmufwikd f tkwjf rpfcsyu JG v kd nf; vGwv f yfa&;ae@rmS yJ ðyvkycf +hJ y;D 0ef}u;D csKyf
ocifEku tkwfjrpfcsyGJ rdef@cGef;ay;cJhjyefygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;ausmufwdkif tkwfjrpfcsyGJxJrSmawmh
“,ae@&&SdwJh vGwfvyfa&;[m toif;tzGJŒwckwnf;&JŒ vGwfvyfa&;r[kwfyg? jynfolŒ&Jabmf/
qdk&S,fvpf/ uGefjrLepf/ vli,f/ trsdK;orD;/ awmifolv,form; tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk; or*~
tp&SdwJh toif;tzGJŒtpnf;toD;oD;u udk,fqdkif&m e,fedrdwftwGif;rSaeI e,fcsJŒ}uD;udk 0dkif;tHk
wdu k cf u
kd cf =hJ uwma=umifh &&Sv d mwJh vGwv f yfa&;jzpfwt hJ wGuf ,ck vGwv f yfa&;[m jynfoŒl &Jabmf
qdk&S,fvpf/ uGefjrLepf/ vli,f/ trsdK;orD;/ awmifolv,form;/ tvkyform;/ tpnf;t±Hk; or*~

74 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tp&Sw d hJ rsm;ajr‡mifvpS mG aom toif;tzGŒJ tm;vH;k . vGwv f yfa&;jzpfw,f” vd@k zGi[ hf ajymqdo
k mG ;yg
w,f//
tòrdŒòrdŒte,fe,fawGrSmvnf; vGwfvyfa&;atmifyGJobifawG usif;yapcJhygw,f//
vGwfvyfaom jrefrmEdkifiHawmf&JŒ zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'uvnf; 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEk
tqdt k & ‘vuf0’J rsKd ;aphawG tajrmuftjrm;yg&o dS vd/k 'DzŒJG pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
Hk ajccH Oya'tkwjf rpf}uD;
ay: wnfaqmufr,fh jrefrmEdkifiHawmf}uD;[m vuf0Jbufudk ,drf;aewJh EdkifiHawmfygvdk@ awmfawmf
apmapmuxJu aºuG;a=umfxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f?
EkdifiHawmforw}uD;&JΠvGwfvyfa&;ae@rdef@cGef;/ Adkvfvufsm&JΠvGwfvyfa&;ae@ o0%fv$m
awGuvnf; qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHawmftjzpf csDwufa&;qD OD;wnfaewmawGŒ&ygw,f?
‘Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf’/ ‘aphpyf,lcJh&wJhvGwfvyfa&;’ eJ@ wnfaxmifcsifw,fqkdwJh ‘qdk&S,f
vpfEdkifiHawmf’ [m b,fvdktoGifay:vmr,fqdkwmawmh qufvuf=unfh=uzdk@yJjzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu 'DvGwfvyfa&;[m EdkifiHa&;tm;jzifh vGwfvyfaomfvnf; pD;yGm;
a&;tm;jzifh rvGwfvyfao;a=umif;/ pD;yGm;a&;vGwfvyfr_twGufyg qufvufwdkufyGJ0if=u&OD;rnf
jzpfa=umif; owday;E_d;aqmfygw,f?

vG w f v yf a &;&ump ArmEd k i f i H t ajctae

vGwv f yfa&;a=unmEdik v f u
kd af yr,fh vGwv f yfa&;&ump ArmEdik if t H ajctae[m vGwv f yf
a&;eJ@twl tcuftcJaygi;f pH/k t=uyftwnf;aygi;f pHk yËdyuQaygi;f pHv k nf; uyfygvmcJ+h yD;/ &ifav;p&m
taetxm;jzpfygw,f?
pD;yGm;a&;t& =unfrh ,fq&kd ifvnf; vGwv f yfa&;a=unmzd@k taºuG;eJ@pcJ&h ovdk jzpfygw,f?
Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyft& jyefay;ygr,f/ oabmwlygw,fv@kd tmrbaE cW x H m;&wJh taºu;G u +Aw d o d #
udkay;qyf&ef usyfaiG (35 ukaÉ 6 oef;)/ tar&duefudkay;qyf&ef a':vm (5oef;)/ +Adwdo#wdk@
jrefrmEdkifiHudk udkvdkeDðy tkyfcsKyfzdk@ac:,lcef@xm;cJh=uwJh tdENd,eJ@ ygupPwefom; tr_xrf; t&mxrf;
awGtwGuf yifpifvpmtjzpfay;zd@k u (wenf;tm;jzif)h udv k ekd ðD yc aºu;G u usyaf iG (6 ukaÉ 9 oef;)
jzpfygw,f? Armjynf}uD;udk ESpaf ygi;f (120) avmufu|eðf y aoG;pkyf tjrwfxw k v f mcJ=h uolawGqu D
tavsm&f zd@k aeaeomom/ aoG;pkycf =hJ uolawG&ŒJ t&if;tES;D vkyif ef;udik if ef;awGu/kd ArmEkid if t H pd;k &u
vdktyfovdk ta&;,laqmif&Gufr,fqdk avsmfa=u;ay;yghr,fvdk@awmif uwdcH pmcsKyfxm;&ygw,f?
tJ'Dt&if;tESD;uvnf; usyfaiGukaË (60) ausmf&Sdygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;a=unmwJhtcsdefrSm Armjynf&JŒvlOD;a&[m (17) oef;ausmf&Sd+yD; ukvm;u
woef;ausmf&Sdygw,f? tJ'Dh ukvm;woef;ausmf[m e,fcsJŒ+Adwdo#wdk@ udkvdkeDðyaoG;pkyfzdk@/ 1908
ckESpfuae 1929 ckESpftwGif; qGJoGif;vmwmudk vufcHcJh&wJh ta&twGufjzpfygw,f?
v,f,mpdu k yf sKd ;a&;udyk J tajccH&wJh Edik if jH zpfwthJ wGuf (70) &mcdik ;f E_e;f ausm[f m aus;vuf
awm&Gmae v,form;rsm;jzpf=uygw,f? v,fajr (19) oef;cGaJ usm&f ydS gw,f? t"du pyg;pdu k yf sKd ;wJh
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 75
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

c±dkif 'dp}udwf (13) ckrSm (50) &mcdkifE_ef;[m ajr&Sif}uD;rsm; ydkifajrawGjzpfygw,f//tJ'Dh ajr&Sif ydkifajr
awGudk=unfhvdkuf&if (50) &mcdkifE_ef;[m cspfwD;ydkifajrawGjzpfygw,f?
Armjynf}uD;[m 1942 uae 1945 ckESpf (3) ESpf twGif;rSmudk t}uD;tus,f ppfab;
ppf'%f ESpaf usmjh yef cHxm;&ygw,f? *syefawG0ifvmumpu AH;k }uJwu kd cf ukd +f yD; 0ifvmwmcHc&hJ ovdk
t*Fvyd af wGjyef0ifvmawmhvnf; t}uD;tus,f AH;k }uJwu kd cf u
kd +f yD; 0ifvmwmcHc&hJ ygw,f? *syefawG
0ifwkef;u atmifjrifpGmqkwfcGmw,fqdkwJh udkvdkeDt*FvdyfawG[m ta&;}uD;vrf;wHwm;rSefor#
csdK;zsuf/ a&eHwGif; owWKwGif;awGukdvnf; pdwf&Sdvuf&Sd ±dkufcsdK;zsufoGm;=uovdk/ *syefzufqpfrsm;
r±_rvS qkwfcGmxGufajy;&awmhvnf; vrf;wHwm;rSefor# csdK;zsuf/ rD;&xm;vrf;eJ@ &xm;acgif;wGJ
awGudkyg zsufqD;oGm;=ujyefygw,f? e,fcsJŒ+Adwdo#eJ@ zufqpf*syefwdk@&JŒ t0ifzsuf txGufzsuf
ESpaf usmjh yefzsuq f ;D ajrvSeyf pfcjhJ cif;udk r±_rvSccH &hJ wJh jrefrmjynf}uD;[m =unfrh aumif; jrifraumif;
'%f&m'%fcsuaf wGe@J jzpfygw,f? vrf;yef;qufo, G af &;taeeJ@ ta&;}uD; vrf;wHwm;rsm; csKd ;zsucf H
xm;&wJt h wGuf raumif;yg? ppfuikd ;f wHwm;/ *kwx f yd w
f w
H m;/ ppfawmif;wHwm;rsm; csKd ;zsucf x H m;&
ygw,f? rD&xm;vrf;eJ@ &xm;acgi;f wGt J rsm;pk[mvnf; ysupf ;D aeygw,f? tzsucf x H m;&wJh a&eHwiG ;f /
owWKwGif;rsm;[mvnf; tjynfht0 jyefvnfxkwf,ltoHk;csEdkifjcif; r&Sdao;yg?
EdkifiHa&;t&=unfhr,fqdk&ifvnf; vGwfvyfa&;a=unmEkdifwmuvGJvdk@ ta&;}uD;qHk; trsdK;
om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;[m òyduGJaeygw,f? tm%m& zqyv }uD;twGif;rSmudk EdkifiHa&;oabm
xm;/ EdkifiHa&;tjrif t,ltqawG rwlnDEkdif=uovdk *dk%f;*%tkyfpk yËdyuQawG tajccHusus
jzpfwnfaeygw,f? txl;ojzifh qdk&S,fvpfeJ@ jynfolŒ&Jabmf yËdyuQ jzpfay:wnf&Sdaeygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wrH óud;yrf;tm;xkwfcJh=uolawGtrsm;pk[m/ tm%mt0ef;
t0dik ;f &JŒ tjyifbuf uefxw k x f m;jcif;cH&ygw,f? e,fcsJ Œt*Fvyd f armif;xkwaf &;/ zufqpf *syefawmf
vSefa&;awGrSm b,fwkef;urS a&SŒqHk;ur&SdcJholawG[m acgif;aygif;pwaxmifaxmifeJ@ tpdk;&tzGJŒ
twGif;rSm ae&m,lxm;=uygw,f? tpdk;&tzGJŒtwGif;rSm t"du tompD;&xm;wmu qdk&S,fvpf
awGjzpfygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;tay:rSmudk tm%m& zqyv}uD;u ‘vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;’ ‘'if;jynfh
usyjf ynfv h wG v f yfa&;’ vdk ch , H +l yD;/ uGejf rLepfrsm;uawmh/ Edik if aH &;t& vGwv f yfayr,fh pD;yGm;a&;t&
rvGwv f yfao;/ udv k ekd aD ESmifóu;d wJxm;or#ukd t+y;D tydik jf zwfawmufjypfz@kd vdak o;w,fv@kd qykd gw,f?
c&Geb f -D jrpmcsKyf/ vufsm-z&D;rif;pmcsKyf eJ@ Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyfyg tcsut f vufawGukd axmufjyyg
w,f?
EdkifiHawmf’ yHko¿mefuvnf; jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmfvdk@ac:a0:ayr,fh jynfaxmifpkxJyg
‘jynfe,frsm;’ udpP/ e,fedrdwfowfrSwfa&;udpP &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; rowfrSwf&ao;yg// t=urf;jzif;
tm;jzifh &Sr;f rsm;twGuf &Sr;f jynfe,feJ h ucsirf sm;twGuf ucsijf ynfe,fom&Sad o;+y;D / rGef ESihf &cdik f
twGuf jynfe,fr&Sdyg? &mrnwdkif;/ &cdkifwdkif;tjzpfom owfrSwfxm;ygw,f? csif;udkvnf; ‘0dao
owdkif;’ tjzpfom owfrSwfxm;ygw,f? zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'u u&ifrsm;twGuf
‘aumfo;l av’ txl;a'o zG@J pnf;ay;xm;ayr,f/h e,ferd w d u f pd P &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; jywfjywfom;om;
owfrSwfEdkifr_r&Sdao;yg? u&ifeDjynfe,f(u,m;jynfe,f) uawmh a&S;Armrif;rsm;vufxufuxJ
u jrefrm-t*Fvdyf pmcsKyfukd 1875 ckESpf/ ZGefv (21) &ufae@rSmvufrSwfa&;xdk;+yD; udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf

76 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

a&;eJ@ oD;jcm;&yfwnfapcJhwJh jynfe,fjzpfygw,f? u&if/ rGef/ &cdkif rsm;twGuf wdusaom jynfe,f


rsm;r&Sdao;yg?
umuG,af &;bufuae =unfrh ,fq&kd ifvnf; vGwv f yfcgp jrefrmEdik if aH wmf}uD;rSm +Adwo d #&ŒJ
ppfrpf&SiftzGJŒudk qufvufvufcHxm;&ygw,f? Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyft& "eo[m,0ifrsm;&JŒ
ppfav,mOf/ a&,mOfrsm; 0ifxu G f qdu k u f yfem;cdck iG u hf kd cGiðhf yvufcx H m;&ygw,f? umuG,af &;0ef}uD;
tjzpf Adkvfvufsmuwm0ef,lxm;+yD;/ wyfrawmfwckvHk;&JΠppfOD;pD;csKyfuawmh AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef;
jzpfygw,f? 'kw, d ppfO;D pD;csKyfu Adv k rf ª;csKyfapm=um'd;k jzpfygw,f? ppfaxmufcsKyfu Adv k rf ª;}u;D apm'Geef D
jzpf+y;D / Adv
k rf ª;csKyfapmcspcf if/ 'kAv kd rf ;ª }u;D apmv,f'g/ 'kAv kd rf ª;}u;D apmatmif'if/ 'kAv kd rf ª;}u;D apmatmif
pdefwdk@vdk u&iftrsdK;om;wyfrawmft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;vnf; wyfrawmfxJrSm &Sd=uygw,f? 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;
aZ,s/ 'kAv kd rf ;ª }uD; &JxÉG f / 'kAvkd rf ;ª }uD;ausmaf Zmwd@k vkd &Jabmfo;kH udsy0f if uGejf rLepfygw0D ifwyfrawmf
t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;uvnf; wyfrawmfxJrSm w&m;0if&Sd=uovdk Adkvfpdefwif/ AdkvfoufxGef;/ Adkvfrif;'if/
Adkvfodef;/ AdkvfvSarmf/ Adkvf&Jarmif/ Adkvfatmifjrifh/ Adkvfat;az pwJh uGefjrLepfygwD0if wyfrawmf
t&m&Srd sm;[mvnf; wyfrawmf&ŒJ wyf&if;toD;oD;rSm&S=d uygw,f// Adv k rf ;ª csKyfatmifoif; u awmif
ydkif;wdkif; wdkif;rª;jzpf+yD; Adkvfrª;csKyfae0if;u ajrmufydkif;wkdif; wdkif;rª;jzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;a=unmcgptcsdefrSm wyfrawmfxJrSm Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if; (6) ck&Sdw,f?
u&ifaoewfudkifwyf&if; (3) &if;/ csif;aoewfudkifwyf&if; (2) &if;/ ucsifaoewfudkif wyf&if; (3)
&if;eJ@ a*:&cg;aoewfuikd w f yf&if; (1) &if;vnf;&Syd gw,f? tJ't hD csed rf mS ‘wyfrawmf’ xJu r[kww f hJ
wjcm;vufeufudkifwyfzGJŒrsm;vnf; w&m;0ifwnf&Sdaeygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh +Adwdo#vufxuf
uxJuzGJŒxm;cJh+yD;jzpfwJh u&ifppf&Jwyfrsm;/ vdktyf&if t*FvdyfudkawmfvSefzdk@ &nf&G,fzGJŒpnf;xm;cJh
wJh jynfoŒl &JabmfwyfzŒJG rsm;/ wyfrawmftwGuf vdt k yf&if wd;k csŒJ zGŒJ pnf;Ekid &f ef &nf&, G zf ŒJG pnf;xm;cJh
wJh aomif;usef;r_ ESdrfESif;a&;wyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;eJ@ autif,l (KNU) u zGJŒpnf;xm;wJh autif'Dtdk
(KNDO) wyfzGJŒrsm;/ rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;u zGJŒpnf;xm;wJh trftif'Dtdk (MNDO) wyfzGJŒrsm;/ apmf
bGm;rsm;&JŒ cg;ydkufaqmifwyfzGJŒawGjzpfwJh ‘&Srf;ykvdyfrsm;’ jzpf=uygw,f? aomif;usef;r_ESdrfeif;a&;
wyfuae ‘jynfaxmifpkppf&Jwyf’ (UMP) jzpfvmwJhtcg tJ'Dh ,ltrfyDwyf&if;awGxJrSmvnf;
jynfolŒ&Jabmfrsm; yg0ifaecJhygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;ra=unmEdkifcifuxJu Armjynfa'otoD;oD;rSm &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;ae=uwJh
tiftm;pkrsm;/ vufeufuidk w f yfzŒJG rsm;vnf; Armjynfvw G v f yfa&; a=unm+yD;ptcsed rf mS tcdik t f rm
wnf&Sdaeygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh tvHeDwyf/ wyfeD/ &cdkifuGefjrLepf/ &cdkifvli,ftpnf;t±Hk;eJ@
rl*sm[pfrsm;jzpf=uygw,f? ocifpdk;&JŒ tvHeDygwDeJ@ tvHeDygwDwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;[m 1946 uwnf;u
rw&m;oif; a=unmcHxm;&+yD;/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; =um;jzwftpdk;&vufxufrSm rw&m;oif;rS
±kwo f rd ;f ay;cJah o;ayr,f/h r=umrDrmS yJ rw&m;oif;tjzpf qufvufxw k jf yef owfrw S jf cif;jyefvnf
cH&um zsmyHke,fw0dkufrSm &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;aecJh=uygw,f?
wyfeDrsm;u ysOf;rem;e,f/ &cdkifuGefjrLepfrsm;u oHwGJe,f/ OD;pdE Wm/ AHkaygufomausmf wdk@&JŒ
&cdik vf il ,ftpnf;t±H;k u &cdik af wmifyikd ;f eJ@ tAŠ'u l mqifacgi;f aqmifwhJ ‘rl*sm[pf’ rsm;u &cdik f
ajrmufyikd ;f bl;oD;awmifarmif;awme,fwdk@rSm toD;oD;v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 77


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

Armjynf&ŒJ vGwv f yfa&;a=unm+y;D ptajctaeudk csKyf=unfrh ,fq&kd if/ Armjynf[m +Aw d od #


e,fcsJŒorm;rsm;&JŒ ESpfaygif; (120) ausmf=um udkvdkeDðyaoG;pkyfjcif;udk &uf&ufpufpufcHcJh&wJhtjyif/
'kwd,urBmppf}uD;&JŒ ppfab;ppf'%fudkvnf; xyfqifhcHpm;cJh&wJhtwGuf bufaygif;pHk qHk;±_H;epfemr_
awG }uD;rm;rsm;jym;vSygw,f? trsKd ;om;aoG;pnf;nD!w G rf u
_ kd tcdik tf rmwnfaqmuf+yD; wdik ;f jynf
jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;udk OD;wnfvkyfaqmif&r,fhtpm;/ trsKd;om;aoG;uGJr_awGudk &if=um;raphEdkifyJ
yËdyuQavmifpmawG[m xkeJ@xnfeJ@ wnf&Sdaeygw,f? e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;/ zufqpfawmfvSefa&;
awGrmS a&SŒwef;tcef;u OD;aqmifco hJ t l rsm;pk[m ab;udak &mufae=u+y;D / +Aw d o
d #e,fcsŒJ orm;rsm;u
,H, k =kH unf=unf tm%mvGaJ jymif;ay;tyfwmudk &,lvufccH o hJ al wG trsm;pk}uD;[m *d% k ;f *%pdwf
}uD;rm;olawG/ acwfrDatmif vuf0Judkatmf+yD; vufsmudkoGm;csifwJh vufsmorm;}uD;awGjzpf
aewmudk awGŒ&ygw,f? tm%m& ‘zqyv’ tzGŒJ }uD;twGi;f rSm *d% k ;f *% yËdyu/Q vuf0-J vufsm
yËdyuQawG tkHeJ@usif;eJ@ wnf&Sdaeygw,f?
jzpfwnfay:aygufvmwJh tpdk;&tzGJŒudk =unfhvdkufr,fqdk&ifudk tajccHrwlnDolawGudk
qGpJ pk yfxm;wmawGŒ&r,fjzpfygw,f? zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w G af &; wnfaqmufa&;/ wzufowf
zsufodrf;jiif;y,fxm;jcif;cH&+yD; zqyv xJrSm qdk&S,fvpfwdk@u tompD;&xm;ygw,f? qdk&S,fvpf
pepfudkoGm;r,fvdk@ twdtvif; aºuG;a=umfxm;ygw,f? jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmftjzpf aºuG;a=umf
xm;ayr,fh/ tajccH jynfaxmifpkzGJŒpnf;yHk yHko¿mefeJ@ywfouf+yD;udkyJ rausvnfr_awG&Sdaeovdk/
jynfaxmifpkwGif;&Sd vlrsdK;pktcsdKŒ&JŒ uef@uGufr_/ rauseyfr_/ apm'uwufr_awG tpuwnf;u
wnf&Sdjzpfay:aecJhygw,f?
jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&;tif;tmpkawGtm;vHk;&JŒ taetxm;udk t=urf;zsif; òcHiHk=unfhr,fqdk&if/
tm%m& zqyv}uD;eJ@twl wnf&Sdae=uwJh EdkifiHa&;ygwD/ tzGJŒtpnf;/ or*~rsm;vnf; pifòydif
wnf&adS ewm awGŒ&ygw,f? wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pktzGŒJ tpnf; toif;tyif;awGxrJ mS awmif tm%m&
zqyv eJ@twl&yfwJh tzGJŒtpnf;/ toif;tyif;eJ@ zqyv udkqef@usif+yD; twdkuftcHtjzpf
&yfwnfwJh tzGJŒtpnf;/ toif;tyif; ESpfydkif;uGJjym;aewmawGŒ&ygw,f? twdkuftcHoabm/ EdkifiH
a&;tiftm;pkawGxrJ mS ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw[ D m tiftm;t}uD;qH;k eJ@ =oZmt}uD;qH;k jzpfygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;tpOftvmt& tjrifhqHk;jzpfovdk/ ygwDoufwrf;t&vnf; oufwrf;t&ifhqHk;jzpfygw,f?
tm%m& zqyv}uD;eJ@twl &yfwnf wnf&SdaewJh EkdifiHa&;tzGJŒtpnf;awGtwGif;rSmawmif
uGefjrLepfvdkvm;olawG &SdaewJhtxd EdkifiHa&;=oZm}uD;vSygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ Edik if aH &;t&Sed =f oZmudk todtrSwrf ðy&ifrjzpfwt hJ wGuf Edik if aH wmf0ef}u;D csKyf
ocifEk uawmif zqyv xJu trwf (10) OD;avmufudk txGufcdkif;/ tJ'Dhae&mawGrSm uGefjrLepf
awGe@J tpm;xd;k a&G;cs,/f ocifoef;xGe;f udk twdu k tf cHacgi;f aqmiftjzpf wifajr‡muf+yD;/ v$waf wmf
twGi;f yg0ifEikd af tmif pOf;pm;pdwu f ;l zl;w,fqykd gw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ't hD csed u
f ocifEk [m Edik if aH wmf
tpd;k &tzGŒJ &JŒ 0ef}u;D csKyfqakd yr,fh ygwv D ufuikd rf &Sw
d hJ woD;yk*v ~ omjzpfae+y;D / zqyv }u;D twGi;f rSm
tiftm;trsm;qHk;[m qdk&S,fvpfawGjzpfaeygw,f? tm%m&tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;xJrSm tiftm;
t}uD;qHk; qdk&S,fvpfrsm;[m/ olwdk@tm%mudk udkiftv_yfEdkifqHk; tzGJŒtpnf;u ‘uGefjrLepfygwD’
qdkwm &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;odjrifxm;+yD; wavsmufvHk;vnf; olwdk@&&Sdxm;wJh tm%mvufeufudk

78 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

xdxrd rd d qkyu f ikd t


f oH;k cscyhJ gw,f? zqyv-uGejf rLepf yËdyuQqw kd m tESpo f m&tm;jzifh uGejf rLepf-
qdk&S,fvpfyÉdyuQomv#ifjzpfygw,f?
+Aw d o d #uv kd ekd o
D rm;rsm; vufatmufu/ zufqpf*syefrsm;vufatmufwek ;f u/ u|eðf yaeol
e,fcsJŒrsm;udk qef@usifawmfvSef+yD; wkdif;jynf}uD;wckvHk;&JŒ ‘vGwfvyfa&;’ twGuf OD;wnfóud;yrf;
v_y&f mS ;cJ=h uwJh Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;[m (txl;ojzifh uGejf rLepf-qd&k , S v f pf rsm;[m) vGwv f yfa&;
ukd&&Sdatmif b,fvdkenf;eJ@ tm;xkwf=urvJ/ vGwfvyfa&;rkcfOD;qD b,fvrf;eJ@oGm;=urvJ qdkwJh
tajccHay:rSm rwljcm;em;wJhtjrif t,ltqoabmxm;awGeJ@ yËdyuQawG ay:aygufcJh=uygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;yËdyuQawG=um;xJrSm *dk%f;*%yËdyuQ/ yk*~dKvfa&;yËdyuQawGvnf; qifhyGm;jzpfwnfay:
aygufcJh&ygw,f?
+Aw
d o d #e,fcsŒJ orm;rsm;u Armjynfvw G v f yfa&;udk a=unmcGiðhf y+y;D Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfe@J
ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk todtrSwfðyvdkufwJhtcg/ wenf;tm;jzifh vGwfvyfa&;ay;vdkufwJhtcg/
&&SdwJh vGwfvyfa&;tay: ‘vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;’ jzpfw,fqdkwmeJ@ ‘vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; tppftrSef
r[kwaf o;’ qdw k hJ tajccH tjrift,ltq oabmxm;qdik &f m yËdyuQ ay:ayguv f mcJw
h ,f? 'Dtcg
rSmvnf; *dk%f;*% yËdyuQ/ yk*~dKvfa&;yËdyuQawG qifhyGm;ay:aygufvm&jyefygw,f? txl;ojzifh
tm%mudk usifhoHk;cGifh&ol tm%mvufukdif&Sdolrsm;u tm%mudk zdzdpD;pD; ukdifwG,ftoHk;ðy=uwJh
twGuf ‘yËdyuQ’ awG[m wdk;wdk;+yD;om jzpfwnfus,fjyef@vmcJhygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;tm;jzifh ajym&&if vGwfvyfa&;a=unmjcif;rðy&ao;cifu +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;eJ@
ArmjynfEikd if aH &;tiftm;pkawGtygt0if vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk Armjynfov l xl }k uD;w&yfv;kH =um;yËdyuQ[m
t"duyËdyuQjzpfygw,f?
vGwv f yfa&;a=unm+yD;csed rf mS +Adwo d #e,fcsŒJ orm;wd@k &ŒJ wdu k ±f ukd f tkycf sKyf u|eðf yr_atmuf
uae vGwaf jrmufciG &hf &Sv d m=u+yDjzpfwt hJ wGuf Armjynf&ŒJ Edik if aH wmfvuQ%m[m udv k ekd ED ikd if t
H jzpf
uae/ udkvdkeDwydkif; ya'o&mZfwydkif;EkdifiHtjzpf ajymif;vJvmygw,f? udkvdkeDwydkif;vdk@ owfrSwf
wmu EdkifiHa&;tm;jzifhomvGwfvyf+yD; pD;yGm;a&;ppfa&;qdkif&m e,fy,fawGrSm +Adwdo#wdk@&JΠudkvdkeD
aESmifóud;wJxm;r_awG &Sdaeao;wJhtwGufa=umifhjzpfygw,f? Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfudk om"uwck
tjzpf=unfEh ikd o f vd/k wdik ;f jynfwckv;kH &JΠukexf wk v f yk if ef;eJ@ pufrv _ ufrv _ yk if ef;}uD;tm;vH;k avmuf
eD;yg;[m e,fcsŒJ orm;ydik /f wdik ;f &if;om;r[kww f hJ vlrsKd ;jcm;rsm;ydik af wGcsn;f yJjzpfygw,f? ya'o&mZf
wydkif;vdk@ owfrSwf&wmuawmh wdkif;jynfwckvHk;&JŒ vufawGŒpD;yGm;a&;b0[m acwfaemufuswJh
ya'o&mZf ajr&Sifukefxkwfpepftwdkif;yJ qufvufwnf&Sdaeao;wJhtwGufjzpfygw,f? wenf;
tm;jzifh qufvufcdkif+rJaeqJ ya'o&mZfajr&SifpepfeJ@ ya'o&mZf ajr&Sifukefxkwfpepfudk t+yD;
tydkif zsufodrf;ypfEdkifjcif;r&Sdao;wJhtwGufjzpfygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 79


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif}uD; u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif}uD;
OuUÏ apmbOD;}uD; OuUÏ ref;bZH

u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif}uD; u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif}uD;
OuUÏ apmAdkvfjr OuUÏ y'dkapmboif

80 80
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vG w f v yf a omjref r mEk d i f i H a wmf a cgif ; pOf a tmuf r S m

vGwv f yfaomjrefrmEdik if aH wmf&ŒJ yxrOD;qH;k aom wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf/ ygvrD ef tpnf;
ta0;udk 1948 Zefe0g&Dv (8) &ufae@rSm pwifusif;yygw,f?
27-1-48 ae@rSm jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmfygvDrefu qufoG,for# pmrsm;udk
‘jrefrmpm’ ESifhtoHk;ðyEdkifa=umif; w&m;0ifa=unmygw,f?
wdik ;f jynfrmS w&m;0if twnfðyvufcu H sio hf ;kH aewJh ‘zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya'’ tay:
vufco H abmusjcif;r&Sw d hJ u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;&JŒ ‘u&ifjynfe,f’ &&Sad &; awmif;qdo k [ H m ydrk jkd rnf
[de;f vmygw,f? autif,t l rSL;ðywJh u&ifacgi;f aqmifawG&ŒJ u&ifjynfe,f oD;jcm;&&Sad &; awmif;
qdo k [
H m tckrS a&Smifwcifay:xGuv f mwmr[kwyf g? 1947/atmufwb kd m (3) &ufuae (4) &ufae@
xd usi;f ycJw h hJ autif,t l rSL;ðy u&ifacgi;f aqmifrsm; ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;&JŒ ‘armfvòrdin f v
D mcH’rSm
uwnf;u w&m;0if aqG;aEG;qH;k jzwf twnfðyxm;cJw h hJ awmif;qdo k jH zpfygw,f? wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$wf
awmfu a&;qGJxm;wJh zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'udk u&ifnDvmcH}uD;u vufrcHEdkifa=umif;/
u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;twGuf auseyfavmufwJh u&ifjynfe,feJ@ u&iftpdk;& &&Sdr_ rygjcif;a=umifh
vufrcHEdkifa=umif; xkwfazmfajymqdkcJh=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? 'gha=umifh vGwfvyfa&;a=unm+yD;ptcsdefrSm
u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JΠu&ifjynfe,f&&Sda&;awmif;qdkoH[m ydkrdkjrnf[def;vmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
1948 azazmf0g&D (1) &ufae@rSm u&iftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmif apmbOD;}uD;/ o&momxdk eJ@
tzGJŒ[m/ oxHk&JXmeydkif tif;0dkif;&GmrSm u&ifjynfe,f oD;jcm;&&Sda&; w&m;a[m=uygw,f? azazmf
0g&D (3) &ufae@rSm u&ifjynfe,fzGJŒay;zdk@ autif'Dtkd tzGJŒ}uD;u awmif;qkdygw,f? azaz:0g&Dv
(11) &ufae@rmS u&ifwrsKd ;om;vH;k &JΠqENazmfxw k jf yor_ukd u&iftrsKd ;om;xk&&dS m t&yfa'owdik ;f
rSm wcrf;wem; usi;f yðyvkyaf e=uygw,f? autif't D tkd zGŒJ }uD;u }uD;rSL;+yD; tif;pderf mS u&iftrsKd ;
om;rsm; tiftm;jyyGu J kd usi;f yðyvkyo f vd/k usKd ufxt kd xufwef;ausmif;0if;twGi;f rSmvnf; usi;f y
ðyvkyyf gw,f? (12) &ufae yh o k rd ef @J anmifwek ;f rSmvnf; u&iftrsKd ;om; tiftm;jyyGJ qENxw k af zmf
yGJawG usif;y=uygw,f? u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JΠu&ifjynfe,f&&Sda&; EkdifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;[m
'Da&yrmwufvmygw,f? autif,l/ autif'DtdktzGJŒ}uD;rsm;u }uD;rSL;usif;ywJh u&iftrsdK;om;
rsm;&JΠEdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ qENazmfxkwfjyoyGJ}uD;awGtwGif;rSm
1// u&ifjynfe,f csufcsif;ay;
2// u&ifwusyf Armwusyfcsufcsif;jy
3// vlrsdK;a&; t"du±k%f; tvdkr&Sd
4// jynfwGif;ppftvdkr&Sd - qdkwJh aºuG;a=umfoH (4) &yfyg0ifcJhygw,f? tm%m& zqyv
tpd;k &u u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;&JŒ awmif;qdck suf aºuG;a=umfou H kd csucf si;f wH@k jyefrr_ vkyyf J ESmap;aecJyh g
w,f//
wqufwnf;rSm wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;oGm;cJhygw,f//
1948 azazmf0g&v D xJrmS yJ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; ocifoef;xGe;f
[m ygwaD y:vpfAsL±d0k if ocifAode;f wife@J twl tdE, dN jynf uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ 'kw, d t}urd u f eG *f &uf
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 81
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

udk oGm;wuf=uygw,f? tdENd,uGefjrLepfygwDu zdwf=um;vdk@ nDaemifygwDawGtjzpf oGm;wuf=u


jcif;jzpfygw,f//
tJ'DhtcsdefrSm urBmrSm txl;ojzifh 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;t+yD; udkvdkeDxrf;ydk;atmufu vGwf
ajrmufvmumpEdkifiHawGrSm uGefjrLepf0g' a&yef;pm;vSovdk uGefjrLepfygwDawG&JŒtcef;[m tifr
wefta&;ygygw,f?
tm%m& Armjynf zqyv tpd;k &ud, k w
f ikd u
f vnf; qd&k ,S vf pfvrf;a=umif;twdik ;f csw D uf
r,fv@kd vGwv f yfa&;ae@red @f ceG ;f awG o0%fvm$ awGrmS azmfjycJ+h yD;jzpfovd/k zqyv twGi;f tm%m&
xdyfoD;}uD;rsm;udk,fwdkifuvnf; olwdk@udk,folwdk@ vuf0Jorm; qdk&S,fvpf0g'D}uD;rsm;toGif yHkazmf
aºuG;a=umfae=uqJjzpfwma=umifh tajctaetcsdeftcg tcsuftvufawGeJ@ [yfpyfr_&Sdatmif
tpdk;&tzGJŒ&JŒ w&m;0ifajcvSrf;opfwcsdKŒudk pwifazmfaqmifvmygw,f? tJ'guawmh Armjynf
wjynfvHk;&JΠtus,fjyef@qHk; tiftm;t}uD;qHk;jzpfwJh aus;vufawm&Gmae awmifol v,form;
rsm;eJ@ywfowfwhJ ‘v,f,majr Edik if yH ikd ðf yvkyaf &; tufOya'’ udak =unmvdu k jf cif;eJ@ Ekid if jH cm;om;ydik f
vkyfief;}uD;wcsdKŒudk EdkifiHydkifðyzdk@ =uH&G,ftm;xkwfvmjcif;jzpfygw,f? tpdk;&u ‘EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;
ra&$Œrajymif;Ekdifaom ypPnf;rsm; ta&mif;t0,frvkyf&’ Oya'udkvnf; jyÏmef;a=unmygw,f?
v,f,majr EdkifiHydkifðyvkyfa&;tufOya'=urf;udk ajr&Sif}uD;awGu qef@usif=uovdk
apmfbGm;}uD;awGawmfawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; rvdkvm;Ekdifjzpf=uygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;twGuf
ra&$Œajymif;Edik af om ypPn;f rsm; ta&mif;t0,frvky&f Oya'jyÏmef;vmwmeJ@ywfowf+y;D a&m Edik if jH cm;
ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;rSm tpdk;&udk,fwdkif 0ifygvmwmeJ@ywfouf+yD;a&m t*Fvdyfwdk@u uef@uGuf
=uygw,f? jynfolydkifodrf;a&;ajcvSrf;udk [ef@wm;Ekdifzdk@jyif=uygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuawmh olŒ&JŒrlv&yfwnfcsufjzpfwJh EdkifiHjcm;om;ydkif pufr_vkyfief;
}uD;rsm;udk jynfolydkifodrf;,l&mwGif avsmfa=u;ray;a&;/ +Adwdo#tpdk;&udk ay;qyf&eftaºuG;rsm;udk
ray;qyfa&;/ +Adwdo#ppfrpf&SiftzGJΠapv$wfwmudk vufrcHa&;wdk@udkyJ qufvuf &Sif;vif;wifjy
awmif;qdkaecJhygw,f? ajr,meJ@ywfoufwJh uGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ oabmxm;uawmh ‘v,fvkyfol
v,fydkifa&;’ jzpfygw,f?
azazmf0g&DvxJrSmyJ tm%m&zqyvtzGJŒ}uD;twGif;rS qdk&S,fvpfygwD[m ArmjynfuGef
jrLepfygwDeJ@ awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;vdka=umif; avoHypfvmygw,f? w&m;0iftm;jzifh tqdkðywmr[kwfyJ
qdk&S,fvpfygwD xdyfoD;}uD;wOD;jzpfwJh OD;ausmf+idrf;uae ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh)/ocifAodef;wif
wdk@uwqifh ocifoef;xGef;eJ@ awGŒqHka&;/ uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ aqG;aEG;Edkif&ef &ufcsdef;awmif;wmjzpfyg
w,f? vGefcJhwJh wvcGJavmufuyJ zqyv jynfvHk;u|wfnDvmcHrSm uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ nD!Gwfa&;
urf;vSr;f csuu f kd vH;k 0vufrcHEikd af =umif; ,wdjywfy,fcsc=hJ uwJh zqyv qd&k , S vf pfrsm;[m bmha=umifh
aqG;aEG;&ef urf;vSrf;vm=uygovJqdkwm pdwf0ifpm;p&mjzpfygw,f?
u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JŒ u&ifwusyf Armwusyf aºuG;a=umfoHv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ v,f,majr
EdkifiHydkifðyvkyfa&;tufOya'=urf;tay: ajr&Sif}uD;rsm;&JŒ qef@usifuef@uGufoHrsm;/‘u&ifv,fudk
rodr;f eJ@’ aºu;G a=umfwek @f jyeforH sm;eJ@/ apmfbmG ;}u;D rsm;&JŒ rvdv
k m;oHrsm;udk óuaH wGŒae&&if;/ t*Fvyd f
rsm;&JΠzdtm;ay;uef@uGufr_awGudkyg &ifqdkifae&csdefrSm uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ aqG;aEG;Edkifa&; &ufcsdef;

82 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

awmif;oH xGufay:vmwmjzpfygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@ tqdkt&uawmh ‘jynfolacwf (People's-


Age) *sme,fyg *dk&S,f&JŒ aqmif;yg;t& ‘*dk&S,fppfwrf;’ qdkwmt& jynfwGi;fppfqDoGm;a&; OD;wnf
aewJh uGefjrLepfygwDudk olykefrxatmif wm;qD;&ef aphpyfaqG;aEG;zdk@qdkygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu
‘nD!w G af &;urf;vSr;f csuu f kd y,fcsjcif;udk igw@kd vufrcHyJ r&raeóu;d pm;rnf’ vd@k aºu;G a=umf+y;D quf
vuftm;xkwfwmudkawmif y,fcscJh=uwJh qdk&S,fvpfrsm;[m 'Dwcg olwdk@u aqG;aEG;zdk@ &ufcsdef;
awmif;wmudk uGefjrLepfrsm;u &ufcsdef;ray;Edkifao;wmtay: awmfawmf rausreyfjzpf=uygw,f?
u&ifjy\emajz&Sif;a&;twGuf ^m%feD^m%feufxkwf+yD; jyifqifr_awGvkyfae&wJh zqqdk&S,f
xdyfoD;}uD;rsm;[m uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ awGŒqkHnd‡Ed_if;zdk@ wzufu &ufcsdef;awGawmif;aeayr,fh/wzuf
u b,fvdktjywf&Sif;ypf&rvJqdkwmudkvnf; trsdK;rsdK;tzkHzkH pOf;pm;}uHpnfaeygw,f? ‘igwdk hpdwfr
&Snfawmhbl; odef;az (Desperate) jzpfae=u+yD? 'gayr,fh wdk@u vuf,mzufawmhroGm;csifbl;?
vuf0o J moGm;csiw f ,f? wzufu t*Fvyd f ukr% R }D uD;awGuokd rd ;f / v,form;awGukd ajrawGa0ypf/
wzufu *dk&S,f-oef;xGef; uGefjrLepfygwDudk xa&mfpuD0g'orm;awGvdk@ a=unm+yD; acsr_ef;ypf/
wdk@ygwDudk uGefjrLepfygwDvdk@a=unm? tJ'Dvdkawmif wdk@xJrSm pdwful;olu pdwful;ae=uw,f’
vd@k qckd w hJ hJ OD;ausm+f idr;f &JŒpum;[m om"uwckyrmjzpfygw,f? wzufu vdt k yfcsut
f & ‘!Ge@f aygi;f
tpd;k &rl’ eJ@ aphpyfr,fv@kd ajymaejyifqifaepOftwGi;f rSmyJ acsre_ ;f ypfcsif vufO;D r_,cl siw f hJ oabmu
vnf; wzufrSm&Sdaeygw,f?
azazmf0g&D (26) &ufae@u ukefonf}uD;rsm;toif; ESpfywfvnftpnf;ta0;rSm
0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku “tpdk;&[mqdk&S,fvpf0g'rS wdrf;apmif;rnfr[kwfa=umif;” xyfavmif;ajym
qdkygw,f//
rwfvxJrSmyJ Armjynf&Sd +Adwdo#ukr`%D}uD;awGu ppftwGif; ysufpD;qHk;±H_;cJh&jcif;awGt
wGuf avsmaf =u;aiG&vkad =umif; ppfavsmaf =u;awmif;=uygawmhw,f? tpd;k &udk zdtm;ay;wJt h aeeJ@
vef'efu txnftvdyfrsm; a&mif;csay;&mrSmvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHudk (10) &mcdkifE_ef;om a&mif;csay;
r,fq+kd yD;/ oD[/kd tdE, dN / ygupPwefw@kd uo kd m ydrk akd &mif;csay;ygw,f? 'gah =umifh Armjynfu ukvm;ukef
onfawG[m ygupPwefEdkifiHt0,feJ@ t0,fjy+yD; wifoGif;a&mif;cs=u&ygw,f?
‘jrefrmjynfv;kH qdik &f m ajrydik &f iS rf sm;toif;’ u &efuek òf rdŒrSm jynfv;kH u|wf uGezf &ifh usi;f y
+yD;/ ‘zqyv’ &JŒ ajr,mðyjyifa&;vkyfief;rsm;udk uef@uGufqENjy=uygw,f? &cdkifbufu t}uD;qHk;
aom &Jausmfol rdom;pkajrydkif&Sif}uD;rsm;uvnf; wufa&mufyg0if=uygw,f?
rwfv (10) &ufae@rSm autif,l apmbOD;}uD;/ apmom'ifeJ@tzGJŒ 0ef}uD;csKyf±kH;rSm ocifEk
eJ@awGŒqHk+yD; u&ifjynfe,foD;jcm;&&Sda&;udpP aqG;aEG;=uygw,f?
rwfvxJrSm rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;uvnf; u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;enf;wl rGefjynfe,f&&Sd a&;v_yf
&Sm;vm=uygw,f? rGefwdkif;&if;om;tpnf;t±Hk; tvkyftr_aqmiftpnf;ta0;u rGefjynfe,f
awmif;qdk&ef qHk;jzwfygw,f?
'Dvqef;ydkif;rSmyJ qdk&S,fvpfygwDxdyfoD;}uD;wOD;jzpfwJh ‘ocifwif’ &JŒowif;/ tdk;a0/
jynfolŒ[pfwdkif/ pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ uGefjrLepfae@pOfowif;pmwkd@rSm òydifwlygvmcJh+yD;/ 'Dowif;twGuf
qdk&S,fvpfygwD0ifrsm; a'gotrsufajcmif;ajcmif;xGuf=uygw,f? owif;u ocifwifrD;cGufr_wf/

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 83


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

rk'drf;usifhw,fqdkwJhowif;jzpfygw,f? ocifwif[m ArmEdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m awmifolv,form;


tpnf;t±Hk;(Awvp) tzGJŒ}uD;&JŒ OuUÏ vnf;jzpf/ v,f,mpdkufysdK;a&;0ef}uD;vnf;jzpfygw,f//
om,m0wDe,fbufudk c&D;xGuf&if; AdkvfwJwckay:rSm rusifpdefqdkwJh trsdK;orD;wa,mufudk
ac:,lr'k rd ;f usiw hf ,fqw
kd hJ owif;jzpfygw,f? tJ'o hD wif;udk pwifay;yd@k ou l rk'rd ;f usichf &H w,fqw kd hJ
trsdK;orD;&JΠ"mwfyHkESifhwuG tjzpftysufyga&;om;+yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfeJ@ owif;pmwdkuf awmfawmfrsm;
rsm;udk ay;yd@k cw hJ mjzpfygw,f? owif;pmapmifa&wufEikd w f o hJ wif;jzpfwt hJ wGuf owif;pmtrsm;pk
}uD;uazmfjycsifw,fqdkygw,f? 'gayr,f qdk&S,fvpfygwD xdyfoD;}uD;wOD;&JŒowif;jzpfwJhtwGuf
r0Hr&Jjzpfae=u+yD;/ uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ tmabmf uGejf rLepf ae@pOfowif;pmuae xnfo h iG ;f azmfjyr,fqkd
&ifawmh olw@kd vnf; xnfo h iG ;f azmfjycsiyf gw,fv@kd owif;pmtcsKd Œu ajymqdt k qdðk yvm=uygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwDu ‘usm;+rD;qGJ&r,fhudpPrsdK;rqdkxm;eJ@ usm;ay:wufpD;&r,fqdkvJpD;&Jw,f’ qdkwJhpdwf
"mwfe@J xnfrh ,fv@kd tajzay;+yD; xnfo h iG ;f azmfjywJt h cg td;k a0? jynfo@l [pfwikd ef @J pD;yGm;a&;owif;
pmrsm;vnf; uGefjrLepfae@pOfeJ@twl 'Dowif;udkazmfjycJh=uygw,f?
rwfv (12) &ufae@rmS tm%m&qd&k , S v f pfygwu D olw@kd &ŒJ qd&k , S v f pfygw0D if rsm;ukad c:,l
+yD; &efukefòrdŒAE<Kvyef;+cHrSm tpnf;ta0;usif;yapygw,f? zqyv tpdk;&&JŒ ajr,mðyjyifa&;vkyf
ief;rsm;udk qef@usifuef@uGuf=uwJh EdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ajr&Sifydkif&Sif}uD;rsm;&JΠnDvmcHudk wefjyefqENjy
pnf;a0;yG}J uD;jzpfygw,f? yJc;l / tif;pde/f om,m0wD c±dik b f ufu awmifov l ,form;tpnf;t±H;k 0if
rsm;udkyg ac:,lvdkufwJhtwGuf ajr&Sifpepf wkef@jyefqENjyyGJ}uD;qD csDwufa&muf&SdvmwJh ta&
twGuf[m aomif;*%ef;&Sdygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifwcsdKŒu ‘ocifwifudk r[kwfr[wf
a&;om;jcif;[m ajrydik &f iS f ud, k pf m;vS,af wGu awmifov l ,form;acgi;f aqmifudk tvJx;kd jcif;jzpf
w,f? ajrydkif&Sifukd,fpm;vS,f owif;pmwdkufawGudk vufpm;acs&r,f’ vdk@v_HŒaqmfE_d;qGay;+yD;
owif;pmwdkufawGudk csDwufodrf;ydkufzsufqD;cdkif;ygw,f?
qd&k ,S v f pfacgi;f aqmifwcsKd Œud, k w f ikd Of ;D pD;+yD; qd&k , S v f pfygw0D if v,form; tpnf;t±H;k 0if
vltyk }f uD;[m td;k a0/ jynfoŒl [pfwikd Ef iS hf pD;yGm;a&;owif;pmwdu k }f uD; (3) wdu k uf kd twif;0ifa&muf
+yD; zsufpD;ypf=uygw,f? yHkESdyfpufrsm;udk ±dkufcsdK;zsufqD; acsrGypf=u±Hkru pmpDcHkrsm;udkvnf; arSmuf
vSefzsufpD;/ cJpmvHk;rsm; yHkESdyfpufu&d,m wefqmyvmrsm;udkvnf; xkESufacsrG oHk;r&atmifxif
ovdk &rf;um;ypfcJh=uygw,f? tzsufpD;cH&wJh owif;pmwdkuf}uD; (3) wdkufrSm jynfolŒ[pfwdkifu
uG,fvGefol wdkif;cspfjynfcspf pma&;q&m owif;pmq&m}uD; *sme,fausmf OD;cspfarmifukd,fwdkif
wnfaxmifcw hJ hJ owif;pm/ tav;xm;xkwaf 0cJw h hJ owif;pmjzpfygw,f? *sme,fausmf OD;cspaf rmif
[m wdkif;jynftwGuf trsm;}uD; tvkyftaºuG;ðycJhol owif;pmq&m}uD;jzpf±Hkru zqyv tzGJŒ
csKyf}uD;&JŒ zqyvA[kOd ;D pD;tzGŒJ 0iftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifczhJ ;l ol yk*Kd~ vf}uD;jzpfygw,f? olu, G v
f eG f
oGm;vdk@ oltifrwef wefzdk;xm;cJhwJh owif;pmudk olŒZeD;onf usef&pfolrkqdk;r ‘*sme,fausmf
rrav;’ u qufvufxkwfa0aewmjzpfygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfrsm;[m OD;cspfarmifrsufESmukdvnf;
raxmuf/ rkqdk;rqdkwmudkvnf; riJhEdkifyJ/ owif;pmwdkuf}uD;wwdkufvHk;udk xifovdk zsufqD;±dkufcsdK;
oGm;cJh=uygw,f? ajr&Sif}uD;rsm;udk wkef@jyef qENjyyGJvdk@acgif;pOfwyf+yD; vlpkac:,lcJhayr,fh/ t"duu
tpuxJu owif;pm wdu k af wGukd ±du k cf sKd ;zsuq f ;D acsryG pfz@kd &nf&, G v
f yk af qmifc=hJ uwmjzpfygw,f?

84 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

cswD ufvm=uwJh vltyk }f uD;awGxrJ mS &J'if;awG/ ykqed af wG/ "m;awGukd udik af qmifvm=uwmudk =unfh
&ifxif&Sm;ovdk/ t&ufudk rl;atmifwdkuf+yD; Adef;armif;wdkufay;xm;jcif;cH&wmvnf; odomvSyg
w,f? vltcsdKŒu t&ufrl;ae=uovdk cg;rSmt&ufykvif;xdk;+yD; vdkufvmolawGvnf; vltkyf}uD;xJ
rSm txift&Sm;ygcJhygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmif}uD; wOD;uawmh aoewfudk cg;=um;xdk;+yD;
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 85


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

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86 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 87
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

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ukd e,fcsJŒorm;wdk@&JŒ toHk;cs&mae&mwckrjzpfapyJ e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&;tvHudk jrifhjrifhrm;rm; quf
vufv$ifhxlxm;cJh=uygw,f?
Armjynfvw G v f yfa&;udk qd&k , S v f pfygwu D awmh 'if;jynfu h syjf ynfh vGwv f yfa&;tjzpf ±_jrif
+y;D / yËdyuQawG[m jzpfoifw h mxuf ydrk }kd u;D rm;us,jf yef@pmG t&Sed t f [kejf rifph mG jrifw h ufvmcJyh gw,f?

88 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

rwfvqef;rSm qd&k , S vf pfygwD xdyo f ;D jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; OD;ausm+f idr;f [m ArmjynfueG jf rLepf
ygwDudk vufOD;r_&Sd&Sdòzdzdk@ tcdkiftrmqHk;jzwf+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEkeJ@ ESpfa,mufcsif;
awGŒ+yD; ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwt D wGi;f oloiG ;f xm;wJh ay:vpfAsL±dt k zGŒJ 0ifwOD;qDu &&Sx d m;w,fqkd
wJh *d&k ,
S pf pfwrf; (Armjynfrsuaf rSmufEikd if aH &;tajctaeeJ@ u|Eyfk w f @kd .vkyif ef;pOfpmwrf;) udk jyoyg
w,f? uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifawGtm;vHk; &efukefrSmpkaewkef; wa,mufrusef odrf;usHK;zrf;+yD;
axmifxx J nfx h m;a&; jywfjywfom;om;vkyaf qmifa&; aqG;aEG;ygw,f? ocifEu k oabmwlovdk
vkyfcJhygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku zqyv tvkyftr_aqmif xdyfoD;tpnf;ta0;ac: +yD; uGefjrLepfawG
olykefxawmhr,fhta=umif; aqG;aEG;&Sif;vif;jyr_vkyfygw,f? tvkyftr_aqmifwcsKdŒu uGefjrLepf
awGeJ@ +idrf;csrf;a&;twGufaqG;aEG;zdk@ t=uHay;cJh=uwJhtwGuf ucsifjynfe,fOuUÏ qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;
aemifukd tpd;k &ud, k pf m;vS,t f jzpf uGejf rLepfawGqv D w$ yf gw,f? uGejf rLepfygwXD mecsKyf ydwx f m;wJh
twGuf rawGŒcJb h ;l qdyk gw,f? 'kw, d 0ef}uD;csKyfAv kd v f ufsmeJ@ qrm;'l;0g;udk 'kw, d t}udrf v$waf wmh
vnf; uGejf rLepfawGu wHcg;ydwx f m;wJt h wGuf awGŒcGirhf &cJb h ;l qdyk gw,f? Adv k v f ufsm/ Adv
k zf ;kd uGe;f eJ@
qrm;'l;0g;wdk@udk aumfrDwDzGJŒ+yD; wm0efay;cJhwm rwfv (24) &ufae@jzpfygw,f?
tJ'@D &ufawGtwGi;f rSm uGejf rLepfawG[m tvkyaf wGrsm;aecJ=h uygw,f? ysO;f rem; awmifol
v,form;nDvmcHudpPeJ@ tvkyfawGrsm;aecJh=uovdk nDvmcH+yD;awmhvnf; nwdkif;avmufeD;yg;
vrf;pOfqdkif&mudpP&yfawG aqG;aEG;&if; A[kdaumfrDwDtpnf;ta0;xdkifae=uw,fqdkygw,f?
aemufqHk;rSm rwfv (28) &ufae@nae (4) em&Dudk aemufqHk;xm;+yD; awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;=uzdk@
&ufcsdef;owfrSwfvdkuf=uygw,f?
rwfv (27) &ufae@rSm zufqpfawmfvSefa&;ae@ tcrf;tem;awG usif;y=uygw,f? 0ef}uD;
csKyfocifEu k tmZmenfuek ;f rSm vlxt k pnf;ta0;yGrJ mS rde@f ceG ;f ajymygw,f? +idr;f csr;f a&;vrf;pOfukd
vdkuf=uzdk@ w&m;a[mygw,f?
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; ocifoef;xGe;f u AE<Kvyef;+cH vlxt k pnf;
ta0;rSm zufqpfqef@usifa&;w&m;a[m+yD; rdef@cGef;ay;ygw,f? vltrsm;u qdk&S,fvpfawGtay:
‘qd&k , S zf ufqpf’ awGv@kd cg;cg;onf;onf; rke;f wD;±_wcf sac:a0:ae=ucsed rf mS ocifoef;xGe;f u aemuf
vmvwWaH om Armjynfordik ;f txdwiG f use&f pfr,fh ol@&ŒJ tausm=f um;qH;k rde@f ceG ;f }uD;udk ajym=um;cJh
ygw,f// tJ'guawmh -
‘qdk&S,fvpft±dk;awGeJ@ Am;u&macsmuf}uD;zdk@ypfr,f’ qdkwmjzpfygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfawGu
owif;pmwdu k f (3) wdu k uf kd ,kw, f wk rf mrm ±duk cf sKd ;ypfcw
hJ hJ ylyal EG;aEG;udp&P yfe@J qufpyf+yD; ajym=um;cJh
jcif;jzpfygw,f// uGefjrLepfeJ@ ygwD&JŒowif;pmwdkufudkvm+yD; ±dkufcsdK;apmfum;vdk@uawmh qdk&S,fvpf
awGudk ±dkufowf+yD; teD;rSm&SdwJh Am;u&macsmuf}uD;xJ csypfr,fvdk@ qdkvdkjcif;jzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dhae@nrSmyJ jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; OD;ausmf+idrf;u ol&JΠ&ifxJut=uHtpnfudk taumift
xnfazmfygw,f? zufqpfawmfveS af &;ae@ txdr;f trSwef @J uGejf rLepfacgi;f aqmifawG vlpakH eqJtcsed /f
wzufu rwfv (28) &ufae@ nae (4) em&D aemufq;kH xm;+y;D awGŒqHzk @kd csed ;f qdx k m;qJtcsed /f tvpf
tidkufzrf;+yD; oef;aumifausmf vif;cgeD;rSm uGefjrLepfzrf;yGJ}uD;udk pwifygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwD

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 89


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

XmecsKyf±Hk;udk 0dkif;+yD;wufzrf;wJhtcg uGefjrLepf acgif;aqmifrsm;[m vufrwifav;wif a&Smifwdrf;


xGucf gG omG ;cJ=h u+yjD zpfygw,f? tpd;k &&JΠtrSwf (1) Armaoewfuikd w
f yf&if;xJ&dS Adv
k o
f ufxeG ;f &JŒ óuw
d if
tcsdefrD owif;ay;csuft& uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifrsm; a&Smifwdrf;oGm;EdkifcJh=ujcif;jzpfygw,f?
jynfwGif;ppf}uD; pwifcJh&ygav+yD? Armjynfordkif;rSm t&Snfvsm;qHk;jzpfawmhr,fh jynfwGif;
ppf}uD; pwifawmufavmifcJh&ygav+yD?
1948 ckEpS /f rwfv (28) &ufae@up+y;D ArmjynfjynfwiG ;f ppf}u;D pwifayguzf mG ;cJ&h ygav+y?D
vufeufeJ@ t=urf;zufESdyfpufvmwJh tkyfpdk;oltpdk;&udk vufeufudkifenf;eJ@yJ jyefvnf wGef;vSef
wdkufcdkufoGm;zdk@ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu rwfv (28) &ufae@rSmyJ Armjynf jynfolŒ'Drdkua&pD
vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;}uD; pwif+yDjzpfa=umif; a=unmvdkufygw,f?
tm%m& zqyv qdk&S,fvpftpdk;&&JΠuGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifrsm; vGwfajrmufoGm;&jcif;
tay: rcHcsdrcHomjzpfr_eJ@twl wjynfvHk; uGefjrLepfzrf;yGJ}uD;vnf; qufvuf t&Sdeft[kef}uD;pGm
ay:aygufvm&ygawmhw,f? óudwifjyifqifxm;r_r&SdwJhtwGuf uGefjrLepfygwD xdyfoD;acgif;aqmif
}uD;rsm;rSty ArmjynfwjynfvHk; tòrdŒòrdŒte,fe,f&Sd usefuGefjrLepfacgif;aqmiftrsm;pk}uD;
tzrf;tqD;cH=u&ygw,f? wjynfvHk; ae&mtESH@ tvpftidkuf a&Smifwcif 0ifa&mufzrf;qD;wm
cH=u&ygw,f? wjynfvHk; tHk;tHk;ºuGwfºuGwfjzpfoGm;&ygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[dkaumfrwD
u tpDtpOf&Sd&Sd óudwifpDrH today;Edkifjcif;r&SdwJhtwGuf wjynfvHk;&Sd ygwD0ifpkpkaygif; OD;a&&JŒ
xuf0ufausmf tzrf;tqD;cH=u&ygw,f?

jynf w G i f ; ppf u d k b,f o l p

1948 ckESpf/ rwfv (28) &ufae@u pwifay:aygufcJhwJh Armjynf jynfwGif;ppf}uD;[m


tawmrowfEdkifatmif t&Sdeft[kef}uD;pGm qufvufawmufavmifvmygw,f? Armjynfjynfol
vlxkw&yfvHk; tylvHk;qdk@cJh=uygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfrD;}uD;&JŒ avmifòrduf0g;òrdr_udk wjynfvHk;cHcJh&
ygw,f?
vGwv f yfa&;a=unm+y;D vd@k rS vGwv
f yfa&;a=unmpmwrf;yg pmom;pmyd'k f pum;vH;k rsm; rSief @H
rajcmufao;cif (83) &uftuGmrSmyJ jynfwGif;ppf}uD; aygufzGm;ay:xGufvmcJh&wmjzpfwJhtwGuf
jynfwGif;ppf}uD;[m vGwfvyfa&;&JΠzGm;bufawmfvdkjzpfcJh&ygw,f?
+Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;=uD; erdwfzwf a[mudef;xkwfcJhovdk ‘ArmjynfudkvGwfvyfa&;ay;
vdkuf&if jynfwGif;ppf}uD;jzpfvdrfhr,f’ qdkwmuawmh rSefcJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh olar#mfvifhcJhovdk
‘jynfwGif;ppf’ awmh [kwf[efrwlyg?
jAwdo#e,fcsJ Œorm;awG vufeufxw k af y;xm;cJw
h /hJ *XKefO;D apmacgi;f aqmifwhJ azgujf yefa&;
orm; tm%m±l;rsm;/ e,fcsJŒtvdkawmf&drsm;/ vufsm*dk%f;om;rsm;uwzuf/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepf
ygwD/ qdk&S,fvpfygwD/ jynfolŒ&Jabmftygt0if tiftm;pkrsm;uwzuf/ tjyeftvSef t}uD;
tus,f wdkufcdkuf=uwJh ‘jynfwGif;ppf}uD;’ r[kwfyJ/ e,fcsJŒorm;rsm;u tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;cJhwJh
90 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

zqyv-qdk&S,fvpf tiftm;pkrsm;uwzuf/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDu wzuf/ xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkif


wdkufcdkuf=ur,fh jynfwGif;ppf}uD;tjzpf ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? pwifjzpfay:vmygw,f?
jynfwGif;ppfqdkwm ppfudkrvdkvm;wJh jynfolvlxkudkvnf; ¹cGif;csufxm;avhr&Sdyg? tjypfrJh
jynfov l x l u
k v kd nf; aoG;acsmif;pD;atmif owfjzwfaoaus 'kuyQ ifv,fa0apcJyh gw,f? tpGr;f ukef
avmifòrdufzsufqD;0g;òrdypfygw,f?
'gha=umifh jynfwGif;ppfudk b,folpovJ?
Armjynf jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D }uD;udk b,fopl wif±Œld ovJqw kd m tifrwefta&;}uD;wJh ordik ;f a&;
jy\emjzpfygw,f? bufwzufxJ&JŒ ajymqdkcsufudkr=unfhyJ "rR"dÏmefusus =unfhzdk@vdkygw,f?
qd&k ,S v f pfrsm;&JŒtqdt
k & Armjynftm%m& tkypf ;kd oltqufquf&ŒJ tqdt k &/ 1948 ckEpS f
rwfv (28) &ufae@up+yD; pwifcJhwJh Armjynf jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk pwifzefwD;cJhol[m wenf;tm;
jzifh jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk pwifcJhol[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDjzpfw,f? uGefjrLepfawGjzpfw,fvdk@qdk
ygw,f?
ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;ordkif;udk a&;om;cJh=uol taemufwdkif;ordkif;ynm&Sif/ Armjynfordkif;
ynm&Sifqdkolawmfawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; 'Dtmabmftwdkif;yJ qifhyGm;yJhwifxyfavh&Sdygw,f? Arm
jynf tkypf ;kd oltqufquf&ŒJ ausmif;oH;k ordik ;f pmtkyf pmrsuEf mS awGay:rSmvnf; jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;udk
pwifcJhwm uGefjrLepfawGtjzpf &nf!¸ef;azmfjy vuf!dk;xdk;avh&Sdygw,f? ordkif;udk xdefcsif&mxdef/
ðryfcsif&mðryf/ azmfcsif&mazmf+yD; wzufowfusus ajymqdkwifjy aumufcsufcsavh&Sdygw,f? tJ'Dvdk
‘Armjynf jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk pwifcJhwm uGefjrLepfawGjzpfygw,f?’ ‘uGefjrLepfawGu jynfwGif;ppf
vrf;pOftwdik ;f avsmufvrS ;f cJ=h uw,f’/ ‘uGejf rLepfawGu jynfwiG ;f ppfvrf;pOfukd wGe;f wif+yD; vuf
eufuikd v f rf;pOfukd taumiftxnfazmfomG ;r_a=umifh jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;pcJ&h w,f’ qdw k hJ ajymqdck suf
wifjycsuf qGo J m;csuaf wGwikd ;f rSm wlnw
D hJ azmfxw k cf suwf ck&ydS gw,f? wenf;tm;jzifh olw@kd &ŒJ tqdk
rSefuefa=umif; vufqkyfvufudkif oufaotjzpf wifjyavh&SdwJh azmfxkwfwifjycsuf}uD;wck&Sdyg
w,f// tJ'guawmh ‘*dk&S,fppfwrf;’ qdkwmyJjzpfygw,f?
*dk&S,fppfwrf;qdkwJh t"duoufaocH azmfxkwfwifjycsuf}uD;eJ@twl 'Doufaojycsuf}uD;
udk ydrk ckd ikd rf matmif t&Hoabm odik ;f 0dik ;f wifjyavh&w dS mu/ tdE, dN uGejf rLepfygwu D t*Fvyd b f mom
eJ@ a&;om;xkwaf 0wJh (Peoples' Age) jynfoŒl acwfpmapmifyg &JabmfAwif (*d&k , S )f a&;om;w,fqkd
wJh aqmif;yg;jzpfygw,f? 1948 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufae@xkwf pmapmifyg aqmif;yg;jzpfygw,f?
(wcsKdŒuvnf; azazmf0g&Dv (4) &ufae@ xkwfvdk@qdkygw,f?)
tJ'&D aJ bmfAwif (*d&k ,S )f a&;w,fqw kd hJ aqmif;yg;eJ@ tpysKd ;/ ‘*d&k ,
S pf pfwrf;’ qdw k mudk t"du
vufqkyfvufudkifoufaoeJ@ wifjy+yD; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;uwnf;u
vufeufudkift=urf;zufenf;eJ@ tm%mudkodrf;,lzdk@ *dk&S,f&JŒ jynfwGif;ppfðya&;vrf;pOfudk qkyfudkif
+yD; jynfwiG ;f ppfvrf;a=umif;twdik ;f av#mufvrS ;f oGm;cJw h ,fv@kd aumufcsuq f jJG yavh&ydS gw,f? Arm
jynf EdkifiHa&;ordkif;/ jynfwGif;ppfordkif;udk a&;om;ajymqdkwifjywdkif;/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu
pwifcJhwmtjzpf tJ'DtcsuftvufawGudkyJ qkyfudkif+yD; enf;vrf;trsdK;rsdK;eJ@ yHkazmf0g'jzef@csdcJh=uyg
w,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 91


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D ‘jynfwiG ;f ppfjzpfa&;’ qdw k m b,fwek ;f urS ygw&D ŒJ vrf;pOfrjzpfchJ


ygbl;? tJ'Dhwkef;u ygwD&JŒ ‘aemufqHk;wdkufyGJvrf;pOf’ qdkwmuvnf; jynfwGif;ppfr[kwfcJhygbl;?
tJ'Dhwkef;u (vGwfvyfa&;ra=unmcifteD;umv) ygwD&JΠvufeufudkifwdkufyGJrsm; r#m;OD;[m
aemufq;kH tcsed t f xd t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ orm;yJ? jynfwiG ;f ppfr[kwyf gb;l ? tJ'aD emufq;kH wdu k yf v JG rf;pOf
udkvnf; wjynfvHk;tESH@ w&m;0ifjzef@csdxm;wmygyJ/’ vdk@qdkygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfvrf;pOfrcsrSwfcJh
a=umif; twdtvif; jiif;qdkygw,f? 'gjzifh t"duoufaocHjzpfwJh ‘*dk&S,fvrf;pOf’ qdkwmbmvJ/
b,fvdkvJ?
*smreDEkdifiH [ef;bwfòrdŒrSm odrf;qnf;xm;wJh okawoe tcsuftvufzdkifwGJrsm;txJrSm/
‘ArmjynfueG jf rLepf0g'ESihf ywfowfaom pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm; 1945-1977 ckEpS ’f qdw k hJ zdik w
f w JG wG&J dS
ygw,f? tJ'DhzdkifwGJ&JŒ pmrsufESm (83) rSm ‘Armjynf rsufarSmuf EdkifiHa&;tajctaeESifh u|efkyfwdk@.
vkyfief; wm0efrsm;’ a&;ol Awif/ 1948 ckESpf/ rwfv ( ? ) qdkwJh pmwrf;wapmifvnf; &Sdw,fqdkyg
w,f? tJ'pD mwrf;udk &nf!e¸ ;f ud;k um;=uwmqdyk gw,f? *d&k , S pf pfwrf;qdw
k m[m tJ'guakd jymqd=k u
wmqdkygw,f?
wu,fu ‘*d&k , S ’f a&;cJw h hJ tJ'h D ‘*d&k , S pf pfwrf;’ qdw k m[m pmtm;jzifah omfvnf;aumif;/
E_wftm;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif; vHk;0r&Sdbl;qdkygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDordkif;eJ@ywfowf+yD;
jynfwGif;jynfy azmufjyefa&;orm;awGu vkyf}uHvnfq,fxm;=uwm renf;bl;qdkygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwD tqdkt& *dk&S,fom tJ'D *dk&S,fppfwrf;udk trSefwu,fa&;cJhr,fqdk&if/
1948 ckEpS /f rwfvxJrmS awmufav#mufvyk af ewJh (nwdik ;f avmufvyk af ewJ)h A[kad umfrwDtpnf;
ta0;awGrmS *d&k , S u f ‘oydwpf rkH o S yl ek xf ’ a&; t,ltqudk bmvd@k wifaervJ? vufeufuikd af wmf
vSefa&;vkyfzdk@qdkwJh *dk&S,fppfwrf;qdkwmxJuyg t,ltq pdwf"mwfeJ@ ‘oydwfpHkrS olykefx’ qdkwJh
t,ltq pdwf"mwf[m wjcm;pDjzpfw,f? qef@usifbufjzpfw,fqdkygw,f? rwfv (28) &ufae@
rSm &efolu vufeufeJ@ pwifzdESdyfvmvdk@ rv$Jra&Smifom vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; qif;vmcJh&wJh
aemuf ausmuf}uD;aygu/f pG,af wmfòrdiw f @kd rmS ðyvkyw f hJ A[dak umfrwDtpnf;ta0; (4) }udrrf mS awmif
&JabmfAwif[m ‘aus;vuftajccH òrdŒ0dkif;a&;’ vrf;pOfcsrSwfzdk@ aqG;aEG;=uwmudk awmufavsmuf
qef@usiaf ew,fqykd gw,f? qdv k w
kd mu tpuwn;fu &JabmfAwifrmS vufeufuikd jf ynfwiG ;fppfðy
a&; t,ltq&SdcJh+yD;om;qdk&if/ wenf;tm;jzifh vufeufudkifjynfwGif;ppfðya&; oabmxm;yg0ifwJh
‘rsufarSmufEdkifiHa&;tajctaeESifh u|Ekfyfwdk@.vkyfief;wm0efrsm;’ pmwrf; (*dk&S,fppfwrf;) qdkwm
udk trSew f u,fa&;om;cJo h jl zpfw,fq&kd if ‘aus;vuftajccHòrdŒ0dik ;f ’ vrf;pOfcsrw S af &;rSm qef@usif
p&m ta=umif;r&Sdyg? oydwfpHkrSolykefxudkvnf; awmufav#muf qufvufwifaep&mta=umif;
r&Sdyg? &JabmfAwif[m tpnf;ta0; (4) }udrfvHk;rSm awmufav#mufqef@usifaecJhw,fqdkygw,f?
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wm[m wOD;OD;u vky=f uHvnfq,fcjhJ cif;omjzpfw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwrD mS b,f
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enf;udk a&G;cs,fcJh&wmjzpfw,fvdk@qdkygw,f?

92 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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tcsed w f ek ;f u ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwx D rJ mS Edik if aH &;OD;aqmiftzGŒJ 0if ay:vpfAsL±d0k if[m (3) OD;xJy&J ydS g
w,f? taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r_;ocifoef;xGef;/ &JabmfAwif ac: *dk&S,feJ@ ocifAodef;wifjzpfygw,f

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 93


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

ocifoef;xGef; [m eHygwfwpfacgif;aqmifjzpfygw,f// ocifAodef;wif[m aemifwcdsefrSm


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b,ftay:rSmajymqdkcJhwmvJ/ bmtjzpftysufawGeJ@ qufpyfajymqdkcJhwmvJqdkwmuawmh rSefrSef

94 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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obm0ruswJhudpP}uD;jzpfygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 95


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

wu,fu OD;ausmf+idrf;u uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifawGeJ@ awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;zdk@ urf;vSrf;w,fqdk


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Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;udak wmif ‘"e&Siaf ygupf ’ atmifqef;jzpfw,fv@kd uGejf rLepfawGu pGypf JG
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f pfygwu D ‘zufqpfatmifqef;
b,fvJ’ vdk@ a=unmajymqdkcJhbl;ygw,f?
aemufqHk;awmh uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;zdk@ &ufcsdef;owfrSwfxm;wmu ‘rwfv
(28) &ufae@ nae (4) em&DudkaemufqHk;xm;+yD; awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;=u&efvdk@ qdkygw,f?

96 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

owfrw S x f m;wJt h csed x f ad wmif rapmifEh ikd af wmhy/J rwfv (27) &ufae@n oef;aumifausmf
rSmyJ uGefjrLepfygwDXmecsKyfudk wuf0dkif;+yD; uGefjrLepfzrf;yGJ}uD;udk tpDtpOf&Sd&Sd aqmif&GufcJhwm
qdk&S,fvpfygwDjzpfygw,f? zqyv qdk&S,ftpdk;&jzpfygw,f? tvpftidkuftjzpf tpDtpOftm;vHk;
bufpHkjyifqif+yD;rS aqmif&GufcJhwmjzpfa=umif; xif&Sm;ay:vGifaeygw,f? rwfv (27) &ufae@udk
a&G;cs,fcJhwmu uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifawG zufqpfawmfvSefa&;ae@ txdrf;trSwf wufa&mufvm
rSm wGufq+yD; vlpHkatmif tukefzrf;Edkifa&;twGuf wrifa&G;cs,fcJhwmjzpfygw,f? 'Dt=uHtpnf
pDrHcsuf[m OD;ausmf+idrf;&JΠ&ifxJ tapm}uD;uwnf;u&Sdae+yD;om;qdkwm OD;Ek &JΠwmawpaeom;
rSm awGŒEdkifygw,f?
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&S&d dS zrf;qD;ESyd u
f yG yf pfa&;’ qdw
k hJ OD;ausm+f idr;f &JΠpDrcH suu f kd zk;H uG,zf @kd od@k r[kwf 'Dvzkd rf;qD;ESyd u
f yG &f wm
rSefygw,fvdk@ tmumtuG,fðyzdk@twGufcsnf;omjzpfygw,f? wenf;tm;jzifh ordkif;udkvdrfvnfcJh
=uwmcsnf;jzpfygw,f?
qdk&S,fvpfygwDudk vufcHonfjzpfap vufrcHonfjzpfap OD;ausmf+idrf;udk óudufonfjzpfap
róudufonfjzpfap/ tkyfpdk;olwdkif;[m uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;tvHaxmifxm;zdk@ OD;ausmf+idrf;&JŒ
qd&k , S vf pfygwD csKd ;ay;xm;wJv h rf;a=umif;/ qGx J m;wJh aumufcsurf #m;OD;twdik ;f om azmfxw k tf wnf
ðycJhygw,f?
(1963 ckEpS f jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;aqG;aEG;yGu J mvrSm wwfa&mufvmwJh ocifAode;f wifukd
Adkvfae0if;u “tJ'Dhwkef;u OD;ausmf+idrf;u uGefjrLepfygwDXmecsKyftay:xyfrSm wyf&if;w&if; vl
vufeuftjynfhtpHkeJ@ ykefuef&eftqifhoifhjzpfaevdk@ vufOD;r_&Sd&Sd wjynfvHk;rSm zrf;qD;&wmjzpfwJh
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f m t&ifu taygiq f ikd f
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OD;ausmf+idrf; wdk@jyifqifcJhwm xif&Sm;ygw,f? tpDtpOfudk rpwifrDua&m taumiftxnfazmf+yD;
aemufyg tmabmftrsdK;rsdK; xlaxmifcsrSwfay;cJh=u+yD; uGefjrLepfrsm;u jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk pwifcJh
wmjzpfatmif rcdik rf mwJh oufaojycsuaf wGukd tcdik t f rm oufaojycsuaf wGtjzpf wifjy&Si;f vif;
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ae+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f//

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 97


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

jynfwGif;ppftp EdkifiHa&;v+yf&Sm;r+rsm;ESifh
qufwdkufay:xGufvmcJhaom ppfrD;v#Hrsm;

1948 ckESpf/ rwfv (28) &ufae@up+yD; Armjynf jynfwGif;ppf}uD; twdtvif;pwifcJhyg


w,f?
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acgif;aqmifrsm; vGwfoGm;&wJhtay: ra=uEdkif rcsrf;Edkifjzpf&if; “tjypfrJh vlw&m zrf;csifzrf;&ygap
tjypf&adS omvl oef;xGe;f uGejf rLepfwa,mufrvGwaf peJ@” qdw k hJ aqmify'k t
f wdik ;f awmufav#muf
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cspfyk*~dKvfawGyg ESpf&yfaygif; pkpkaygif; (4000) ausmf tzrf;cHvdkuf=u&ygw,f? yk'fr (5) eJ@ zrf;p&m&Sd
&if &mZm0wftkyftxd tm%may;xm;+yD;/ v$wfp&m&Sd&ifawmh 0ef}uD;udk,fwdkif zdkifwGJppfaq;+yD;rS
v$wfwJhtqiftxd jyif;xefonf;oefcJhygw,f?
tm%m& zqv tzGŒJ }uD;twGi;f rSmvnf; ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD awmcd&k jcif;eJ@ ywfouf
+yD; *,uf±u kd rf a_ wG }uD;rm;vmcJyh gw,f? zqyv tzGŒJ csKyftwGi;f uae uGejf rLepfygwu D kd z,f&mS ;ypf
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qdk&S,fvpfawGnpfvdk@ EdkifiHa&;uvdrfusvdk@ vdk@ jrif=u oabmxm;=uovdk jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;
ODausmf+idrf; udk OD;wnfa0zefygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;uvnf; jynfol&JŒabmf tzGJŒ[m uGefjrLepfawGudk
jywfjywfom;om;wdkufcdkufa&;rSm umqD;umqD;vkyfaew,f/ uGefjrLepfygwD&JŒudk,fpm;vS,f
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jzpfovdk yl;yl;aEG;aEG; zufqpfawmfvSefa&;/ vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; tawGŒtóuH/ aysmufusm;
tawGŒtóuH&Sd+yD;olrsm;vnf; yg0ifaewJhtwGuf vufeufudkifwyfzGJŒrsm; azmfxkwfa&;udk jrefjref
qefqef taumiftxnf azmfEdkifcJh=uygw,f?
98 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

{+yDv (8) &ufae@rmS Edik if aH wmftpd;k &u “ ao'%fay;Edik w f hJ Edik if aH wmfopPmazmufrO_ ya'”
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vJAD;wyf&if; (18) &if;udk zGJŒpnf;+yD; jynfxJa&;XmevufatmufrSm xm;&Sdygw,f?
{+yDv (10) &ufae@rmS ArmEdik if &H ŒJ ukvor*~0ifciG hf av#mufxm;csuu f kd ukvor*~ vHòk cHa&;
aumifpDu wnDw!GwfxJ oabmwlcJhygw,f?
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rsm;[m jynfwGif;ppfudkrvdkvm;/ jynfwGif;ppfrvdkvm;wJhtwGuf jynfol&JŒabmfawGu zqyveJ@
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jrifwJhtwGuf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;vrf;pOfwck a&;qGJcsifw,fvdk@ 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk udk awmif;qdk=uyg
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{+yDv (12) &ufae@rSm ocifEk tdrfrSm Adkvfvusfm/ Adkvfrª;atmif/ AdkvfpdefrSef/ OD;ausmf+idrf;/
OD;AaqG/ OD;tke;f eJ@ uGejf rLepfygwu D xGu+f yD;+yDjzpfwhJ OD;ode;f azjrifh wd@k aqG;aEG;n‡Ed i_d ;f =u+yD; vuf0n J D
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{+yDv (23) &ufae@rSm qdk&S,fvpf/ jynfolŒ&Jabmf tvkyftr_aqmif (2) zGJ@eJ@ =um;vl (4)
OD;yg0ifwhJ vuf0n J !D w G af &;tpnf;ta0; pwifygw,f? {+yDv/ arvawGtwGi;f qufvufpnf;a0;
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t*Fvdyf/ tar&duef/ qdkAD,uf,leD,H pwJh EdkifiHwumeJ@ wef;wl&nfwl EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;
qufoG,fr_ðy&ef/ t*Fvdyft&if;&Sif}uD;rsm;ydkifwJh vkyfief;}uD;rsm;udk jynfolydkifodrf;&ef/ ajr,mudk
EdkifiHydkifodrf;+yD; v,form;udk a0iS&ef/ ajr&Sifpepfzsufodrf;&ef/ rmufh(pf)-vDeif0g' udk avhvmjzef@
jzL;&ef pwJh tcsuf (15) csufyg0ifygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 99


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

tpnf;ta0;aemufqHk;&ufrSm vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; jynfolŒ&JabmftzGJŒu


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kd cf u
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twdik ;f oGm;zd@k vdt k yfwhJ tcif;tusi;f tjyiftqifawGukd yHak zmfzefw;D =u&if;/ vuf0n J ! D wG af &;qdk
wmawGudk atmf=u&if;eJ@ wzufuvnf; yËdyuQawG wdk;oxufwdk;vmaeygw,f? qdk&S,fvpf-
jynfol@&Jabmf yËdyuQ[m aygufuGJxGufay:vkeD;eD; jzpfvmygw,f? &JabmfjzLrsm;&JŒ OD;ausmf+idrf;
tay: r,k=H unfEikd rf [ _ m jyif;xefvmygw,f? jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; tm%mudq k yk u
f ikd +f yD; xifovdzk rf;

100 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

qD;wwfr_awGtay: vufawGŒom"uawGt& r,HkouFmpdwf}uD;cJhygw,f/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;


twGuf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;rSmvnf; EkrleJ h &Jabmfrl[m tòydiftqdkifjzpfvm=uygw,f? qdk&S,fvpf
rsm;[m Ekrl udo k mvufc+H yD; &Jabmfr[ l m uGejf rLepfvv kd m;olawG&ŒJ rl/ uGejf rLepfawGuv kd ufurf;+yD;
uGejf rLepfu, kd pf m;vS,v f yk af e=uw,fv@kd awmif oabmxm;ygw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f u uGejf rLepfawG
udk tjywfòzda&;om t+rJO;D xdyx f m;+yD; uGejf rLepfqef@usiaf &;tvHukd tjrifq h ;kH v$ixhf x
l m;cJyh gw,f?
OD;ausm+f idr;f u ck uGejf rLepfygwD ryg&vd@k 'D (15) csuv f yk if ef;pOf vufrcHb;l qdw k maumif;ygw,fav/
olw@kd yg (15) csuv f ufc+H yD; nDn! D w
G ! f w
G v f yk &f if wdik ;f jynf uGejf rLepfjzpfomG ;r,f? ckawmh aumif;
wmayg/h igóuduw f ,f [J [J - vd@k OD;ode;f azjrif udak jymcJw h mudk axmuf±&_ if OD;ausm+f idr;f &JŒ oabm
xm;[m xif&Sm;aeygw,f?
ZGev f (13)&ufae@rmS 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk u bDatat uGi;f rSm vuf0n J !
D wG af &;ta=umif;
jynfolvlxk}uD;tm; &Sif;vif;wifjyr_vkyfovdk/ ZGefv (20) &ufae@rSm jynfolŒ&Jabmfuvnf;
jynfwGif;ppf &yfpJa&;eJ@ vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;rl udpP &Sif;yGJ rE Wav;rSm usif;yygw,f?
Ek-rl eJ@ &Jabmfrl uGJjym;jcm;em;+yD; tòydiftqdkifjzpfae=ucsdefrSm u&iftrsdK;om;wdk@&JŒ u&if
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a&;v_y&f mS ;r_[m vGyv f yfa&;eJ@twl ay:ayguv f mcJ+h yD; pwifaewm =umcJ+h yD;jzpfygw,f? tJ'w D ek ;f u
tH=owkefv_yfoGm;cJh&wJh zqyv tpdk;&[m u&ifjynfe,fzGJŒpnf;ay;zdk@twGuf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'yk'fr (199) eJ@ yk'fr (200) t& aumfolav;e,ferdwfowfrSwfa&;aumfrwDwckudk
{+yDv (6) &ufae@rSm zGJpnf;ay;+yD; ,m,Dac|;odyfxm;vdkufygw,f? uGefjrLepfrsm;udkom t"du
xm;+yD; OD;atmif&iS ;f ypfz@kd óud;pm;tm;xkwcf yhJ gw,f? w0ufwysuo f m zrf;qD;axmifoiG ;f vdu k Ef ikd +f yD;
jynfwGif;ppf}uD;pcJh&ygw,f? uGefjrLepfrsm;udk awmwGif;armif;xkwf+yD;csdefrSm u&iftrsdK;om;
jy\emudk udkifwG,fajz&Sif;a&;[m ta&;w}uD; aqmif&Guf&r,fhudpPjzpfvmygw,f? u&iftrsdK;
om;udpPeJ@twl tòydifa&SŒwef;a&mufvmwJhudpPu &JabmfjzL udpPjzpfygw,f? &JabmfjzL udpP[m
zqyv tzGJŒ}uD;twGif;u udpPjzpf+yD;/ u&if udpPu trsdK;om;a&;udpPjzpfaeygw,f? u&iftrsdK;
om;rsm;[m jynfwGif;ppftvdkr&Sdvdk@ w&m;0ifaºuG;a=umfxm;=u+yD;om;vnf;jzpfygw,f?
ZGefv (22) &ufae@rSm u&if-Arm cspf=unfa&;w&m;a[mzdk@ 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk/ qrm;'l;0g;
qif0g;aemif/ OD;0rf;olarmif wdk@eJ@twl apmbOD;}uD;/ apmom'if/ ref;*sdef;xGef;atmif wdk@ jrpf0u|ef;
ay:c&D;xGuf=uygw,f?
tpdk;&wyfeJ@ awmcdkvufeufudkiftiftm;pkawG&J@ wdkufyGJawG[mvnf; óud;=um;óud;=um;
tqifhuae txifu& wdkufyGJ}uD;awGtqifh a&muf&Sdvmygw,f/ &Gmodrf;/ òrdŒodrf;wdkufyGJawGtxd
jzpfay:vmcJhygw,f? yJcl;c±dkif &pfuef}uD;&GmwdkufyGJ/ jrpfusKd;wdkufyGJ / aZ,s0wD o=um;puftpD;cH&r_/
aròrdŒ BEME wyf tpD;cH&r_/ a0gòrdŒtpD;cH&r_eJ@ OuUH "mwfacsmif;awmif±dk;wdkufyGJ pwmawG ay:ayguf
vmcJhygw,f? OuUH "mwfacsmif;awmif±dk;pcef;wdkufyGJrSm tpdk;&bufu Armhavwyfrawmfav,mOf
(3) pD;udkyg pwifoHk;pGJ wdkufcdkufcJhygw,f?
ZGefv (26) &ufrSm zqyv xJ&Sd ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m vli,frsm;tpnf;t±kH; OD;pD;nDvmcH
usif;yygw,f? tJ'DnDvmcHrSmvnf; Armjynf&JΠvuf&SdEdkifiHa&;tajctaeudk aqG;aEG;oHk;oyf=uyg
w,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 101
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

vufaxmufyv k yd rf if;}uD; OD;bat; (1) &JΠppfom;eJ@ ykvyd f ,leaD zmif;rsKd ;0wfqiforl sm;tm;
yk'rf (6) eJ@ zrf;qD;apqdw k hJ trde@f [mvnf; w&m;0ifxu G af y:vmcJyh gw,f? ZGev f (30) &ufrmS awmh
Edik if aH wmftpd;k &&JΠESpv f twGi;f tvif;0if;wJh olyek rf sm;udk vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGiahf y;r,fqw kd hJ a=unm
csux f u
G af y:vmygw,f? trsm;u ar#mv f ifah e=uwJh Edik if aH &;t& aphpyfaqG;aEG;a&; ajcvSr;f r[kwb f J
vufeufcsa&;jzpfaeygw,f?
tpd;k &[m tðywfwu kd af &;/ olyek rf sm;vufeufcsa&;udk tay: pD;uae aºuG;a=umfaeayr,fh
tm%m& zqyv tzGJŒ}uD;twGif;rSmvnf; rnD!Gwf/ zqyv wGif;u ta&;}uD;tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;
ESpfckjzpfwJh qdk&S,fvpfygwDeJ@ jynfol&JŒabmftwGif;rSmvnf; wckcsif;tvdkuf rnD!GwfEdkifjzpfae=u
ygw,f? zqyv tzJGŒ}uD;wckvHk;twGif;u rnD!Gwfr_udk a&S;±dk;pGJ vusFmorm;}uD;rsm;eJ@ vuf0J
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awGŒjrifEdkifygw,f?
wckcsi;f tvdu k f rnD!w G Ef ikd rf r_ mS qd&k ,S v f pfygwu D ykd J =unf=h unf/h jynfo&l ŒJ abmfuykd J =unfh
=unfh xifxif&Sm;&Sm;awGŒjrifEdkifygw,f? jynfol&JŒabmfrSm &JabmfjzL eJ@ &Jabmf0g tjzpf ESpfjcrf;jzpf
vmygw,f? qd&k , S vf pfygwrD mS vnf; uGejf rL;(ef) tkypf ek @J ,le, D t H yk pf k ESpyf ikd ;f uGv J mygw,f? uGejf rL;(ef)
tkyu f qd&k , S v f pfygwt D wGi;f rSm bH&k yd o f mzGi+hf yD; ygwaD u'goifwef;ay;wJh tkypf jk zpf+yD; OD;udu k }kd uD;u
acgif;aqmifygw,f/ OD;udkudk}uD; [m qdk&S,fvpfygwD&JŒ OuUÏ vnf;jzpfygw,f? ,leD,H tkyfpku
wuUodkvfrSm wuo0if or*~0ifjzpfcJhzl;olawG&JŒtkyfpkjzpfygw,f? OD;AaqG/ ODausmf+idrf; wdk@u acgif;
aqmif=uygw,f? uGef;jrL;(ef)tkyfu ,leD,Htkyfudk ygwDwGif; wD;wdk;tykyfcsyGJawGvkyfovdk/ ,leD,H
tkyu f vnf; uGe;f jrL;(ef)tkyu f kd z,f&mS ;ypfz@kd vkyw f ,fqykd gw,f? vufO;D r_&&dS v dS yk w f wfwhJ OD;ausm+f ird ;f
[m 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk eJ@ wdkifyif+yD; OD;udkudk}uD; udk z,f&Sm;ypfvdkufEdkifygw,f?
Zlvikd vf (1) &ufae@rmS OD;udu k }kd uD; ygwOD uUÏtjzpfua&m/ ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&; o,f,yl @kd
aqmifa&;0ef}uD;tjzpfuyg EkwfxGufvdkuf&ygw,f? 1947 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwkef;u ul;oef;
a&mif;0,fa&;0ef}u;D Xme&JΠtrdet f & ukeo f nfaygi;f (130) udk '%faiG (18) ode;f ay;aqmifz@kd owf
rSwfcJh&m/ 0ef}uD; OD;udkudk}uD; u (17) odef;ausmfav#mhay;+yD; (6) aomif;avmufyJ '%fwyfcJhwJ
udpP azmfxw k +f yD; txGucf ikd ;f cJwmjzpfygw,f? OD;udu k }kd uD; [m ode;f (40) udu k }kd uD;vd@k trnfwiG +f yD;
EdkifiHa&;avmuuyg xGufcGmvdkuf&ygw,f?
Zlvdkifv (8) &ufae@rSm qdk&S,fvpfygwD tvkyftr_aqmiftpnf;ta0;usif;yygw,f/
jynfov l xl t k =um; eHrnfysuaf e+yDjzpfwhJ qd&k , S v f pfygwu D kd emrnfajymif;oifh rajymif;oifh aqG;aEG;
&wJhtajctaetxd jzpfay:vmygw,f? emrnfawmhrajymif;awmhbJ ygwD&JŒvrf;pOfudkyJ aqG;aEG;
nd‡Ed_if; qHk;jzwfcJh=uw,fqdkygw,f?
Zlvdkifv (10) &ufaerSm zqyv tzGJŒcsKyfeJ@ oabmxm;uGJvGJovdk Ekrl eJ@vnf; qef@usif
jcm;em;=uwJh &JabmfjzLrsm; zqyv tzGJŒcsKyfu EkwfxGuf=uovdk/ tpdk;&tzGJŒ0iftjzpfuvnf;
EkwfxGuf=uzdk@ jyifygw,f? ( 16 &ufae@rSm tpdk;&tzGJŒu w&m;0ifEkwfxGufygw,f)? Adkvfr_;atmif/
AdkvfpdefrSef acgif;aqmifwJh &Jabmf0gawGbJ tpdk;&eJ@twl usefcJhygawmhw,f?

102 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tJ'D Zlvdkif (10) &ufae@rSmbJ EdkifiHa&;jcm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;wifxGwfuvnf; 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk


eJ@twl Zlvdkif (20) &ufup+yD; &mxl;rS EkwfxGufr,fjzpfa=umif; ajymqdkvmygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf
ocifEu k vnf; Zlvikd f (20) &ufae@rmS Ekwx f u
G zf @kd jyifqifovd/k Adv k v f usmF uvnf; 'kw, d 0ef}u;D csKyf
tjzpfua&m umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;tjzpfuyg EkwfxGufzdk@pDpOfygw,f?
trsdK;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_awG qufwdkufòyduGJvmovdk EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awG wpxuf
wp t&Sed jf yif;xefvmwJt h wGuf zqyv tpd;k &ud, k wf ikd v
f nf; rwnfr+idrjf zpfvm&wJh oabmjzpf
ygw,f//
Zlvdkifv (13) &ufae@rSm EdkifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk u atmifqef;tm;upm;uGif;}uD;rSm
vlxktpnf;ta0;yGJ}uD;usif;y+yD; (15 csufvkyfief;pOf) vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;r_udk trsdK;om;vkyfief;pOf
tjzpf a=unmvdu k yf gw,f? tJ'v
D yk if ef;pOfukd taumiftxnfazmfz@kd qd&k , S v f pf/ jynfo&l ŒJ abmfe@J
uGefjrLepfrsm; nD!Gwfa&;vkyf&r,fvdk@qdkum vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;udk zdwfac:vdkufygw,f? tpurSm
tòydifjzpf+yD; uGJvGJaewJ &Jabmfrludk vHk;0z,fcsypfvdkufwJh oabmjzpfygw,f?
ocifEk&JŒ Ekrl (15) csuf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;rl[m vef'ef/ 0g&SifwefeJ@ taemufEdkifiHwcsdKŒrSm
*,uf±u dk o f mG ;cJyh gw,f? taemufwikd ;f owif;pmwcsKd Œu Armjynf eDomG ;+yDv@kd a&;=uom;=uovdk
vef'ef wdkif;owif;pmu ppfaoG;ºuGuGefjrLepfrsm;eJ@ aphpyfIrjzpfEkdifvdk@ a&;om;ygw,f? +Adwdo#
EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; bDAif u jrefrmEdkifiHwGif jzpfay:vmaomtajctaea=umifh jrefrmEdkifiHtay:
+Adwdo#wdk@.oabmxm; vrf;pOfajymif;vJ&vdrfhrnfvdk@ +Adwdo#ygvDrefrSm ajym=um;vmovdk/
vef'ef&dS jrefrmoHtrwf}uD;udk csucf si;f qifah c:+yD; tJ'v D uf0n J ! D w G af &;vrf;pOfta=umif; &Si;f jycdik ;f
ygw,f? bk&ifcHa[mif; qma':refprpf acgif;aqmifwJh jrefrmEdkifiH awmifay:om;rsm; vGwfajrmuf
a&;aumfrwDuvnf; ta&;}uD;+yDjzpfwJtwGuf vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJtwGuf toifh&Sdae&ef
a=unmygw,f? +Adwdo#wdk@u jrefrmjynf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;jzpfrSm awmfawmfpdk;&drfcJh=uygw,f?
avoHav;avmufawmif em;cHEdkifpGrf;r&Sda=umif; jyocJh=uygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk udk,fwdkifu
vnf; +Adwo d #txifvrJG mS pd;k &drw
f t hJ wGuf olwŒkd vuf0n J ! D w G af &;rl[m b,fvv kd uf0n J !D w G af &;
rlvnf;qdkwm ywfywfeyfeyf &Sif;vif;jyzdk@ EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;wifxGwf udk t*Fvefv$wf+yD; &Sif;
vif;ajymjyapygw,f? rmhu(f pf) 0g' jzef@jzL;r,fqw kd hJ tcsuw f csuðf zwf+y;D Ekrl (14) csut f jzpf &Si;f vif;
cJh&ygw,f? rlv Ekrl (15) csufuae aemifrSm Ekrl (14) csuftjzpf ajymif;vJoGm;chJygw,f?
wyfrawmftwGif;rSmvnf; vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;udpP[m ta&;}uD;acgif;pOfwck jzpfvmcJhyg
w,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD awmcdo k mG ;wJah emufyikd ;f wdu k cf ukd &f r,fh wdu k yf rJG sm;rSm wyfzŒJG wcsKd Œudk
apv$wfwm0efay;zdk@ tcuftcJ&Sdvmw,fvdk@qdkygw,f? bmvdk@vJqdkawmh wcsdKŒwyfcGJrª;rsm;[m
uGefjrLepfEG,f0ifawGjzpfaevdk@qdkygw,f/ 'ga=umifh wjcm;wyfzGJŒawGeJ ajymif;+yD; wm0efay;&wm/
vlrsK;d pkwyfzŒJG awGeaJ &G;+yD; apv$w&f wmawG&v dS mw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f/ tJ'v D kd wm0efay;cH&wJwyfawG
u aus;&GmwcsKd Œudk jyefvnford ;f ydu k &f mrSm &Gmom;eJ olyek f rcGjJ cm;bJ ypfcwfwu kd w f m ajrvSepf epfe@J
&Gmudrk ;D ±dŒ_ wmrsKd ;awG jzpfay:vm+yD;/ Armaoewfuikd w f yf&if;rsm;u ra=ureyfjzpf=u/ ajymqdv k m=u
wmawG&w dS ,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? tJ'v D kd a0zefajymqdrk a_ wGxu G v f mvd@k umuG,af &;0ef}uD; Adv k v f usmF
u Adkvfae0if; tygt0if Armt&m&Sd}uD;rsm;udk tpnf;ta0;ac:,lajymqdkwJhtcg Adkvfae0if;tyg

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 103


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

t0if Armt&m&S}d uD;rsm;u jyefveS af 0zefajymqd=k uw,fqykd gw,f? rcHr&yfEikd jf zpfvmwJh Adv k v f usmF
u tJ't D &m&S}d uD;rsm; vuf0n J !D w G af &;vkyaf qmif=uzd@k pdeaf c: cJw h hJ twGuf Adv k af e0if;wd@k wawGu
0ef}uD;csKyfudkcGifhawmif;+yD; vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;twGuf wyfrawmf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrwD
azmfaqmifc=hJ uw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? tJ'D wyfrawmfvuf0n J ! D w G af &; (9) OD;aumfrwDrmS Adv k af e0if;/
Adv
k af Z,s/ Adv k &f xJ wG /f Adv
k w
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k wf ifarmif? Advk cf spòf rdi/f Advk x f eG ;f pde/f Adv
k Af pdef pwJh olawGyg0ifchJ
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umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; AdkvfvusFmeJ@ Adkvfae0if;[m wOD;eJwOD; tjrifr=unf=ubl;vdk@vnf;
qdkygw,f//
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0ifcw hJ mvd@k vnf;qd=k uygw,f? 'ga=umifh tJ'w D ek ;f uvnf; Adv k v f usfm&JŒ trde@f ay;r_wcsKd Œudk Adv k af e0if;
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awmfvuf0JnD!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrwDu Adkvfvusfm udk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;u EkwfxGufay;a&;
awmif;qdkzdk@ qHk;jzwfxm;w,fvdk@qdkygw,f? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; Adkvfvusfm &mxl;uEkwfxGufzdk@
qH;k jzwfjyifqif&wJh ta=umif;&if;awGxrJ mS wyfrawmfvuf0n J !D w G af &;aumfrwDu olurkd vdv k m;
bl;qdkwmuvnf; ta=umif;wckjzpfcJhygw,f?
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tJ'Dn (7) em&DausmfrSmbJ jyefvnfzGJŒpnf; usrf;opPmusdefqdk=ujyefygw,f?
qd&k ,S vf pf-&JabmfjzL yËdyuQa=umifah &m/ Ek-rl &Jabmfrl uGjJ ym;r_a=umifah &m/ jynfxaJ &;udk
tjywfudkifxm;wJh qdk&S,fvpfawGu &JabmfjzLawG&JΠvufeufawGukd odrf;vdrfhr,fqdkwJh xGufay:
vmwJh toHawGa=umifhyg &JabmfjzLwcsdKΠZlvdkif (16) &ufae@rSm awmcdk=uygw,f?
Zlvdkif (16) &ufae@rSmyJ vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpD zGJŒpnf;ay:aygufvmygw,f? tzGJŒ0if
(21) OD;&Sdygw,f?
1? Adkvfae0if; OuUÏ wyfrawmf
2? AdkvfApdef tzGJŒ0if ?
3? AdkvfapmxGef;pdef ? ?
4? Adv k &f x
J ÉG f ? ?
5? AdkvfaZ,s ? ?
6? Adkvfrª;atmif ? jynfol@&Jabmf
7? AdkvfpdefrSef ? ?
8? Adkvfva&mif ? ?
9? Adkvfrif;acgif ? ?
10? Adkvf!Gef@armif ? ?
11? Adkvfatmif!Gef@ ? ?

104 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

12? Adkvfbkef;atmif ? ?
13? OD;vSarmif ? qdk&S,fvpfygwD
14? OD;AaqG ? ?
15? OD;ausmfjidrf; ? ?
16? ocifwif ? ?
17? Adkvfatmif}uD; ? ?
18? Adkvfodef;wef ? uGefjrLepfygwD
19? Adkvfatmifrif; ? ?
20? Adkvf&efatmif ? ?
21? OD;odef;azjrifh twGif;a&;rª; - wdk@jzpfygw,f?

'Dae&mrSm &Si;f vif;p&m&Syd gw,f? OuUÏ tjzpfaqmif&u G wf hJ Advk af e0if;yg wyfrawmft&m&Sd


}uD; (5) OD;[m wyfrawmfvuf0n J !
D wG af &;aumfrwD0if (9) OD;xJujzpfygw,f wyfrawmfvuf0n J D
!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrwDudk udk,fpm;ðyxm;wJhoabmjzpfygw,f?
uGefjrLepfvkd@acgif;pOfwyfay;xm;wJh Adkvfodef;wef/ Adkvfatmifrif;/ Adkvf&efatmif wdk@(3)OD;
[mvnf; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk w&m;0ifudk,fpm;ðyxm;olawGr[kwfyg? ( Adkvfodef;wef [m
rwfv (28) &ufae@ vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; rv$rJ a&Smifom ay:ayguv f mwJt h cg vdu
k of mG ;cGi&hf cJh
ygvsuf vdu k rf oGm;cJo h jl zpfygw,f?) jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;OD;ausm+f idr;f u rwfv (28)&ufup+yD; wjynf
vHk; odrf;usHK;+yD; uGefjrLepfzrf;yGJ}uD; qifE$JwJhtcg tzrf;cH&ol (3) OD;jzpfygw,f? vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;
aumifpzD @JG pnf;prSm axmifxu J aexkw+f yD; aqG;aEG;apwmjzpfygw,f? Zlvikd v f (18)&ufae@rmS vuf0J
nD!Gwfa&;aumifpD&JΠqHk;jzwfcsuft& OD;ausmf+idrf;u axmifuv$wfay;cJ+yD; vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;
aumifpDrSm yg0ifapcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
tJ'v D kd Adv
k af e0if;OuUÏ tjzpf aqmif&u G w f hJ vuf0n J !D wG af &;aumifpD zGŒJ pnf;ay:ayguv f m
csdefrSm wdkif;jynfrSmjzpfysufaewJhtaetxm;u ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m rwfv (28) &ufae@u
wnf;u awmcdkae&+yD;jzpfovdk/ &JabmfjzLrsm;vnf; vufeufodrf;cH&/ tzrf;tqD;cH&rSmpdk;vdk@
wpdww f ydik ;f awmcdak e=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;&JΠv_y&f mS ;r_awG[mvnf; odoo d mom
jzpfay:ae+yD; u&ifppf&Jrsm;u oxHkudkodrf;ydkufwm óuHawGŒ&+yD;csdefjzpfygw,f? tpdk;&tzGŒJ twGif;&Sd
vusFmtiftm;pkrsm;udk,fwdkifuvnf; tpDtpOfwckudk jyifqifae=uw,fqdkygw,f? tJ'guawmh
qd&k ,
S v f pfjynfolŒ&Jabmfrsm;ryg0ifwhJ tdraf pmift h pd;k &zGŒJ pnf;ay;a&; tpDtpOfjzpfygw,f? umuG,f
a&;0ef}uD; Adkvfvusfm/ wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef;/ &JcsKyf OD;xGef;vSatmif/
jynfxaJ &;XmetwGi;f 0if OD;umpDw@kd yg0ifwhJ Edik if aH wmfvðkH cHa&;aumifpu D 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEu k kd qd&k , S f
vpfe@J jynfolŒ&Jabmfw@kd ryg0ifwhJ tdraf pmift h pd;k &zGJŒpnf;ay;&ef awmif;qdck =hJ uygw,f? Edik if jH cm;a&;
0ef}uD; OD;wifxGwfuvnf; vHkðcHa&;aumifpDeJ@ woabmwnf;jzpfw,fvdk@ qdkygw,f? vHkðcHa&;
aumifpu D tckvkd uGejf rLepfawG olyek x f jcif;eJ@ u&ifoyl ek x f &ef v_yv f y_ &f &G jG zpfae&jcif;[m qd&k , S f

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 105


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

vpfawGudkrkef;vdk@jzpfw,f? tpdk;&xJrSm ygwDorm;awGryg&if at;oGm;vdrfr,fvdk@ ta=umif;jy=u


w,fqdkygw,f?
rdwˆDvmrSm wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcHeJ@ ykvdyft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;nDvmcHusif;y+yD;/ tJ'DnDvmcHawGrSm
k cf sKyfprpf'eG ;f eJ@ OD;xGe;f vSatmifw@kd u vH;k òcHa&;aumifp&D ŒJ qH;k jzwfcsuo
Adv f abmxm;twdik ;f ajym=u
qdk=u jyifqif=uw,fqdkwJh toHawGxGufay:vmcJhygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;eJ@ vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumif
pD0ifawGu 'DvkòH cHa&;aumifp&D ŒJ qH;k jzwfcsuo f abmxm;[m wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf ,m,DygvrD ef
udk ab;z,fxm;+yD; ppfwyf/ ykvdyfeJ@ tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;u tm%modrf;&ef=uHjcif;om
jzpfw,fv@kd ,q l =uwJt h jyif ppfwyfxrJ mS &Sad ewJh t*Fvyd pf pfrpf&iS &f JŒacgi;f aqmifwOD;u aemufu, G f
uae =oZmay;aew,fvdk@ rouFmjzpf=uw,fqdkygw,f? vHkòcHa&;aumifpD&ŒJ tpDtpOfomatmif
jrifoGm;&if e,fcsJŒvkyf}uHr_}uD;atmifjrifoGm;Edkifw,fvdk@vnf; ,lq=uw,fqdkygw,f? 'ga=umifh
vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDudk zGJŒvdu k +f yD; vHkòcHa&;aumifpD&JŒ ygwD0ifawGrygaom tdrfapmifhtpdk;&zGJŒ
pnf;a&;t}uHtpnfudk wdkufzsuf&efpOf;pm;=uygw,f? vusfmtE W&m,ftjzpf ±_jrifoHk;oyfylyef=u
w,fqdkygw,f? vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDu ocifEkudk quf+yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfvkyfap&ef/ rvkyfvdk
u Adkvfvusfmudk vkyfap&ef/ Adkvfae0if;udk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;cef@&ef/ OD;wifxGwf tm; EdkifiHa&;jcm;
a&;0ef}uD;ae&mu z,f&Sm;+yD; OD;tkef; odk@r[kwf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDu a&G;cs,folwOD;OD;udk
cef@xm;&efvnf; qHk;jzwf=uw,fqdkygw,f?
vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpD xJrSmvnf; txufazmfjyygqHk;jzwfcsufawGudkom vufcH
oabmwlnDae=uayr,fh rwlnDwmawGvnf; trsm;}uD;vdk@qdkygw,f? wcsdKŒu vusfm tE W&,f
udkomwdkufzsufvdk+yD;/ uGefjrLepfeJ@ r& &wJhenf;eJ@ aphpyfvdkolawGjzpf+yD;/ wcsdKŒu vusfmtE W&m,f
a&m/ uGejf rLepftE &W m,fa&m ESpcf pk vk;H tðywfwu kd &f r,fv@kd cH,xl m;=uw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? OD;ausm+f ird ;f
uawmh ESpfckpvHk; tðywfwdkufa&;orm;jzpfygw,f?
tJ'DtcsdefrSm yk*~dKvfa&;yÉdyuQawG[mvnf; ay:aygufvmjyefw,f/ Adkvfae0if;eJ@ ywfouf
wJhyÉdyuQjzpfygw,f? Adkvfvusfm u olumuG,fa&;0ef}uD;&mxl;u EkwfxGufoGm;&ifawmif/
Adkvfae0if; umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmrSmudk rvdkvm;ovdk/ umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf prpf'Gef;
uvnf; 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEu k kd csO;f uyf+yD; Adv
k af e0if;udk umuG,af &;0ef}uD;tjzpf vufrcHEikd af =umif;
wifjycJw h ,fv@kd qykd gw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f uawmh Adv k af e0if;udvk vkd m;+yD; umuG,af &;0ef}uD;jzpfapcsif
ygw,f? qd&k , S v f pftEG,0f ifjzpfwhJ Adv k af e0if;udk olŒvltjzpfvnf; tcdik t f rmarG;jrLxm;csiyf gw,f?
Advk vf ufusmf uawmh umuG,af &;0ef}uD;tjzpf Adv k af Z,sukd jzpfapcsiw f ,fqykd gw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f
u Adkvfae0if; ae&m&a&;twGuf tpGrf;ukeóf ud;pm;cJhygw,f?
Zlvikd v f ukeyf ikd ;f rSm jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;OD;ausm+f idr;f u 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEq k v
D m+yD; Akv d af e0if;
udkjzpfjzpf/ AdkvfaZ,sudkjzpfjzpf/ umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; cef@ay;zdk@ awmif;qdkae=u+yD? tajctaeawGu
awmh ta&;}uD;ae+yDqdkwJhta=umif; wifjyygw,f? ocifEku 'Davmufta&;}uD;aewJhtcsdefrSm
'Dvakd wmif;qdv k mwm[m t=uyfuikd w f mbJv@kd cpH m;+yD; b,fou l rkd S rcef@b;l / olw@kd vyk cf si&f mvky=f u
ygap? 'dk@rSmvnf; ajcrJhvufrJhrSr[kwfbJvdk@ jiif;y,fw,fqdkygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;u 'Dvdkqdk olwdk@udk
106 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

c%avmufrawGŒEdkifbl;vm;vdk@ xyf+yD;ajymawmh ocifEku rawGŒbl;vdk@ xyfjiif;w,fqdkygw,f?


tJ't D cg OD;ausm+f idr;f u 0ef}uD;csKyfa&SŒrSmyJ rsuaf &awG awGawGus+yD; idjk yw,fqykd gw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f
rsuf&nfuswmjrif&+yD; pdwfxdcdkufvmwJh ocifEku/ a[hausmf+idrf; rif;taumifawGac:csifac:cJh
igawGŒr,fv@kd jyefjyif+yD;ajzwJt h cgr/S OD;ausm+f idr;f u u|eaf wmfw@kd tpd;k &tzGŒJ rSm wu,ftm;ud;k Edik w f hJ
Armwyf[m Adkvfae0if;&JΠwyf&if; (4) wwyfyJ&Sdw,f? tJ'Dawmh 'DvlawGvm&if Adkvfae0if;udk
umuG,af &;0ef}uD;cefah pcsiw f ,fv@kd wdu k w f eG ;f ajymqdyk g w,f? tJ'v D kd tcdik t
f rmjyifqif+yD;wJah emuf
OD;ausm+f idr;f u Adv
k af e0if;/ Advk af Z,s OD;ode;f azjrifw h @kd ukd ocifEq
k aD c:vmygw,f? ODausm+f idr;f eJ@twl
qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifwcsdKŒvnf;ygvm=uygw,f? ppfAdkvfESpfOD; oHk;OD;vnf;ygvmw,fqdkygw,f?
ppfAkdvfwOD;&JŒcg;rSm ajcmufvHk;jyL;aoewfxdk;vmwm udkjrifvdkuf+yD; pdwfawG axmif;ueJjzpfvmwJh
ocifEku/ tif;bmvJajymygtHk;vdk@ Adkvfae0if;eJ@ AdkvfaZ,sudkar;awmh ESpfOD;pvHk;u bmr#rajymbJ
+idrfae=uw,fqdkygw,f? vuf0JnD!Gwfa&; aumifpDtwGif;a&;rª; OD;odef;azjrifhu Adkvfae0if;udk
jzpfjzpf AdkvfaZ,sudkjzpfjzpf 0ef}uD;csKyf óuduf&mvludk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;cef@zdk@ wifjy+yD; 0ef}uD;csKyf
pOf;pm;zdk@ tcsdef(3)&ufay;r,fvdk@ ajymw,fqdkygw,f? 'gudk&mZmoHay;vmwm +cdrf;ajcmufvm
wmvd@k ,lq+yD; ocifEu k a'goeJ@ oH;k &ufrajymeJ@ oH;k rdepfawmif tcsed rf ,lb;l / b,fou l rkd S rcef@b;l
vdk@ajym+yD; tm;vHk;jyefv$wfvdkufygw,f? tpu OD;ausmf+idrf;ajymxm;wJhtwdkif; Adkvfae0if;udkyJ
cef@r,fvdk@ pDpOfxm;wm a'goa=umifh ysufoGm;&w,fqdkygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@wtkyfvHk; jyefoGm;
+yD;aemuf (15) rdepfavmuft=umrSm Adv k vf usmf eJ@ Adv k af Z,su 0ef}uD;csKyfe@J awGŒcsiw f t hJ a=umif;
ajymvmjyefw,fqdkygw,f? yxr ocifEk u jiif;ygw,f? Adkvfvusfmu awGŒcGifhðyoifhygw,fvdk@
awmif;yefwJhtwGuf ocifEku vufcH+yD;awGŒjyefygw,f? AdkvfaZ,su olŒudk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;
cef@zdk@ajymwJhtcg ocifEku xyfrHjiif;y,fvdkuf+yD; tJ't D a=umif;udk OD;ausm+f idr;f qD zk;H qufajymjy
vdu k w f ,fqykd gw,f? t}ut H pnf&x dS m;wJh OD;ausm+f ird ;f u atmif+yDv@kd ajymw,fqykd gw,f? ocifEu k
ausmf+idrf;a& bmatmifwmvJvdk@ar;awmh 0ef}uD;csKyf rodygbl;/ aemufrS u|efawmfvm&Sif;jyr,f
qdk+yD; w,fvDzkef;udkcsvdkufw,fqdkygw,f? tJ'Daemuf OD;ausmf+idrf;u Adkvfae0if;udk csufcsif;ac:
+yD; Adkvfae0if;/ AdkvfaZ,s qdkwJhvl[m cifAsm;udktodray;bJ 0ef}uD;csKyfqD olwa,mufxJoGm;+yD;
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;cef@zdk@ajymae+yD? 0ef}uD;csKyfutckyJ usaemhfudk w,fvDzkef;eJ@ta=umif;=um;
w,fvdk@ ajymvdkufwJhtcg Adkvfae0if;vnf; a'goykefxoGm;+yD; Adkvfae0if; eJ@ AdkvfaZ,s t=um;
tJ'Dtcsdefup+yD; yl;aygif;r&Edkifavmufatmif uGJ+yJoGm;&awmhw,f qdkygw,f? wyfrawmf vuf0J
nD!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrDwDvnf; r=umrDysufjym;oGm;&ygw,f?
qdk&S,fvpfjynfxJa&;Xmeu &JabmfjzL awG&Jh vufeufawGudkodrf;jyD; zr;fawmhr,fqdkwJh
ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ Zlvdkifv (16) &ufae@rSm awmcdkoGm;=uwJh &JabmfjzLawG&JŒpum;[mvnf;
aoG;xGuaf tmifreS v f mcJyh gw,f? Zlvikd v f (29) &ufae@/ reuf (5) em&DrmS OD;ausm+f idr;f &JΠjynfxaJ &;
Xmeu jynfolŒ&JabmfXmecsKyfudk 0dkif;um acgif;aqmifawGudk zrf;qD;ygawmhw,f? Adkvfzdk;uGef;vGwf
oGm;+yD; 'kw, d OuUÏ Adv k vf a&mif wd@k wawGvnf; wdr;f a&SmifomG ;&ygawmhw,f? ajray: &Sd &JabmfjzL
rsm; ajratmufb0a&mufoGm;=u&ovdk/ &JabmfjzLtrsm;pk}uD;[m Zlvdkifv (29) &ufae@up+yD;
vufeufudkifawmcdkb0a&mufoGm;&ygawmhw,f? tpdk;&[m wenf;tm;jzifh qdk&S,fvpfrsm;[m

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 107


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

rwfv (28) &ufae@rmS uGejf rLepfrsm;udk awmwGi;f armif;yd@k co hJ vdk Zlvikd v f (29) &ufae@rmS &JabmfjzL
rsm;udk awmwGif;armif;ydk@vdkufjyefwmjzpfygw,f? jynfolŒ&Jabmfrsm;[m tpuwnf;u w&m;0if
vufeufuikd af qmifciG &hf xm;olrsm;jzpfwt hJ wGuf vufeufuikd af wmcd=k uwJt h cg tqifo h ifh vufeuf
wyfqif+yD;om; wyfzGJŒrsm;jzpfoGm;=uygawmhw,f? tiftm;vnf; ydkrdkrsm;jym;+yD;om;jzpfygw,f?
=o*kwfv (1) &ufae@rSm Adkvfae0if;[m wyfrawmf 'kwd,ppfOD;pD;csKyfeJ@ 'kwd,ppfaoem
ywdjzpfvmygw,f? Adkvfae0if; umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;jzpfa&;twGuf OD;ausmf+idrf;rSm rsuf&nfusjywJh
enf;a&m 0ef}uD;csKyfudk aoG;aqmifem;cswJhenf;ygrusef tpGrf;ukeftokH;ðycJh+yD;/ Adkvfae0if;udk tydkif
udkifxm;Edkifa&; olŒvljzpfa&;twGuf trsdK;rsdK; ukvm;zefxdk;cJhayr,fh umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;awmhr&yJ
'kwd,OD;pD;csKyfomjzpfvmcJhygw,f?
Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;wifxw G [
f mvnf; uGejf rLepfudk ud, k wf ikd Of ;D pD;+yD; vufeufuikd w f u kd cf sif
vdk@yJvm; 'grSr[kwf vufeufudkif wyfydkifwckck&Sdxm;rS 'DvdktajctaerSm aumif;vdrhfr,fvdk@ ,lq
vdk@yJvm;/ ruGJjym;yg? EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;tjzpfu E_wfxGufcGifhawmif;pOfu orRw}uD;u vufcHyg
v#if ArmhwyfrawmfrSm tr_xrf;vdka=umif; av#mufxm;cJhwJhtwGuf wyfxJrSmae&m&oGm;+yD;
'kwd,Adkvfrª;}uD;&mxl;udk pwiftay;cH&ygw,f? (EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;tjzpfuawmh =o*kwfv (16)
&ufae@rSmrS E_wfxGufjzpfygw,f?) r=umrD wyfrif;}uD;jzpfvmygw,f?
=o*kwv f (3) &ufae@rmS oxHb k ufrmS &Sw
d hJ autif'tD rkd sm;u oxHck ±kid u f kd odr;f yduk v f u kd yf g
w,f? e,fbufrmS &Sad e=uwJh u&ifppf&rJ sm;&JΠv_y&f mS ;vmr_/ autif't D rkd sm;&JΠvufeufuikd v f y_ &f mS ;
vmr_awG[m wae@wjcm; 'Da&jrifhwufvmcJhygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku owif;pmq&mawGudk
zdwf=um;+yD; +idrf0yfydjym;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ jynfaxmifpkwnfwHha&;awGudk =o*kwfv (5) &ufrSm
&Sif;vif;ajym=um;vmygw,f?
autif,l tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;u vufeufudkifyÉdyuQ ydkrdkus,fjyef@rvmapa&;twGuf Zlvdkifv
(25) &ufae@pGJeJ@ arwWm&yfcH yef=um;csufwapmifxkwfjyefcJh+yD; t=urf;zuf0g'/ vufeufudkif0g'udk
vufrcHEikd af =umif; xkwaf zmfjyocJah yr,fh u&iftrsKd ;om;xk&&dS m e,fbufawGrmS vufeufuikd v f y_ f
&Sm;r_'aD &[m w&dy&f yd o f mwufvmaeygw,f? tpd;k &&JŒajz&Si;f yHrk rSeu f efra_ wGa=umifh uGejf rLepfrsm;/
&JabmfjzLrsm; awmcdv k y_ &f mS ;vm&wm odjrifae=uovdk awmcdak e=uolawG&ŒJ vufxrJ mS vufeufpJG
udik x
f m;=u+yD; tqufrjywfvy_ &f mS ;vm=ucsed rf mS u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;vnf; vufeufuikd x f m;Edik zf @kd
vdktyfw,fvdk@ cH,lxm;=uygw,f? vGefcJhwJh ig;ESpftwGif;u óuHawGŒcJh&bl;wJh vlrsKd;a&;t"du±k%f;
tjzpftysufrsm;/ vufeufodrf;a&;óud;yrf;r_eJ@ ay:aygufcJh&wJh vufeufudkifyÉdyuQ tawGŒtóuH
rsm;[m vwfvwfqwfqwfyJ&Sdae=uygao;w,f? wufvmwJh tpdk;&tay:vnf; b,fvdkrS
,Hk=unfvdk@r&atmif jzpfaecJh=uygw,f?
=o*kwfv (7) &ufae@rSm autif'DtdkeJ@ u&ifppf&Jrsm;[m rtlyifaiGwdkuf/ tdrfrJaiGwdkuf
wd@k uakd zmuf+yD; aiGrsm;udo k rd ;f ,lum awmcd=k uygw,f? wjynfv;kH vufeufuikd w f udk yf o
JG aH wG nHvm
ygw,f?
tpdk;&u awmcdkvufeufudkifv_yf&Sm;r_awGudk ESdrfeif;zdk@ bDwDtuf(z)( Burma Territorial
Force) wyf&if; (52) &if;zGJŒpnf;zdk@ pDpOfpdkif;jyif;ygw,f? autif,ltzGJŒ}uD;u bDwDtuf(zf)wyf

108 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

&if; 'Davmufrsm;rsm;zJŒG pnf;zd@k pdik ;f jyif;vmjcif;[m u&iftrsKd ;om;awGukd ESyd u f yG zf @kd v@kd ,lqw,fqkd
ygw,f? tJ'DvdktcsdefrSm vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDxJygolwcsdKΠv_yf&Sm;vm=uovdk@/ wyfrawmf
twGif;rSmvnf; v_yfv_yf&G&Gjzpfvmygw,f?
wyfrawmftwGi;f rSm v_y&f mS ;vmolrsm;[m vuf0EJ , G of rl sm;eJ@ trsKd ;om;a&;pdwf jyif;xef
olrsm;jzpfaeygw,f? olwdk@u tcsdef&Sdwkef; xºuGv_yf&Sm;=urS awmfvdrfhr,fvdk@ ,lqvm=uygw,f?
aESmifah ES;ae&if; vuf,morm;rsm;u Armwyfukd vufeufawGord ;f vmrvm;/ vuf,morm;awG
vufrOD;cif olwdk@u t&if;OD;atmifodrf;oifhw,fvdk@ wyfwGif;u aqG;aEG;vm=uygw,f/ umuG,f
a&;ODpD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef;/ avwyf AdkvfcsKyf &SD;±_d/ b&D;a*;'D;,m; apm=um'dk;/ Adkvfrª;}uD;jzpfvmol
OD;wifxw G /f ar*sm*sief &,fppf&mxl;ay;xm;wJh &JcsKyfO;D xGe;f vSatmif pwJyh *k K~ v d af wGu Edik if aH wmfvkH
òcHa&;aumifpDudk óud;udkifcs,fvS,fae=uw,fvdk@ ,lqxm;=uovdk tJ'Dtkyfpkudk vuf,morm;
rsm;vdk@vnf; owfrSwfxm;=uygw,f? wyfrawmftwGif;rSm &mxl;}uD;}uD;&xm;oltcsdKΠu&if
trsdK;om;awGjzpfae=uwmudkvnf; trsdK;om;pdwfjyif;xefolawGu r,Hkr&Jjzpfae=uygw,f? tJ'D
vdktajctaeawGaygif;vdkufwJhtcg wyfrª;wyfom;wcsdKŒu tm%modrf;zdk@ aqG;aEG; }uHpnfvm=u
awmhw,fqykd gw,f? Adv k cf sKyfae0if;udk acgi;f aqmifxm;+yD; tm%modr;f zd@k wdu k w f eG ;f olawGvnf;ay:
vmw,f?
tJ'Dvdk wyfrawmftwGif;u pwifjzpfay:vmwJh tm%modrf;a&;t}uHtpnf[m bmrS
atmifatmifjrifjrifjzpfrvmwJh vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDwcsdKŒqD ul;puf±kdufcwfvmygw,f?
tm%modrf;a&;tpDtpOfudk jynfolŒ&Jabmfu Adkvfva&mifuvnf; oabmwlovdk/ uGefjrLepf
a[mif;rsm;jzpfwhJ Adv k of ed ;f wef/ Adv
k af tmifrif; wd@k uvnf; oabmusw,fqykd gw,f? OD;ode;fazjrif/h
AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvf&JxGÉf wdk@uvnf; oabmwl=uovdk qdk&S,fvpfwcsdKŒuvnf; axmufcH=uw,fqdk
ygw,f? vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDu =oZm&SdwJh vufeufudkifwyfrsm;eJ tm%modrf;+yD; vuf0JnD
!Gwfa&; !Gef@aygif;tpdk;&zGJŒpnf;&efjzpfygw,f? tJ'D vuf0JnD!Gwfa&; !Gef@aygif;tpdk;&rS uGefjrLepf
olykefrsm;eJ +idrf;csrf;a&;vkyfum tpdk;&xJ xnfhoGif;zGJŒpnf;+yD;/ ygwD0ifawGrygwJh tpdk;&zGJŒpnf;&ef
}uHpnfae=uwJh vuf,mtiftm;pkawGukd OD;wnfwu kd cf u
kd of mG ;zd@k tm%mrJah tmifvyk jf ypfz@dk vd@k qykd g
w,f? +yD;awmhrSm OD;ausmf+idrf;uae ocifoef;xGef;txd yg0ifEdkifr,fh us,fjyef@wJh vuf0Jtiftm;pk
awGudk odrf;oGif;pkpnf;+yD; tm%mtyf&efvdk@qdkygw,f?
tJ'v D kd pdwuf ;l eJjyif=uqif=uygw,f? tm%modr;f zd@k yg0if=ur,fh awmfveS af &;wyf&if;rsm;
[m =o*kwfv (10) &ufae@ &efukefòrdŒta&muf csDwufvm=u+yD; &efukefòrdŒrSmqHk+yD;wJhaemuf
tm%modrf;=u&efjzpfw,fqdkygw,f? Adkvfpdefwifacgif;aqmifwJh o&ufòrdŒu Armhaoewfudkifwyf
&if; (1) [m &efuek òf rdŒudk tcsed rf q D if;vm+yD;/ r*Fvm'Hrk mS &Sw d hJ Adv
k &f x
J ÉG f &JŒ wyf&if; (3) eJ@ aygi;f =uzd@k
jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvdk wyfrawmftwGif;u wyfrsm;&JŒv_yf&Sm;vmwJh owif;[m vufawGŒrqifEJ$Edkif
ao;rDrmS yJ óudwifowif;aygurf j_ zpfay:vmcJw h ,f? awmifyikd ;f wdik ;f rª; Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfatmifoif; u Adv k rf ;ª
cspfòrdifudkac:,l+yD; wyf&if; (3) u uGefjrLepf Adkvfodef;[m tcsufjyqufoG,fa&;wyfudk vma&muf
pnf;±kH;jcif;/ axmufyHydk@aqmifa&;wyfu armfawmfum;rsm;pDpOfjcif;awGudkaxmufjy+yD; wyf&if; (3)
u &efukefòrdŒudkodrf;zdk@ }uH&G,faea=umif; pGyfpGJajymqdkw,fqdkygw,f? Adkvfcspfòrdifu tJ'Dvdk owif;
aygufaewmudk Adkvf&JxGÉfudk jyefvnfajymqdkw,fqdkygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 109
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

wu,ftm%modr;f zd@k tcdik t f rmjyifqif=uawmhvnf; Adv k af e0if;ujiif;y,fco hJ vdk ygr,f


ajymxm;wJh wcsdKŒwyf&if;rª;rsm;[m rygawmhbl;vdk@qdkygw,f? Adkvfae0if; rygawmhbl;vdk@qdkwmu
rydik rf Edik b
f J awmfveS =f u&if vuf,mtkypf u k tóuduaf wGŒoGm;vdrrf ,f? Edik if jH cm;ppfu, l +l yD; vuf0J
tkypf rk eS of r#ukd òz;d cGi;f jypfEikd wf ,fv@kd ,lqwJt h wGuaf =umifq h ykd gw,f? wyf&if; (3) xJrmS vnf; tm%m
odrf;,la&;t}uHtpnfudk vufcHoleJ@ vufrcHol ESpfydkif;uGJoGm;ygw,f? wyf&if;rª; 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;
&JxÉG u f tm%modr;f a&;t,ltqudk qkyu f ikd +f yD; 'kw,d wyf&if;rª; Adv k rf ;ª cspòf rdiu
f tm%modr;f a&;
qef@usifoljzpfvmygw,f? yJcl;rSm&SdwJh wyf&if; (6) rSmvnf; vufcHoleJ@ vufrcHol&Sdvmygw,f?
wyf&if;rª; 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;wifOD;eJ@ Adkvfrª;wifarmifwdk@u tm%modrf;,la&;udk vufrcHolawGjzpfvm
ygw,f?
Advk &f x
J ÉG ef J Adv
k af Z,s [m tm%modr;f a&;tpDtpOf owif;aygu=f um;ae+yD;jzpfwt hJ wGuf
awmcdzk @kd qH;k jzwfvu kd yf gw,f? Adv k af Z,s[m ppf±;kH u ppfO;D pD;t&m&Sd yxrwef;jzpfygw,f? Adv k &f x
J ÉG f
u wyf&if;(3) wyf&if;rª;jzpfygw,f?
=o*kwv f (8)&ufae@rmS o&ufòrdŒu Armhaoewfuikd w f yf&if; (1) eJ@ r*Fvm'Hk u wyf&if;(3)
wjcrf;[m awmcdkwyfjzpfoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
o&ufu Adkvfpdefwif acgif;aqmifwJh wyf&if; (1) [m &efukef&ŒJ ajymif;vJoGm;wJh tajc
taeudkrodbJ x&yfum;awGeJ@ &efukefudkqif;vm=uygw,f? om,m0wDrSmawGŒ&wJh tapmifhwyf
wwyfqu D vufeufawGord ;f ,lc=hJ u+yD; vrf;rSm tusO;f axmifawGziG +hf yD;/ Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awGukd
v$waf y;cJ=h uygw,f? tpd;k &u qif;vmwJh Adv k pf ed w f if&ŒJ wyfukd qD;wdu k zf @kd avwyfu av,mOfEpS pf ;D
udv k w $ +f yD; pufaoewfe@J typfcikd ;f ygw,f? av,mOfEpS pf ;D 0Jvmwmudk tóudvmw,fxif+yD; wyf&if;
(1) u vufjya0&rf; E_wq f uf=uw,fqykd gw,f? pufaoewfe@J av,mOfysaH y:uae tqufrjywf
ypfawmhrS ykef;a&Smifajy;v$m;=u&w,fqdkygw,f?
AdkvfaZ,s Adkvf&JxGÉf wdk@ awmcdkzdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufwJhtcg tm%modrf;a&;tpDtpOftwGuf
t"du ZmwfaumifwaumifjzpfcJhwJh OD;odef;azjrifh [m awmxJudkrvdkuf&JawmhbJ r*Fvm'Hkuae
vSnfhjyefoGm;ygw,f?
r*Fvm'Hkwyf&if; (3) eJ@ trSwf (2) *sDtD;wyfcGJu t&m&Sd t=uyfwyfom;wcsdKΠyJcl;wyf&if;
(6) u t&m&SdeJ@ &JŒabmfwcsdKŒ pkpkaygif;tif;tm; (350) avmuf[m ppfum; (32) pD;eJ@ awmcdk=u
ygw,f? AdkvfaZ,seJ@ Adkvf&JxGÉfwdk@ uOD;pD;ygw,f? wyf&if; (3) [m Adkvfpdefwif OD;pD;wJh wyf&if;(1)
eJ@aygif;zdk@ jynfvrf;r}uD;twdkif; ajrmifzufudk OD;wnfcsDwufvmygw,f? tpdk;&eJ@ wyfrawmf (av)
u av,mOfrsm;eJ@ 0g;eufacsmif;teD;rSm vdkufvHwdkufcdkufacsrªef;zdk@ óud;pm;ygw,f?
awmcd&k mudv k u kd rf oGm;awmhwhJ OD;ode;f azjrifu h kd vuf0n J !D w G af &;aumifprD mS tzGŒJ 0ifwOD;
tjzpf yg0ifcJhzl;wJh jynfxJa&0ef}uD; OD;ausmf+idrf;u wyf&if; (3) udk ajr‡mufay;cJhw,fqdkwJh pGyfpGJcsuf
eJ@twl zrf;qD;+yD; axmifxo J iG ;f vdu
k yf gw,f? tpnf;ta0;&Sv d @kd vdu
k cf zhJ @kd vdrn f mrSm=um;+yD; olŒtdrf
u um;udak wmif aoaocsmcsmv$waf y;+yD;rS ODausm+f idr;f u olŒtdrt f aygu0f ra&mufrrDS mS ykvyd rf sm;
udk toifhapmifhzrf;apcJhwmjzpfygw,f?

110 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

'DvdkeJ@ wyfrawmfvuf0JnD!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrDwDqdkwm ysuft+yD; r=umcifrSmyJ vuf0J


nD!Gwfa&;aumifpDqdkwmvnf; edXdwHoGm;ygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;a=unmt+yD; (7) v ausmfausmf
twGi;f rSmyJ vufeufuikd af wmcdo k mG ;=u&wJh tzGŒJ tpnf;awG[mvnf; rsm;oxufrsm;vm&ygawmh
w,f? yxrqHk; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ tJ'Daemuf &JabmfjzL/ u&ifppf&J/ autif'Dtdk/ awmcdkwyf
rawmfqdkwmawG jzpfvm&ygawmhw,f?
awmcdkwyfrawmfay:vm+yD;wJhaemuf u&ifrsm;&JŒv_yf&Sm;r_[m ydkrdkjyif;xefvmcJhygw,f?
'g[mvnf; obm0uswu hJ pd w
P ckv@kd qd&k ygvrd rf ,f? ArmvlrsKd ;tzGŒJ tpnf;pH&k ŒJ vufeufuikd t f iftm;
pkrsKd ;pHak y:ayguv f mcsed rf mS u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm; vufeufuikd v f y_ &f mS ;vm=uwm[mvnf; obm0uswhJ
udpw P cktjzpfyJ ±_jrif&ygvrd rhf ,f? ud, k t
hf iftm;pkukd ud, k }f uD;xGm;atmifvyk =f uovdk ud, k =hf oZm&Sd
atmif xlaxmifvm=u csJŒxGifvm=uwmawG qufwdkufjzpfay:vmygw,f?
=o*kwfv (11) &ufae@rSm &efukefòrdŒ e,ferdwftwGif; nrxGuf&trdef@ xkwfjyefvdkuf&yg
w,f? Armwyfrawmfxu J wyfwcsKd Πawmcdw k t hJ wGuf wyfrawmfppfO;D pD;csKyf Adv k cf sKyfprpf'eG ;f u u&if
aoewfuikd w f yf&if;awGukd vufeuf}uD;eJ@ pufaoewfawG zG@J pnf;yHx k ufausmv f eG +f yD; xkwaf y;w,f
vdk@qdkygw,f? =o*kwfv (14) &ufae@rSm u&ifppf&Jrsm;u wHGaw;òrdŒudk odrf;ydkufygw,f? =o*kwfv
(16) &ufae@rmS Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;wifxÉG f 0ef}uD;&mxl;u w&m;0ifEw _ x f uG +f yD; ppfwyfxaJ &muf
oGm;ygw,f? ujym;aygi;f pHek @J zGŒJ pnf;xm;wJh ,lattuf(zf)rSm wyfrif;}u;D jzpfomG ;ygw,f? =o*kwv f
(20) &ufrmS armfcsD;rdkifudk autif'Dtdkrsm;u odrf;ydkufvdkuf=uovdk oxkHc±dkifwckvHk;[mvnf;
autif'Dtdkrsm; vufatmufa&muf&SdoGm;ygw,f?
u&iftrsdK;om;wdk@&JŒ v_yf&Sm;vmr_eJ@twl a&SŒqifhaemufqifh v_yf&Sm;vmwmu rGeftrsdK;
om;rsm;jzpfygw,f?
rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;[m &mrnwdkif;vHk;qdkif&m rGeftoif;/ rGeftzGJŒaygif;csKyf/ rGefwdkif;&if;om;
tpnf;t±kH;/ rGeftrsdK;om;tzGJŒ/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJŒ/ rGefqdk&S,ftoif;/ jynfaxmifpkrGeftoif;/
rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJŒ/ jynfaxmifpkrGeftzGJŒcsKyf pwJhtoif;tzGJŒ}uD; (9)zGJŒeJ@ EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awGudk
aqmif&u G cf =hJ uygw,f? u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;u u&ifjynfe,f&&Sad &; awmif;qdv k y_ &f mS ;vm=ucsed rf mS /
e,fajrcsi;f wqufwpyfwnf;jzpfwhJ rGet f rsKd ;om;rsm;uvnf; rGejf ynfe,f&&Sad &;udk aqmif&u G v
f m
=ujcif;jzpfygw,f? oxHkc±dkifrSm autif'Dtdkrsm; awmfvSefv_yf&Sm;vm=uwmeJ@wòydifeufrSm rGef
vufeufudkiftzGJŒrsm;jzpf=uwJh rGefwdkif;&if;om;tpnf;t±Hk;eJ@ rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJŒ awmcdkv_yf&Sm;
vm=uygw,f? rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJŒ[m autif'Dtdkrsm;eJ@yl;aygif;+yD; oxHkc±dkifudk odrf;ydkufygw,f?
armfvòrdifbufrSmvnf; ppfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awG oGufoGufvufvuf taumiftxnfazmfygw,f?
jynfolŒv$wfawmftrwfjzpfwJh awmfcdk&JabmfjzL AdkvfpdefxGef;u jynfaxmifpkppf&J wyf&if;
(16) eJ@aygi;f +yD; anmifwek ;f / yef;waemf/ "EkjzL wd@k ukd odr;f ydu k vf u kd yf gw,f/ =o*kwv f (21) &ufae@rmS
oxHkeJ@ usdKufcrD&Sd u&ifppf&Jrsm; twdtvif;ykefuef+yD; tpkd;&udk qef@usifwdkufcdkufvmygw,f?
OD;wifxÉG f Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;u w&m;0ifEw _ x
f u G o f mG ;+yDjzpfwt hJ wGuf ,m,DEikd if jH cm;a&;
0ef}uD;jzpfvmwJh pyfceG cf sKd [m xdik ;f -jrefrm rdwq f ufc&D;tjzpf befaumufuo kd mG ;a&muf+yD; =o*kwf
v (24) &ufae@rSm xdkif;-jrefrm oHwrefqufqHa&;udk pwifygw,f? =o*kwfv (25) &ufae@rSm

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 111


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

u&ifeDjynfe,f&JΠtajctae[mvnf; v_yf&Sm;vmwJhtwGuf rm&S,favmppfOya' xkwfvdkuf&yg


awmhw,f? (30) &ufae@rSm yef;vHkeJ@ vG,fvif&Sd jynfaxmifpkppfwyfu u&ifppf&Jrsm; awmcdk=uyg
w,f? tpdk;&u trf;ykvdyf (Armed Police) vdk@ac:wJh vufeufudkif oD;oef@wyfzGJŒeJ@ aomif;usef;r_
ESrd Ef iS ;f a&;wyfzŒJG awGuakd ygi;f +yD; jynfaxmifppk pf&w J yfrsm;tjzpf zGŒJ pnf;ay;xm;wmjzpfygw,f? vuf
eufudkiftHkºuGr_rsm; tawmrowfEdkifatmif aygufuGJay:xGufvmcsdefrSm jynfaxmifpkppf&Jwyf&if;
(20) &if;&Syd gw,f? o,f,yl @kd aqmifa&;wyf&if;eJ@ tcsujf y qufo, G af &;wyf&if;awG udzk ,fvu kd &f if
wdkufcdkufa&;wyf&if;csnf; (16) &if; zGJŒpnf;+yD;om;&Sdygw,f?
&Srf;ya'o&mZfapmfbGm;rsm;&JΠESdrfeif;acsr_ef;r_udk cHcJh&zl;wJh ytdk0fhrsdK;cspfrsm;vnf; jyefvnf
v_yf&Sm;vm+yD; autif'Dtdkrsm;eJ@ aygif;qufrdum vufeufudkifvm=uygw,f? &Srf;jynfe,fxJrSm
v_yf&Sm;Edk;ºuGvmwJh ytdkifhvufeufudkifwyfzGJŒrsm;[m &Srf;ya'o&mZfapmfbGm;rsm;eJ@ e,fajrawGudk
wdu k cf u kd o
f rd ;f ydu
k =f uwJt h wGuf wcsKd ŒapmfbmG ; òrdŒpm;rsm;[m olw@kd &ŒJ a[mfeef;awGrmS awmif rae0Hh
avmufatmif jzpfay:vmygw,f? oxkHbufu ytdk0fhrsm;u autif'DtdkeJ@ aygif;qufv_yf&Sm;vm
ovdk &Sr;f jynfbufu ytd0k rhf sm;[mvnf; autif't D rkd sm;eJ@ wGq
J ufrv d m+yD; olw@dk &ŒJ trsKd ;om;a&;
qdkif&m v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk vufeufudkifenf;eJ@ aqmif&Gufvm=uygw,f?
u&ifeDjynfe,frSmvnf; u&ifeDv_yf&Sm;r_eJ@ ya'gif;tHkºuGr_}uD;rsm; ay:aygufvmygw,f?
pufwifbm (1) &ufae@rSm u&ifppf&Jrsm;u rGef/ autif'Dtdkrsm;eJ@twl armfvòrdifòrdŒudk odrf;ydkufyg
w,f? tpdk;&uvnf; tHkºuGvmr_awGudk ESdrfeif;zdk@ jynfaxmifpkt&Hwyf&if; (ucsif) eJ@ (csif;) udk
pwifzŒJG pnf;jyefygw,f? wzufu +idr;f csr;f a&;pum;awGajymae=uayr,fh tjcm;wzufu tjyeft
vSef tiftm;pkaqmif;ae=uygw,f? awmifydkif;wdkif; ppfe,fajrwckvHk;twGif;rSm vufeufudkiftif
tm;pkrsm;u òrdŒ&Gme,fy,fa'oawGudk odrf;ydkufvdkuf/ tpdk;&wyfrsm; jyefvnfxdk;ppfqifodrf;ydkuf
vdkufeJ@ aoewfoHawGnHaecJhygw,f?
pufwifbm (2) &ufygvDrefxJrSm ocifEku Auy [m tdENd,uGefjrLepfygwD&JΠ=oZmcHjzpf
aeyHk &Sif;vif;ajymqkd ±_wfcsygw,f? tJ'Dae@rSmyJ Auy u xef;wyifudk0ifwdkufygw,f?
autif't D rkd sm;u/ uavmteD; v,fjyifbw l m/ yifavmif;e,f vkjH yif wk@d ukd 0ifwu kd o f vdk
aumhu&dwf/ zmyGef/ a&$usif/ ausmuf}uD; wdk@udkvnf; 0ifodrf;ygw,f?
1948-49 b¾ma&;ESpt f wGuf buf*suv f akd iG (10) ukaÉausmw f ,fv@kd b¾ma&;0ef}uD;
u ygvDrefrSmwifjyygw,f? v,f,majr EdkifiHydkifvkyfa&;Oya'=urf;udk ygvDrefu a=unmygw,f?
a'oqdkif&m autif'DtdkwyfzGJŒrsm;&JŒ v_yf&Sm;wdkufcdkufodrf;ydkufr_awGudk autif'Dtdk A[dk
acgif;aqmifrsm;u xdef;odrf;zdk@óud;pm;=uwmawGvnf;&Sdygw,f? apmbOD;}uD;eJ@ autif'Dtdkacgif;
aqmifrsm;u tpdk;&eJ@ oxHk&Sd autif'DtdkawG=um; em;vnfr_&atmif aphpyfjzefajzay;ygw,f?
tJ'h t D csed t f xd autif't D t
kd zGŒJ csKy[
f m vufeufuikd ef nf;eJ@ u&ifjynfe,fjy\emudak jz&Si;f zk@d OD;wnf
aqmif&Gufvdkjcif;r&Sdao;yg?
pufwifbmv (17) &ufae@rSm ykodrfòrdŒrSm autif'Dtdk ta&;ay:nDvmcHusif;yygw,f?
oD;jcm;u&ifjynfe,f&&Sad &;udk av;av;eufeuf awmif;qdyk gw,f? vufeufuikd af omif;use;f r_awG
udk ±_wfcsa=umif;eJ@ vlrsdK;a&;t"du±k%f;rsm;udk qefusifa=umif; w&m;0if azmfxkwfwifjycJhygw,f?

112 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tJ'aD e@rmS yJ vuf,morm;vd@k ,lqxm;jcif;cH&wJh t*Fvyd af cwftpd;k & tzGŒJ rsm;twGi;f rSm
vnf; ta&;}uD;ae&mrsm;rSm yg0ifcJhzl;wJh vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;+yD;csif; EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfcJh+yD;/ avm
avmq,fyJ Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;u E_wx f u
G u f m wyfx0J ifa&mufc+hJ yD;/ ,lattuf(zf) wyfrif;}uD;jzpf
wJh OD;wifxw G f &efuek òf rdŒv,facgif pywfvrf;rSm um;AH;k cGw J u kd cf u kd v f yk }f uHjcif;cH&ygw,f? '%f&m&+yD;
aemufw&ufrmS aoqH;k ygw,f? (aemufyikd ;f rSm Adv k cf sKyfae0if;vuf&mruif;vd@k ,lq=uwm&Syd gw,f?)
OD;wifxw G f AH;k uG'J %f&meJ@ aoqH;k wJh pufwifbm (1)&ufae@rmS yJ a';vD;ar;vf owif;axmuf
tvufZef;'g;uif;bJ(vf) udk &efukefòrdŒrSm tpdk;&u zrf;qD;vdkufygw,f? tr_u autif'DtdkeJ@
ywfoufrj_ zpfygw,f? olv#Kd vkyrf j_ zpfygw,f? uif;bJ(vf) [m owif;axmufa,mifaqmif &efuek f
a&mufvm+yD; autif't D kd udu
k nl wD hJ t*Fvyd o f v l #Kd vkyif ef;awGvyk af qmifw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? u&if
awGukd olyek x f zd@k tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufvyk af ewJh t&if (136) wyfzŒJG rSm tr_xrf;cJzh ;l +yD; umvuwWm;
òrdŒrSm&Sad ewJh ume,fw;l avmufe@J u&ifawG=um; uif;bJvf u t"duquf oG,af y;aew,fv@kd qykd g
w,f? uif;bJvu f ae wl;avmufqaD &;wJph mudk azmfxw k Ef ikd cf whJ ,fqykd gw,f? tJ't D a=umif;awGukd
bDtdkatpD ava=umif;ukr`%Du av,mOftrlxrf;wa,mufjzpfwJh +Adwdo#qdk&S,fvpfwOD;vnf;
jzpfol tdkif'DqdkifrGef qdkolqDu wqifhod&Sd&+yD; pufwifbmv (18)&uf ae@rSm uif;bJvf udkzrf;qD;
vdkuf=uygw,f? uif;bJvfwl;avmuf ta&;tcif;[m owif;pmrsm;uae urBmudk csufjcif;ysHESH@
oGm;ygw,f? +Adwdo#tpdk;&u u&ifawGudk tultnDray;a=umif; csufcsif;wkef@jyef jiif;qkdygw,f?
uif;bJvf wl;avmufudpP[m tpdk;&eJ@ bmr#rqdkifa=umif; +Adwdo#ygvDrefxJ aqG;aEG;=u&mrSm
&Sif;vif;ajymqdkygw,f? (aemufydkif;rSm tpdk;&u uif;bJvfudk zrf;qD;xm;&muae jyefv$wfay;+yD;
t+yD;tydkif armif;xkwfvdkufygw,f?)
u&ifppf&yJ ek u f efrr_ sm;/ autif't D v kd y_ &f mS ;r_rsm;eJ@ u&ifta&; a&SŒwef;wufvmwJt h wGuf
pufwifbm (29) &ufae@rSm armfvòrdifc±dkifudk ppftkyfcsKyfa&;a=unmygw,f?
wzufuvnf; vufeufudkifv_yf&Sm;aer_aygif;pHkudk ac|;odyf[ef@wm;zdk@ tpdk;&eJ@ vufeuf
udkifykefuefaeolawGt=um; =um;0ifajz&Sif;aphpyfay;zkd@ zqyv tpkd;&u a&$jynfat;+idrf;csrf;a&;
tzGJŒawG zGJŒpnf;ay;ygw,f? a&$jynfat;tzGJŒudk qmOD;oGif eJ@ [oFmwOD;jr wdk@u acgif;aqmifyg+yD;
+idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJawGvkyfygw,f? 'ga=umifh a&$jynfat;tzGJŒudk qmOD;oGif+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒvdk@
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awG@qw kH mawG vkyyf gw,f? oabmwlnrD , _ w l mawGvyk yf gw,f// tpd;k &[m wzufuvnf; wyfukd
wdk;csJ@zdk@/ vufeuftopfawG vHkvHkavmuf wyfqifay;Edkifzkd@ vufeuf0,f,la&;udk enf;enf;trsdK;
rsdK;eJ@ óud;yrf;aqmif&Gufygw,f?
emrnfq;kd eJ@a=umf=um;aewJh jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; OD;ausm+f idr;f udk jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;tjzpfuae
Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;tjzpf ae&majymif;a&$Œay;vdu k w f t hJ wGuf Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmwJh OD;ausm+f idr;f
[m vufeufudkifaomif;usef;olawGudk tjywfwdkufzdk@twGufqdk+yD; aoewf0,fxGufygw,f?
uif;bJvw f ;l avmuf ta&;tcif;+yD;wJah emuf t*Fvefukd ud, k w f ikd uf ,kd uf somG ;+yD; vufeufa&mif;cs
ay;zd@k wifjyaqG;aEG;ygw,f? atmifwb kd mv (7) &ufae@rmS vef'efuakd &mufygw,f? +Adwo d #Eikd if jH cm;
a&;0ef}uD;u OD;ausm+f idr;f udk ud, k wf ikd af wmif vufcaH wGqjkH cif;r&Syd g? Edik if jH cm;a&;±k;H t+rJwrf;twGi;f

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 113


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

0efuom OD;ausmf+idrf;udk vufcHawGŒqHk+yD; uif;bJvfudkzrf;qD;jcif;twGuf qlyl}udrf;armif;v$wf


vdkufw,fqdkygw,f? vufeufvnf; a&mif;ray;vdkufvdk@qdkygw,f? wjcm;EdkifiHawGuvnf; Arm
jynfudk +Adwdo#=oZme,fxJrSmyJ xnfhoGif;xm;+yD; vufeufa&mif;ray;=ubl;qdkygw,f?
t*Fvdyfu vufeufa&mif;ray;awmh OD;ausmf+idrf;u tar&duefudktm;udk;+yD; vufeuf
a&mif;csay;a&; tm;xkwfjyefygw,f? yg&D rSmusif;ywJh ukvor*~taxGaxGnDvmcHudk oGm;wuf
&if; tar&duefEikd if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; rm&S,ef @J awG+yD; vufeufc, J rf;rD;ausmuf a&mif;csay;a&;aqG;aEG;
ygw,f? yxr tar&duefEdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; rm&S,f ua&mif;ay;r,fajymwJhtwGuf v$wfawmfnD
vmcHrSm ta=umif;&Sm+yD; tar&duefudk rJay;cJhw,fqdkygw,f? Armjynfjyefa&muf+yD; tar&duefoH
trwfeJ@ vufeuf0,fa&;pDpOfawmhrS ArmEdkifiH[m t*Fvdyftpdk;& eJ@ vufusFm z&D;rif;pmcsKyf&Sdae
wJhtwGuf a&mif;ay;vdk@rjzpfEdkifqdk+yD; jiif;y,fcsjcif;cHvdkuf&ygw,f?
atmufwkdbm (10) &ufrSm v,f,majrEdkifiHydkifðyvkyfa&;Oya'=urf;udk ygvDrefu twnf
ðyvdkufovdk (14)&ufae@rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku vGwfvyfa&;ae@u EdkifiHawmforRw}uD; ajym=um;
cJhwJh 0g'oabmxm;twdkif; qufvufaqmif&GufoGm;r,fvdk@ xyfrHa=unmjyefygw,f? qdk&S,fvpf
vrf;a=umif;twdkif; qufvufcsDwufr,fvdk@ qdkvkdwmjzpfygw,f?
vuf,mxdyo f ;D wOD;tjzpf pm&if;wd@k xm;jcif;cH&wJh OD;xGe;f vSatmif udk vef'efòrdŒ jrefrmoH
±k;H ppfbuft&m&St d jzpf cef@xm;+y;D / atmifwb kd m (15) &ufae@rmS t*Fvefy@kd vu kd yf gw,f? OD;wifxw G f
vnf; vufonfray: vkyf}uHcHvdkuf&+yD;+yDrdk@ OD;xGef;vSatmif vef'efudk at;at;aq;aq; xGufcGg
oGm;ygw,f? vuf,morm;}uD; OD;wifxw G u f kd b,foo l wfcohJ vJqw kd m awmfawmfpw d 0f ifpm;p&m
aumif;wJhtr_jzpfcJhygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfrsm;u owfcJhwmvdk@ ,lqolawG&Sdovdk Armwyfrawmf
twGif;uyJ owfcJ@wmvdk@ ,lqajymqdk=uolawGvnf;&Sdygw,f? tpdk;&u OD;wifxGwf vkyf}uHoludk
azmfEdkifol qkaiGwaomif;ay;rnfvdk@ atmifwdkbm (29) &ufae@rSm cyfwnfwnfa=unmcJhygw,f?
'gayr,fh aemufqHk;tcsdeftxd w&m;cHray:cJhbJ tr_ydwfcJh&wJh EdkifiHa&;vkyf}uHr_wckjzpfcJh&ygw,f?
tpd;k &tzGŒJ twGi;f rSm wef;cd;k xGm;vmcJw h muawmh qd&k , S v
f pfawGbjJ zpfygw,f? uGejf rLepf
awGukd awmxJarmif;xkwv f u kd +f yD;jzpfovdk zqyv twGi;f t"duòydib f uf jynfoŒl &Jabmfuv kd nf;
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tpd;k &twGi;f rSmqd&k , S v f pfawGòydib f ufr&Sd tom&aecJah yr,fh wdik ;f jynfwckv;kH &JŒ taet
xm;uawmh rD;[ke;f [ke;f awmufpðyaecJyh gw,f? vufeufuikd af wmfveS q f ef@usiaf e=uol aygi;f pHw k @kd
&JΠaoewfoaH wG[m &efuek t f eD;w0du k tf xd us,jf yef@vmaecJyh gw,f? vufeufuikd v f y_ &f mS ;r_awG
}uD;xGm;vmwJhtcg 'Dvufeufudkifv_yf&Sm;r_awGudk EdSyfuGyfypfEdkifzdk@ tjywfwdkuf tjywfacsr_ef;a&;
udyk J wav#mufv;kH qkyu f ikd x
f m;wJh qd&k , S v f pf}uD;rsm;[m vufeufuikd w f yfukd wd;k csŒJ a&;/ vufeuf
udkifwyfudk udkifxm;Edkifa&;/ vufeufudkifwyfrSm udk,fh=oZm&SdolarG;xm;Edkifa&;udk t"duxm;vkyf
vm=uygw,f? t=urf;zufenf;eJ@ tm%m&a&;udkr,Hk=unfbl;/ vufeufudkifenf;udk vufrcHbl;/

114 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ygvDref'Drdkua&pDudk toufwr# jrwfEdk;ygw,f pojzifh pojzifh yg;pyfu wzGzGajymaeolawG[m


wu,fvufawGŒrSm vufeufuikd t f iftm;tay: t,H=k unfq;kH vlawGjzpfvm=uygw,f? tiftm;eJ@
tEdkif,la&; pdwftjyif;xefqHk;vlawGjzpf=uygw,f? tðywfwdkuf tjywfòzda&; &nfrSef;csuftjyif;
xef;qHk;vlawGjzpf=uygw,f? om"utm;jzifh OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@ qdk&S,fvpfawGudk =unfhEdkifygw,f/
OD;ausmf+idrf;[m Adkvfae0if; udk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;jzpfapcsifvGef;vdk@ ^m%feD ^m%feufrsdK;pHkudk oHk;cJh
ygw,f? idjk ywJeh nf;/ ukvm;zefx;kd wJeh nf;/ uwH;k uwdu k v f yk w f ehJ nf; enf;aygi;f pHk tukeo f ;kH cJyh gw,f?
qd&k , S v f pftEG,0f ifjzpfwhJ Adv k af e0if;udk qd&k , S v f pfacgi;f aqmif}uD; OD;ausm+f idr;f u tydik af rG;jrL;xm;
zd@k jyifqifcyhJ gw,f? arG;cJyh gw,f? ud, k yf idk w f yf&adS tmif t+rJwef;óud;yrf;tm;xkwcf yhJ gw,f? wyfxrJ mS
ud, k v hf l qd&k ,
S v f pftrmcH}uD;awG&adS eatmif tuGucf s zefw;D xm;avh&ydS gw,f? acgi;f rmqd&k , S vf pf
xdyo f ;D wOD;jzpfwhJ Adv k af tmif}uD;[m 1947 ckEpS rf mS wyfrawmfuxGu/f qd&k , S vf pfygwD xdyo f ;D wOD;
vky+f yD;/ (jynf) aus;vuf ta&SŒtrwftjzpf acgi;f aygi;f pwaxmifaxmif vkyaf e&muae/ vufeuf
udkifwyfzGJŒudk udkifxm;Edkifa&; ta&;}uD;vmcsdefrSm wyfxJ tpDtpOf&Sd&Sd jyef0ifvmygw,f? olwdk@
pum;eJ@ajym&&if/ ckpmuav;a=umf ckqx D rif; vkycf yhJ gw,f? atmufwb kd m (1) &ufae@rmS Adv k rf ;_ }uD;
tjzpf tay:uae jyef0ifvmygw,f? wyfudk qdk&S,fvpfawGpD;xm;Edkifzdk@jzpfygw,f?
Edk0ifbmvxJrSm oD;jcm;u&ifjynfe,f&Sda&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ydkrdktuGufpdyfvmygw,f? u&if
ppf&w J yfrsm; ykeu f efre_ @J autif't D wkd @kd &ŒJ v_y&f mS ;r_awGukd tpd;k &wyfrawmfwiG ;f &Sd u&ifah oewfuikd f
wyf&if;rsm;uvnf; v#dKŒ0SufulnD axmufyhHwmawGvkyf=uw,fqdkygw,f?
tpd;k &u u&ihjf y\emudk OD;wnfuikd w f ,G of mG ;Edik af &;twGuf vuf0o J rm;awG&ŒJ axmuf
cHru _ &kd atmif enf;rsKd ;pHek @J óu;d pm;ygw,f? vGwv f yfa&;ae@ rde@f ceG ;f awGe@J uu kd af tmif vuf0v J rf;a=umif;
ykHo¿efay:atmif jynfolydkifodrf;a&;toHawGay;ygw,f? qmOD;oGifacgif;aqmifwJh a&$jynfat;
+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJ@awGudk vkyfydkifcGifhwpHkw&may;+yD; te,fe,ft&yf&yfrSm +idrf;csrf;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_awG
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tpd;k &u tvsipf vkrd vkyo f ifah =umif; owif;pmq&mrsm;toif;wdu k rf mS Ed0k ifbmv (3) &ufae@rmS
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aEG;nd‡E_dif;wmawGvkyfygw,f? olwdk@&JŒ +idrf;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk axmufcHwJh axmufcHyGJawGudkvnf;
jzpfay:usif;yapcJhygw,f? Edkif0ifbmv (22) &ufae@rSm qmOD;oGifaetdrfrSm +idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒ0if
vl}uD;rsm;eJ@ awmcdk&JabmfjzLacgif;aqmifawG awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;=uwmvkyfygw,f?
Edk0ifbm (24) &ufae@rSm jynfwGif;ppf&yfqJa&;/ jynfolŒ'Drdkua&pDwyfaygif;pkzGJŒpnf;a&;eJ@
'Drdkua&pD!Gef@aygif;tpdk;&zGJŒpnf;a&; awmif;qdkcsufyg0ifwJh a=unmcsufudk awmcdk&JabmfjzLrsm;u
xkwfjyefa=unmcJhygw,f? (30) &ufae@rSm &JabmfjzLacgif;aqmifwa,mufjzpfwJh Adkvfva&mif u
olwdk@&JŒ &JabmfjzLrsm;udk XmecsKyfu +idrf;csrf;a&;udk vufcHvdkuf+yDjzpfvdk@ XmecsKyf&JŒ !¸ef=um;csuft

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 115


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

wdik ;f vdu k ef m=uzd@k toHvi$ ahf jym=um;ygw,f? &JabmfjzLwcsKd Œu vufc=H uayr,fh &JabmfjzLwcsKd Œu
vufrcH=ubJ qufvufwdkufyGJqif=uygw,f? tpdk;&uvnf; yk'fr(5)eJ@ zrf;xm;wJh &JabmfjzLwcsdKŒ
udk jyefvw $ w f m/ Edik if aH &;orm;wcsKd Œudk jyefvw $ w f mvkyyf gw,f? u&ift h a&;udk t"duxm;udik w f , G f
Edkifzkd@ vufeufudkiftzGJŒtpnf;wcsdKŒudk tav#mhtwif;vkyfay;wJhoabmjzpfygw,f?
&JabmfjzL 'kwd,OuUÏ Adkvfva&mif&JŒ toHv$ifhajym=um;csuf xGufay:rvmcifuav;rSm
ta&;}uD;tjzpftysufwckay:cJhygw,f? ucsifjynfe,f OuUÏ qrm;'l0g;qif0g;aemif &JŒ 0ef}uD;csKyf
ocifEk xH wifjycsufjzpfygw,f// ol&JŒtwGif;0ef vbef*a&mif;u tpD&ifcHpma&;+yD; wifjycJhwmudk
0ef}uD;csKyfqD today;wifjycJhwmvdk@qdkygw,f? Edk0ifbmv (28) &ufae@rSm wifjycJhwmjzpfygw,f?
ta=umif;u vbef*a&mif;udk u&ifo[m,uvyfudk vma&mufzdk@ zdwf=um;+yD; uvyfrSm
autif't D kd OuUÏ ref;bZH/ q&momxd/k apm[efwmomar$; pwJh u&ifacgi;f aqmifrsm;u autif'D
tdrk sm;&JΠwdu k yf rJG sm;udk ucsirf sm;u ulnzD @kd ppfual wmif;=uw,fqw kd thJ a=umif;jzpfygw,f? tJ'v D kd
u&ifrsm;&JŒ ucsirf sm;udk pnf;±k;H awmif;cHjcif;owif;udk =um;od+yD;+yD;csi;f 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEu k Adv k cf sKyf
ae0if;/ Adv k af tmif}uD; wd@k uakd c:,l+yD; 1949 Zefe0g&D (31) &ufxufaemufrusapbJ vdo k r#wyfrsm;
zGJŒpnf;ay;zdk@wm0efay;cJhygw,f? t&ifuwnf;u zGJŒpnf;zdk@ w&m;0if trdef@xkwfxm;cJh+yD; ppf0ef
xrf;wyf (52) wyftjyif aemufxyf (49) wyfzGJŒpnf;zdk@ trdef@cscJhygw,f? tm;vHk; ppf0efxrf;wyf
zGJΠ(100) ausmf&SdapcJhygw,f?
1948 ckEpS /f 'DZifbm (4) &ufae@rmS awmh Edik if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEu k “e,faygi;f pHu k &wJh
owif;rsm;t& jynfaxmifpw k ckv;kH [m &ifrat;zG,&f m tifrwefq;kd 0g;wJt h ajctaeudk a&mufae
yg+yD” vdk@ a=unmvdkufygw,f?
'DZifbmv (5) &ufae@rmS q&m}uD;ocifu, kd af wmfrid_ ;f }uD;rª;wJh +idr;f csr;f om,ma&;tzGŒJ u
+idrf;csrf;a&;vkyfief;rsm; axmufcHyGJusif;y+yD;/ ydkrdkjyif;xefvmr,fh jynfwGif;ppfrD;v#Hudk wm;qD;zdk@
óud;pm;ygw,f? +idrf;csrf;a&;toHudkay;ygw,f?
'DZifbm (8) &ufae@rSm ocifEkaetdrfrSm zqyv tzGJŒcsKyf tvkyftr_aqmiftzGJŒtpnf;
ta0;usi;f y+y;D vufiif;Edik if aH &;jy\emrsm;udk jywfjywfom;om;ajz&Si;f a&; aqG;aEG;=uw,fqykd gw,f?
apmbOD;}uD;acgif;aqmifwJh autif'Dtdkacgif;aqmifrsm;u awmufavmifvmaewJh ppfrD;
&Sed u
f t kd &Sed o
f wfEikd zf @kd wwfEikd of r# óud;pm;cJ=h uygw,f? atmufwb kd mvxJwek ;f uwnf;u apmbOD;
}uD;[m 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk tygt0if ucsi/f &Sr;f / rGe/f jrefrm acgi;f aqmifawGukd zdw=f um;+yD; npmpm;yGJ
wnf;cif;{nfc&H if; ajyvnf&majyvnfa=umif; óud;pm;cJyh gw,f? u&ifrsm;&JŒ rtlyifaiGwu kd f azmuf
+yD;,loGm;r_twGuf v,f{u (1000) a&mif;+yD; av#mfa=u;ay;zdk@odrf;oGm;wJh aoewfawGudk (2)v
twGi;f jyeftyfcikd ;f zd@k olóud;pm;tm;xkwrf ,fqw kd m uwday;cJyh gw,f? u&ifacgi;f aqmif apmom'ife@J
q&momxdw k @kd u owif;pmq&mrsm;toif;wdu k rf mS owif;pmq&mrsm;a&SŒrSm “u&ifArm txif
rvG=J ubJ arwWmjzift h vkyvf yk =f uzd@k ” 'DZifbmv (9) &ufae@rmS ajymqdyk gw,f? 'DZifbmv (18) &uf
ae@rmS u&ifa&;&m0ef}uD; refbqdik u f vnf; owif;pmq&mrsm;toif;wdu k rf mS yJ u&ifArmcsp=f unf
a&; &Si;f vif;ajym=um;r_awGvyk yf gw,f? 'gayr,fh tajctaeawGu wae@wjcm; ±_yaf xG;vdr, f u S vf m
aeygw,fyJajym&awmhrSmjzpfygw,f? ppfoHeJ@ +idrf;csrf;a&;toH nD!Gwfa&;oHawG[m vHk;axG;&pf

116 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ywf a'G;a&m,SufwifjzpfaecJhygw,f? ESpfbufpvHk;[m tjyeftvSef tjynfht0 r,Hk=unfEdkifp&m


awG&SdaecJh=uygw,f? tpdk;&bufuae=unfhwJhtcgusawmhvnf; vufeufudkifaomif;usef;olrsm;
[m òrdŒodr;f / &Gmodr;f / aiGwu kd af zmufvyk if ef;rsm;udk tqufrjywfvyk af e=u+yD; wdik ;f jynfukd a*smufxJ
wGef;csae=uw,fvdk@jrifygw,f? vufeufudkifv_yf&Sm;ae=uoltm;vHk;udk ‘aomif;usef;olawG’
tjzpfyJ oabmxm;ygw,f? uGejf rLepf/ jynfoŒl &Jabmf/ awmcdw k yfrawmf/ awmcku d &ifppf&/J awmcdk
autif't D /kd eJ@vrl sKd ;pkvufeufuikd f ykeu f efaeolawGtm;vH;k udk odr;f óuH;+yD; “a&mifpo kH yl ek ”f “a&mifpkH
aomif;usef;olawG”vdk@ uif;yGefwyfac:a0:ygw,f? rv$Jom ra&Smifom +idrfcsrf;a&;pum; nD!Gwf
a&;pum; ajym=um;vm&wJt h cgrmS vnf; ‘vufeufcsvmyg’ ‘tvif;0ifvmyg’ ‘vGw+f idr;f csr;f om
cGifh trdef@xkwfay;xm;ygw,f’ qdkwmawGudkyJ ajym=um;avh&SdcJhygw,f?
vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;tiftm;pkawGbufu=unfw h t hJ cgusawmhvnf; zqyv tpk;d &
[m tifrwef uvdrfuswJhtpkd;&yJjrifygw,f? zqyv tpdk;&[m qdk&S,fvpfawGtkyfpD;xm;wJh
tpd;k &jzpf+yD; qd&k , S v f pfawGu òydib f ufEikd if aH &;tiftm;pkawGtay: vufO;D r_,l ajcr_e;f a&;udb k vJ yk f
aqmif+yD; tm%mudk &moufyef vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;csif=uw,fvdk@jrifygw,f? uGefjrLepfawGudk
awmxJarmif;ydck w hJ m/ &JabmfjzLawGuakd wmxJarmif;ydck w hJ mawG[m vufawGŒom"uawGjzpf+yD; +idr;f
csr;f a&;xuf tðywfwu kd af &;udo k m t+rw J rf;vH;k yrf;ae=uolawGv@kd ,lqygw,f? ppfwyfawGuo kd m
wdk;csJŒzGJŒpnf;ae+yD;/ wu,fhppfrSefwJh +idrf;csrf;a&;/ nD!Gwfa&;udk &vdk ,lvdk wnfaqmufvdkolawG
r[kwfvdk@ tajzxGufygw,f?
'ga=umifh jynfwGif;ppf}uD;[m ykdrdkt&Sdef&vmcJhygw,f? vwfwavmxdyfa&mufvmcJhwJh
u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm; jy\em[mvnf; wpwp ydrk ekd uf±i_d ;f vmcJyh gw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEu k u&if/
rGef/ &cdkifrsm;twGuf jynfe,fzGJŒay;a&; oabmxm;usvm+yD; aumfolav;e,ferdwfowfrSwfa&;
aumfr&SifqdkwmeJ@ jynfe,fpHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sifqdkwmudk zGJŒpnf;ay;cJhayr,fh 'Daumfr&Sifrsm;[m
jy\emrsm;udk ajyvnfatmifajz&Sif;ay;Edkifvdrfhr,fr[kwfwm olŒ[molŒvnf; oabmayguf+yD;
jzpfygw,f? tajccHukd udik w f , G w f o hJ abmr[kwyf J ,m,Dxu G af ygu&f mS wJo
h abm ta=umif;jycsuf
wckay; ac|;ody+f yD; tcsed q f w JG o hJ abmomjzpfaecJygw,f? tajccHta=umif;u u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;
u u&ifjynfe,fudkvdkcsifwmjzpfygw,f? zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'xJrSm owfowfrSwfrSwf
azmfjyxm;jcif;rcH&ao;wJhtwGuf *k%feJ@j'yfeJ@udkufnDwJh u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JΠpdwfqENeJ@vnf;
avsmfnDwJh u&ifjynfe,f&&Sdcsifwmjzpfygw,f? zqyv tpdk;&ay;csifwmu odk@r[kwf ay;Edkifw,f
qdkwmu u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JŒ pdwfqENeJ@ trsm;}uD;a0;uGmjcm;em;aeygw,f? u&ifjynfe,fzGJŒ
pnf;ay;r,f? zG@J pnf;cGiu hf vkd ufcw H ,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'zD ŒJG pnf;vdu k w f hJ u&ifjynfe,f[m jynfaxmifpk
xJu cGx J u G v f u kd cGx J uG yf ikd cf iG &hf &dS r,fqw kd hJ autif,&l ŒJ awmif;qdck suu f kd vufrcHEikd v
f @kd qykd gw,f?
u&ifjynfe,fxrJ mS yg0ifr,fh e,fajra'oudprP mS vnf; Armjynfw0ufavmufe;D yg;&Sad evd@k oabm
rwlEikd vf @kd qykd gw,f? aumfoal v;e,ferdwo f wfrw S af &;aumfr&Siu f axmufcrH ,fh a'orsm;udo k m
u&ifjynfe,fxJ xnfah y;zd@k tpd;k &uqH;k jzwfxm;w,fqykd gw,f? (wu,fu e,fajra'oudp[ P m
e,fajra'owGif;&Sd jynfolvlxktm;vHk;&JŒqENudk azmfxkyf+yD; qENcH,l+yD; oufqdkif&m um,uH&Sif
tm;vHk;eJ@ n‡dE_dif;qHk;jzwf taumiftxnfazmf&if tcsdefumvwckrSm +yD;pD;ajz&Sif;EdkifwJh udpPjzpfyg

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 117


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

w,f? wzufu ‘&udk&&r,f’/ tjcm;wzufu ‘ay;udkray;Edkifbl;’ vdk@ ajymvdk@qdkvdk@jzpfwJhudpP


r[kwfpaumif;yg?) tJ'Dawmh ‘cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufcGifhray;Edkif’ qdkwJhtcsufeJ@ ‘e,fajrudpP’[m
tc&mjzpfusecf yhJ gw,f? ‘e,fajrudp’P [m tcsed w f ckct k wGi;f ndE‡ i_d ;f ajz&Si;f zd@k ,m,Dz,fxm;=unfh
r,fq&kd if ‘cGx J uG v f u kd cGx J u G yf ikd cf iG ’hf qdw
k muaum zqyvtpd;k &u vH;k 0rvdu k af vsmEdik w f t
hJ csuf
tjzpf owfrSwfxm;cJhygw,f? zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya't& ‘&Srf;jynfe,feJ@ u&ifeD (u,m;)
jynfe,f ESpfckuvGJ+yD; cGJxGufydkifcGifhudk todtrSwfðyxm;wmr&Sdvdk@qdkygw,f? 'ga=umifh tJ'Dvdk
oabmxm;tjrifut kd ajccH+yD; ‘u&ifjynfe,f’&&Sad &;v_y&f mS ;r_/ awmif;qdrk /_ óud;yrf;tm;xkwrf a_ wG
tay: zqyvtpdk;&u ‘rjzpfEdkifaomawmif;qdkr_’ ‘vdkufavsmvdk@rjzpfEdkifaomawmif;qdkr_’ vdk@
aumufcsufqGJowfrSwfvdkufygw,f? tJ'Dvdk aumufcsufowfrSwfr_awGtay:uae ajz&Sif;zdk@ a&G;
cs,fvdkufwJhvrf;a=umif;uvnf; vufeufudkifv_yf&Sm;vmr_awGudk acsr_ef;a&;qdkwmyJjzpfoGm;yg
awmhw,f? ‘rvdkufavsmEdkifwJhawmif;qdkr_’ tjzpf owfrSwfqGJudkifxm;+yD;/ tJ'D pGJudkifxm;wJh rl
atmufuae vkyfaqmifw,fqdkwJh +idrf;csrf;a&; aphpyfajy+idrf;a&;awG rSefor#[m twif;em;cswm
odk@r[kwf wzufvSnfheJ@ vSnfhywf+yD; vufcHcdkif;wmomjzpf&ygawmhw,f? ppfrSefr#wwJhtajzudk
b,fvdkr# ra&mufEdkifawmhyg?
1948 ckEpS u f ek t f xd tajctaeud=k unfv h ukd rf ,fq&kd if zqyvtpd;k &&JΠvkyaf qmif taumif
txnfazmfcJhcsufrsm;[m bmrS r,fr,f&& atmifjrifwdk;wufvmwmrawGŒ&yJ trsdK;om;aoG;uGJ
r_}uD;om ydrk }kd uD;rm;us,jf yef@vmwmawGŒ&ygw,f? jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD; ayguzf mG ;vmcJ&h +yD; jynfov l x
l k
w&yfvHk; ppfab;ppf'%foifh=u&ygw,f? ppfudk zefwD;cJhwJholawGudk,fwdkif ppfrD;v#Hrsm;&JΠavmif
òrduf0g;òrdr_/ ppfrD;jyef[yfvmr_'%f óuHawGŒ&ifqdkifvm&ygw,f? uGefjrLepfrsm;udk awmwGif;armif;ydk@
vdkufwJhtwGuf jzpfay:vmwJh vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;udk ESdrfESif;Edkifzdk@ tm;xkwfvm&ygw,f?
ta&;ay:vufeufudkif vJ+AD;wyf&if; (18) &if;zGJŒ+yD; jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;Xme vufatmufxm;&SdcJh&m
uae/ wyfrawmfae&m tpm;xd;k toH;k ðyEdik zf @kd atmufwb kd m (1) &ufae@up+yD; umuG,af &;0ef}uD;
Xmeatmuf v$aJ jymif;ay;cJ&h ygw,f? uGejf rLepfawGukd jywfjywfom;om;wdu k Ef ikd af &;twGuf ‘oH;k v
twGi;f tðywfwu kd rf nf’ ‘ajcmufvtwGi;f tðywfwu kd rf nf’ ‘wESpt f wGi;f tðywfwu kd rf nf’ qdw k hJ
aºuG;a=umfoaH wGukd ajymif;ajymif;ajymum azmfxw k wf u kd yf q
JG if&if; tpd&k ud, k w f ikd v
f nf; &efoal wG
omydkrdkrsm;rsm;vmcJh+yD;/ t=uyftwnf;awG óuHvm&ygw,f? uGefjrLepfawGudkwdkufzdk@ tpdk;&udk,f
wdkif&JŒ xyfrHwyfqifay;vdkufwJh vufeufawGeJ@ &JabmfjzLawGawmcdk=uwmjrif&+yD;/ tpdk;&wzGJŒvHk;
rsufvHk;jyL; rsufqHjyL;jzpfcJh&ygw,f? udk,fhtukodkvf udk,fhjyeftusdK;ay;wm jrefjrefqefqefóuHawGŒ
cJ&h ygw,f? uGejf rLepfuw kd ukd zf @kd topfxw k wf yfqifay;xm;wJh vufeufawGukd tjynft h 0udik af qmif
xm;wJh ‘u&ifppf&J’rsm; ykefuefv_yf&Sm;vm=uawmhvnf; ajcrudkifrDvufrudkifrD xyfjzpf=u+yD;
bDwDtuf(zf)wyf&if;awG wdk;zGJŒ&jyefygw,f? 48 ckESpf ESpfukefrSm ppf0efxrf;wyf&if;aygif; (100)
ausmfoGm;cJh&ygw,f? +idrf;csrf;a&;pum; nD!Gwfa&;pum;awG wzGzGajymae&if;=um;u/ +idrf;csrf;wJh
t&dyt f a&mif nD!w G rf ,ft h &dyt f a&mif rawGŒjrif&bJ ppfwyfawGom wd;k wd;k zGŒJ vmwm wd;k wd;k +yD;ay:
vmwmjrif&ygw,f? vufeufudkiftiftm;pkawG ykefuefqef@usifol tzGJŒtpnf;awGom wae@
wjcm; rsm;jym;vmcJh+yD; awma&mòrdŒyg ae@pOfnquf aoewfoHawGqufvmcJhygw,f?

118 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ysOf;rem;òrdŒe,ftwGif; A[dkXmecsKyfxm;&Sd+yD; &rnf;oif;c±kdif/


awmifilc±dkif/ a&$usifausmuf}uD;a'o/ yJcl;c±dkifta&SŒbufe,frsm;rSm tiftm;tawmftwefeJ@
v_yf&Sm;ae=u+yD; [Hom0wDc±dkif/ ykodrfc±dkifawGrSmvnf; v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f? txufArmjynfrSm
vnf; rwW&m/ 0uf0H/ jrif;+cH/ yckuUL/ ppfudkif;/ a&$bdk wdk@rSm v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f?
&JabmfjzLrsm;u ykodrf/ rtlyif/ [Hom0wD/ jynf/ yJcl;c±dkifawGrSm v_yf&Sm;=uovdk acsmuf/
a&eHacsmif;/ rif;bl;/ rauG;/ a&eHajrwav#mufrmS vnf; tiftm;&Sad e=uygw,f? awmcdw k yf&if;(1)u
jynfòrdŒtxufydkif;udk odrf;,lxm;+yD; aemufydkif;rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDxJ yl;aygif;oGm;ygw,f?
tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwDu tiftm;raumif;vSayr,fh jrpf0u|ef;ay:zufrSma&m &cdkifa'o
tcsdKŒrSmyg&Sdae=uygw,f? &cdkifbufrSmu &cdkifuGefjrLepfrsm;a&m/ wjcm;tzGJŒtpnf;aygif;pHk ajymuf
usm;tzGJŒaygif;pHkvnf; v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f? r[mrkeduae ajryHktxd/ bHkaygufomausmfacgif;
aqmifwJh ajymufusm;rsm;v_yf&Sm;ae=u+yD;/ &rf;+AJu|ef;rSmu udka&$atmif/ udkb[ef wdk@OD;aqmifwJh
ajymufusm;tzGJŒawG&Sdygw,f? &cdkifawmifydkif;rSm OD;pdE Wm wdk@ajymufusm;tzGJŒawG&Sdygw,f? bl;oD;
awmifarmif;awme,fa'orsm;udk rGwfpvifoD;jcm;e,fajrjzpfxdkufw,fvdk@ ,lq+yD; oDjcm;e,f
awmif;qdak e=uwJh ‘rl*sm[pf’ rsm;[mvnf; &cdik jf ynfe,fajrmifyikd ;f rSm v_y&f mS ;ae=uygw,f? &rnf;oif;
c±dkifzufrSm Adkvfwm&macgif;aqmifwJh wyfeDrsm;[m uGefjrLepfygwDwyfrsm;jzpfvm=uygw,f?
u&ifppf&w J csKd Œ[m ykeu
f efjcm;em;=u+yD; autif't D ekd @J yl;aygi;f vdu
k =f u+yD; u&ifjynfe,f ae&mtES@H
v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f? awmcdkautif'Dtdkrsm;uvnf; oxHk/ armfvòrdifbuf/ a&$usifausmuf}uD;/
oHawmif awmifilbuf/ tdrfrJ/ rtlyif/ yef;waemf/ jrpf0u|ef;ay:buf/ [Hom0wDc±dkif uGrf;+cHukef;/
wGHaw;/ oHk;cG/ oHvsifzuf/ om,m0wD/ wdkuf}uD;/ om&a0gzufwifru weoFm&Dwdkif;twGif;/
u,m;jynfe,ftwGif;/ &Srf;jynfe,ftwGif;xdyg ysHESH@v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f? rGefvufeufudkiftzGJŒ
rsm;u rGejf ynfe,ftwGi;f eJ@ weoFm&Dwikd ;f twGi;f rSm ya'gi;f tHºk uGre_ @J u&ifev D ufeufuikd t f zGŒJ rsm;
u &Srf;jynftwGif;rSm v_yf&Sm;ay:aygufaeygw,f?
tpdk;&u 'Dvufeufudkiftiftm;pk ykefuefjcm;em;ae=uoltm;vHk;udk odrf;óuH;+yD; a&mifpHk
aomif;use;f olrsm;vd@k ac:a0:orkwyf gw,f? vufeufuikd f ykeu f efwu kd yf q
JG ifae=uolawGtm;vH;k udk
t=urf;zsif;cGJjcm;=unfhvdkufr,fqdk&if ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒ&Jabmf
(&JabmfjzL)/ wyfeD/ awmcdkwyf&if;qdkwmawGu ArmawGjzpf=u+yD;/ autif'Dtdk/ u&ifppf&J/ trf
tif(ef)'Dt/kd ytd0k /hf u&ife/D &cdik af jymufusm;aygi;f pHk pwmawGu Armr[kww f hJ vlrsKd ;pk trsKd ;om;rsm;
jzpf=uygw,f? (rl*sm[pf uawmh bmoma&;,Hk=unfr_eJ@yg ywfoufae+yD; ppfwaumif;e,frS
a&muf&Sdvm=uol tquftEG,frsm;jzpfygw,f?)
zqyvtpkd;&u vufeufudkifawmfvSefae=uolawG toD;oD;&SdwJhtxJrSm Arm tzGJŒ
tpnf;awGeJ@ ywfouf&if txl;ojzifh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk t"du OD;wnfwdkufygw,f?
Edik if aH &;t& òyid bf uftjzpf oabmxm;+y;D / t"duOD;wnfwu kd &f rnfo
h /l t"du&efot l jzpf owfrw S f
xdk;ppfqifavh&Sdygw,f? vlrsdK;pk trsdK;om;tzGJŒtpnf;awGeJ@ ywfouf&if u&ifudk autif'Dtdkudk
t"du OD;wnfwdkufavh&Sdygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 119


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

tm%m& ‘zqyv’ tzGŒJ }u;D [mvnf; wyfaygi;f pktjzpf/ tzGŒJ csKyftjzpfuae wjznf;jznf;
‘wzGŒJ ydik f wtkypf yk ikd f ygww D ck’ yHo
k ¿mefyakd qmifvmcJyh gw,f? tzGŒJ csKyftjzpf emrnfyu J seaf wmhwhJ
oabmajymif;vJvmcJhygw,f?
zqyv tzGŒJ csKyfxu J ae jynfoŒl &Jabmfukd ESpyf ikd ;f uGo
J mG ;ap+yD;/ tiftm;t}uD;qH;k tydik ;f jzpf
wJh &JabmfjzLudkvnf; armif;xkwfvdkuf+yD;wJhtcg qdk&S,fvpfrsm;&JΠzqyvtjzpf ydkrdkay:vGifvmcJh
ygw,f? &Jabmf0gqdkwmu rnfumrwW avmufyJusefygawmhw,f? ‘zqyv’tzGJŒcsKyfxJrSm yg0if
aewJh ‘ArmEdik if v H ;kH qdik &f mvli,frsm;tpnf;t±k;H ’ uvnf; txl;nDvmcHac:,l+yD; 'DZifbmv (26)
&ufae@rSm ‘zqyv’ uae E_wfxGufvdkufygw,f? (27) &ufae@rSm ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mvli,frsm;
tpnf;t±kH; OuUÏ OD;b*srf; [m 0ef}uD;tjzpfua&m/ zqyv tzGJŒ0iftjzpfuyg E_wfxGufvdkufyg
w,f? zqyv xJrSmusef&Sdyg0ifaecJhwJh tpnf;t±kH;aygif;pHk[mvnf; qdk&S,fvpfygwDeJ@ ygwDvuf
udkifr&Sd woD;yk*~vawGomusefygawmhw,f?
1948 ckESpf[m ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;a=unmEdkifcJhwJhESpfjzpfovdk jynfwGif;ppf}uD; awmuf
avmifc&hJ wJEh pS v
f nf;jzpfwt hJ wGuf ppfo;kH p&dwaf wG w[kex f ;kd wufvmwmvnf; awGŒ&ygw,f? ppfwyf
awG wdk;csJŒzJGŒpnf;&wJhtwGuf ppfoHk;p&dwfawGrsm;vmcJh&ovdk tpdk;&rSmvnf; bwf*sufvdkaiGjyr_
awG ar#mfvifhxm;wmxuf tqrwefydkvmcJh&ygw,f? 'gayr,fh tm%m&qdk&S,fvpf acgi;f aqmif
rsm;[m wdik ;f jynfrsuEf mS udk wpufuav;r# raxmufco hJ vdk olw@kd &ŒJ tm%mrmef *d% k ;f *%rmef
udkvnf; eJeJav;rS jyefvnfav#mhcsvdkpdwfr&SdcJh=uyg? ‘wdkif;jynfudkaygifI wdkuf&vsifawmif
wdkufr,f? uGefjrLepfygwDESifhum; b,faomtcgrS raphpyfpwrf; acsr_ef;&vdrfhrnf’ vdk@ oabmxm;
csrSwfxm;=uw,fvdk@awmif qdkygw,f?

u&if h v uf e uf u d k i f a wmf v S e f a &;eJ ‹ &ef u k e f t pd k ; &

1949 ckESpf/ ESpfqef;ydkif;rSm autif'DtdkwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm; tif;pdefw0dkufrSm pwifv_yf&Sm;vm


=uygw,f?
tif;pdef/ c0J+cH/ usdKuUvm;/ óudŒukef;/ apmfbGm;}uD;ukef; wdk@rSm aexdkif=uwJh u&iftrsdK;om;
rsm;[m wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ t&yf&yftajctaet& ppfwyfrsm;uwdu k cf u
kd v
f m&if umuG,zf @kd q+kd y;D 48 ckEpS f
atmufwdkbmv avmufup+yD; óudwifjyifqifr_awGvkyfxm;=uygw,f? aexdkifwJh&yfuGufawGudk
wdk;raygufatmif tumtuG,frsm;ðyvkyfxm;=uovdk &GmpGef&Gmzsm;rsm;rSm ajruwkwfusif;rsm;/
tdraf tmufrmS usi;f rsm;wl;+yD; jyifqifxm;=uygw,f? umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf prpf'eG ;f &JΠvufeufuikd f
aqmifcGifhvufrSwfeJ@ w}udrfv#if vufeufudkif (80) udk wGHaw;wl;ajrmif;uwqifh armfawmfeJ@
tacguaf cgut f cgcg cG+J yD; tif;pderf mS pk±;Hk a&muf&adS pcJw h ,fv@kd tpk;d &&JŒbufu qdyk gw,f? uGejf rLepf/
&JabmfjzL/ awmcdw k yfrawmfw@kd qufwu kd v f y_ &f mS ;vm=u+yD;aemufyikd ;f autif,rl sm;u oufqikd &f m
rdrdwdk@a'orsm;udk umuG,fzdk@&ef vufeufudkifaqmifcGifh awmif;qdk=uwJhtcg wGHaw;rSm AdkvfcsKyf
prpf'Gef; &JŒvufrSwfeJ@ vufeufudkifaqmifcGifh w&m;0if &&Sdxm;cJhw,fqdkygw,f? tJ'D udkifaqmif
120 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

cGiuhf t
kd oH;k ðy+y;D tif;pderf mS tcdik t f rmpk±;Hk a&muf&v dS mw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? jrpf0u|e;f ay:c±dik f wcsKd Œu
autif'Dtdk wyfrsm;a&m/ oxHkc±dkifbufu autif'Dtkdwyfrsm;yg wHGaw;/ pmbl;awmif;wdk@u
wqifh tif;pdefudka&muf&Sdvm=uw,fqdkygw,f? tif;pdefrSm&SdwJh u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JΠtultnD
awmif;csut f & umuG,af pmifah &Smufay;Edik zf @kd pk±;Hk a&muf&adS e=uw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f// tJ'v D kd tajct
aejzpfay:vmaewmudk tpdk;&uvnf; vufrcHEdkifbJ ‘ppf0efxrf;’ wyfwcsdKŒ tif;pdefudk apv$wf+yD;
aiGwu kd ef @J tpd;k &taqmuftOD;awGukd apmihaf &Smufz@kd wm0efay;ygw,f? tJ'v D kd ppf0efxrf;wyfawG
a&muf&Sdvmjcif;udk autif'Dtkd wdk@uvnf; olwdk@udkESdyfuGyfzdk@vdk@ ,lqygw,f? tJ'ga=umifh tif;pdef
rSm ppf0efxrf;wyfeJ@ autif'Dtdk wdk@t=um; roifhrjrwf jzpfvm=uygw,f? yÉdyuQawG ay:vm
cJhygw,f?
tpdk;&u tpdk;&xdyfwef;t&m&Sdrsm;/ wyfrawmft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;/ autif'Dtdk acgif;aqmif
rsm;yg yg0ifwhJ &SpOf ;D aumfrwDz@JG +yD; aphpyfajz&Si;f zd@k óud;pm;w,fqykd gw,f? tJ'D (8)OD;aumfrwD&ŒJ t"du
wm0efu tif;pderf mS autif't D akd wG pk±;kH a&muf&adS ejcif;[m ta&;tcif;}u;D wck jzpfyGm;ay:ayguf
ap&ef ta=umif;&Sdvdk@ oufqdkif&mae&mrsm;odk@ autif'Dtdk wyfzGJŒ0ifawGudk jyefydk@zdk@jzpfygw,f?
wif;rmvmaewJh roifjh rwfra_ wG=um;rSm &SpOf ;D aumfrwD&ŒJ aqmif&u G cf suaf wGvnf; ratmifjrifEikd f
atmifjzpfcJhygw,f?
Zefe0g&v D (16) &ufae@rmS Armha&wyfrawmfu u&iftrsKd ;om; Adv k af pm*suf acgi;f aqmif
+yD; a&wyfoabFmESppf ;D ykeu f ef+yD;/ autif't D kd (2000) avmuf ykord u f kd wdu k cf ukd zf @kd óud;pm;ygw,f?
awmifirl mS pcef;csxm;wJh trSw(f 1) u&ifaoewfuikd f wyf&if;uvnf; w&if;vH;k ykeu f ef+yD; Zefe0g&D
(27)rSm awmifiludkodrf;ygw,f?
Zefe0g&D (30) &ufrSmawmh tif;pdefw0dkufu ordkif;/ c0J+cH/ apmfbGm;}uD;ukef; pwJh qifajczHk;
&yfuGufawGrSm wdkufyGJi,fawG pwifjzpfyGm;vm+yD; ‘&SpfOD;aumfrwD’ óud;yrf;csufvnf; ysufjym;
oGm;ygawmhw,f? (31)&ufae@rSm AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef; eJ@ 'kwd,Adkvfr–;}uD;eJ@ txuft&m&Sd}uD;awG
‘jynfaxmifpk ppf±Hk;’rSm qlylrlawGeJ@ywfouf+yD; tpnf;ta0; w&ufusif;yygw,f? tpnf;ta0;
u wyfrawmf[m zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'eJ@ Edik if aH wmftpd;k &tay: opPmapmifo h &d ef/ vlrsKd ;a&;
t"du±k%f;rsm; ray:aygufatmif wm;qD;&ef qHk;jzwf=uygw,f? ‘vufeufudkifppfwyfrsm;eJ@ wdkif;
jynf&JŒajctae’ qdkwJhpmwrf;udkvnf; jzef@a0aqG;aEG; =uw,fqdkygw,f? 'gayr,fh tpdk;&[m
wyfrawmf twGi;f &Sd u&ift&m&S}d uD;awGukd ,H=k unfrr_ &Sad wmhyg? u&if&aJ bmfrsm;udv k nf; ,H=k unf
r_r&Sdawmhyg? tpdk;&u u&ifwyfrsm;u vufeufawG jyefvnf;odrf;,lzdk@ Zefe0g&D (31) &ufae@rSmyJ
trde@f xw k jf yef+yD; pwifvy_ &f mS ;ygw,f? tJ'aD e@rmS bJ r*Fvm'Hk qufo, G af &;wyf&if;u u&if&aJ bmf
rsm;[m vufeuftðzwfrcHbJ t&m&Sw d OD;udk ypfowf+yD; vufeufawG,al qmifum tif;pdeòf rdŒwGi;f
u autif'DtdkawGqD 0ifa&mufoGm;=uygw,f?
1949 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v D (31)&ufae@rmS yJ emrnfausmt f if;pdew
f u kd yf }JG u;D pwif&ygawmhw,f?
Adkvfrª;pdk;&/ Adkvf!Gef@0if;/ AdkvfpHvSabmf/ Adkvfausmf'ifwdk@ OD;pD;wJh jynfaxmifpk ppf&Jwyf&if;u ordkif;/
c0J+cHudk 0dkif;xm;+yD; u&ifrsm;udk vufeufcscdkif;ygw,f? vufeufrcsbJ usdKufuvm;eJ@ tif;pdef
vrf;axmifh &xm;wGJysufrsm;&Sd&m ae&mtxd wdkufyGJrsm;jzpfyGm;+yD;/ ppf&Jwyfu e*g;/ ol&d,/

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 121


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

a&$jynfat; pwJh oHcsyfum; (8) pD;eJ@ pwifwdkufcdkufygw,f? u&ifrsm;uvnf; tjyif;txef


jyefvnfwdkufcdkufygw,f?
'Dvekd @J u&ifah wmfveS af &;[mvnf; tcdik t f rm pwifay:ayguv f m&ygawmhw,f? azazmf0g&v D
(1)&ufae@rSm ppfOD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef;udk OD;pD;csKyfppfaoemywd tjzpfuae tem;ay;vdkuf+yD;/
AdkvfcsKyfae0if;udk OD;pD;csKyftjzpf zqyv tpdk;&u wm0efay; cef@xm;vdkufygw,f? aomif;usef;r_
rSefor#udk tjrpfðywfwdkufcdkufzdk@qdk+yD; tm%mtyfESif;ay;vdkufygw,f?
Adkvfae0if; wm0efpwifxrf;aqmifwJh azazmf0g&Dv (1)&ufae@rSmyJ txufArmEdkifiH
aròrdŒrSm &SdwJh u&ifwyfrsm;udk vufeufodrf;+yD;/ t&m&SdawGudk Adkvfoifwef;ausmif;/ usefolawGudk
tif*sifeD,mwyfxJ xnfhxm;vdkufygw,f? rE Wav;rSm&SdwJh u&ifaoeyfudkifwyf&if; (3) udkvnf;
vufeufodrf;vdkufygw,f? yckuUL eJ@ vdGKifaumfydk@xm;wJh wyfcGJrsm;rSty tm;vHk; vufeufodrf;cH
vdkuf=u&ygw,f? wyfrawmftwGif;&Sd u&ift&m&SdeJ@ wyfom;rSefor#udk vufeufodrf;+yD; cGifh&uf
&Snaf y;um tem;,lcikd ;f wJt h pDtpOfukd wufow k ±f ukd f taumiftxnfazmfygw,f? tpurS trsKd ;
om;a&;jy\emjzpf+yD; v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;jzpfae=uwJh wyfrawmfwGif;u u&ifaoewfudkif wyfzŒJG
rsm;[m ydkrdkv_yf&Sm;vm&ygawmhw,f? vufeufawGtodrf;cHrvm;/ tpdk;&udkykefuefjcm;em;+yD;
awmfvSefa&;vkyfrvm;/ ajzp&mar;cGef;[m ESpfckxJbJ &Sdygawmhw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfae0if; ppfOD;csKyfjzpfvm+yD;aemuf w&ufrSmyJ/ autif'Dtdk tzGJŒ}uD;udk w&m;r0if
tzGJ@tjzpf a=unmygw,f? tJ'D azaz:0g&Dv (2)&ufae@rSmyJ &efukef/ tvHk u&if&yfuGuf jy\em
}uD;vnf; ay:aygufvmjyefygw,f? tvHk[m tif;pdef/ c0J+cH wdk@+yD;&if u&iftrsdK;om;awG aexdkif
=uwJh &efukefòrdŒay:u t"du u&if&yfuGuf}uD; wckjzpfygw,f? tpdk;&&JŒ rSefrSefuefuef rajz&Sif;
Edkifr_a=umifh jrpf0u|ef;ay:a'owcsdKŒrSm u&ifArm vlrsdK;a&;jy\emvdk toHAvHawG xGufay:ae&
cdkufrSm tvm;wljy\em ay:aygufvm&wm jzpfygw,f? tvHk u&if&yfuGufxJu uav;/ vl}uD;/
a,musfm;/ rdef;r pkpkaygif; u&iftrsdK;om; (100) ausmfavmufudk ArmawGu zrf;oGm;+yD;/ rpf&Sif
rD;&xm; blwm±Hkem;u c&pf,mef0wfðyausmif;xJrSm ydwfavSmifxm;w,fqdkwJh udpPjzpfygw,f?
tJ'v D akd y:ayguv f mwJh tvHk u&if&yfuu G f jy\emrSmvJ tpd;k &[m rSerf eS u f efuef rajz&Si;f Edik cf yhJ g?
tvHk u&if&yfuu G f rD;wdu
k cf &H ygw,f? uav;/ vl}uD;/ a,mufsm;/ rde;f r awmfawmfrsm;rsm; touf
qHk;±H_;cJh&ygw,f? tvHk &yfuGufjy\emudk xdrf;odrf;apmifha&Smufay;zdk@ wm0efcsay;jcif; cH&olu
awmh Adkvfr–;}uD; atmif}uD; ( aemif- Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD;jzpfvmol) jzpfygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfygwD
acgi;f aqmifwOD;tjzpfuae wyfrawmfxJ tavmoH;k q,f jyef0ifvmptcsed jf zpfygw,f? vrf;rawG
ay:txd u&iftavmif;awG jyef}uJaeatmif towfcH=u&/ toufqHk;±_H;cJh=u&w,fqdkygw,f?
ppfwyfu ypfcwfowfjzwfcJhwmvdk@ qdkygw,f?
bmyJjzpfjzpf u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;twGuf emusn;f a=uuGpJ &mjzpfc&hJ ygw,f? tJ'D azazmf0g&D
v (2) &ufae@rmS bJ autif't D kd uvnf; tif;pdeu f kd odr;f ydu
k vf u
kd yf gw,f? tif;pdeu
f kd autif't D kd
u odr;f ydu k vf u kd wf meJ@ tvHk u&if&yfuu G f rD;wduk zf suq f ;D cH&wm[m a&SŒqifah emufqifh w&ufxJ
yJjzpfygw,f? u&iftrsdK;om;wyfrawmf ppfOD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef&mxl;u tem;,lvdkuf&+yD;/

122 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

AdkvfcsKyfae0if; ppfOD;pD;csKyfjzpfvmwmeJ@ wòydifeuf u&iftrsdK;om; jy\em[mvnf; wjznf;jznf;


jrifhwufvm ae&muae w[kefxdk; xdyfa&mufoGm;ygawmhw,f?
azazmf0g&v D (5)&ufae@rmS jynfòrŒd rSm&Sw d hJ trSw(f 2) u&ifaoewfuikd w f yf&if;[m vufeuf
odrf;rcHbJ tpdk;&udk ykefuefjcm;em;vdkuf+yD; jynfòrdŒudk,m,D odrf;ydkufvdkufygw,f? u&ifaoewf
udkifwyf&if; (3) &if;rSm (2) &if; ykefuef+yD; jzpfoGm;ygw,f? trSwf (1) u&ifaoewfukdifwyf&if;/
trSwf (2) u&ifaoewfuidk w f yf&if;eJ@ trSwf (3) u&ifaoewfuidk f wyf&if;qk+d yD; u&ifaoewfuikd f
wyf&if; (3) &if;&Sd&mrSm/ wyf&if; (2)&if;u twdtvif; ykefuefjcm;em;vkduf+yD; wyf&if;pcef;cs&m
òrdŒrsm;ukd odrf;ykdufxm;vkduf=uygw,f? trSwf (3) u&if aoewfukdifwyf&if;uawmh yckuULeJ@
vdKG ifaumfuydk @dk xm;wJh wyfcrGJ sm;rSty ppfO;D pD;csKyf Akv d cf sKyfae0if;&JΠtpDtpOfe@J tm;vk;H vufeuford ;f
wm cHvkduf=u&ygw,f?
1949 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D (31) &ufae@uwnf;u twdtvif; pwifay:aygufcJhwJh tif;pdef
ppfrsufESmwkdufyJGrsm;[m azazmf0g&Dvqef;xJrSm ykdrkdjyif;xef onf;oefvmcJhygw,f? wyfrawmf
ppfO;D pD;csKyfwm0efudk tjynft h 0vufc&H ,l+yD; Akv d cf sKyfae0if;[m u&iftrsK;d om;wk@d &ŒJ vufeufuidk f
awmfvSefa&;ukd t+yD;tykdif acsr_ef;ypfEkdifzkd@ enf;aygif;pkHeJ@ óud;yrf;tm;xkwfygawmhw,f?
azazmf0g&Dv (1) &ufae@rSm u&ifukef;rSm tjyif;txefwkdufyJGjzpf=uygw,f? azazmf0g&Dv
(2) &ufae@rmS autif't D u dk tif;pdeu f odk rd ;f yku
d cf +hJ yD; óudŒuke;f rSm t}uD;tus,f wku d yf jGJ zpfygw,f?
azazmf0g&v D (4) &ufae@rmS ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f r–; Akv d rf –;}u;D ausmaf Zm (Akvd rf –;csKyf ausmaf Zm)ukd
awmifykdif;wkdif; wkdif;r–;tjzpf wm0efv$Jajymif; vufcHapcJhygw,f? awmifykdif;wkdif; wkdif;r–;Akdvfrª;
csLyfatmifoif;qDuae wm0efukd v$Jajymif;vufcH&,lapygw,f?
zqyvtpkd;&[m &efukefòrdŒawmfwckvkH; autif'Dtkdwkd@ vufxJrusa&mufapa&;
twGuf tjyif;txef jyefvnfxkd;ppfqifzkd@ óud;pm;ygw,f? awmckdaewJh &JabmfjzL wcsKdŒeJ@ rajy
ajyvnfatmif !dSEd_if;+yD; tvif;0ifvkyfapum u&ifukdwkdufzkd@ &efukefukdumuG,fzkd@ pDpOfygw,f?
'ga=umifh &efuek ef @J teD;w0ku d f oHvsi/f ausmufwef;/ ok;H cGe,fu &JabmfjzLwcsK@d &efuek u f dk 0ifa&muf
vm=uwJt h cg ‘u&ifom;pm;csiw f ,f’ vk@d aºuG;a=umfvm=uvk@d ocifEu k ,dk wf idk f wm;,lc&hJ w,fqdk
ygw,f? t&yfom;/ ausmif;om;wpfcsKdŒukdvnf; pnf;±kH;+yD; wkdufyJGxJrSm yg0ifwkdufckdufapcJhygw,f?
tif;pdefppfrsufESm enf;AsL[mÏmecsKyfukd orkdif;rSmzGifhxm;+yD; tjyif;txef wkdufyJGqifygw,f?
&efukefjynfaxmifpk t&Hwyf&if;/ trSwf (18) jynfaxmifpkppf&J/ trSwf (21) jynfaxmifpk
ppf&J/ trSwf (15) jynfaxmifpkppf&J/ t&Hppf&Jwyfrsm;/ ppf0efxrf;wyf/ csif; aoewfukdifwyf&if;(1)/
trSwf(1)ajcvsifwyf&if;/ trSwf(4)ajcvsifwyf&if;/trSwf(5) Armhaoewf ukdifwyf&if;wkd@ukd yg0if
wkdufckdufapovkd ausmif;om; &JacgifeJ@ oHr%dwyfrsm;/ a&wyfrS atmfvDuGefpuftajrmufeJ@ (25)
aygif'g tajrmufwyfzJGŒukdvnf; tokH;ðycJhygw,f?
tpk;d &ukd ykeu
f efjcm;em;vku d wf hJ u&if aoewfuidk w f yf&if;(1) uvnf; awmifiu l dk odr;f yku
d f
xm;&muae awmifit l a&SŒbuf oHawmifa'o/ 'ku d Of ;D taemufbufe@J yJc;l w0ku d u
f autif't D dk
rsm;eJ@yg yl;aygif;vkduf+yD; pkpkaygif;tiftm; (1000) ausmfavmufeJ@ &efukefukd OD;wnf csDwufvmcJhyg
w,f? azazmf0g&D (4)&ufrSm anmifav;yif ausmfvmcJhygw,f? yJcl;ukdodrf;ykduf+yD; yJcl;awmifbuf

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 123


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

xkH;}uD;òrdŒrS autif'Dtkdrsm;eJ@yg xyfrHyl;aygif;+yD; tif;pdefppfrsufESmu autif'Dtkd rsm;udk tm;jznfh


ulnDEkdifzkd@ &nf&G,fxm;w,fqkdygw,f? awmifilu qif;vmwJh'Dppfa=umif;ukd 'kwd,Akdvfr–;}uD;
apmrif;armifu tkyfcsKyfygw,f?
jynfòrdŒukd odrf;ykdufxm;wJh u&ifaoewfudkifwyf&if;(2)uvnf; azazmf0g&D(5)&ufae@rSm
&efuek u f dk jynfvrf;twkid ;f OD;wnfqif;vmcJyh gw,f? u&if'w k , d Akv d rf –;}uD; apmjrarmifu tkycf sKyf
uGyfuJ+yD; csDwufvmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
trSwf (1) u&if aoewfuidk w f yf&if; ppfa=umif;udk 'kw, d Akv d rf –;}uD; wifO;D acgi;f aqmifwhJ
tpkd;&wyfu yJcl;e,fuaejzwf+yD; ckcHwdkufckdufòzdcJGygw,f? ‘yJcl;bk&m;}uD; ppfrsufESm’ wdkufyJGawG
tjzpf aoewfoHawG aomaomnHcJh&ygw,f? tpkd;&bufu trSwf(6) Armh aoewfukdifwyf&if;/
trSwf(4)jynfaxmifpk ppf&J/ ppf0efxrf;wyf/ trSwf(3) jynfaxmifpk ppf&Jwyf&if;rsm;tjyif
&JabmfjzLeJ@ qk&d , S vf pf ajymufusm;qko d l wpfcsKŒd yg yg0ifwu dk cf u
kd cf =hJ uygw,f? yJc;l ‘oeyfyif’a'ou
ausmif;om; (100) avmufukd vufeufwyfqifay;+yD;/ òrdŒwGif;vkHòcHr_eJ@ qufom;udpPrsm;twGuf
tokH;cscJhovkd/ axmifwGif;u xkwf,l&&SdvmwJh olawGtygt0if &JabmfjzL (500) avmufukd
vufeufwyfqifay;+yD; bk&m;}uD;&Gmtaemufbufukd ae&m,lapcJhygw,f? azazmf0g&D (5)&ufae@
rSmyJ oeyfyifbufu &JabmfjzLtiftm; (2000) ausmfavmufa&muf&Sd+yD;/ tiftm;jznfhwif;
ay;cJhjyefygw,f? azazmf0g&D (7) &ufrSm bk&m;}uD;&Gm ppfrsufESmrSm u&ifvufeufudkifwyfrsm;eJ@
tpkd;&bufu vufeufudkifwyfrsm; t}uD;tus,f wkdufyJGjzpfyGm;+yD; u&ifvufeufudkifwyfzJG@rsm;
aemufqkwfay;vkduf&ygw,f?
jynfuqif;vmcJhwJh u&ifaoewfudkifwyf&if; (2) ppfa=umif;ukdawmh/ tpdk;&bufu
om,m0wD ppfrsufESmuae+yD; tjyif;txef wkdufyJGqifygw,f? jrpf0u|ef;ay:/ zsmykHuae ac:,l
vmcJw h hJ trSw(f 3) Armhaoewfuidk w f yf&if;/ trSwf (1) ajcv#iw f yf&if;rS wyfzŒGJ rsm;tjyif ‘tajrmuf
wyfzJGŒ’ rsm;eJ@yg ,SOfòydifwkdufckdufapcJhygw,f// om,m0wDe,f/ aygif;wnf/ ewWvif;/ ZD;ukef; pwJh
a'oawGrmS Akv d pf ed rf eS u
f a'oE &W Akvd rf –;}uD;tqifeh @J ppf&/J ppf&J ppf0efxrf;wyfawGuykd g tkycf sKyf+yD;
tjyif;txef wkdufckdufcJhygw,f? azazmf0g&D (8) &ufrSm u&ifaoewfudkifwyf&if; (2) ppfa=umif;
ZD;uke;f txd a&muf&v dS mygw,f? (9)&ufae@rmS armfawmf,mOfwef;}uD;eJ@ csw D ufc=hJ u+yD; wku d yf aGJ wG
tjyif;txefjzpfyGm;ygw,f? tpkd;&bufu pdefajymif;wyfzJGŒrsm;/ tajrmufwyfzJGŒrsm;eJ@yg jyefvnf
wkud cf u
kd f òzcd iG ;f ygw,f? (11)&ufae@rmS wyf&if;(3) wyf&if;r–;[m awmcdw k yfrsm;&JŒwyfr–; Akv d &f x
J ÉG ef @J
awGŒqkaH qG;aEG;+yD; u&ifrsm;ukd ZD;ukeu f ae ydwq f @kd ay;zk@d oabmwlnaD pcJw h ,fqydk gw,f? azazmf0g&D
(13) rSm wyf&if; (3) u xkd;ppf qifwkdufckdufwJhtcg tpkd;& wyfrawmf (av) u av,mOfuvnf;
ava=umif;uae ypfual y; wdu k cf u
dk cf yhJ gw,f? trSw(f 2) u&ifaoewfuikd w f yf&if;ppfa=umif; tus
tqkH;rsm;cJh&+yD; aemufqkwfay;cJh&w,f?
t"duppfrsufESmjzpfwJh tif;pdefppfrsufESmrSmvnf; azazmf0g&D (11) &uf c0J+cHwkdufyGJ/ (13)
&ufae@ orkdif; OD;aomf yef;uefpufwkdufyJG/ (14)&uf &mbm+cHwkdufyJG/ (15) &ufae@ apmbifqif+cH
wkdufyJG/ ‘OD;pudUefausmif;wkduf’ wkdufyJGawG tqufrjywf jyif;jyif;xefxefjzpfyGm;cJhygw,f? ESpfbuf
tus tqkH;awGvnf; tifrwefrsm;jym;cJh&ygw,f?

124 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

trSwf (2) u&ifaoewfukdifwyf&if;ppfa=umif; aemufqkwfay;&csdefrSm om,m0wD/


0ufaumfwu dk yf rGJ mS t"du OD;pD;wdu k cf whJ hJ trSwf (3) Armaoewfuikd w f yf&if;udk &efuek o
f @kd jyefvnf
ac:,l+yD; tif;pdefppfrsufESm ykd@vkdufygw,f? azazmf0g&D(19)&ufae@rSm óudŒukef;udk wkdufyJGqifapyg
w,f?
azazmf0g&Dv v,fxJrSmyJ uGefjrLepfrsm;udk tjywftowfacsr_ef;zkd@ wm0efcsay;xm;wJh
om0wW&d dS trSw(f 1) ucsif aoewfuidk w f yf&if;u tiftm; w0ufausmef @J trSw(f 3) ucsiw f yf&if;u
wGzJ ufay;xm;wJh wyfcu GJ kd ucsitf rsK;d om;Akv d af emfqidk ;f u acgi;f aqmif+yD;/ zqyv tpk;d &ukd ykeu f ef
jcm;em;vku d yf gw,f? Akv d af emfqidk ;f &JΠykeu f efjcm;em;r_[m vGwv f yfa&;a=unm+yD;acwfrmS yxrqk;H
aom ucsiftrsdK;om;v_yf&Sm;r_tpvkd@ ac:qkdaumif; ac:qkdEkdifygvdrfhr,f? uGefjrLepfukd &uf&uf
pufpufowfjzwfwu dk cf u dk af ewJh tpk;d &&JŒvufuidk pf pfwyftjzpfuae aoewfajymif;ukd tpk;d &buf
jyefvSnfhvkduf+yD; ykefuefjcm;em;wJh ucsiftrsKd;om;wyftjzpf ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? Akdvfaemfqkdif;
acgifaqmifwJh ucsifaoewfukdifwyf&if;[m ykefuefjcm;em;aewJh trSwf(1) u&if aoewfukdifwyf
&if;eJ@ yl;aygif;+yD; rdwDˆvmukd csDwufwkdufckdufygw,f?
ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f r–; Akv d rf –;}u;D ausmaf Zm [m awmifyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f r–;tjzpf ajymif;a&$Œ
vkduf&wJhtwGuf/ ajrmufykdif;wkdif;twGuf ,m,Dwkdif;r–;jzpfvmolu 'kAkdvfr–;}uD; armifarmif
jzpfygw,f? wkid ;f r–; Akv d rf –;}uD;armifarmif[m rdwv DW mudk umuG,zf @dk cHppfa=umif; jyifaewke;f rSmyJ
csDwufwkdufckdufvmwJh u&ifvufeufukdifolykefrsm;&JΠzrf;qD;jcif;ukdcHvkduf&ygw,f? azazmf0g&Dv
(20) &ufae@rSmyJ rdwDˆvmukd u&ifwyfrsm;eJ@ Akdvfaemfqkdif;&JŒ ucsifwyfrsm;u odrf;ykdufvkduf=u
ygw,f? rdwv ˆD maiGwu dk u f aiGrsm;ukd &efuek u f odk ,f,zl @dk jynfaxmifpb k %fu iSm;&rf; apv$wv f udk f
wJh 'gukdwm av,mOfa&m/ aròrdŒu &efukefukd c&D;pOftwGuf/ rdwDˆvmav,mOfuGif;ukd acwWqif;
oufvmwJh 'gukdwmav,mOfyg u&ifwyfrsm;eJ@ Akdvfaemfqkdif;wyfu odrf;ykdufvkduf=uygw,f?
tJ'Dav,mOf (2) pD;ukd Akdvfaemfqkdif;acgif;aqmifwJh vufeufukdifwyfzJG@rsm; pD;eif;vkdufyg+yD; azazmf
0g&D (21) &ufrSm aròrdŒudk odrf;ykdufvkdufygw,f? tpkd;&[m rdwDˆvma&m/ aròrdŒa&mukd vufv$wf
vkduf&ygawmhw,f? rwfv (6) &ufrSm rE Wav;ukd vufv$wf&jyef+yD; rwfv (11) &ufae@rSm
rE Wav;òrdŒ[m autif'DtkdeJ@ uGefjrLepfrsm;vufatmuf a&muf&SdoGm;ygw,f?
azazmf0g&Dv/ rwfv ESpfvvkH;[m wkdufyJGawG tjyif;txefjzpfyGm;cJh&+yD; ESpfzufpvkH;
tustqk;H awGrsm;vSovkd jynfov l xl }k uD; w&yfv;Hk [mvnf; jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;&JΠ'%fukd rcsrd qef@
cHpm;=u&ygw,f? zqyvtpkd;&u t"dutm±kHpkduf+yD; ckcHumuG,fae&wJh ppfrsufESm[m tif;pdef
ppfrsufESmjzpfygw,f? &efukefòrdŒeJ@ (7) rkdifuGmtxd wkdufyGJawG qufwkdufjzpfay:aecJh+yD; wjynfvkH;
r+idrfroufjzpfae&wJhtwGuf tpkd;&ukd (7) rkdiftpdk;&/ &efukeftpkd;&vkd@ ac:a0:cJh=uygw,f?
tif;pdefwkdufyJG ay:aygufcsdefup+yD; tpkd;&&JŒtajctae[m t=uyfwnf;qkH;jzpfvm&yg
w,f? ppfa&;t=uyftwnf;/ Ekid if aH &;t=uyftwnf;awGuae b¾ma&; t=uyftwnf;yg &ifqidk f
vm&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh tpkd;&u tpkd;&0efxrf; t&mxrf;/ tr_xrf;awG&JŒ vpmukd (15µ) jzwfzkd@
qkH;jzwfcJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh azazmf0g&Dv (7) &ufae@rSm tpkd;&&JŒvpm jzwfawmufr_udk qef@usif
uef@uGufwJh tr_xrf;aygif;pkHoydwf}uD;vnf; ay:aygufcJhygw,f? azazmf0g&D (16) &ufae@rSm
rD;&xm;or*~ oydwf}uD;vnf; ay:aygufchJjyefygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 125
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

wuUokdvfausmif;om;rsm; awmckd=uwm/ tr_xrf;/ 0efxrf;rsm; awmckd=uwmawGvnf;


qufwkdufvkdvkd ay:xGufcJhygw,f? tpkd;&[m tJ'Dvkd t=uyftwnf;aygif;pkH &ifqkdifae&+yD; &efukef
tpkd;&jzpfaewmawmifrS jzpfay:aewJh jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk EkdifiHa&;t&tajz&Sm+yD; rSefrSefuefuef
r#r#ww ajz&Si;f Ekid zf @dk oabmxm;r&Scd yhJ g? tm%muko d m acgi;f rmrmeJ@ qufvuf qkyu f idk xf m;=u+yD;/
ppfa&;udkppfa&;t& tEkdif,lEdkifa&;ukdyJ óud;yrf;tm;xkwf jyifqifcJhygw,f?
zqyvtpkd;&&JΠazmufjyefr_/ txl;ojzifh qkd&S,fvpfrsm;&JΠnpfywfr_a=umifh 1948 ckESpf
rwfv (28) &ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD vufeufukdifawmckdr_eJ@ pwifzGifhvSpfcJh&wJh Armjynf
jynfwGif;ppf}uD;[m &JabmfjzL awmckd&r_/ wyfrawmfwGif; Armhaoewfukdifwyf&if; (1)/ wyf&if;(3)
wykdif;/ wyf&if; (6) wpdwfwa' awmckd&r_awGeJ@ qufvufus,fjyef@cJh&um/ u&ifppf&Jykefuefr_/
autif't D dk v_y&f mS ;r_/ u&ifaoewfuidk wf yf&if; (1)/ wyf&if;(2)/ ucsiaf oewfuidk w f yf&if; (1)wk@d &ŒJ
xºuGqef@usif jcm;em;r_awGe@J twl tjyif;txef tonf;oefq;Hk tajctaexd qufwu dk f awmuf
avmifvmcJh&ygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JΠrvJGomra&Smifom pwifvkduf&wJh awmfvSefa&; aoewfoH
awGu Ekid if aH &;tzJŒG tpnf;rsm;ukd v_yEf ;_d vku d o
f vkjd zpfc+hJ yD;/ u&iftrsK;d om;awG&ŒJ aoewfoaH wGu
zqyv tpkd;&ukd &efukeftpkd;& jzpfapcJhygw,f?
zqyv tpk;d &[m vufeufuikd pf pfwyfrsm;udk &Ekid o f r# ae&maygi;f pku
H ae wk;d csŒJ zJŒG pnf;+yD;
jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk ppfa&;enf;t& ajz&Sif;Ekdifzkd@ t"duxm; óud;pm;cJhygw,f? &Sdor# =unf;/ a&/
av ppftiftm;rSefor#ukdvnf; jynfwGif;ppf}uD;twGif; ykHatmtokH;ðychJygw,f? &Sdor# ppfav
,mOfrsm;udktokH;ðy+yD; AkH;}uJapwm/ av,mOfay:uae pufaoewfeJ@ ypfcwfwkdufckduf apwmawG
enf;vrf;aygif;pkHeJ@ vkyfaqmifcJhygw,f//
tpk;d &&JΠvufeufuidk w f yfawGtwGi;f rSmukd tpk;d &qef@usio f al wG ay:ayguv f m+yD; wyfwiG ;f
ykefuefr_awG/ wyfwGif;awmckdr_awG ae&maygif;pkH ay:aygufóuHawGŒvm&vkd@om tpdk;&&JŒ ppfa&;rme/
wenf;tm;jzifh aomif;usef;olawGukd tjywfòzd/ tjywfESdyfuGyfypfvkdufr,fqkdwJh ppfa&;&nfrSef;
csuf[m xifwkdif;raygufjzpfcJh&wmjzpfygw,f? wu,fu tpkd;&ukdqef@usifolrSefor#udk enf;vrf;
aygif;pkHtokH;ðy+yD; pdpdnufnufa=uatmif acsr_ef;ypfzkd@/ evHrxlEkdifatmif &Sif;ypfzkd@ vufOD;r_&Sd&Sd
csypfzkd@ t+rJwrf; }uHpnftm;xkwfcJh=uygw,f? tpkd;&&JΠazmufjyefwJhajcvSrf;awGa=umifh ykefueftH
wkr_awG qef@usifjcm;em;r_awG wck+yD;wck qufwkdufay:xGufvmvkd@om ukd,fh&SL; ukd,fywf jzpfcJh&
wmjzpfygw,f? jynfwGif;ppf}uD; wESpfrjynfhrDtwGif; tpkd;&ukd,fwkdif ab;=uyfeH=uyf jzpfvmcJh&
ygw,f?
ppfr;D awmufaewJh wkid ;f jynfjzpfvmwJt h wGuf ppfwyf&ŒJ tcef;[m xdyaf &mufvmcJyh gw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;a=unma=unmcsif; 0ef}uD;jzpfcJholwcsKdŒawmif 0ef}uD;ae&mc%xm;+yD; ppfwyfwGif;
0ifvm=uwm/ ukd,fukdifxm;wJh wyf&Sdatmif óud;yrf;tm;xkwf=uwmudk=unfh&if odomvSygw,f?
Ekid if jH cm;a&;0ef}u;D OD;wifxw G f 'kw,
d Akv
d rf –;}u;D &mxl;eJ@ wyfx0J ifvmwm Akv d pf ed rf eS f a'oE &W Akv d rf ;ª
}uD;&mxl;eJ@ ppfxJ0ifvmwm/ Akdvfatmif}uD; qkd&S,fvpfygwD jynf trwftjzpfuae E_wfxGuf+yD;
wyfxJ uref;uwef;0ifvmwm/ umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;jzpfcJhwJh Akdvfvusfm/ ajrmufykdif;wkdif; wkdif;r–;

126 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tjzpfa&mufvmwmawGu=dk unf&h if/ ppfwyf&@J tcef; b,favmufta&;ygvmw,fqw dk m odomvS


ygw,f? AkdvfcsKyfae0if; ppfOD;pD;csKyfjzpfvmwJhtcg ppfwyfukd [kdvluacsmh 'Dvluacsmh tqifhtxd
a&muf&Sdvmygw,f?
1949 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&D (26) &ufae@rmS ‘ol&, d ’owif;pmuae vuf,morm;}uD; OD;baz
u ‘AkdvfcsKyfae0if;ukd tm%mukeftyfoifh+yD’ ygvDrefukd&yfqkdif;xm;yg? w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJG
rsm; rusi;f yEkid rf csi;f Akv d cf sKyfukd ppftyk cf sKyfa&; tm%mykid cf ef@xm;yg” vk@d tqkðd y aoG;wk;d prf;ygw,f?
wqufwnf;rSm OD;baz[m ol@&JŒtaygif;ygwpkeJ@twl AkdvfcsKyfae0if;ukd oGm;a&mufawG@qkH+yD;
ppfwyfu tpkd;&ukdðzwfcs+yD; tm%modrf;&ef ajymqkdpnf;±kH;ygw,f? OD;bazeJ@twl oGm;a&muf
ajymqkd pnf;±k;H aoG;aqmif ajr‡mufyifah y;cJ=h uolawGuawmh om,m0wD OD;armifarmif ("g;rygw0D if)
OD;vGef; (rsKd;cspfygwD0if)eJ@ OD;pef;armif(ac|wmpkaqmif;a&;rif;}uD;) wkd@jzpfygw,f? Zlvkdif/ =o*kwfv
xJwkef;u Akdvfae0if;ukdacgif;aqmifwif+yD; ‘vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpD’=oZm&dS wyfwcsKd@eJ@
tm%modrf;,l&ef }uHpnfcJholawG[m vuf0JnD!Gwfa&; aumifpD0ifawG jzpfcJh=uwJhtwGuf
vuf0Jbufu tm%modrf;,la&; óud;yrf;csufvkd@ owfrSwfcJh=uw,f? tJ'DudpPt+yD;(6)v t=um
'Dwcg tm%modrf;,la&; pDpOfaoG;aqmif olawGuawmh vuf,morm;}uD;awGjzpfwJhtwGuf/
ppfwyfukdcsOf;uyf+yD; vuf,morm;wkd@&JŒ tm%modrf;,la&; óudyrf;csufvkd@ ±_jrif&rSmjzpfygw,f?
Akv
d cf sKyfae0if;u 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEu k dk OD;bazwk@d &ŒJ wku d w
f eG ;f csut f a=umif; ajymjycJyh gw,f? tJ'ge@J
ywfouf+yD; OD;bazwkd@&JΠtquftoG,faemufcHawGukd qufvufpkHprf;vkdufawmh ArmEkdifiH&Sd
+Adwdo#ppfrpf&Sifu yk*~KdvfawG yg0ifywfoufaewm awGŒ&SdcJh&w,fvkd@ qkdygw,f?
ajray:vuf0Jqkdolrsm;u vuf,mtE W&,fudk wkdufzsufzkd@ ppfwyfukd Akdvfae0if;ukd
qGaJ qmifc=hJ uovk/d ajray:vuf,morm;a[mif;}uD;rsm;uvnf; vuf0u J w
dk udk zf suzf Œdk Akv
d af e0if;eJ@
ppfwyfudk odrf;oGif;acsmhjrLcJh=uygw,f?
OD;ausmf+idrf;uvnf; Akdvfae0if;ukdarG;jrL+yD;/ Akdvfae0if;uwqifh ppfwyfudk qkd&S,fvpfygwD
ykdifvkyfzkd@ enf;rsKd;pHkeJ@ óud;yrf;cJhygw,f? tJ'ga=umifh ppfwyf[m AkdvfcsKyfae0if;eJ@twl tvkdvkdae&if;
xdyfudka&muf&SdvmcJhygw,f?
rE Wav;òrdŒ todrf;cH&+yD;aemuf 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk[m ppfukdif;/ a&$bkd/ rkH&Gm c&D;awGxGuf+yD;
pnf;±kH;a&;c&D; qif;ygw,f? ppfwyfudk oGm;a&muftm;ay;wm òrdŒudk olykeftiftm;pkawGvuf
twGi;f rusa&;twGuf qufvufumuG,af e=uolawGukd tm;ay;ulnw D mawG óu;d pm;yrf;pm; vkyyf g
w,f?
rwfvxJrSm Akdvfaemfqkdif;eJ@ autif'Dtkdwyfrsm;[m ompnfukd qufvufodrf;ykdufzkd@
rdwDˆvmuae qif;vm=uwJhtwGuf tpkd;&u ompnfrusa&; ‘ompnfcHppf’ udk tjyif;txef
jyifqifygw,f? 48 ckESpf/ rwfv (28) &ufuae 49 ckESpf/ rwfv (28) &uftxd jynfwGif;ppf
wESpw f mumvtwGi;f tajctaeudk aygi;f ±H;k =unfrh ,fq&dk if òrdŒawmf&efuek t f eD; tif;pdef ppfrsuEf mS
txd wkdufyJGawG qufwkdufjzpfay:aeovkd/ &efukefòrdŒta&S@zuf wkd;a=umifuav;/ 'g;ydef/
oCFe;f u|e;f txd/ awmifbufrmS 'v/ aysmb f ,G }f uD;/ caemifwt dk xd / taemufzufrmS =unfjh rifwidk f
wzufurf; at;&Gmtxd/ vufeufukdifolykeftiftm;pkawG&JΠppfr#m;OD;awG a&muf&Sdaeygw,f?
&efukefòrdŒv,facgifrSm ae@cif;a=umifawmif vlowfr_/ "g;jyr_/ vk,ufr_awG jzpfay:aeygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 127
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

'kwd,òrdŒawmf txufArmjynf rE Wav;òrdŒ}uD;udk autif'Dtkd/ uGefjrLepfeJ@ jynfol@


&Jabmfrsm;u odrf;ykdufxm;ygw,f? &rnf;oif;/ aysmfbG,f/ rdwDˆvm/ aròrdŒwkd@[m autif'Dtkd
vufatmufrSmjzpfygw,f? jrif;+cH/ yckuUL/ a&eHacsmif;/ acsmuf/ rauG;/ rif;bl; pwJh {&m0wDjrpf±kd;
wav#mufòrdŒawGudk ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ &JabmfjzLrsm;u odrf;ydkufxm;=uygw,f? rE Wav;
awmifil qufo, G af &;vrf;a=umif;twkid ;f txufArmjynf&dS autif't D rdk sm;atmufudk qif;rvm
Ekdifa&;twGuf ompnfuae jzwfawmuf+yD; tpkd;&wyfrsm;u tjyif;txef cHppfjyifxm;ygw,f?
awmifil/ anmifav;yif/ oxkHeJ@ armfvòrdifbufuòrdŒ&GmtcsKdŒ/ jynfòrdŒwjcrf;eJ@ jrpf0u|ef;ay:&Sd
òrdŒawmfawmfrsm;rsm;udkvnf; autif'Dtkdu odrf;ykdufxm;EkdifcJhygw,f? wkdif;jynf&J@ w0ufausmf
ausmf e,fajra'oawG[m olykefawG&JŒvufatmufrSmjzpfcJh+yD;/ w0ufausmfausmf tpkd;&aiGwkduf
awG[mvnf; todrf;cH&+yD; aiGawGawmfawmfrsm;rsm; olykefawGvufxJa&muf&SdoGm;ygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk txufArmjynfpnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;u jyefa&mufrvmao;rDtwGif;rSm
OD;ausmf+idrf; tygt0if qkd&S,f0ef}uD;rsm;eJ@ &Jabmf0g 0ef}uD;rsm; tpkd;&tzJGŒuae E_wfxGuf
=uygw,f? ocifEk &efukefjyefa&mufwJhtcg qkd&S,fvpfeJ@ &Jabmf0g 0ef}uD;awG E_wfxGufoGm;+yD
jzpfwJh tpkd;&tzJGŒudkom awG@&ygawmhw,f? wjynfvkH; ab;=uyfeH=uyf jzpfaecsdef E_wfxGufoGm;
=uwmjzpfvkd@ ocifEku awmfawmfpdwfqkd;ygw,f?
qkd&S,fvpf0ef}uD;a[mif;wOD;u ocifEkukd vmawG@+yD; ‘Akdvfae0if;[m u|efawmfwkd@qDukd
vmvm+yD; olwkd@wyf[m 0ef}uD;awGarG;xm;wJh tdrfapmifhacG;awG r[kwfzl;/ olwkd@taocH+yD;
0ef}uD;awGukd apmifrh ay;Ekid af wmhb;l ? olyek af wGe@J tpk;d &opfz@GJ ygv@dk c%c%ajymaewmeJ@ u|eaf wmf
wkd@vnf; xGufypfvkduf=uwmyg’ vkd@qkdygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;uawmh AkdvfcsKyfae0if;eJ@ twlvm+yD;
‘0ef}uD;csKyftvkd&Sd&if olykefacgif;aqmifawGudkac:+yD; tpdk;&zJG@Ekdifygw,f’vkd@ ocifEkudk ajymw,f
qkyd gw,f? ocifEu k ‘olyek af wGe@J awmh igb,fenf;eJ@rt S pd;k &rzJ@G Eikd b
f ;l ’vk@d ajym+yD; tpd;k &opfz@GJ z@kd jyif
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ocifEku yg;ygw,f? vuf0JnD!Gwfa&; aumifpDwkef;uvnf; tm%modrf;zkd@ acgif;aqmif
wifcHcJh&ol[m Akdvfae0if;/ vuf,morm;tkd}uD;rsm;u csOf;uyfaoG;aqmif+yD; tm%modrf;zkd@
wkdufwGef;cH&ol[mvnf; Akdvfae0if;/ 0J,mESpfzufpvkH;u ukd,fht}uHawGeJ@udk,f óudufaecJh=uwJh
Akdvfae0if;ukd oluyJ aumuf,lvkdufzkd@ qkH;jzwfvkdufygw,f? wcsufckwf ESpfcsufjywftjzpf ae&m
ay;+yD; ol@vufatmufrSmxm;zkd a±G;cs,fvkdufygw,f? ausmoyf+yD; aumif;csD;ay; olaumif;ðyvkduf
ygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEku tpkd;&tzJG@opfudk AkdvfcsKyfae0if;eJ@ zGJ@pnf;vkdufygw,f?
'ga=umifh {+yDv (1) &ufae@rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk/ 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyf AkdvfcsKyfae0if;eJ@ tpdk;&
tzJG@opf ay:aygufvmygw,f? AkdvfcsKyfae0if;[m 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyfwifru umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;
vnf;jzpf/ jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;vnf; jzpfvmygw,f? wyfrawmf ppfOD;pD;csKyfvnf; jzpfygw,f? w&m;
v$wfawmfcsKyfu a'gufwmat;armifudk 0ef}uD;tjzpf cef@vkdufygw,f? a'gufwm at;armif [m
Ekid if jH cm;a&;eJ@ w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD; jzpfvmygw,f? jrefrmhtvif; OD;wifu b¾ma&;0ef}uD; jzpfvm
ygw,f?

128 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

Akdvfae0if; umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; jzpfvm+yD; +yD;csif; rE Wav;òrdŒudk jyefvnf odrf;ykdufEkdifzkd@


jyifygw,f? Akdvfrª;=uif acgif;aqmifwJh ArmwyfrawmfwyfzJGŒawGeJ@ {+yDv (4) &ufae@rSm rE Wav;òrdŒ
jyefvnfodrf;ykdufa&; xkd;ppfukd pwifygw,f?
{+yDvxJrSm autif'Dtkduvnf; 'kwd,t}udrf xkd;ppfqifzkd@óud;pm;ygw,f? t&if awmifil
rSm tajcpkdufcJhwJh u&ifwyf&if; (1)/ om,m0wD 0ufaumfwkdufyJGrSm aemufqkwfvkduf&wJh u&if
wyf&if; (2)/ aròrdŒtcsufjy qufoG,fa&;wyf&if;/ tif*sifeD,m/ avhusifha&; Akdvfoifwef;ausmif;
pwJhwyfrsm;xJu u&ifwyfom;rsm;/ ppf&Jwyf&if; (13) u u&ifwyfom;rsm; Akdvfaemfqkdif;wyf
pojzifh &Ekdifor#pkpnf;+yD; wyfcJG (22) cJGu (24) cJG txdygwJh tiftm;pkeJ@ yJcl;ukd qif;vm+yD;
'kdufOD;ukdwkduf=uygw,f?
tif;pdefppfrsufESmwkdufyJG}uD;vnf; qufvufjyif;xefaecsdef/ autif'Dtkdwkd@&J@ 'kwd,
t}udrf xkd;ppf}uD;vnf; jyefvnfpkpnf; pwifcsdefrSm +idrf;csrf;a&;pum;qkdzkd@ autif,lOuUÏ}uD;
apmbOD; eJ@ ref;*sed ;f xGe;f atmifw@dk tif;pdeuf ae xGuv f m=uygw,f? {+yDv (4) &ufae@yg? &efuek rf mS
&SdaewJh t*FvdyfoHtrwf}uD; rpPwmbkdum/ tdENd,oHtrwf}uD; a'gufwm&yf(zf)/ ygupPwefoH
trwf}uD; rpPwmtmvD/ c&pf,meft*Fvu D ef*%
dk ;f csKyf}uD; bda&Sm@0uf(pf)/ u&ifacgi;f aqmifa[mif;
qmpHpDzkd;orD; rpPpfbarmifcsdefwkd@ukd csOf;uyf+yD; tpdk;&&JŒurf;vSrf;vmcsuft&a&m/ 0ef}uD;csKyf
ocifEk&JΠapmbOD;}uD;qD a&;vkdufwJhpmt&yg jyefvnfwkef@jyefaqG;aEG;zkd@ tif;pdefuae xGufvm
=uwmjzpfygw,f? ocifEk&JŒapmbOD;}uD;qDay;pmrSm ‘cifAsm;wkd@eJ@u|efawmfwkd@ wkdufae=uwm
raumif;bl;/ wkid ;f jynfvrJ ;D avmifuek +f yD/ u&ifa&m Armvlxyk gaoa=u=uwJt h wGuf jy\emawGudk
u|eaf wmfw@dk awG@qaHk qG;aEG;=ur,f/ ajz&Si;f r,f’ qk+d y;D awmh urf;vSr;f xm;w,fqydk gw,f? tJ't D wGuf
autif,l OuUÏ apmbOD;}uD; xGuv f mwmjzpfygw,f? {+yDv (5)&ufaeŒrSm pwifaqG;aEG;jzpfw,f
qdkygw,f?
awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;zkd@twGuf bmawGawmif;qkdr,f/ bmawGvkyfr,f/ bmawG pDpOfr,fqkdwm
wckrSóudwifjyifqifr_ rvkyfcJhyJ 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk tygt0if zqyv tpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ@
awG@qkHaqG;aEG;zkd@ +idrf;csrf;a&;pum;qkdzkd@ xGufvmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
awGŒqkH=uwJhtcg zqyv tpkd;&bufu usifusifvnfvnf enf;y&d,m,faygif;pkH okH;+yD;
qJaG qmif zdtm;ay; ajymqk=d uwJt h wGuf awGŒqkaH phpyfaqG;aEG;a&;[m vufeufcsa&;qD a&mufomG ;
&w,fqkdygw,f? tJ'DtpDtpOfawGxJrSm tif;pdef&Sd autif'Dtkdwyfrsm;&Sd vufeuf}uD;rsm;udk
ay;tyf&ef/ vufeuftyf+yD;aemuf apmbOD;wkd@u jynfe,fpkHprf;a&;aumfr&SifrSm jynfe,fta&;ukd
qufvufaqmif±Guf&ef/ u&ifaus;&Gmrsm;&JŒ òrdŒvkHòcHa&;twGuf vkdtyfoavmuf vufeufrsm;udk
pepfwus ukdifaqmifxm;ap&ef/ vufeufcsyJGudk {+yDv (8) &ufrSm orkdif; OD;aomf yef;uefpufrSm
ðyvky&f ef pojzifah zmfjyxm;w,fqydk gw,f? tJ'o D abmwlncD suu f kd tpd;k &bufu ocifE/k Akv
d cf sKyf
ae0if;/ a'guw f mat;armife@J qmbOD;wk@d u vufrw S af &;xk;d +yD;/ autif't D bkd ufu apmbOD;}uD;eJ@
ref;*sdef;xGef;atmifwkd@u vufrSwfa&;xkd;=uw,fqkdygw,f? tJ'D awG@qkHaqG;aEG;aeqJumv
twGif;rSm ESpfzufpvHk; typftcwf&yfpJxm;=uygw,f? apmbOD;}uD;wkd@ tif;pdef jyefa&mufwJhtcg
autif't D dk acgi;f aqmifawG autif,al cgi;f aqmifawGukd ac:+y;D aqG;aEG;w,fqydk gw,f? autif't D dk

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 129


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

acgif;aqmif ref;bZHwdk@u 'DoabmwlnDcsufpm[m vufeufcswJhoabmrsKd;jzpfaew,f? vufrcH


Ekdifbl;vkd@ jyefvnfaqG;aEG;=uw,fqkdygw,f? OuUÏ}uD; apmbOD;}uD;udk,fwkdif vufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;
awmh 'gudk rysufysufatmif zsuf&r,fvkd@ ref;bZHwkd@u oabmxm;ay;w,fqkdygw,f? tJ'DrSm
OuUÏ apmbOD;}uD;u ‘igu autif,lOuUÏ taeeJ@ vufrSwfxkd;vkduf+yD/ 'gayr,fh rw&m;oif;
a=unmxm;wmu autif'Dtkd/ vufeufudkifwdkufaewmu autif'Dtdk/ 'Dawmh autif'Dtkd
taeeJ@ awG@qkHaqG;aEG;zkd@ ref;bZHudk wm0efay;w,fqkdygw,f? aemufw&ufrSmyJ ref;bZHeJ@
autif'Dtkd acgif;aqmifwcsKdΠtpdk;&eJ@ qufvufaqG;aEG;zkd@ vkdufoGm;ygw,f? raqG;aEG;=uao;rD
qmbOD;tdrfrSm qmbOD;eJ@ ref;bZHwdk@ awG@qkHygw,f? ref;bZHu qmbOD;ukd ‘tefu,fcifAsm;/
u|efawmfwkd@acgif;aqmifawG vma&mufaqG;aEG;wm vufeufcszkd@r[kwfzl;/ ESpfOD;ESpfzuf tcsif;jzpf
yGm;aewJh yÉdyuQudk ajyvnfatmif&Sif;+yD; ESpfOD;ESpfzufajz&Sif;zkd@ jzpfygw,f? u&iftrsKd;om;rsm;&JŒ
udk,fykdifjyÏmef;cGifhjzpfwJh u&ifjynfta&;a=umifhjzpfygw,f? awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yJGrSm autif,lu
wifjyxm;wJh u&ifjynfta&;udk vufcw H ,fq&kd if jy\emajyvnfomG ;rSmjzpfygw,f?’ vk@d ajym+yD;
vufeufcsa&;tpDtpOfudk vufrcHEidk af =umif;ukv d nf; ref;bZHu &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; ajymqkyd gw,f?
qmbOD;u ‘tefu,fbmrS rajymvkdygbl;/ tefu,foabmxm;u ajym&&if tefu,fvnf;yif;
jywfoGm;r,f? rSm;w,f rSefw,fqkdwm rajymcsifbl;’ vkd@ jyefajymygw,f? tJ'Daemuf qmbOD;u
0ef}uD;csKyfocifEq k D w,fvzD ;kH eJ@ ta=umif;=um;vku d af wmh zqyv Ekid if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;at;armif
ref;bZHe@J aqG;aEG;zk@d a&mufvmygw,f? OD;at;armifu ‘cifAsm;wk@d acgi;f aqmif apmbOD;}uD; vufcH
xm;wmukd cifAsm;wdk@vufrcH&if u|efawmfwkd@bufu wkduf&rSmyJ’vkd@ +cdrf;ajcmufwJhoabm ajym
w,fqydk gw,f? OD;at;armifpum;a=umifh a'gojzpfvmwJh ref;bZHu ‘'DrmS OD;at;armif u|eaf wmf
wk@d acgi;f aqmifawG vma&mufaqG;aEG;wm[m vufeufcsz@dk r[kwzf ;l / jy\em&yfawGukd ajyvnfatmif
ajz&Si;f +y;D +ird ;f csr;f a&;jyefvnfwnfaqmufzŒdk jzpfw,f? awG@qaHk qG;aEG;&mrSm u|eaf wmfw@dk acgi;f aqmif
awGukd vufeufcscidk ;f wm[m rw&m;wJv h yk af qmifrj_ zpfw,f? cifAsm;udk u|eaf wmfwpfcyk aJ jymr,f/
vufeufcsa&;udk u|eaf wmfw@dk b,fawmhrv S ufcrH mS r[kwb f ;l / vufeufrcs&if/ cifAsm;wk@d u u|eaf wmf
wkd@ukd wkdufr,fqkd rqef;ygbl;As? u|efawmfwkd@ckwkdufaewm aoG;awmifrylao;bl;’ vkd@ bkusus
jyefajymw,fqkdygw,f? OD;at;armifeJ@ pum;ajym+yD;wJhaemuf zqyv tpkd;&ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJG@eJ@
aqG;aEG;yJGjyefvkyfygw,f? zqyv tpkd;&ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJG@rSm ocifEk/ AkdvfvusFm/ Adkvfae0if;/
Akv
d cf ifarmifav;/ apm=um'k;d wk@d wufa&muf=uygw,f? aqG;aEG;yJrG mS ocifEu k ref;bZHukd ‘cifAsm;wk@d
OuUÏ}uD; apmbOD;}uD;u vufrSwfxkd;+yD;+yD/ cifAsm;wdk@ b,fzsufvkd@aumif;rvJ’ vkd@ajymygw,f?
ref;bZHu ‘OuUÏ}uD; vufrSwfxkd;xm;wmudk vufcH&r,fqkdwm rSefygw,f/ 'gayr,fh OuUÏ}uD;
vufrSwfa&;xkd;wm u|efawmfwkd@ tnHhcH&wm/ t±H_;ay;&wmyJ? u|efawmfwkd@ vkdvm;csufawGudk
pGe@f vw$ v f udk &f wmeJ@ twlwb l ?J +idr;f csr;f a&;vkcd si&f if vG,yf gw,f? u|eaf wmfw@dk vcdk siwf hJ u&ifjynf
e,fukd cifAsm;wk@d ajz&Si;f ay;Edik &f if+yD;wmyJ’ vk@d ajymawmh ocifEu k ‘wpfcpk Of;pm;yg/ cifAsm;wk@d OuUÏ
}uD;&JŒ *k%o f u d mQ ukd xde;f odr;f ygt;Hk ’ vk@d qydk gw,f? ref;bZHu ‘OuUÏ}uD;udk av;pm;w,f/ 'gayr,fh
cifAsm;wk@d vdrw f mawmhraumif;bl;Asm? u|eaf wmfw@dk OuUÏ}uD;u ol@apwemt& cifAsm;wk@d qv D m
w,f? cifAsm;wk@d qv D mw,f/ +idr;f csr;f a&;vkv d m;w,f? aumif;wmjzpfcsiw f ,f? cifAsm;wk@d u vSn+hf yD;

130 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vufeufcscidk ;f awmh raumif;bl;Asm? 'guu kd |eaf wmfw@kd vufrcHEidk b f ;l ? 'gayr,fw h ck&w


dS ,f u|eaf wmf
wk@d acgi;f aqmifawGe@J jyefaqG;aEG;+y;D ta=umif;jyefr,f’ vk@d ajymqdck +hJ yD; tif;pdeu f jdk yef=uw,fqydk gw,f?
'g[m yxrqkH;aom autif,leJ@ zqyvtpdk;&tzJGŒwkd@&JŒ awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;yJGjzpfygw,f?
tpdk;&u udkifxm;wJhrlu vufeufcsa&;jzpfygw,f? vufeufcs+yD; vufeuftyf+yD;rS u&ifjynft
a&; qufvufaqG;aEG;a&;jzpfygw,f? tJ'DvkdoabmrsKd;a&mufatmif vSnfhywfajymqkd+yD; rpPwm
&yf(zf)wd@k u&iftrsK;d orD; rpPpb f armifcsed f wk@d e@J pnf;±H;k aoG;aqmifem;cswehJ nf;ukd tok;H ðycJyh gw,f?
autif,leJ@ autif'Dtkdu udkifpJGxm;wJhrlu udk,fykdifjyÏmef;cGifh&SdwJh u&ifjynfe,f&&Sda&;
jzpfygw,f? w&m;r#wpGm aqG;aEG;n‡dEd_if;=u+yD; ppfrSefwJh +idrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmufa&;jzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifh vSnyhf wf+yD; aqG;aEG;aoG;aqmifem;csEidk v f @dk OuUÏ apmbOD;}uD;u vufeuftyfa&; oabm
wlvufrw S af &;xk;d wmudk zqyvtpd;k &u ,m,D&&Scd ahJ yr,fh autif,u l udik pf xGJ m;wJh tajccHrel @J
rudkufnDuJGvJGaewJhtwGuf aemufqkH;rSm ratmifrjrifjzpfcJh&ygw,f? wenf;tm;jzifh aqG;aEG;yJG
ysufcJh&ygw,f?
ref;bZHwkd@ tif;pdefjyefa&muf+yD;wJhaemuf u&ifacgif;aqmifawG aqG;aEG;=u+yD; vufeufcs
a&; vufeuftyfa&; vufrcHEidk af =umif; qk;H jzwfvu dk =f uygw,f? vufrcHEidk af =umif; jyef=um;pmudk
apm[efwmomar$;eJ@ tif;pdefppfajrjyif ppfqifa&;rª; Akdvfrª;atmifpdefwkd@u vufrSwfa&;xkd;+yD;
jyef=um;vdkufygw,f? {+yDv (8) &ufae@jzpfygw,f?
{+yDv (8) &uf aemufykdif;rSm tif;pdefppfrsufESmwkdufyJGawG qufvufjzpfyGm;ygw,f? jynf
wGif;ppfrD;[m }uD;oxuf}uD;+yD;yJvmcJh&ygw,f? wjynfvkH; aoewfoHawGnHaecJh&ovkd awm
awmifa&ajrtESH@ ,rf;ckdawGa0aecJh&ygw,f?
{+yDv (6) &uf nrSm tpd;k &wyfrsm;u txufArmjynf/ rE aW v;òrdŒukd jyefvnford ;f ,lEidk cf hJ
ovkd tif;pdefjyefvnfodrf;,lEkdifa&;wkdufyJG}uD;rsm;udk tjyif;txefqifE$Jygw,f? {+yDv (29) &uf
ae@rSm wyfrawmfavudk tokH;ðy+yD; tif;pdeftpdk;& txufwef;ausmif;e,fajr/ tif;pdefaxmif
awmifbufe,fajrawGudk AkH;}uJwkdufcdkuf&if; ar,kppfoabFmukd toHk;ðy+yD; pufr_ausmif;e,fajr/
urf;em;qefpufe,fajrawGudk tajrmuf}uD;rsm;eJ@ ypfcwfwdkufcdkufygw,f? arv (13) (14) &uf
awGrSm óudyifaumuf/ ZD;ukef;/ ewWvif;òrdŒawG tpdk;&vufatmuf jyefvnfusa&mufoGm;ygw,f?
arv (22) &ufrSm txufArmjynf aysmfbG,f/ &rnf;oif;/ wyfukef;/ wHwm;OD;òrdŒawGudkomru
tif;pdefòrdŒudkyg tpkd;&u odrf;ykduf&&SdoGm;ygawmhw,f? om,m0wD ppfrsufESmrSm tpkd;&u AkH;}uJ
wkdufckduf&mrSmawmh av,mOf (3) pif;eJ@ AHk;}uJwkdufckduf&if; {+yDv (7) &ufae@rSm tpdk;&bufu
jynfolŒ&Jabmf AkdvfpdefrSef usqkH;oGm;ygw,f? AHk;}uJzkd@ av,mOfeJ@vkdufygoGm;wJh AkdvfpdefrSef[m
AHk;}uJaewkef; atmufuae jyefvnfypfcwfvkdufwJh uGefjrLepfolykefawG&JΠusnfoifh+yD; av,mOf
xkdifcHkay:rSmyJ toufaysmufcJh&wmjzpfygw,f? ESpfzufpvHk;[m tustqHk;awGrsm;cJh&ygw,f?
yJcl;ukd {+yDv (26) &efukefukd arv (1) &ufae@ odrf;r,fvkd@ aºuG;a=umf&nfrSef; csDwufvm
cJhwJh Akdvfaemfqkdif;wyfeJ@ autif'Dtkdrsm;[mvnf; awmifilukd jyefqkwfoGm;&ygw,f? tif;pdefudk
&+yD;wJhaemuf tpdk;&[m ykdrkdxkd;ppfqifEdkifzkd@ yHkatm+yD; óud;yrf;vmygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 131


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

ZGev f xJrmS ausmufqnf/ anmifO;D / acsmufe@J a&eHacsmif;tjyif/ ZGef (25) &ufrmS oxHòk rdŒudk
yg tpdk;&u odrf;ykdufEkdifoGm;ygw,f? Zlvkdif (23) &ufae@rSm om,m0wDòrdŒudkvnf; tpkd;&bufu
jyefvnfodrf;,lEdkifoGm;ygw,f?
ZlvkdifvxJrSm AkdvfcsKyfae0if;acgif;aqmifwJh ppfrpf&SiftzJGΠ+Adwdefukd avhvma&;qkd+yD; oGm;
ygw,f? t"du vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmuf 0,f,lzkd@jzpfygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;oGm;+yD; vufeuf0,f
,la&;óud;pm;pOfwkef;u jiif;y,fv$wfvkdufwJh +AdwdefukdxyfrHoGm;+yD; óud;pm;jcif;jzpfygw,f? b,fu
rSw&m;0if0,fv@dk r&wJt h wGuf Oa&myvufeufarSmifcadk ps;uGuu f ae rwefrq aps;}uD;ay;0,fae&
wmudk umrdz@kd twGuf avhvma&;ta=umif;jy+yD;oGm;wmjzpfygw,f? jynfwiG ;f ppfukd t&Sed jf r‡iw hf ukd f
Ekdifzkd@twGuf vufeuf&a&;ukd enf;rsKd;pHkeJ@ óud;pm;ygw,f? OD;vSarmifu t&ufrl;vkd@ E_wfvGefajym
ovkv d edk @J “cifAsm;wk@d ra&mif;vnf;aeayg?h [kv d al wGqo D mG ;0,f±akH yg”h vk@d t*Fvyd af wG t±du_ x f rd ,fh
pum;ukdajym+yD; Oy,fwrsOfeJ@ óud;pm;wmrsKd;txdvkyfcJhygw,f?
AkdvfcsKyfae0if; ppfrpf&SiftzJGΠ+Adwdef/ tar&duefavhvmc&D;u jyefvm+yD;aemuf 0ef}uD;csKyf
ocifEkudk,fwkdif vufeuf&a&;twGuf tdEdN,/ ygupPwefcspf=unfa&;c&D; qkdwmukd xGufjyefyg
w,f? t"du&nf&G,fwmu tdENd,0ef}uD;csKyf ae±l;qDuae vufeuftultnD&a&; oGm;óud;pm;
wmjzpfygw,f? jynfwGif;ppftpu ocifEkrsufESmeJ@ 0ef}uD;csKyfae±l;u vufeufw}udrfa&mif;ay;cJh
+yD;jzpfygw,f? tvkH;vkduf t&if;vkduf xyfa&mif;ay;zkd@ 'kwd,t}udrf udk,fwkdifrsufESmoGm;jy+yD;
tultnDawmif;wmjzpfygw,f? ae±l;u ocifEkvkdoavmuf a&mif;ay;vkdufygw,f? tdENd,u
0,fvkd@&vmwJh ±dkifz,fvufeufeJ@ cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf usnfqHawGudk 0Sufo,fvm+yD;/ w&m;0ifvlxk
=um; to,fjyvmwmuawmh “Ak'<&JŒ"mwfawmf pG,fawmf” awGudk yifhaqmifo,f,lvmjcif;qkd
wmjzpfygw,f? Oyoug}uD; ocifE[ k m "mwfawmf pG,af wmf yifah qmifo,f,v l mjcif; rsuEf mS zH;k udk
pGyf+yD; vufeufeJ@ usnfqHaowWmawGudk 0,f,lo,faqmifvmcJhygw,f? aAm"dyifysKdawGudkvnf;
trsm;tjym; o,faqmifvmcJhygw,f? aAm"dyifysKdawG&JŒatmufrSm 0Sufo,fvmwmawGuawmh
usnfqHaowWmawGvkd@ ajym=uqkd=uwmvnf;&Sdygw,f? Armjynfjyefa&mufawmh "mwfawmf/ pG,f
awmfawGukdjy+yD; jynfolawGudk zl;ajrmfapygw,f? aAm"dyifysKdawGudk EkdifiHtES@Htjym; jzef@a0ay;yg
w,f? vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmufawGudkawmhh ppfwyfvufxJxnfhay;vkduf+yD;/ jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk
t&Sdefwkd;jr‡ifh wkdufckdufapygw,f?
1949 ckESpfukd csKyf=unfhvkduf&if wjynfvkH; ppfrD;[kef;[kef;awmufcJh&wJhESpfjzpfygw,f?
tpkd;&vnf; ‘&efukeftpdk;&’ jzpfoGm;&wJhESpfjzpfygw,f? u&ifhawmfvSefa&;}uD; twdtvif;ay:
aygufvmcJh&+yD; zqyvudk rsufjzLqkdufoGm;apcJhwJhESpfjzpfygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒ
&Jabmf/ awmckdwyfrawmf wkd@tjyif autif,l/ autif'Dtkd/ trftif'Dtkd/ ytkd@vufeufukdifwyf/
Akv
d af emfqidk ;f wyf pwJh vlrsK;d pkvufeufuikd f awmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_awGyg qufwu dk af y:xGuv f mcJ+h yD;
aoewfoHawG aomaomnHoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
òrdŒawGukd odr;f yku
d x
f m;&muae aemufqw k af y;vku d &f wJh tpk;d &qef@usiaf &; olyek tf iftm;
pkrsm;[m aus;vufawm&GmawGudk tajcðy+yD; awmfvSefa&;udk qufvufqifE$J=uygw,f? Adkvfaemf
qkdif;wyfzJGŒuawmh awmifiluae u,m;jynfe,fxJ0if/ &Srf;jynfe,fxJ0if/ awmif}uD;udkodrf;/

132 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

awmif}uD;uqkwaf y;&awmh vm;¶d;_ udo k rd ;f / tJ'u D rS uGwcf idk /f erfch rf;bufqD ajymif;a&$Œa&muf&o dS mG ;
ygw,f?
tpd;k &[m vufeufopfawG wd;k csŒJ wyfqifay;Ekid v f mwJt h cg trSwf (1) u,m;aoewfuikd f
wyf&if;/ trSwf (1) &Srf;aoewfudkifwyf&if;wkd@ukd wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;wJhtjyif awmckdoGm;=uwJh trSwf
(1) Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if;eJ@ trSwf (3) Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if;rsm;udk tpm;xkd;jyefvnfzJGŒpnf;
wmawG vkyfapygw,f? trSwf (1) (2) (3) u&ifaoewfudkifwyfrsm;udk zsufodrf;+yD; trSwf (2)
(3) (5) ajcvsifwyf&if;awG tpm;xkd;zJGŒpnf;wmvkyfygw,f? jynfaxmifpkt&Hwyf/ ucsifwyf&if;/
csif;wyf&if;awGudk zsufodrf;+yD; trSwf (1) (2) ta&;ay: ucsifwyf&if;/ trSwf(1) (2) csif;wyf&if;
qkdwmawG ajymif;vJzJG@pnf;ygw,f? Akdvfoifwef;ausmif;eJ@ ppfOD;pD;wuUokdvfudkvnf; jyefvnf
zGifhvSpfum ppfoifwef;rsm;ukd jyefvnfykd@csapwmvkyfygw,f? 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyfvnf;jzpf umuG,f
a&;0ef}uD; vnf;jzpfwJh AkdvfcsKyfae0if;[m ppfwyfudk olŒpdwfóuduf taumiftxnfazmf zJGŒpnf;
jyifqifwmawG pwifvkyfcGifh&cJhygw,f?
tpkd;&&JΠjynfwGif;ppftwGuf umuG,fa&;toHk;p&dwfqkdwJh acgif;pOfeJ@ azmfjywJh ppfoHk;
p&dw[ f mvnf; b,fwek ;f ueJ@rrS wlatmif tqaygi;f rsm;pGmckew f ufomG ;cJyh gw,f? wjynfv;Hk toH;k
p&dwf pkpkaygif;&JŒ (20µ) ausmfjzpfcJhygw,f?
‘a&mifpo kH yl ek w
f @dk &ŒJ vk,ufzsuqf ;D jcif;udck &H aom a&mifpo kH yl ek w f @kd a=umifh ysupf ;D qk;H ¶H;_ cJ&h aom
wjynfvHk;wefzkd; pkpkaygif;[mvnf; usyfaiG ukaÉ (3) &mausmfygw,f’ vkd@ 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku
w&m;0ifajymqkad =unmcJyh gw,f? 'Dysupf ;D qk;H ¶H;_ r_awG[m olyek af wGa=umifv h @dk ocifEu
k wzufowf
tjypfwifvu dk yf gw,f? jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;a=umifh t}uD;tus,yf supf ;D qk;H ¶H;_ cJ&h wmuawmh trSeyf jJ zpf
ygw,f?
1950 jynfhESpfxJa&mufawmh zqyvtpdk;&[m ‘&efukeftpdk;&’tjzpfuae vGwfajrmuf
vm+yDjzpfv@dk touf¶a_ csmifvmygw,f? olyek af wGord ;f yku d xf m;cJw h hJ òrdŒawGtm;vk;H udv k nf; jyefvnf
xkd;ppfqifodrf;ykduf+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? òrdŒawGukd jyefvnfodrf;ykdufEkdifayr,fh jynfwGif;ppf}uD;uawmh
t&Sdeft[kefjyif;jyif; qufvufawmufavmifaecJhygw,f?
aoewfoaH wG aomaomnHaeqJumvrSm xyfróH uaH wGŒvm&wJjh y\emuawmh w¶kwjf zL
usL;ausmfvmr_jzpfygw,f? jynfyvufeufudkifwyfrsm; ArmjynftwGif; usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmr_
jzpfygw,f? 1949 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmv (1) &ufae@ rSm w¶kwfjynfuGefjrLepfygwDOuUÏ armfpDwkef;
acgif;aqmifwJh w¶kwfjynfolŒorRwEkdifiH ay:xGef;vmygw,f?
csefau&Sdwfacgif;aqmifwJh ulrifwefw±kwfjzLtpkd;&[m w¶kwfjynfr}uD;uae t¶_H;eJ@
xGufajy;&ygw,f?
w¶kwjf ynf ,leefe,fawmifyidk ;f rSm&Sw d hJ w¶kwjf zLulrifwefwyfrsm;[m w¶kwjf ynfoŒl wyfr
awmf (wyfeaD wmf)&JŒ xk;d ppfqifacsre_ ;f wku d cf u dk rf '_ %fukd r¶_rvS cHvu dk &f +yD; ,leefjynfe,fawmifyidk ;f
uae ArmjynfxJ vSdrfh0ifvm=uwmjzpfygw,f? 1950 jynfh Zefe0g&Dvqef;rSm w¶kwfjzLwyfom;
(200) avmuf[m usKdif;wHke,f rkdif;,ef;ukd0ifa&mufwyfpJG+yD;/ rwfvxJrSm tiftm; (2000) ausmf
avmuf usKdif;wHke,ftwGif; xyfrH0ifa&mufusL;ausmfvm=uygw,f? {+yDveJ@ arvxJrSm usKdif;wHk

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 133


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

e,ftwGif;&Sd òrdŒawGudk w¶kwfjzLwyftcsKdŒu 0ifa&mufodrf;ykduf=uovkd w¶kwfjzLwyftcsKdŒu


usKdif;wHkta&SŒbufuae jzwfausmf+yD; }wd*Ha'oxJpk+yD; wyfpJG=uygw,f?
w±kwfjzLwyfwcsKdŒu arv (25) &ufae@rSm Armjynfe,fpyfòrdŒ wòrdŒjzpfwJh ‘=uLukwf’udk
wku d cf u
dk zf suq f ;D =uygw,f? w¶kwjf zLwyfawGukd OD;pD;acgi;f aqmifvmolawGuawmh ulrifweftrSwf
(8) wyfawmfu AkdvfcsKyf}uD; vDrD/ trSwf (26) wyfawmfu 'kAkdvfcsKyf}uD; vludkc|rf;eJ@ trSwf
(93) wyfru AkdvfcsKyfrmacsm,DeJ@ AkdvfcsKyfvlcsif;qGef; wkd@jzpf=uygw,f?
1950 jynfh ZGev f xJrmS usKid ;f wHak 'o&Sd Armhwyfrawmftm%mydik af wGu w¶kwjf zLwyfzŒGJ 0if
awGukd vufeufcs&ef okd@r[kwf Armjynfykdifeufe,fajrtwGif;u xGufcGgoGm;&ef &mZoHay;cJhyg
w,f? 'gayr,fh w¶kwfjzLulrifwefwyfawGu eJeJav;rS rvkdufem¶Hkru Armhwyfrawmfu olwkd@ukd
wkdufcdkufvm&if jyefvnfwdkufcdkuf&ef toifh&Sda=umif; jyef=um;ygw,f?
w¶kwjf ynf[m Armjynfe@J e,ferd w d cf si;f t&Sn}f uD;qufpyfwnf&adS ewJh tdref ;D csi;f wkid ;f jynf
wckjzpfwt hJ wGuf w¶kwjf ynf&ŒJ ‘w¶kwjf ynfopf’ xlaxmifay:ayguv f mr_[m ArmjynfEidk if aH &;e,f
udv k nf; *,uf¶u dk cf yhJ gw,f? t¶H;_ eJ@ajy;vmcJo h l w¶kwjf zL ulrifwefwyfrsm;&JŒ usL;ausmcf sO;f eif;0if
a&mufvmwmukd cHvkduf&wJhtwGuf ArmjynfvHkòcHa&;twGufvnf; ta&;}uD;jy\emwckjzpfvm
&ygw,f? w¶kwjf zLusL;ausmv f mr_jy\em[m ArmjynftwGuf yx0DEidk if aH &;jy\emavmufwif
ru urBm@EkdifiHa&; &moDOwktajymif;tvJeJ@yg qufqkdifywfoufvm&wJh jy\emjzpfygw,f?
'kw, d urBmppft+yD;rSm urBmEh idk if aH &;e,fy,frmS t&if;&Sief ,fcsŒJ *k% d ;f }uD;eJ@ qk&d ,
S vf pf*%dk f
}uD;&,fvkd@ *kd%f}uD;ESpf*kd%f; twdtvif;ay:xGufvmygw,f? t&if;&Sif;e,fcsJŒ*kd%f;ukd tar&duef
u acgif;aqmifygw,f? qkd&S,fvpf*dk%f;ukd qkdAD,ufu acgif;aqmifygw,f? e,fcJsŒEkdifiHrsm;vuf
atmufu vGwfajrmufvmpEkdifiHawGeJ@ vGwfajrmufzkd@óud;yrf;tm;xkwfae=uwJh EkdifiHawGtm;vkH;
avmufeD;yg;[m qkd&S,fvpf*kd%f;}uD;udk axmufcHvkdvm;=uygw,f? awmfvSefwdk;wufwJh EkdifiHa&;
ygw/D Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;[m e,fcsŒJ t&if;&Si*f % dk ;f ukd qef@usi=f uygw,f? e,fcsŒJ t&if;&Si*f % dk ;f &JŒ
acgi;f aqmifjzpfwhJ tar&duef[m qk&d , S v f pf*% dk ;f }uD;}uD;rm;rm;us,jf yef@vmrSm atmifycGJ v H mrSmudk
tpGrf;ukef wm;qD;ydwfyif acszsufzkd@óud;pm;aeygw,f?
urBmrSm e,fajrtus,ft0ef; t}uD;qkH;jzpfwJh qkdAD,ufu uGefjrLepfEkdifiHjzpfae&wJhtxJ/
urBmrSm vlO;D a&trsm;qk;H jzpfwhJ w¶kwu f uGejf rLepfEidk if t H jzpf xyfraH y:ayguv f mwJt h cg t&if;&Sif
e,fcsJŒ*kd%f;}uD;&JŒ xdyfoD;tar&dueftzkd@ ykdrkdpkd;&drfwkefv_yfp&mjzpfvmcJhygw,f?
'ga=umifh 1950 jynfEh pS x f rJ mS tar&duefw@dk &ŒJ 'krd ED o dk 0D &D xGuaf y:vmcJyh gw,f? tar&duef
orRw tku d q
f ifa[mif0gup+yD; ajymwmjzpfygw,f? ('krd ED dk zJupm;enf;rSm 'krd ED zdk cJ syaf v;awGpx D m;
+yD;/ wckeJ@wck qufpyfaewJhtwGuf zJcsyfav;wckus&if usefwJh[mawGyg qufwkdufusavh
&Sdygw,f? 'kdrDEdkzJcsyfav;awGvkd qdk&S,fvpfEkdifiHawG wck+yD;wckray:&atmif umuG,fxm;zkd@
ajymwmjzpfygw,f?)
tar&dueftzdk@ w¶kwfjynfuGefjrLepfEkdifiHjzpfvmwmukd rvkdvm;ovdk/ tm&SwdkufrSm
aemufxyfuGefjrLepfEdkifiHawG qufwkdufay:xGufvmrSmudkvnf; r¶_pdrfhwJhtwGuf wm;qD;ydwfyif
a&;awG tpDtpOf&Sd&Sdvkyfygw,f? w¶kwfeDukd qef@usifzkd@ w¶kwfjzLudktm;ay;ygw,f? w¶kwfjynfeJ@

134 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

e,ferd w d cf si;f qufpyfaewJt h wGuf Armjynf[m tar&duefw@dk twGuf ta&;ygvmygw,f? 'ga=umifh


ArmjynfxJ a&muf&SdusL;ausmfvm=uwJh ulrifwefw¶kwfjzLwkd@&JŒaemufuG,frSm tar&duef
yg0ifywfoufaeygw,f? wzufuvnf; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;udk t"duOD;wnfvkyfaewJh
Armjynftpkd;&ukd acsmhjrLodrf;oGif;Ekdifzkd@ vdktyfaeygw,f?
Armjynf zqyvtpkd;&[m jynfyu usL;ausmfvmoljzpfwJh w±kwfjzLudk tjywftowf
jyefvnfwkdufxkwfa&;xuf/ jynfwGif;u wEkdifiHwnf;om;csif;jzpfwJh vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;
tiftm;pkawGudkyJ rJ+yD; acsr_ef;okwfoifypfEkdifzkd@ vkyfaeygw,f?
1945 ckESpfu ‘aAmf&SDApforkdif;tusOf;csKyf’ pmtkyfudk r&&atmif&Sm+yD; qkd&S,fvpfygwD
Ekid if aH &;oifwef;awGrmS oifwef;yk@d cscw hJ hJ OD;ausm+f idr;f uawmh ok;H av;ESpt f wGi;f a'giaf 'gijf rnf uGejf rL
epfqef@usifa&;orm;}uD;tjzpf ajymif;vJvmcJhygw,f? 1949 ckESpftukefrSm w±kwfjynfol@orRw
EkdifiHtjzpf ay:aygufvmwJhtcg Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfygwD tr_aqmifrsm;eJ@ 'kwd,acgif;aqmifrsm;
tpnf;ta0;vky+f y;D óuq d adk xmufcaH =umif; a=unmcsux f wk yf gw,f? tJ'aD =unmcsuu f kd uef@uu G f
ajymqkdol[m OD;ausmf+idrf; wa,mufwnf;yJ&Sdw,fvkd@ qkdygw,f? t*Fvdyf/ tar&duefòidjiifrSm
a=umufwmeJ@ jynfwiG ;f olyek af wG ESrd Ef iS ;f a&;twGuf tultnD r&rSmpk;d &drw f ma=umifv h @dk qkyd gw,f?
1950 jynfhESpfxJrSm tm%m& zqyv }uD;xJu tm%m& qkd&S,fvpfygwD}uD;twGif;
ywfww k rf &Ekid wf hJ tuGt
J +y}J u;D wck xyfraH y:ayguv f mcJyh gw,f? t"duuawmh OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f ird ;f
wk@d acgi;f aqmifwhJ vusmf qd&k , S vf pfrsm;eJ@ rm@upf f vDeif0g'ukd ouf0if,=kH unfygw,fv@dk aºuG;a=umf
xm;=uwJh ocifcspfarmif (0d"l&) / ocifvGif/ ocifvSau|wkd@acgif;aqmifwJh vuf0J,drf; qkd&S,fvpf
rsm;t=um;/ tJ'Dwkef;u ay:aygufvmwJh urBmhEkdifiHa&; tajctaeawGtay: ±_jrifoHk;oyf oabm
xm;=uykcH si;f rwln&D muae twdtvif; cGm+yo J mG ;=uwmjzpfygw,f? qk&d , S vf pfygww D iG ;f u vusmf
qkd&S,fvpfrsm;eJ@ vuf0J,drf;qkd&S,fvpfrsm;[m tm%mukvm;xkdifay: twlarS;+yD;xkdifae=u
&muae ajymif;vJvmwJh Ekid if w H umhtajctaeawGatmufrmS uk, d &hf yfwnfcsuu f dk uk, d af zmfjy&if;
arS;aevkd@r&awmhyJ uJGoGm;=uwmjzpfygw,f?
yxrtjzpftysufu (WFTU) yg0ifa&;udpPeJ@ywfoufygw,f? zqyv tzJG@csKyf tvkyf
tr_aqmifvnf;jzpf/ tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;rsm;tzJG@csKyf OuUÏvnf;jzpfwJh ‘ocifvGif’[m
tzJŒG csKyf&ŒJ =um;aea&;0g'eJ@ qef@usi+f yD;/ vuf0, J rd ;f WFTU (World Federation of Trade Union) ac:
urBm@tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;rsm;tzJGŒcsKyfeJ@ qufoG,f0ifa&muf&eftqkdeJ@ qkH;jzwfcsufw&yfukd
zqyv tzJ@G csKyf tvkyt f r_aqmiftzJŒG &JŒ cGiðfh ycsurf &bJ 1950 jynfh ara';ae@ vlxt k pnf;ta0;rSm
wifoGif; csrSwfajymqkdw,f qkdygw,f?
'kw, d tjzpftysuu f uk&d ;D ,m;ppfyGJ udpeP @J ywfoufygw,f? 1950 jynfEh pS x f rJ mS / uk&d ;D ,m;
ppfyJG tjyif;txef ay:aygufvmygw,f? w±kwfeJ@ qkdAD,ufwkd@u ajrmufudk&D;,m;bufu tckdif
trm&yfwnf=uygw,f? tar&duefacgi;f aqmifwhJ t&if;&Sit f yk pf u
k awmifu&dk ;D ,m;bufu ae=u
ygw,f? tar&duef[m ukvor*~qkdif;bkwfeJ@ udk&D;,m;ppfyJG twGif;0if+yD; ygvmygw,f? awmif-
ajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;ppfyrGJ mS ukvor*~vòHk cHa&;aumifpu D ‘urBm@+idr;f csr;f a&;ukd xdyg;aprnfh tE &W m,f
vkd@owfrSwf+yD; ukvor*~u 0ifa&muf+yD; tajctaeudkxdef;odrf;&ef’vkd@ qkH;jzwfygw,f? tJ'DqkH;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 135


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

jzwfcsufudk jrefrmtpdk;&u axmufcHcJhygw,f? 1950 jynfh pufwifbm (5) &ufae@ Armjynf


ygvrD efvw $ af wmfrmS 0ef}u;D csKyfocifEk wifoiG ;f wJh uk&d ;D ,m;tqked @J ywfouf+y;D tvkyo f rm;tpnf;
t±Hk;rsm;tzJGŒcsKyf 'kOuUÏ vnf;jzpf ygvDreftrwfvnf;jzpfwJh ocifvSau|u a0zefygw,f? a0zef
&mrSm tqkdudkawmh axmufcHayr,fh ajrmufukd&D;,mtay: tjypfwifajymqkdwmeJ@ ywfouf+yD;
uef@uu G af jymqkyd gw,f? ud&k ;D ,meJ@ywfoufwhJ zqyv tpd;k &&JΠrl0g'&yfwnfcsut f ay:/ ocifviG /f
ocifcspfarmifwkd@uvnf; jypfwifa0zef=uygw,f?
tJ'ga=umifh tJ'Dvkdjzpfay: ajymqkdcJh=ur_awGtay: zqyv tvkyftr_aqmiftzJG@u
ocifviG ef @J ocifvaS u|ukd ta&;,lygw,f? ocifviG ef @J ocifvaS u|ukd ‘rdr&d ŒJ ygwjD zpfwhJ tm%m&
ygwDtpkd;&&JŒ rl0g'ukd a0zef±_wfcscJhwJhtwGuf’ zqyvu c%xkwfy,fypfcJhw,fvkd@ qkdygw,f?
vufwkef@jyefwJhtaeeJ@ atmufwkdbm (16) &ufae@rSm ocifvGif/ ocifvSau|wkd@ tzJG@[m
tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;uae E_wfxGufvkduf=uygw,f? 'DZifbm (7) &ufae@rSmawmh ocifvGif/
ocifvSau|/ ocifcspfarmif (0d"l&)/ ocifvlat;eJ@ qdk&S,fvpfygwD0if (43) a,mufwkd@[m qkd&S,f
vpfygwDuae t+yD;tykdifE_wfxGufvkduf=uygawmhw,f?
aemufw&uf 'DZifbm (8) &ufae@rSm “tvkyform;/ v,form;ygwD” udk twdtvif;
xlaxmifvkduf=uygawmhw,f?
qk&d ,S v
f pfygwuD aecJx G u G +f yD; xlaxmifvu dk wf hJ ‘tvkyo f rm;/ v,form;ygw’D ukd ‘qk&d , S f
eDygwD’vkd@vlodrsm;vmcJhygw,f? qkd&S,feDygwD0ifawGudk zqyv tzJG@csKyf}uD;uvnf; xkwfy,fz,f
&Sm;ypfvu dk yf gawmhw,f? tJ't D csed u f p+yD; zqyv tzJŒG csKyf}uD;[mvnf; vuf,m qk&d , S v
f pfawG
csnf; }uD;pkd;xm;wJh tzJG@csKyf}uD;jzpfoGm;cJhovkd/ emrnfqkd;eJ@ausmf=um;cJ@wJ@ ‘Armjynfqkd&S,fvpf
ygw’D [mvnf; vuf,mqk&d , S v f pfawGcsn;f yJ usecf w hJ hJ vuf,mqk&d , S 'f rD u
dk &ufwpfygwD jzpfvm
cJhygawmhw,f?
t"duqkd&S,facgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfwJh 0d"l&ocifcspfarmifu qkd&S,fvpfygwD twGif;uae
olwkd@xGufcGmvm&ykHe@J ywfowf+yD;æ
“1950 ckESpfokd@a&mufaomtcg u|Ekfyfwdk@ qkd&S,fvpfygwD a&SŒwef;acgif;aqmiftcsKdŒonf/
zqyv OD;EkEiS ahf ygi;f I tar&duef tD;pDatudp/P wDpaD tudp/P ud&k ;D ,m;udp/P tar&duefEiS hf t*Fvyd f
ESpfOD;t=um;rSmom Asmrsm;ae&aom =um;ae0g'udpP ponfwkd@jzifh e,fcsJŒESifhaygif;pyfI uGefjrLepf
ygwo D mru uGejf rLepf0g'udyk g tjywftowfacsre_ ;f &ef wdwv d if;vif; jyifqifvmayonf? xk@d a=umifh
u|Ekfyfwdk@&Jabmfrsm;onf tjypfuif;pifpGmjzifh EkdifiHa&;vrf;a=umif;t&om 1950 ckESpf/ 'DZifbm
(8) &ufae@wGif oduQm&Sd&Sd vrf;cJGvmjcif;jzpfayonf?” vkd@ xkwfazmf aºuG;a=umfa&;om;cJhygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygwD ESpjf crf;uJo G mG ;wke;f u tvHe-D tvHjzLvd@k epfe-D epfjzLvk@d uifyeG ;f wyfc=hJ uwJh
qk&d ,
S vf pfawGudk olw@dk u, kd wf idk f ESpjf crf;uGoJ mG ;&wJth cg/ qd&k ,
S ef -D qk&d ,
S jf zLvd@k vlxuk uifyeG ;f wyf
ay;vkdufygw,f? qkd&S,feD-qkd&S,fjzLwkd@tuJG ykdqdk;wmuawmh qkd&S,fvpfygwD[m tm%m&ygwD
jzpfwJhtwdkif; tm%mudkudkif+yD; ajAmifusus&rf;um;owfjzwfr_awG usL;vGefjyjcif;jzpfygw,f?
qdk&S,feDawG&JŒ ygwDopfudkzJG@pnf;a=umif; a=unm+yD;wmeJ@ wòydifeuf qkd&S,feDygwD&JŒ ygwDopfudk
zJGŒpnf;a=umif; a=unm+yD;wmeJ@ wòydifeuf qkd&S,feDygwD&JŒ OD;pD;tzJGŒ0ifawGjzpfwJh ysOf;rem;c±kdifu

136 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

&JabmfAcsKdeJ@ &JabmfvS'if}uD;wkd@ukd vuf,mqkd&S,fvpf *kd%fom;awGu vlykHtv,frSm armfawmf


um;eJ@ &uf&ufpufpuf wkdufowfypfcJh=uygw,f?
Oya'udk av;pm;vkdufema&;/ 'Drkdua&pDudk umuG,fa&;vkd@ wzGzG rem;wrf;ajymvmcJhwJh
zqyv tpk;d &[m Oya'ukd ajymifajymifwif;wif; csK;d azmuf±rkH u 'Dru dk a&pDtcGit hf a&;awGuv dk nf;
uef@owfcsKyfcs,fol jzpfvmcJhygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEkukd,fwkdif tm%m&Sifqefqef ðyrl/ usifh}uHvmwmawG&Sdovkd qkd&S,fvpf
xdyo f ;D }uD;rsm;jzpfwhJ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f / ocifwif/ ocifausmx f eG ;f wk@d uvnf; vlru dk af rG;/ wynfh
arG;+y;D olw@dk tydik t f pm;&&m e,fy,ftoD;oD;rSm tm%maZmif;xufc=hJ uygw,f? tm%m& zqyv
}uD;udk xifovkdcs,fvS,fcJh=uygw,f?
zJŒG pnf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccHOya'udk acgi;f ay:&Gu+f yD; zJŒG pnf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccHOya'yg jyÏmef;csuf
awGe@J rudu k n
f wD mawGuadk wmif cyfwnfwnf vkyaf qmifc=hJ uygw,f? zJŒG pnf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccHOya'
(116) rSm a±G;aumufwifajr‡mufcH&ol jynfolŒv$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fr[kwfbJ (6) vxufydkrkd+yD;
tpkd;&tzJG@0if 0ef}uD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcGifhr&Sda=umif; jyÏmef;csuf twdtvif;&Sdayr,fh
0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku OD;at;armifudk (8) v ausmf 0ef}uD;tjzpf qJGcef@cJhygw,f? OD;at;armif[m
Ekid if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;ru w&m;a&;0ef}uD;yg jzpfcyhJ gw,f? Akv d cf sKyfae0if;[m (18) veD;yg; umuG,af &;
0ef}u;D ru 'kw, d 0ef}u;D csKyfyg jzpfcyhJ gw,f? ocifEjk ynfyc&D;oGm;aewke;f rSm ,m,D0ef}u;D csKyfawmif
wufvkyfcGifh &cJhygao;w,f?
AkdvfcsKyfae0if;[m 1949 ckESpf/ {+yDv (1) &ufae@uae 1950 jynfhESpf pufwifbm (9)
&ufae@txd tpdk;&tzJG@rSm 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyf/ umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;vkyfcJh+yD;rS ppfwyfudkjyefygw,f?
AkdvfcsKyfae0if; umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;eJ@ 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyf jzpfaewkef;rSm ppfwyfukd wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;wm/
ppfwyfukd ykrd ckd idk rf mawmifw h if;atmif jyifqifwm/ ppfwyfukd ta&;ygatmifvyk w f mawG tpDtpOf&&dS dS
aqmif&GufcJhygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfrD;}uD;uvnf; t&Sdefw+iD;+iD; awmufavmifaeqJjzpfwJhtwGuf
jynfwGif;ppfudkjy+yD; ppfwyfudk ol@pdwfóuduf wnfaqmufjyifqifEkdifcJhygw,f? 1950 jynfhESpfxJrSm
trSwf (6) ajcvsifwyf&if;/ trSwf (7) ajcvsifwyf&if;/ trSwf (8) ajcvsifwyf&if;awG wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;
EkdifcJh+yD;/ trSwf (2) ajcjrefwyfr[mXmecsKyf (awmifil)/ trSwf (3) ajcjrefwyfr[mXmecsKyf (yJcl;)
eJ@ trSwf (4) ajcjrefwyfr[m XmecsKyf (usKdif;wkH) wkd@ zJGŒpnf;ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? r*Fvm'kHtrSwf
(2) oHcsyfum um;wyfcJGeJ@ tif*sifeD,mwyfzJGŒrsm;udkvnf; zJGŒpnf;cJhygw,f?
1950 jynfh/ Zefe0g&D (20) &ufuae (30) &ufae@txd ‘wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcH’udkvnf;
AkdvfcsKyfae0if; OD;pD;+yD; usif;yðyvkyfcJhygw,f? armif;jyefvufeufi,feJ@ usnfqefrsm;xkwfvkyfEkdifwJh
umuG,fa&;ypPnf;puf±Hkukd (Burma Army Godown) qkdwJh emrnf0SufeJ@ tif,m;uefapmif;rSm
wnfaqmuf+yD; 1950 jynfh/ {+yDv (26) &ufae@rSm w&m;0if zJG@pnf;ay;cJhygw,f? trSwf (1)
umuG,fa&; ypPnf;puf±Hkudk tDwvDEdkifiHu pufrsm;eJ@ wyfqifcJh+yD; bDat (52) tayghpm;armif;jyef
aoewfawG xkwv f yk &f ef pDpOfcyhJ gw,f? 1950 jynfh =o*kwv f rSm +yD;pD;+yD;/ atmufwb dk mrSm prf;oyf
vnfywf xkwfvkyfapygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 137


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'yk'fr (233) t& (18) vtwGif; usif;yðyvkyfay;&r,fh ‘ygvD


refa&G;aumufy’GJ [m 1949 ckEpS /f Zlvidk v f twGi;f usi;f yay;&rSmjzpfayr,fh zqyvtpk;d &[m usi;f y
ay;jcif;rðyEkdifbJ (18) vuae (28) vtjzpfajymif;+yD; yxrqkH;t}udrf a&$Œqkdif;cJhygw,f? (28)
vjynfhwJh tcg rSmvnf; usi;f yray;Ekid jf yefbJ 'kw, d t}urd f zJŒG pnf;ykt H ajccHOya'ukjd yif+y;D v (40)
txd a&$Œqdkif;cJhwJhtwGuf 1950 jynfhESpfxJrSmvnf; ygvDref'Drkdua&pDa&G;aumufyJG[m ay:aygufr
vmcJhyg? 'g a=umifh vGwfvyfa&;a=unm+yD;csdefup+yD; ocifEk wa,mufwnf;u 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf
awmufav#muf tkypf ;dk vmcJo h vkd zqyv tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;u tm%m& Ekid if aH &;tzJŒG tpnf;}uD;tjzpf
qufwkduf wGifus,faecJhygw,f? zqyv xJrSmvnf; qkd&S,fvpfygwDu tkyfpkd;xm;wmjzpfwJh
twGuf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;[m òydifbufr&Sd tm%m&rsm;jzpfvmcJhygw,f?
yxrqHk;t}udrfa&G;aumufyJGudkawmif rusif;y&ao;vkd@ wkdif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfudk ,m,D
ygvDreftoGifajymif;+yD; tkyfcsKyfae&ayr,fh tm%m&xm;olrsm;uawmh tm%mrmef0ifhae=uyg
w,f? ygvDref[mvnf; awmckdjynfol@&Jabmftrwfrsm;/ uGefjrLepftrwfrsm;pkpkaygif; (44) OD;ukd
xkwfy,fxm;&wJhtwGuf t&G,ftpm;tm;jzifh ao;i,fae+yDjzpfygw,f? qkd&S,fvpfygwDuae
cGJxGuf+yD; qkd&S,feDygwDaxmif=uwJh ocifvGif/ ocifcspfarmif/ ocifvSau|wkd@ (43) OD;tzJGŒ[m
twkduftcHtiftm;pkrsm;jzpfvm=uygw,f?
vGwv f yfa&;&+yq D rdk S wdik ;f jynf}u;D uawmh jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D v#t H wGi;f wae@wjcm; ykyd +dk y;D usqif;
avmifòrducf aH e&+yD; ydrk q
kd if;&J =uyfwnf;vmcJyh gw,f? Akv d cf sKyfae0if; acgi;f aqmifwhJ ppfwyfuawmh
ydkydk}uD;vmcJh+yD;/ ppftokH;p&dwf[mvnf; wdk;wdk;rsm;vmcJhygw,f? 1948-49 ckESpftwGif; ppftokH;
p&dwf[m wEkdifiHvkH;toHk;p&dwfpkpkaygif;&JŒ (20µ) ausmfuae 1949-50 ckESpfrSm ppfoHk;p&dwf[m
wEkdifiHvHk;toHk;p&dwf pkpkaygif;&JŒ (25µ) ausmfjzpfvmygw,f?
1948-49-50 twGi;f jynfwiG ;f ppfa=umifh wEkid if v H ;Hk pku
d yf sK;d Ekid w
f hJ ajr{&d,m&JŒ ( 35µ)[m
yvyfajrawGjzpfoGm;&ygw,f? vlOD;a& (3) oef;avmuf tkd;rJhtdrfrJh jzpfoGm;&ygw,f? jynfolvlxk
(22000) ausmfeJ@ ppfbufòrdŒjybuf tr_xrf; (5700) ausmf toufqkH;±_H;=u&ygw,f? tpkd;&
ypPnf;wefzkd; a':vm (5) oef;eJ@ jynfolvlxkypPnf;wefzkd; a':vm (95) oef;zkd;avmuf qkH;±H_;cJh&yg
w,f? 'Dudef;*%ef;wefzkd;awG[m Armjynfta=umif; pmtkyfawGa&;om;wJh tar&duefpma&;
q&m}uD; Awf0J (Butwell) &JΠpkaqmif;azmfjycsufjzpfygw,f? wu,fu 'Dxufykd+yD;awmif rsm;jym;
cJhygw,f?
tm%m& zqyvtpdk;&u “aomif;usef;ol tjrpfjywfacsr_ef;a&;” “a&mifpHkaomif;usef;
olrsm;ESdrfeif;a&;” qkdwJh tvHudk tjrifhqkH;wif+yD; wkdufckdufovdk/ t"du EdkifiHa&;ygwD}uD;jzpfwJh
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuvnf; rvJ$om ra&Smifom udk,fhukd,fudk ckcHumuG,f&if; vufeufudkif
awmfvSefa&;ukd qifE$Jvkduf&wmjzpfayr,fh “zqyvtpkd;&tðywfwdkufa&;” “(2) ESpftwGif;
ppfEkdifa&;” qkdwmawG aºuG;a=umf+yD; jyefvSefwkdufyJGqifygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfrD;=um;rSm jynfolrsm;
uawmh ajrZmyifjzpfcJh&ygw,f? 1950 jynfhESpfxJrSm 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEk[m ‘ocif’udk ðzwfvkduf+yD;
OD;EkjzpfvmcJhygw,f?

138 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

1951=52 ygvD r ef ' D r k d u a&pD taxG a xG a& G ; aumuf y J G

zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya't& zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'twnfjzpf+yD; (18) v


tuGmrSm usif;yðyvkyfay;&r,fh ygvDref'Drkdua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;[m 1949 ckESpf
xJrSmvnf; rusif;yEkdif/ 1950 jynfhESpfxJrSmvnf; rusif;yjzpfbJ 1951 ckESpf/ ZGefvxJrSm yxrqkH;
t}udrftjzpf usif;yay:aygufvmygw,f?
ZGev f rSm pwif;usi;f yjzpfw,fqadk yr,fh wjynfv;Hk wòydief ufwnf; usi;f yEkid w f mr[kwyf g?
wkdif;jynf vkH;0at;csrf;om,mao;wmr[kwfqkdwJh ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ ‘qmbOD;’ acgif;aqmif+yD;
OD;at;armif yg0ifwhJ a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Siu f a&G;aumufyGJ usi;f yEkid +f yDv@dk owfrw S w f hJ e,fajrawG
rSmom we,f+yD;we,f usif;yay;wmjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh qmbOD;eJ@ OD;at;armifwkd@u zqyv
wk@d Eikd af jc&Swd hJ e,fajrawGuo kd m OD;pGmowfrw S af y;+yD; usi;f yapwmjzpfw,fv@dk wcsKŒd u pGypf aGJ jymqdk
=uygw,f?
a&G;aumufyrGJ mS tm%m& qk&d , S v
f pfzqyvtzJŒG csKyfe@J ,SO+f yD; tòydit f qkid f ,SOòf ydiaf &G;cs,f
cH=uwJh EkdifiHa&;tzJGŒtpnf;awGuawmh qkd&S,feDac: Armjynftvkyform;/ v,form;ygwD/
AkdvfxGef;pdef&JŒ jynfol@&JabmftzJGŒ/ AdkvfcsKyftudk OD;atmifoef;&JŒ jynfol@+idrf;csrf;a&;tzJGŒaygif;pk/
a'gufwmbarmf&JŒ r[mArmtzJGŒ/ ocifApdef&JŒ Armjynf'Drdku&ufwpfygwD/ OD;baz&JŒ jynfcspf
r[mrdwftzJGŒ/ woD;yk*~v &ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;tzJG@/ Arm-rGwfpvifuGef*&uf/ ‘AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;
tzJ@G atmifygw’D / tif'yD if;'ifyh gwD pwJt h zJŒG awG jzpfygw,f? woD;yk*v ~ rsm;vnf; 0ifa&muf ,SOòf ydif
=uygw,f? tm%m& zqyvqkd&S,ftzJG@csKyfeJ@ twkduftcH EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pk[m tiftm;tcsKd;
tpm;t& tifrwefuGmjcm;vGef;vSygw,f?
twkduftcH tiftm;pkbufu EkdifiHa&;ygwDtzJGŒtpnf;rsm;&JŒ EkdifiHa&;t,ltqrsm;[m
vnf; trsKd;rsKd;tzHkzHk taoG;ta&mifpHkjzpfaecJhygw,f? twkduftcHtiftm;pkawGxJrSm EkdifiHa&;
t&Sdeft0g&Sdwm/ EkdifiHa&;ygwDqefwmqdkvkd@ qkd&S,feDygwD avmufyJ&Sdygw,f?
'Davmuftiftm;tcsKd;tpm;uGm+yD; wzufowf tay: pD;&aewmawmifrS‘zq-qkd&S,f’
rsm;[m rauseyfEidk af o;bJ enf;vrf;aygi;f pko H ;kH +y;D npfywfc=hJ u/ &rf;um;cJ=h uygw,f? zq-qk&d , S rf sm;
tEdkif&a&;twGuf cg;ydkufaqmifwyfzJGŒawG/ aomif;usef;olESdrfeif;a&;twGufqdk+yD; zJGŒpnf;xm;wJh
aysmuf=um;jzLwyfawGokH;+yD; twkduftcHawGtay: tpGrf;ukefzdESdyf&efðycJh=uygw,f? zq-qkd&S,f
awG&ŒJ cg;yku d af qmifwyfawGjzpfwhJ ,ltrfyD (UMP) wyfzJGŒrsm;eJ@ umuG,fa&;wyfzJGŒrsm;[m twkduf
tcHawGtay:om rw&m;zdEydS &f ef&mS wmr[kw/f jynfov l x l tk ay:vnf; rw&m; +cdr;f ajcmuf tEkid f
usi+hf y;D rJxnfah pwm/ rJ0,fwmawG ae&mawmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm ðyvkycf yhJ gw,f? vufeufe@J +crd ;f ajcmuf
jcif;/ tm%meJ@ +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;awGvkyfcJh=u±Hkru a'otcsKdŒrSm ajymifajymifwif;wif; zrf;qD;csKyf
aESmifwm/ &uf&ufpufpuf owfjzwfz,f&Sm;wmawGyg usL;vGefcJh=uygw,f? tEkdif&a&;twGuf
tjywf&Sif;/ owfjzwfcJh=uwmjzpfygw,f?
zqyv trwfavmif; tEkid &f a&;twGuf rJ0,fwm/ rJvrd w f m/ rJc;dk wmawGvnf; enf;rsK;d pkeH @J
vkyfcJh=uygw,f? a&G;aumufyJGusif;y+yD;vkd@ rJa&wGufwJhtcg tm%m& zqyvrsm;[m rJykH;awGudk
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 139
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

csucf si;f rzGib hf J rJy;Hk awGazmuf rJc;kd +yD;rS rJa&wGuw f mrsK;d / rJy;Hk awGukd vkòH cH&mae&mudk a&$Œajymif;o,f
,l&if; vrf;c&D;rSm rJjym;awG a&$Œajymif;&,l+yD; aemufae@rS a&wGuw f mrsK;d awG/ rEkid Ef ikd af tmifvyk w f m
rsKd;awGvnf; ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f?
a&G;aumufyu GJ dk (3) &pfc+GJ yD; usi;f ywmjzpfv@dk a'owckrmS ±_;H cJw h hJ zqyv trwfavmif;udk
aemufw&pfrmS tjcm;a'owckrmS a&$Œajymif;+yD; ta±G;cs,cf aH p&if; rEkid Ef idk af tmif/ r&&atmifvyk cf hJ
wmrsKd;vnf; ay:aygufcJhygw,f? yxrt&pf a&G;aumufyJGrSm ajrmif;jrrSm ±_H;cJhwJh trwfavmif;udk
'kw, d t&pf rdwv ˆD mrSmusi;f ywJt h cg 0if,OS òf yid af p+y;D rdwv ˆD mtrwftjzpf tEkid &f oGm;cJw h m&Syd gw,f?
cg;ykdufaqmifwyf (UMP) wyf/ umuG,fa&;wyfpwJh vufeufukdifwyfrsm;uom zqyv
qkd&S,fvpfrsm;bufu enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ rEkdifEkdifatmif ulnDcJh=uwmr[kwf/ wyfrawmf udk,fwkdif
uvnf; zq-qkd&S,frsm;bufu yif;cJh/ ulcJh/ axmufyHhcJh=uw,f?
a&G;aumufyJG}uD; usif;yaepOftwGif; xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tjzpftysufuawmh u&iftrsKd;om;
acgif;aqmif autif,l OuUÏ apmbOD;}uD; taoypfowf zrf;qD;cHvkduf&jcif;jzpfygw,f? 1951
ckESpf/ =o*kwfvxJrSm usqkH;cJh&ygw,f? vd_if;bJGŒòrdŒe,ftwGif;rSmjzpfygw,f? 'kAkdvfrª;}uD; at;armif
(aemif Akv d rf ;ª }u;D ) eJ@ Akv d rf ;ª pdev
f iG f (aemif orRw) wk@d acgi;f aqmifwhJ Arm@aoewfuikd f wyf&if; (3)
u autif't D pdk cef;wckukd 0kid ;f 0ef;wdu k cf udk f odr;f yku
d &f if; wku d yf xGJ rJ mS usq;Hk cJ&h wmvd@k tpd;k &buf
uqkdygw,f? u&iftrsKd;om;acgif;aqmif apmbOD;}uD; tavmif;udk armfvòrdiftxd o,fvm+yD;rS
ajrjrK‡ yfo+*Kõvcf iG rhf ay;bJ ppfa&,mOfay:wifum (4) em&D=um ckwaf rmif;&wJh yifv,f0txd o,fomG ;
+y;D a&csjrK‡ yfEyHS pfc=hJ uygw,f? tavmif;ae&m ajrykaH e&mruse&f atmif vufpwk;H azsmufzsuyf pfcJh=u
wmjzpfygw,f?
a&G;aumufyGJ usi;f yaepOfumvtwGi;f rSmyJ aemufxyfjzpfay:r_uawmh ulrifwef w±kwjf zL
usL;ausmfa&;orm;rsm; tHkeJ@usif;eJ@ ArmjynftwGif; 0ifa&mufwyfpGJae=u±Hkru oHvGifjrpfta&SŒ
bufurf;uae taemufzufurf;txd xkd;azmuf0ifa&muf v_yf&Sm;vm=ujcif;yJjzpfygw,f? 0e,f/
ukd;uef@e,/f rdkif;vif;e,fwkd@omru usKdif;wkH/ rkdif;quf/ rkdif;yef;wkd@wGifru rdkif;yef;uwqifh
armufr,feJ@ u,m;jynfe,fxJtxd usL;ausmfa&muf&Sdvm=uygw,f? rkid ;f ,ef;e,frmS XmecsKyfwck
zGiv hf pS +f y;D tckid t f rmwyfpx GJ m;=uwJh w±kwjf zLrsm;[mvnf; e,fpyfrmS &Sw d hJ w±kw"f m;jyAkv d f vDwikd &f iS ;f
eJ@ atmvpf,ef; (Olive Yang) wkd@&JŒaemufvdkuf (1000) ausmf&Sd tkyfpk}uD;udk pnf;±kH;odrf;oGif;+yD;
tiftm;jznfhxm;EkdifcJh+yDjzpfygw,f? w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;[m a&muf&mae&mwdkif;rSm cdk;qkd;vk,uf/
owfjzwfwmawG vkyfae=uygw,f?
a&G;aumufyu GJ kd w&pfcsi;f cJ+G yD; usi;f yaeqJrmS jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;[m qufvufawmufavmif
aeqJjzpfayr,fh 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ektpdk;&tzdk@ ‘&efukeftpdk;&’ acwfueJ@rwlbJ touf±_acsmifpðyae+yD
jzpfygw,f? wzufowfyif;ay;cJh=uolawGa=umifh yxrt&pfa&G;aumufyJGrSm tjywftowftEkdif
&&Sdxm;wJhae&mawGuvnf; awmfawmfrsm;rsm;&Sdae+yDrdk@ 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek pdwful;,OfpDrHudef;awG
taumiftxnfazmfzkd@ pwifygw,f? 48-50 twGif; ratmifjrifcJhwJh pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef; (2 ESpfpDrH
ude;f ) udk jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D a=umifv h @dk ta=umif;jy ed*;kH csKyfvu dk +f yD;/ aemufxyfp;D yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f opf}uD;
wck a&;qJ&G ef pkid ;f jyif;ygw,f? 'Dvdk pD;yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f opf}uD;a&;qJ&G eftwGuf vkt d yfwb hJ ¾maiGa=u;

140 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tajctaeuvnf; enf;enf;yg;yg;awmh &Sdae+yDjzpfygw,f? 1950 jynfhrSm jzpfyGm;wJh udk;&D;,m;ppfyJG


*,ufa=umifh urBm@qefaps; xkd;wufwJhtwGuf qefukdyJ t"du xkwfvkyf wifykd@a&mif;cswJh
ArmEkdifiH[m aps;aumif;rdcJh+yD; aiG,m;av;&Sdvmcsdefjzpfygw,f? 'DaiG,m;av;awGudk udkif+yD;
pD ; yG m ;a&;pD r H u d e f ; opf } uD ; a&;qJ G z k d @ 0ef } uD ; csKyf O D ; Ek u pd k i f ; jyif ; jyif q if v mjcif ; jzpf y gw,f ?
pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;}uD;udk a&;qJGzkd@ auwDat KTA (Knappen Tabbet Association) ukr`%D[m
1951 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvxJrSm Armjynfuakd &muf&v dS mygw,f? KTA auwDat ukr% ` [
D m
tar&duefurk % ` jD zpfygw,f? auwDat ukr`%D[m refae*smwa,muf/ Xmae0efxrf; (150) wkd@eJ@
twl &efukefrSm±Hk;pkduf+yD; Armjynf&JŒ pD;yGm;a&;tcsuftvufawGudkavhvm+yD; pDrHudef;awGudk
wck+y;D wck a&;qJzG @dk jyifygawmhw,f? auwDat pDru H ed ;f awGukd a&;qJw G thJ cg auwDat pD;yGm;a&;ynm
&SifawG[m t"dutm;jzifh Armjynf&JΠpyg;a&mif;&aiGay:rSm tajccH+yD; wGufcsufa&;qGJ=uygw,f?
oGm;a&;vma&; vG,fulwJhae&mawGrSmom tcsuftvufawG jynfhjynfhpkHpkH pkaqmif;+yD;/ trsm;
tm;jzifh t=urf;zsif;yJ avhvmwGufcsufum pDrHudef;udk a&;qJG=uygw,f? owWKwGif;wckudkqkd&if
av,mOfay:uae=unfh+yD; pDrHudef;a&;qJGcJhw,fvkd@awmif qkd=uygw,f?
Ekid if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyfu, kd w
f idk u f pD;yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f awGukd tav;xm;jyvmcsed rf mS pD;yGm;a&;
qkdwm toHjrnfvmcsdefrSm wyfrawmfuvnf; ppfwyftwGuf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;wck pwifvmcJh
ygw,f? 1951 ckESpfxJrSmyJ 'Dtuf(pf)tkdif DSI (The Defense Service Institute) udk pwifzJGŒpnf;yg
w,f? ppfwyfppfonfrsm; oufomacsmifcsda&;twGufqkd+yD; ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ pwifzJGŒpnf;cJhwm
jzpfygw,f? zJGŒpnf;pu DSI [m cyfao;ao;yJjzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh umvwkdwcktwGif;rSmyJ
cyfao;ao; DSI [m tifrwef}uD;rmwJh ppfwyfpD;yGm;a&; t&if;tESD;pkaqmif;&mXme}uD; jzpfvm
cJhygw,f? ( DSI uae tifrwef}uD;rm;wJh pD;yGm;a&;aumfykda&;&Sif;}uD;wck zJGŒpnf;jzpfay:vmcJhyg
w,f? jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;zGHΘzd;wkd;wufa&;aumfykda&;&Sif;qkdwJh bDtD;'DpD BEDC (Burmar Economic
Development Corporation) qkdwmygyJ?)
yxrqkH;t}udrfðyvkyfwJh ygvDref'Drkdua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;&JŒ wwd,t&pf[m
1952 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v D (3) &ufae@jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh yxrt}udrf ygvrD ef'rD u dk a&pDa&G;aumufyGJ
}u;D [m 1951 ckEpS /f ZGev f (12) &ufae@uae 1952 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v D (3) &uftxd &ufaygi;f (200)
ausmf=umjrifhcJhygw,f?
tm%m& zqqkd&S,frsm;uyJ tjywftowf tEkdif&&SdcJh+yD; qdk&S,feDtygt0if twkduftcH
tiftm;pkrsm;uawmh tenf;tyg;yJ ygvDrefv$wfawmftwGif; a&muf&Sdvm&ygawmhw,f?
1951-52 ygvrD ef'rD u dk a&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufy}GJ uD;t+yD; ay:xGuv f mwJh jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkdifiHawmftpdk;&uawmh qkd&S,fvpfrsm;OD;pD;xm;wJh zqyvtpkd;&yJjzpfygw,f? qkd&S,fvpf
vuf0J*kd%f;0ifrsm; ryg0ifawmhwJhtwGuf vuf,mqkd&S,fvpf*kd%f;om;rsm;csnf;om t"duOD;pD;
xm;wJh ‘zqyv’ jzpfwJhtwGuf vuf,mqdk&S,f zqyv tpdk;& wenf;tm;jzifh zqvuf,m
qkd&S,ftpdk;&jzpfygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyftjzpfuawmh OD;EkyJ jzpfjyefygw,f? EkdifiHawmforRw}uD;tjzpf ay:vmwmu
awmh t*~r[moa&pnfol a'gufwmbOD; jzpfygw,f? ‘qmbOD;’ jzpfygw,f? orRwa&G;aumufyJG

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 141


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

wifajr‡mufyJGrSm trwfwcsKdŒu tqkdðycJh=uwJh *sDpDbDat 0HomEkacgif;aqmifa[mif; OD;cspfv_difudk


y,fcsvkduf+yD; zqyvrsm;u qmbOD;udk orRwtjzpf a&G;cs,fvkduf=uwmjzpfygw,f? +Adwdo#e,f
csŒJ orm;rsm;acwfu v,form;ta&;awmfyaHk cgi;f aqmif}uD; q&mpHukd ppfaq;pD&if óud;rde@f ay;cJw h hJ
e,fcsJŒorm;&JŒckH±kH;rSm cHk±Hk;tzJGŒ0ifwOD;jzpfcJhwJh qmbOD;udk vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;acwf 1952 ckESpf tpdk;&
tzJGŒrSm EkdifiHawmforRw}uD;tjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufvkduf=uwmudk =unfhr,fqkd&ifudkyJ zqyv
tpk;d &tzJŒG &JŒ &yfwnfcsuo f abmxm;[m xif&mS ;ay:vGiaf eygw,f? 'ga=umifh Ekid if aH &;a0zeforl sm;
u ‘e,fcsJŒacwfrSm e,fcsJŒvufatmufu vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wref xrf;&GufcJhwJh
v,form;acgif;aqmif}uD; q&mpHudk óud;rdef@ay;cJholwOD;[m wkdif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;&+yDqkdwJh vGwf
vyfa&;acwfrSm vGwfvyfaomjrefrmEkdifiHawmf&JŒ EkdifiHawmforRw}uD;tjzpf tHh=opzG,f awGŒvkduf
=u&avownf;’ vkd@ axmyemcJh=uygw,f? qkd&S,fvpfxdyfoD;}uD;wOD;jzpfwJh OD;AaqGu umuG,f
a&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmygw,f? acgif;rmqkd&S,fvpfxdyfoD;}uD;awGjzpfwJh OD;ausmf+idrf;/ Akdvfcifarmifav;/
ocifwif/ ocifausm'f eG ;f / ocifomcife@J OD;wif/ OD;0if;/ Akvd rf if;acgi/f OD;ausmjf rif/h OD;bapm/ OD;xGe;f az
(xGe;f ae@pOf)/ OD;oef;atmifw@dk vnf; 0ef}uD;awGjzpfvm=uygw,f? OD;Ek&ŒJ tpd;k &tzJŒG rSm OD;Ek&ŒJ tvku d s
emrnfygajymif;+yD; ‘vwpf’ uae OD;cifarmifvwftjzpf jynfolŒ0efxrf;Xme0ef}uD;jzpfvmol
‘&ef&Sif;’ tjzpf trnfajymif;ckdif;wmudk rajymif;bJ rlvtrnftwkdif;yJcH,l+yD; tdrf,maqmufvkyf
a&;eJ@ tvkyform;Xme0ef}uD;jzpfvmol OD;&m&Spf wkd@vnf; yg0ifcJh=uygw,f?
EkdifiHjcm;a&;eJ@ &Srf;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;u pyfcGefcsKd/ u&ifjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;u rpPpfb
armifcsed /f ucsijf ynfe,fXme0ef}uD;u qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif/ u,m;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;u pyf0À/
csi;f a&;&mXme0ef}uD;u OD;&Sed x f ef jzpf+yD; vrf;yef;qufo,G af &;Xme0ef}uD;u ref;0if;armif jzpfvmcJh
ygw,f?
vuf,mqkd&S,fvpfawGcsnf;om }uD;pkd;xm;wJh zqyvtzJGŒcsKyf}uD;[m tm%m&tzJGŒ
tpnf;}uD;jzpfwJhtwGuf aus;vufawm&Gmygrusef wjynfvkH;ae&mtESHrSm zqqkd&S,frsm;wGif
us,fcJh=uygw,f? tm%mukd udkif+yD; tm%mjycGifhykdrkd&&SdcJh=uygw,f? òrdŒ&Gmaus;vufa'owkdif;&JŒ
tkyfcsKyfa&;,E W&m;tqifhqifh[m zqqkd&S,fwkd@&JΠvufxJrSmyJ &SdcJhygw,f?

jynf a wmf o mpD r H u d e f ; / w±k w f j zLusL;ausmf r + E S i f h jref r mEk d i f i H a wmf

tm%m& zqyvtzJGŒcsKyf[m tpdk;&tm%mudk &&Sdxm;±Hkru v$wfawmfwGif;rSmvnf;


òydifbufuif;tkyfpk}uD;ozG,f jzpfvmcJhygw,f? trwfae&m trsm;wumh trsm;pk}uD;udk ydkifqkdif&&Sd
xm;wmjzpfawmh óudufwJhOya'udk óudufovkd jyÏmef;EdkifcGifh csrSwfykdifcGifh&&Sdxm;ygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf
OD;Ek[m zqyvxJrSm qkd&S,fvpfrsm;vkd ygwDvufudkifr&Sdayr,fh =oZmt}uD;qkH;yk*~Kdvfjzpfvmyg
w,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfqdkwJh t&Sdeft0geJ@ (ppfwyftay:uvJGvkd@) olxifovdkqkH;jzwfwm/ tm%m&Sif
qefqef ðyrlaqmif&GufwmawG vkyfvmygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ekudk,fwkdif ygvDrefudk rSefrSefrwuf±Hk
ru olvkyfudkifaqmif&Gufxm;wJhudpP&yfawGudkvnf; v$wfawmfudk wifjytpD&ifcHjcif; csjyaqG;aEG;
142 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jcif;awGrvkyfbJ óuHovkdvkyfavh&Sdw,fvkd@qkdygw,f? tpdk;&&JŒ ta&;}uD;wJhvkyfief;rl0g'awGukd


OD;Eku ESpyf wfw}udr/f wywfw}udrf owif;pmq&mawGe@J awGŒqkaH qG;aEG;&if;/ wae&m&mrSm rde@f ceG ;f
ac|&if; xkwfazmfwwfw,fqkdygw,f?
OD;Ek 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvm+yD;/ wkdif;jynfzGHΘzd;wkd;wufa&;twGufqdk+yD; w&m;0if pwifazmfxkwf
vkdufwJhpDrHudef;}uD;uawmh ‘jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;’ jzpfygw,f?
1952 ckESpf tmZmenfae@rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku ‘ArmEkdifiH[m v,fawGtrsm;}uD;&Sdw,f/
'Dv,fawGa=umifh ArmEkid if [ H m urBmay:rSm qeftrsm;qk;H wify@dk a&mif;cswEhJ idk if jH zpfaew,f? 'Dv,f
awGtjyif tzk;d wefu|eo f pfawGxu G w
f hJ opfawmawGvnf; trsm;}uD;&Sw d ,f/ owWKwGi;f rsK;d pk&H w dS ,f/
ywWjrm;wGif;awG&Sdw,f/ a&eHwGif;awG&Sdw,f’ qkdwm azmfxkwfajymqkd&if; ‘vlwudk,f wkdufwvkH;
um;wpD; vpOf0ifaiG&pS &f m&atmif vkyaf y;Ekid w f ,fqw dk hJ ol&ŒJ Armausmrf ed @f ceG ;f }uD;udk pwifajymqkyd g
w,f? OD;Ek&JŒ “vlwudk,fwkdufwvHk; armfawmfum;wpD; vpOf0ifaiG&Spf&m” qdkwJh jynfawmfom
uwd}uD;[m jynfawmfompDrHudef;pwifzkd@ jyifqifvkdufwJh y%mrtzGifhjzpfygw,f?
1952 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (4) &ufuae (17) &ufae@txd tpnf;ta0;usif;y+yD; jynfawmf
ompDrHudef;}uD;udk a&;qJGcsrSwfygw,f? jynfawmfomuGefz&ifh}uD;udk usKduUqHuGif;rSm csdrfhcsdrfhoJoJ
usif;ygw,f? 0ef}uD;awGuvnf; 'DpDrHudef;}uD;udk rpm;&0cref; ajym=uqkd=u wifjy=uygw,f?
ae@csi;f ncsi;f ajr}uD;ua&$o;D +yD; ya'omyifacwf 'ufxad &mufawmhrwwf ºuGm;=u 0g=u od'x <d yf
wif=uygw,f? wu,fu jynfawmfom&SpfESpfpDrHudef;}uD;[m &SpfESpfumvtwGif; ArmEkdifiH&JŒ
pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeudk ppfóudacwftajctaetxd jyefvnfa&muf&Sdapa&;jzpfygw,f? tar&duef
ukr% ` D ‘auwDat’ uqJaG y;xm;wJh pD;yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f awGukd eJeyJ g;yg; zkwzf ufcg aq;okwt f a&mif
jc,f+yD; ‘jynfawmfompDrHudef;’ vkd@ uifyGef;wyfay;vkdufwmomjzpfygw,f? jynfawmfompDrHudef;
}uD;xJrSm -
(1) b0opfpDrHudef;rsm;
(2) pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;rsm;
(3) tkyfcsKyfa&;pDrHudef;rsm;
(4) vlxktwGufvwfwavm oufomacsmifcsda&;qdk+yD; t=urf;zsif; (4) rsKd;cJGjcm;xm;yg
w,f?
b0opfpDrHudef;awGxJrSm òrdŒjyaus;vufuGm[r_enf;yg;a&;/ zHGŒòzd;r_r&Sdao;wJha'orsm;rSm
b0opfzefwD;a&;/ o,f,lykd@aqmifa&;/ vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;/ tkd;tdrfjyefvnfxlaxmifa&;/ òrdŒ&Gm
pnfyifa&;/ ynma&;/ usef;rma&;pDrHudef;awG &$ef;&$ef;a0atmif pDrHcsrSwfazmfjyxm;ygw,f?
pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;awGxJrSmawmh v,f,meJ@pufr_u¾awGyg0if+yD; v,f,mvkyfief;wkd;
wufa&;/ aus;vuf}uD;yGm;a&;/ v,f,majr EkdifiHykdifðyvkyfa&;eJ@ pD;yGm;a&;wkd;wufr_pDrHudef;awG
tpDt&D csrSwfazmfjyxm;ygw,f?
tkyfcsKyfa&;pDrHudef;awGxJrSmawmh ukdvkdeDvufusef AsL±kdua&pD,E W&m;ukd 'Drkdua&pD
,E W&m;eJ@ tpm;xkd;a&;/ 'Drkdua&pDeJ@ a'oE W&tkyfcsKyfa&;pDrHudef;awG vSvSyyazmfjyxm;ygw,f?
vwfwavmoufomacsmifcsad &;vkyif ef;awGxrJ mS awmh a'oE &W tvku d f zHŒG òzd;a&;pDruH ed ;f

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 143


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

i,fawGukd a'oE &W tqifo h @dk vyk yf idk cf iG t hf m%mtyfEiS ;f ay;+yD; oGuo f u G v
f ufvufaqmif&u G Ef idk &f ef
vGwfvyfcGifhawGawmif;ay;jyxm;ygw,f?
'DpDrHudef; (4) rsKd;pvkH;[m tar&duefauwDat tpD&ifcHpmyg jyefvnfxlaxmif&r,fh
pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef; (10) rsK;d eJ@!ESd id_ ;f +yD; uku d n f aD tmif ykaH vmif;azmfjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f? auwDat&JŒ
‘jyefvnfxlaxmif&r,fh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; (10) rsKd;’ uawmh-
(1) v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;u¾twGuf
(u) v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;
(c) qnfajrmif;azmufvkyfa&;qkd+yD; (2) rsKd;?
(2) qufoG,fa&;ESifho,f,lykd@aqmifa&;twGuf
(u) qdyfurf;eJ@a&a=umif;oGm;vma&;
(c) &xm;ykd@aqmifa&;
(*) ava=umif;oGm;vma&;
(C) a=u;eef;qufoG,fa&; qkd+yD; (4) rsKd;?
(3) pufr_vufr_ u¾twGuf
(u) pufr_vufr_vkyfief;rsm;
(c) v#yfppfvkyfief;rsm; qkd+yD; (2) rsKd;?
(4) o,HZmw azmfxkwfokH;pJGa& u¾twGuf
(u) owWKwGif;
(c) opfawmqkd+yD; (2) rsKd;?
tm;vk;H aygi;f u¾}uD; (4) cktwGuf vkyif ef;}uD; (10) rsK;d a&;qJaG zmfjy tpD&ifcx H m;ygw,f?
tJ'DtajccHay:uae jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD; aygufzGm;vmwmjzpfygw,f? OD;Ektygt0if zqyv
tpdk;&tzJGŒ}uD;[m auwDat pDrHudef;}uD;tay: tm;udk;,Hk=unfcJh=uovkd/ tar&duefwkd@&JŒ pD;yGm;
a&;tultnDudkvnf; &,lxm;+yD;jzpfwJhtwGuf onfhxufonf ykdrkdar#mfvifhxm;cJh=uygw,f?
‘jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f }uD;’ [m (8) ESpf pDru H ed ;f jzpf+yD;/ ESpEf pS pf rD uH ed ;f ay:rSm tajccH+yD;a&;qJyG gw,f?
pDrHudef;&JŒukefusaiG[m usyfukaÉ (750) cef@jzpfr,fvkd@ cef@rSef;+yD;/ ukefusaiGtwGuf ukaÉ (500)
avmufudk jynfwiG ;f rSm&Sm}uH/ ukaÉ (250) avmufukd jynfyutultnD,zl @dk &nf&, G x f m;ygw,f?
vkdtyfwJhaiGudk EdkifiHjcm;u acs;iSm;+yD;yJjzpfjzpf/ axmufyHa=u;,l+yD;yJjzpfjzpf/ *syefppfavsmfa=u;aiGu
,liifoHk;pJGvkd@jzpfjzpf }uHzef&,l+yD; okH;pJGtaumiftxnfazmfoGm;zkd@ qkH;jzwfxm;ygw,f?
jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f }uD;&JŒ pDru H ed ;f toD;oD;udk taumiftxnfazmfz@dk ‘ajr,maus;vuf
}uD;yGm;wkd;wufa&;aumfydka&;&Sif; wenf;tm;jzifh ajraus;&Sif(A.R.D.C)/ pufrv _ ufrz_ ŒHG òzd;wk;d wuf
a&;aumfyadk &;&Si;f (IDC) eJ@ "mwfowWKzGŒH òzd;wk;d wufa&;aumfyadk &;&Si;f (M.R.D.C) wd@k ukd tòydit f qkid f
wnfaxmifzJGŒpnf;vkdufygw,f?
ARDC udk 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Eku, kd w f idk f OuUÏ tjzpfaqmif&u G zf ŒGJ pnf;+yD; IDC udk OD;ausm+f idr;f u
OuUÏ/ M.R.D.C udk OD;wifu OuUÏ tjzpf acgif;aqmifzJGŒpnf;vkduf=uygw,f? ppfwyftwGufu
(BEDC) jzpfvmygw,f?

144 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

1952 ckEpS t f ukerf mS Ekid if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek&ŒJ jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f }uD; tawmiftvufpkH


vmovkd ArmjynftwGif; rw&m;ojzifh 0ifa&mufvm=uwJh w±kwfjzL (KMT) usL;ausmfr_}uD;[m
vnf; omrefusL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmr_}uD;r#omru EkdifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufawG pGufzufa&;ajcvSrf;
awG tar&duef pDtkdifat ausmaxmufaemufcHðyr_awGyg a&m,SufayGvdrfyg0ifaewJh tpDtpOf&Sd&Sd
usL;ausmfr_}uD;tjzpf zHk;rEkdifzdr& ±kyfvkH;ay:pðyvmcJhygw,f?
1949 ckESpfuwnf;u pwif0ifa&mufvmcJhwJh w±kwfjzL (KMT) usL;ausmfr_udk OD;Ektpkd;&
[m cyfaygah yhgyJ oabmxm;cJyh gw,f? ppf±;_H vk@d e,ferd w d cf si;f qufa'oawGtwGi;f ajy;0ifcu dk yfvm
olawG tcsed w f ef azmfrq dk mu jyefac:oGm;r,fo h al wGavmufom oabmxm;cJ+h yD; jyif;jyif;xefxef
jyefvnfwHk@jyefcJhjcif;/ oabmxm; w&m;0ifxkwfazmfcJhjcif; rvkyfcJhyg? jynfwGif;vufeufukdif awmf
vSefa&;tiftm;pkawGtay:om a&mifpkHaomif;usef;olawG a&mifpHkolykefawGtjzpf trsKd;rsKd; tzHkzHk
pGyfpJG/ enf;vrf;aygif;pHkusifhoHk;+yD; rD;ukef,rf;ukef wkdufckdufESdrfeif;cJhygw,f? tjywfacsr_ef;Ekdifa&;udk
OD;wnfaqmif&u G cf yhJ gw,f? usKid ;f wkpH pfqifa&;/ za&mhp/f armf/ yefvpkH pfqifa&;/ rk;d óud; txl;ppfqifa&;
qkwd hJ ppfqifa&;awGe@J wyfrawmfu jyefvnfweG ;f vSew f udk cf u kd wf mawG vkycf ahJ yr,fh t"dutm;jzifh
Auy/ autif'DtkdeJ@ jynfwGif;vufeufudkifolykeftiftm;pkawGtay:om ppfqifa&;}uD;awG
tqufrjywfazmfxw k +f yD; tðywfwu kd af &;udk óud;yrf;cJyh gw,f? &ef&iS ;f / vGwaf jrmufa&;/ atmifrmC/
jynfaxmifp/k rk;d óud; pwJh ppfqifa&;}uD;awGe@J Auy tay: tjyif;txefwu dk cf yhJ gw,f? txufArm
jynfrSm a&$vDppfqifr_vkyf+yD; Auy udk OD;pm;ay; ypfrSwfðyacsr_ef;cJhovkd atmufArmjynf&Sd AuyeJ@
autif't D rdk sm;tay: armf0if;pde/f vGe;f pdeaf rmf/ 0if;ausmpf pfqifa&;awGe@J tqufrjywfx;dk cJyh gw,f?
1950/ 51-52 rsm;[m ppfwyfu ppfqifr_awGtrsm;qkH;ðyvkyfcJhwJh ESpfawGjzpfygw,f? &ckdifwkdif;&Sd
&JabmfjzL/ rl*sm[pfeJ@ Auy awGudk awmifydkif;wkdif;u OD;pD;acsr_ef;r_awGvkyfovkd weoFm&Dwkdif;
twGif;&Sd autif'Dtkd/ trftif'DtkdeJ@ Auyrsm;ukdvnf; trSwf (5) ajcvsifwyfr[mXmecsKyfu
tjyif;txefwkdufckdufwmawG vkyfcJhygw,f? jynfwGif;vufeufudkif tiftm;pkawGtay: acsr_ef;
wku d cf u
dk zf @dk óud;yrf;wmawGe@J Edi_ ;f ,SO=f unf&h if jynfyusL;ausmo f l w±kwjf zLawGtay: wku d cf udk wf m
[m tifrwefenf;yg;vSygw,f? 'ga=umifh w±kwfjzLawG[m wpxufwp tiftm;ykdrdktm;aumif;
vm twifh&Jvm+yD; 1952 ckESpf ESpfvnfavmufup+yD; &Srf;jynfe,feJ@ ucsifjynfe,fwckvkH;udk
odrf;ykduf&efeJ@ ajrmufzufe,fpyfwav#mufrSm t+rJwrf;ppfpcef;wck wnfaqmuf&efyg ajcvSrf;usJ
usJ óud;yrf;jyifqifvm=uygw,f? rdik ;f qwfukd w±kwjf zLrsm;u av,mOfuiG ;f ðyvkyx f m;+yD; av,mOf
jzifh wywfv#if ESp}f udrv f ma&mufcsay;wJh vufeufc, J rf; rD;ausmufawGe@J wk;d csŒJ vufeufwyfqif
wm/ ppfa&;avhusiahf y;wmawGyg tckid t f rmðyvkyv f m=uygw,f? w±kwjf zLusL;ausmaf &;wyfawG&ŒJ
aemufrSm azmfrkdqm/ xdkif0rfwdk@omru tar&duefe,fcsJŒorm;eJ@ ‘pDtkdifat’ wkd@yg twGif;usus
yg0ifywfoufaewmudk wk;d wufwhJ Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pkawGtm;vk;H u axmufjya0zefvm=uygw,f?
'kw, d urBmppft+yD; pwifvmcJw h hJ ppfat;wku d yf [
GJ m urBmrSm ay:ayguv f mcJw h hJ *k%
d ;f }uD; (2)*k% d ;f
tiftm;òydiyf [ GJ m Armjynfuv dk nf; *,uf±u dk cf wfvmcJyh gw,f? w±kwjf ynfrmS cseaf u&Sw d xf u G af jy;
&+yD; w±kwfuGefjrLepfawGatmifyJGcH+yD; w±kwfjynfopftjzpf ay:xGef;vmwm[m tar&dueftzkd@
tcH&cufvSovkd tar&duefwkd@&JΠ'kdrDEkdoD0&Dt& tm&SrSm uGefjrLepfEkdifiHwck ay:aygufvmwm[m

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 145


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

aemufxyftm&SrmS uGejf rLepfEidk if aH wG qufvufay:xGuv f mzk@d a&cHajrcHjzpfaewmudk zsuq f ;D ypfcsif


aecJhygw,f? 1950 jynfh udk&D;,m;ppfyJGay:aygufvmwJhtcg tar&duef[m ukvor*~ emrnfudk
toHk;ðy+yD; wkduf±kduf ppfyJGxJrSm yg0ifywfoufvmcJhygw,f? tm&SrSm uGefjrLepfEkdifiHawG ray:ayguf
a&;twGuaf &m w±kwjf ynf}uD;udk 0kid ;f ywfacsre_ ;f Ekid af &;twGuyf g ppfa&;/ Ekid if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ oHwref
a&;/ enf;emawGtm;vk;H udk &Ekid w f hJ axmifah ygi;f pHu
k ae enf;emaygi;f pHek @J toH;k ðy yg0ifywfoufvmcJh
ygw,f? ud&k ;D ,m;ppfyu GJ ae tEkjrLppfyt JG xd jzpfay:vmEkid w f t hJ E &W m,fukd wurBmvH;k u pk;d &dryf yl ef
aecJh=u&ygw,f? Armjynf[m w±kwfjynfeJ@ e,fedrdwfcsif;qufpyfaewJhtwGuf tar&duef&JŒ
uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; aoe*FAsL[mtwGuf tifrwefta&;}uD;wJh a'owckjzpfvmcJhygw,f?
wzufu Armjynfzqyv&JŒ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;vkyf&yfawGudk tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufðywm pD;yGm;
a&;tultnDawGay;wm/ tar&duefypPn;f awGukd (Special Account) eJ@ 0,f,cl iG ðhf ywm/ ppfzufqidk f
&m avhvma&;ud, k pf m;vS,t f zJŒG awGukd vufcw H mawGvyk cf o hJ vk/d wzufu w±kwjf zLusL;ausmo f l
awGukd aemufuG,fuae tm;ay;+yD; w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfa&;wyfawG ArmjynfrSm tckdiftrm tajc
pkdufwnf&Sdaewm[m tar&duefppftiftm;pkwck w±kwfjynfem;uyf+yD; csxm;cGifh&wmeJ@rjcm;
tusKd;&Sdw,fvkd@ ,lqxm;ykH&ygw,f? tJ'Dvkd tar&duefwkd@&JΠuGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; ppfa&;/ EkdifiH
a&;/ aoe*FAsL[mawGeJ@ qufpyf+yD; w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_rSm tar&duefawGvnf; yg0ifywfouf
aecJhygw,f?
zqyv tpkd;&[m udk&D;,m;ppfyJG jy\emrSmvnf; tar&duefbufu&yfcJh+yD; tar&duef
pD;yGm;a&;tultnDawGukd &,lvufc&H if;/ tar&duefurk % ` D auwDatudk iSm;&rf;+yD; jynfawmfom
pDrHudef;ukd taumiftxnfazmfzkd@ pdwful;,OfaecsdefjzpfwJhtwGuf w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfa&;udk jywf
jywfom;om; qef@usifa&;xuf uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;udkom tav;ay;vkyfaqmifaecJhygw,f?
jynfyusL;ausmfr_u ta&;r}uD; jynfwGif;aomif;usef;r_u ta&;}uD;w,fvkd@,lq+yD; jynfwGif;
aomif;usef;olrsm; tðywfwkdufa&;eJ@ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;tvHukdom tjrifhqkH;v$ifhxlxm;yg
w,f?
vuf0J0g'/ bkH0g'/ qkd&S,fvpf0g'udk óudufESpfoufvSa=umif;/ vufcH,kH=unfa=umif; wzGzG
ajym=um;cJ=h uwJh OD;Ek/ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wk@d wawG[mvnf; avoHajymif;pðyvmygw,f? zqyv
tzJGŒcsKyf}uD;xJuae uGefjrLepfygwDudk xkwfy,fvkdufcsdef (1946) u ‘uGefjrLepf0g' t"Gef@&Snfygap/
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDusqkH;ygap’ vkd@ xatmfcJhwJh OD;Ek[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD qef@usifa&;
omru/ uGejf rLepfpepfqef@usiaf &;yg ajymif;vJatmf[pfvmpðyygw,f? qk&d , S v
f pfygwD xdyo f ;D }uD;
OD;AaqGeJ@ OD;ausmf+idrf;uvnf; rmuQ(pf) 0g'/ vDeif0g'udk óudufESpfoufa=umif; wav#mufvkH;aºuG;
a=umfajymqkdvm&muae uGefjrLepf0g'wckvkH;udkyg ykwfcwfwkdufckduf qef@usif ajymqkdpðyvm=uyg
w,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;uqdk&if rmuQ(pf) 0g'ukd vufrcHa=umif; uGefjrLepf0g'udk róudufa=umif;/ olwkd@
qk&d ,S v
f pfygw&D ŒJ vufcu H ikd pf w
GJ 0hJ g'[m rmuQ(p)0g'r[kwf qk&d , S 'f rD u
kd &ufwpf0g'omjzpfa=umif;
ajymqkdvmygw,f? uGefjrLepf0g'tE W&m,f[m e,fcsJŒtE W&m,fxuf ykda=umufp&m aumif;w,f
vk@d awmif twdtvif; cH,al zmfxw k v
f mygw,f? tJ'v D dk tjrift,ltq/ ajymif;vJvmr_awGtay:
uae uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;udkom oJ}uD;rJ}uD; vkyfudkifaqmif&Guf&if; vufawGŒoabmtm;jzifh

146 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tar&duefbuf rSDcdk,drf;,kdifcJh=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh OD;Ek/ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf; eJ@ qdk&S,fvpf


awGtm;vHk;[m qdk&S,fvpf0g'qdkwmukdawmh wGifwGifatmfae=uqJjzpfygw,f?
tJ'DtcsdefrSm ArmjynfEkdifiHa&;orkdif;rSm t"duygwD}uD;wckvnf;jzpf/ twkduftcHEkdifiHa&;
tiftm;pkawGxrJ mS Ekid if aH &;t&Sed =f oZmt}uD;qk;H vnf;jzpf/ vufeufuidk af wmfveS af &; qifEa$J e&ol
vnf;jzpfwJh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ EkdifiHa&;vrf;pOfuawmh ‘'Drdkua&pD +idrf;csrf;a&;!Gef@aygif;
tpkd;&vrf;pOf’ jzpfygw,f? 1951 ckESpf/ pufwifbm A[kdaumfrDwDtpnf;ta0;uae w&m;0ifcs
rSwfxm;wJhvrf;pOfjzpfygw,f? ESpfESpftwGif; ppfEkdifa&;vrf;pOf+yD;wJhaemuf ay:aygufvmwJhvrf;pOf
jzpfygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ awmwGif;&Sd jynfol@&Jabmf/ tvHeDuGefjrLepfwkd@ okH;ygwDnD
!Gwaf &;wnfaqmufz@kd awGŒqk=H uwJt h cg tJ'+D idr;f csr;f a&;!Ge@f aygi;f tpk;d &vrf;pOf[m +idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf
nD!Gwfa&;vrf;pOf’ vkd@ trnfwGifcJhygw,f?
1952 ckESpf/ Zlvkdif (4) &ufuae (15) &ufae@txd a,me,f ykHawmifykHnma'orSm Arm
jynfueG jf rLepfygw/D jynfoŒl &Jabmf/ tvHeu D eG jf rLepfygww D @dk [m ‘ok;H ygwn D !
D w G af &;uGezf &if’h usi;f
yygw,f? EkdifiHwumhtajctae jynfwGif;tajctaeawGudk okH;oyf=uygw,f? tar&duefe,fcsJŒ
orm;&JŒ tajctaeeJ@ ArmjynfrSmjzpfay:aewJh w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_ jy\emawGudk av;av;
eufeufokH;oyf=u+yD; pufwifbm (15) &ufae@ ae@pJGeJ@ oHk;ygwDa=unmcsufudk xkwfjyefcJhygw,f?
jynfolvlxktaygif;wkd@vkd@ tpcsD+yD; tar&duefe,fcsJŒorm;u a&SŒaqmifv_HŒaqmfaeonfh
urBmhtEkjrLppfudk wm;qD;=uavmh/ urBmh+idrf;csrf;a&;uGef*&uf qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk vkdufemaqmif
&Gu=f uavmh/ jynfwiG ;f a&;0ifa&mufpu G zf ufaeonfh Ekid if jH cm;ppfwyfrsm; ±kyo f rd ;f a&;udak wmif;qk=d u
avmh/ jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfp+J yD; wrsK;d om;vH;k aoG;pnf;a&;jzifh xm0&+idr;f csr;f a&;udk t&,l=upk@d v@dk azmfjy
aºuG;a=umfxm;ygw,f? uGefz&ifhxkwfjyefa=unmcsufudk ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ocifoef;xGef;/
ocifoef;òrdif/ ocifZif/ ocifcspf/ &JabmfaX;/ tvHeDygwDu ocifpkd;/ &JeDjrifhatmif/ &JeDxGef;pdef/
&JeDatmifvif;/ &JeDxl;/ jynfolŒ&Jabmfu &JabmfxGef;vif;/ &Jabmfatmif!Gef@/ &JabmfatmifEkdif/
&Jabmfqef;armif/ &Jabmfbkef;atmifwkd@u vufrSwfa&;xkd;xm;=uygw,f?
‘'Drkdua&pD +idrf;csrf;a&;!Gef@aygif;tpkd;& wnfaqmuf=u’ +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh nD!Gwfa&;udk
wnfaqmuf=u’ qkdwJh aºuG;a=umfoHawG us,fus,favmifavmifxGufay:cJhayr,fh tm%m&
zqyv tpkd;&uawmh tðywfwkdufa&;twGuf ppfwyf}uD;ukdyJ }uD;oxuf}uD;atmif csJŒxGifwnf
aqmufaecJhygw,f?
1952 ckESpftwGif;rSm trSwf (13) rS trSwf (24) txd ajcvsifwyf&if; (12) &if; xyfrHzJGŒ
pnf;cJhovkd/ ta&;ay: trSwf (1) csif;aoewfudkifwyf&if;udk ykHrSefaoewfukdifwyf&if;trSwf (4)
csif;aoewfukdifwyf&if;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ trSwf (1) ta&;ay:u&ifeDwyf&if;udk trSwf (1)
u,m;aoewfudkifwyf&if;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ trSwf (1) u,m;aoewfukdifwyf&if;tjzpf
vnf;aumif;/ trSwf (1) ta&;ay:ucsifwyf&if;udk trSwf (4) ucsifaoewfukdifwyf&if;tjzpf
vnf;aumif;/ trSwf (2) ta&;ay:ucsifwyf&if;udk trSwf (5) ucsifaoewfudkifwyf&if;tjzpf
vnf;aumif; wk;d csŒJ zJŒG pnf;cJyh gw,f? trSwf (1) wifu h m;wyf&if;udk zJŒG pnf;cJo h vkd tif*sief ,D mwyf/
aq;wyf/ qufoG,fa&;wyfrsm;udkvnf; wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;cJhygw,f? ajcjrefwyfr[mXmecsKyftopfwck
vnf; ay:aygufvmygw,f? tJ'guawmh trSwf (8) ajcjrefwyfr[mXmecsKyf (ykodrf) jzpfygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 147
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

trSwf (1) tajrmufwyf&if;udk zJŒG pnf;cJw h t hJ jyif/ &S+d yD; trSwf (1) avhusiahf &;wyfwckwnf;
eJ@ rvkaH vmufawmhv@dk ajcvsiw f yfom;awGudk wk;d jri‡ o hf ifwef;ay;avhusizhf @dk rdwv ˆD mrSm trSwf (2)
avhusiahf &;wyfuv kd nf; pwifzŒGJ pnf;vku d yf gw,f? 1950 jynfEh pS u f &efuek òf rdŒ abmif'&D ("rRapwD)
vrf;rSm pwifzŒGJ pnf;cJw h hJ ‘Military Intelligence Training Centre’ qkw d hJ ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;oifwef;
ausmif;ukv d nf; 1952 ckEpS rf mS ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;twwfoifwyf” qk+d yD; ajymif;vJw;kd csŒJ zGŒJ pnf;cJyh g
w,f? ppfwyfawGudk wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;jcif;/ ppfqifa&;awGudk wkd;jr‡ifhðyvkyfjcif;wkd@omru jynfwGif;vuf
eufukdiftiftm;pkawGukd òzdcJGzkd@ pdwf"mwfppfqifa&;tzJGŒrsm;vnf;zGJŒum ‘pdwf"mwfppfqifa&;’
0g'jzef@csda&;vkyfief;awGyg wkd;csJŒvkyfukdifcJhygw,f?
aomif;usef;olqef@usifa&;/ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; pm&Gufpmwef;awG odef;eJ@csD±kdufESdyfcJh+yD;
ppfqifa&;e,fajrawGay:omru wEkid if v H ;Hk tES@H ysŒH atmif jzef@csad 0iScyhJ gw,f? pdw"f mwfppfqifa&;OD;
wnfcsufeJ@ pmaytEkynme,ftwGif;okd@yg ajcukwf,lEkdif&ef ppfwyfuae OD;pD;+yD; r*~Zif;wapmif
xkwfa0jzef@csdvmygw,f? tJ'guawmh 1952 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmvrSm pwifxkwfa0vkdufwJh ‘jr0wD’
r*~Zif;jzpfygw,f?
umuG,af &;Xme0ef}uD;u OD;AaqG/ umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfu 'kAv dk cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;? OD;AaqGu
qkd&S,fvpfygwDtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;jzpfovkd Akdvfae0if;uvnf; qkd&S,fvpfygwD&JŒ wyfwGif;tpk
0ifwa,mufjzpfcJhygw,f? Akdvfatmif}uD;/ Akdvfarmifarmif/ Akdvfatmifa&$/ Akdvfcspfckdif/ Akdvf=unf0if;
pwJh wyfrawmfwGif;&mxl;}uD;}uD;&xm;olawGuvnf; qkd&S,fvpfygwD0ifawGjzpfcJhawmh wyfr
awmf[m qk&d , S vf pfawGp;D xm;wJh wyfrawmfjzpfae+yD;/ ppfa&;ppf&mudpP umuG,af &;qkid &f mudpaP wG
[m qkd&S,fvpfygwDtvkdusozG,fjzpfaecJhygw,f? (Akdvfarmifarmifvnf; autif'Dtkdwkd@ zrf;qD;
jcif;cHxm;&&mu ‘tvif;a&mif’ ppfqifa&;vky+f yD; jyefvnfu,fwifEidk cf v hJ @dk 1952 ckEpS x
f rJ mS wyfr
awmfwGif;rSm ta&;}uD;yk*~Kdvfwa,mufjyefjzpfvmygw,f?)
1952 ckESpftukefrSm zqyvtpkd;&taeeJ@ txl;ojzifh wyfrawmftaeeJ@ pOf;pm;vm&
wmu Armjynfvw G v f yfa&;a=unmcge;D csKyfqx dk m;cJw h hJ +Aw
d o d #-jrefrm umuG,af &;pmcsKyf (vusmf -
z&D;rif;pmcsKyf) udk aemufxyfoufwrf;wdk;rvm;/ rwkd;bl;vm;udpPjzpfygw,f? vusfm-z&D;rif;
pmcsKyft& yxroufwrf; (3) ESpf[m (3-1-51) ae@rSm ukefqkH;cJh+yD; aemufxyfoufwrf; (2)ESpf
wkd;jr‡ifhcJh=u&m/ tJ'Doufwrf;[mvnf; (3-1-53) ae@rSm ukefqkH;awmhrSmjzpfygw,f? tJ'DtwGuf
umuG,af &;pmcsKyftay: jyefvnfpOf;pm;=u&if; Armjynfbufuom epfemcJ&h wmawGudk vufawGŒ
t& awGΗuHcJh&+yD;jzpfwJhtwGufh +Adwdo#-jrefrm umuG,fa&;pmcsKyfudk oufwrf;rwkd;awmhyJ tJ'D
pmcsKyftpm; pmcsKyftopfw&yf csKyfqkda&;udkom qkH;jzwfvkduf=uygw,f?
Armjynf tm%m& zqyvtpk;d &[m vusmf -z&D;rif;pmcsKyfukd wavsmufv;Hk zH;k zH;k zdzv d yk f
vmcJhor# tckrSyJ zsufodrf;ypfzkd@/ 'kwd,t}udrf oufwrf;rwkd;awmhzkd@/ tJ'DpmcsKyftpm; vufeuf
0,f,la&;pmcsKyfopfw&yfeJ@ tpm;xkd;&efjyifqifcJhygw,f//
1952 ckEpS u f ek rf mS Armjynf&ŒJ pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeukd =unfrh ,fq&dk ifawmh pyg;aps;aumif;
wJt h wGuf t&HEidk if jH cm;aiGyrm%mjrifw h ufvmcJw h ,f? 51 u qefwwef ukd pwmvifaygif (60)aps;

148 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

wufc&hJ m uae (52) rSm aygif (80) txd aps;jrifw h ufcw hJ t hJ wGuf 1952 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmrSm t&Hxm;
&SdwJh EkdifiHjcm;aiGyrm%m[m ukaÉ (100) txd pkaqmif;rd+yD;jzpfygw,f?
tpkd;&taeeJ@ aiG&Sdvmw,f qkdayr,fh jynfolvlxktzkd@uawmh pm;0wfaea&; tqifht
wef; ododomom ajymif;vJvmcJhwm bmrSr&Sdao;oavmufjzpfygw,f? aus;vufawm&Gmae
v,form;trsm;pk}uD;eJ@ òrdŒaetvkyform; qif;&Jom; eif;jym;rsm;[m rGJ+rJ rGJ qif;&J+rJ qif;&JqJjzpf
+y;D jynfwiG ;f ppf}u;D a=umifh tdyaf umif;jcif; rtdy&f / pm;aumif;jcif; rpm;&/ us;D vef@pmpm;b0rsK;d awmif
tykad qmif; cHpm;ae=u&ygw,f? aus;vufrmS tm%m&ygwb D ufom;/ tm%m&tzJŒG tpnf; trsK;d
rsK;d &JŒESyd pf ufr/_ Akv d u f sra_ wG wzufowfc=H u&±Hrk u tm%m&ygw&D ŒJ cg;yku d af qmifwyf/ umuG,f
a&;/ ajymufusm;qkdolrsm;&JŒ vufeufeJ@&rf;um;r_/ ESdyfpufapmfum;r_awGyg ae@w"l0 óuHawGŒ&ifqkdif
ae&ovkd vufeufukdiftzJGŒtpnf;trsKd;rsKd;&JŒ vSnf;qifh avSqifh xrif;xkyfqifhwmawGudkvnf;
remcHcsirf jzpf emcHxrf;aqmifc=hJ u&ygw,f? jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D w[ke;f [ke;f a=umifh v,fypf ,mypf tdrf
ypf+yD; òrdŒay:wufajy;vm=u&wJholawGvnf; wae@wjcm; rsm;jym;vmcJhygw,f? òrdŒay:a&mufawmh
óuH&musbrf; vkyfudkifpm;aomuf&&if; tajcrJh taerJh ysHusjzpf=u&olawGvnf; òrdŒwkdif; e,fwkdif;
vkv d rdk mS ay:aygucf yhJ gw,f? w±kwf ukvm; ajr&Sirf sm;eJ@ csr;f omolawGom wk;d wk;d +yD; jynfawmfomcJh
=uygw,f? tm%m&So d al wGe@J aygi;f oif;+yD; pD;yGm;a&;vkyu f idk cf iG &hf olawG ae@csi;f ncsi;f cgawmfro DS al X;
awGjzpfvmcJh=uygw,f//
tm%m& qk&d , S vf pfygw[ D m tm%m,pfr;l vmovkd tm%m& qk&d , S vf pftcsi;f csi;f =um;
rSmvnf; tm%mòyid rf a_ wG pwifay:ayguv f mygw,f// rmufpQ 0f g'D ode;f av;q,f OD;uku d }dk u;D udv k nf;
xkwyf ,fypfvu dk Ef idk +f yD;+yD? vuf0, J rd ;f orm;awGjzpfwhJ ocifviG /f ocifcspaf rmif (0d"&l )/ ocifvaS u|
wkd@tkyfpk}uD;wckvkH;[mvnf; qkd&S,feDtjzpf cJGxGufoGm;+yD;+yDjzpfvkd@ vuf,mqkd&S,fvpfawGcsnf;
omuseaf wmhwt hJ csed rf mS vuf,morm;csi;f uGt J ufra_ wG pwifvmjyefw,fjzpfygw,f? 'DtuGu J dk
awmh ‘aumvdyfqkd&S,fvpftkyfeJ@ bkef;}uD;ausmif;qkd&S,fvpftkyftuGJ’ vkd@ uifyGef;wyf=uygw,f?
OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wk@d &ŒJ ynmwwfq&dk , S v f pftyk ef @J ocifwif/ ocifausmx f eG ;f wk@d &ŒJ ynmtajccH
enf; qk&d , S v f pftyk t f =um; tuJt G +yJ[m tm%m& qk&d , S v f pf tcsi;f csi;f =um; tm%mòydiyf t GJ jzpf
ykHay: jzpfwnfvmcJhygw,f?
OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f tkyu f ArmEkid if rH mS pufrE_ idk if x H al xmifa&;ukd OD;pm;ay;csi+f yD; ocifwif/
ocifausmx f eG ;f tkyu f awmh v,f,mpku d yf sK;d a&;ukyd J OD;pm;ay;vkycf siw f ,fv@dk qydk gw,f? wu,fu
‘jynfawmfompDrHudef;’ udk arG;xkwfay;vkdufwJh ‘auatwDpDrHudef;’ &JŒ tESpfom& OD;wnfcsufukd
u Armjynf pufr_EkdifiHjzpfvma&;/ pufr_wkd;wufxGef;um;vma&;r[kwfyg? Armjynf pufr_xGef;
um;vmrSmukdvnf; rvkdvm;cJhyg? tar&duef tygt0if pufr_xGef;um;wJh t&if;&SifEkdifiH}uD;awGqD
rScD akd eapa&;om &nf&, G cf whJ ,fv@dk qydk gw,f? auwDat pDru H ed ;f t& aiG&if;ES;D ðryfErHS &_ ŒJ (8µ) uko d m
pufrv _ yk if ef;twGuf axmufcaH zmfjycJ+h yD; v#ypf pf"mwftm;xkwv f yk af &;twGuf (8µ) ygaygi;f vku d rf S
(16µ) om pufr_vkyfief;twGuf v#mxm;cJhw,fqkdygw,f? vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;twGuf (20µ)
ðryfESHzkd@ t}uHðycJh+yD; useftm;vkH;ukd pkdufysKd;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&; wkd@rSm okH;pJGzkd@ tqkdðycJhw,fvkd@
qdyk gw,f? t}uHay;yk*K~ v d yf nm&Sif ‘a&mbwfeoef’ wd@k uqk&d if ukeaf ps;E_e;f rwufatmif jynfwiG ;f
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 149
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

aiGazmif;yGrr_ &Sad tmifq+dk yD; Ekid if jH cm;ypPn;f awG atmwku d +f yD; oGi;f zk@d avmufuo dk m tav;xm;wku d f
wGef;ajymqkdaecJhw,fvkd@ qkdygw,f?
'ga=umifh jynfawmfompDrHudef;eJ@twl acwfpm;vmcJhwmu oGif;ukef xkwfukef pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;jzpfygw,f? tpkd;&u oGif;ukef xkwfukef vkdifpifawGcsay;ygw,f? vkdifpif&olawG tyG}uD;
yG=uygw,f? tm%m&yk*Kd~ vf tm%m&tzJŒG tpnf;awGe@J ta=umif; taygi;f oifah wG vkid pf if&=uovkd
tm%m&yk*Kd~ vf}uD;awGwcsKŒd vnf; enf;trsK;d rsK;d eJ@ vkid pf if&awG jzpfae=uw,fqydk gw,f? +yD;awmhrS
&xm;wJv h idk pf ifudk pD;yGm;a&;orm; w±kwf ukvm;awGujdk yefa&mif; vufvcJ$ s t&if;rpku d &f yJ tjrwf
usefcJh=uw,fqkdygw,f?
tm%m& qk&d , S vf pfygw&D ŒJ aumvdyq f &dk ,S v
f pftyk pf rk mS OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f / ocifomcif
wk@d u tkypf x k yd o
f ;D }uD;awGjzpf=uovkd bke;f }uD;ausmif;qk&d , S vf pftyk rf mS awmh ocifwif/ ocifausmf
xGef;/ ocifyef;òrdif wkd@u tkyfpkxdyfoD;}uD;awG jzpfae=uygw,f?
OD;AaqGu tvkyform;OuUÏ tjzpf tvkyform;tpnf;t±kH; wD,lpDbDukd udkifxm;+yD;
ocifomcifu trsK;d orD;tpnf;t±k;H awGtay: =oZm&S&d dS ukid x f m;ygw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f u zqyv
a'oaumfrw D aD wG/ umuG,af &;awGudk tkypf ;D xm;Ekid w f thJ jyif zqyv vli,fuv dk nf; ukid x f m;Ekid f
cJhygw,f?
ocifwife@J ocifausmx f eG ;f u awmifov l ,form; tpnf;t±k;H awGudk ukid w f , G xf m;Ekid +f yD;
ocifyef;òrdifu pD;yGm;ukefoG,fa&;tzJGŒcsKyf (pyuo) ukd tkyfpD;ukdifwG,fxm;ygw,f?
jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;udk taumiftxnfazmf=uawmh !Sd!SdEd_if;Ed_if;r&SdbJ ukd,foef&m
oef&m OD;pm;ay;vkyf=uygw,f? ukd,fhtkyfpkeJ@ukd,f xifovkd OD;aqmifóudd;ukdif=uygw,f?
OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;xGef;0if;/ ocifcspfarmif/ ocifomcif wkd@wawGu puf±kH tvkyf±kHrsm; wnf
aqmufa&;vkyfief;/ a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;awG aZmif;ay;vkyf=uygw,f? OD;AaqGu
"mwfowWK&SmazGa&;eJ@ umuG,fa&;bufvkyfygw,f? ocifwif/ ocifausmfxGef; wkd@awGuawmh
v,f,majr EkdifiHykdifðya&;eJ@ ‘pkdufysKd;a&;rkcfOD;qDokd@’ vkd@ aºuG;a=umftaumiftxnfazmfygw,f?
ocifEk/ OD;wif/ OD;0if;/ OD;&m&Spf wdk@tkyfpkuawmh usef;rma&;/ vlr_qufqHa&;/ ynma&;/ bmoma&;
pwJh ay: jyLvmvkyfief;awGudk azmfxkwfvkyfukdif=uygw,f?
n‡dnd‡E_dif;E_dif;vnf;r&Sd/ pDrHudef;wckeJ@wck csdefom;udkufatmifvnf; raygif;pyf/ OD;pm;ay;
tjrift,ltqcsif;uvnf; wuGJwjym;pDjzpfawmh pDrHudef;awG[m atmifjrifoifhoavmuf
ratmifrjrifjzpfc=hJ uygw,f? ylyal EG;aEG; óuHawGŒcJ&h wJh ocFe;f pmawGuv kd nf; r,lbJ xif&mpkid ;f ae=u
ovkdjzpfcJh=uygw,f? jynfawmfompDrHudef;rprDrSm ocFef;pm,lp&mESpfck&SdcJhygw,f? wcku r*Fvm'kH
av,mOfuiG ;f ðyjyifwnfaqmufa&;vkyif ef;/ aemufwcku orkid ;f csnpf ufupd /P r*Fvm'kaH v,mOfuiG ;f
ðyjyifwnfaqmufa&;pDrHudef;rSm 'def;rwfukr`%Dwckukd (2&) odef;eJ@ uefx±kdufay;/ jrefrmtpkd;&
uk, d pf m;vkyif ef;}uD;=uyfppfaq;zk@d tar&dueftif*sief , D mwOD;Xm;&rf;+yD; aqmif&u G cf whJ m pDru H ed ;f u
atmifatmifjrifjrif taumiftxnfray:vmcJhbJ wESpftwGif; wkdif;jynf&JŒb¾mawG tajrmuf
trsm;qk;H ±_;H cJ&h ygw,f? tar&dueftif*sief , D m vufajr‡muf+yD; tvkyu f aexGuo f mG ;rS v#Kd Œ0Sucf ±Hk ;Hk

150 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

zGJŒppfaq;awmh (2&) odef; okH;pGGJcGifhðyxm;wJh pDrHudef;[m usyfaiG (505) odef;awmif&Sdae+yDqkdwm


awGŒ=u&+yD; t±H_;}uD;±_H;cJh=u&ygw,f?
tJ'DvkdyJ ordkif;csnfpuf udpPrSmvnf; (1951) xJ puf±kHpvnfwJhtcg ArmjynfrSmwnfwJh
puf/ ArmjynfuxGufwJh csnfr#ifwkd@ 0gwdk@ okH;vkd@r&wJhpuf jzpfaewmawGŒ=u&ygw,f?
tJ'Dvkd ocFef;pmawG&SdygvsufeJ@ jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD; pwJhtcgrSmvnf; wkdifwkdifyifyif
ndn ‡ E‡d id_ ;f E_id ;f r&S?d ppfppfaq;aq; avhavhvmvmr&Sb d J uk, d t
hf yk pf ek @J u,dk f oef&moef&m taumift
xnfazmf=uwJhtwGuf aºuG;a=umfoHeJ@ vufawGŒ[m puwnf;u ,OfoukdjzpfaecJhygw,f?
vGwv f yfa&;a=unm+yD;uwnf;u aºuG;a=umfjyÏmef;cJw h hJ v,f,majr Ekid if yH idk ðf yvkyaf &;ukd
(1953) ckESpfxJrSm ocifwif/ ocifausmfxGef;wkd@ acgif;aqmif+yD; pwifvkyfaqmifygw,f? jynfawmf
ompDrHudef;}uD;eJ@twl taumiftxnfazmfygw,f? emrnfuom v,f,majrEkdifiHykdifðywmqkday
r,fh ajr&Sif}uD;awGqDu ajrawGukd avsmfa=u;ay;+yD; odrf;&wmjzpfygw,f? Oya't& odrf;,lvkduf
wJhajr{u (7) oef;eD;yg;twGuf avsmfa=u;aiG oef; (150) eD;yg;ay;cJh&ygw,f? 'D ‘v,f,majrEdkifiH
ykdifðyvkyfa&;’ ay:vpD[m ajr&Sif}uD;pepfukd wpkHw&mcsdeJ@oGm;apcJhayr,fh ajr&Sifpepfukd t+yD;tykdif
zsufodrf;ypfEkdifcJhwmr[kwfyg? zsufodrf;vkdwJh &nf&G,fcsufvnf;r&SdcJhyg?
zqyv tpkd;&vufatmufrSm t"du vlxkvlwef;pm; tzJGŒtpnf;}uD;oabmrsKd; (3)ck&Sd
ygw,f? ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m awmifolv,form; tpnf;t±kH; (Awvp)/ tvkyform;tpnf;t±kH;
tzGJŒcsKyf - ArmEkdifiH (wD,lpDbD) eJ@ pD;yGm;ukefoG,ftzJGŒcsKyf (pyuo) wkd@jzpfygw,f?
awmifov l ,form;awGe@J qidk w f hJ ‘Awvp’ u trawmfa=u;udp/P pyg;ta&mif;t0,fupd /P
v,form;udpPawGukd wkduf±kdufukdifwG,faqmif&Gufygw,f? trawmfa=u;xkwfacs;&mrSm zqyv
tpk;d &u awmifov l ,form;awGudk wku d ±f u dk x f wk rf acs;yg? Awvp u wqifx h w
k af cs;wJt
h wGuf
zqyv vufatmufcH Awvp tzJGŒ0ifawGom trawmfa=u;&ygw,f? Awvp tr_aqmifawG
u a'otoD;oD;rSm trawmfa=u;aiGawG xifovkb d ;Hk =uwm/ v,form;ppfppfu trawmfa=u;
rjzpfpavmufom&+yD; v,form;tppfr[kwo f al wGu trawmfa=u;yk&d wmrsK;d awG ae&mtES@H ay:
cJhygw,f? Awvp eJ@ ajr,maumfrDwDqkdwmawG&JŒ =oZmremcHol v,form;awGtay: zdESdyfn‡if;
yef;wm/ tcGet f wkwf rw&m;aumufcw H mawG &uf&ufpufpuf vkyu f idk cf =hJ uwJth wGuf wjynfv;Hk rSm
Awvp awG emrnfysufcJh=uw,f?
tvkyform;tzGJŒtpnf;jzpfwJh wD,lpDbD uvnf; tvkyform;awGtusKd;twGufqkdwm
xuf uk, d [ hf muk, d f qkid ;f bkwaf xmif+yD; uk, d v hf al wGu, dk &f mxl;ay; ae&mcsxm;ay;xm;wmawGom
vkyu f idk cf =hJ uygw,f? tpk;d &eJ@ tvkyo f rm;=um; tpk;d &bufu ‘qJcG s’ oabmvkyaf qmif&if; tvkyf
orm;tcGifhta&;awGukd vpfvsL±_cJh=uygw,f? ‘Awvp’ u v,form;awGtay: acgif;ykHjzwf
ovdk/ wD,lpDbDuvnf; tvkyform;awGtay:acgif;ykHjzwfwm ae&mtESH@ay:aygufcJhygw,f?
pD;yGm;ukeo f ,G tf zJŒG csKyf ‘pyuo’ uvnf; pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;/ ukeo f ,
G af &;vkyif ef;awGtay:
cs,v f , S }f uD;pk;d zk@d tjrwfxw k zf @dk om vkyu f idk af qmif&u G cf yhJ gw,f? ‘Awvp’/ ‘wD,pl b D ’D /‘pyuo’
awG[m qkd&S,fvpfygwD&JŒ vufatmufcHtzGJŒtpnf;}uD;awGomjzpf+yD; 'DtzGJŒtpnf;}uD;awG&JŒ
xdyfoD;OD;aqmifolrsm;[mvnf; qkd&S,fvpf}uD;awGcsnf;yJjzpfygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 151


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

tzJGŒtpnf;toD;oD;/ a'otoD;oD;u qkd&S,fvpf}uD;rsm;&JŒ tykyfeH@awG[m wae@wjcm;


waxmif;axmif;xvmcJhygw,f? ‘qkd&S,fvpf}uD; vm'fpm;vkdufjyef+yD’ ‘qkd&S,fvpf}uD; aiGawGbkH;
vku d jf yef+yD’ ‘aemufxyfq&dk , S v f pf rk'rd ;f r_wckay: jyef+yD’ ‘aemufxyf qk&d , S vf pf vlowfr}_ uD;wck’
qkdwJh acgif;pOfawGeJ@ owif;pmawGay:rSm r=umc% ygygvmcJhygw,f? qkd&S,fvpfrsm; vlxkcsOfywf
jzpfvmcJhygw,f?
qkd&S,fvpfacgif;aqmif OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf;wkd@wawG AsL±kdu&uf t&m&Sd}uD;awGozG,f
ðyrlusio hf ;Hk vm=uovkd qk&d , S vf pfrsm; tm%m,pfr;l vm=uovk/d Ekid if aH wmf0ef}u;D csKyf OD;Ek [mvnf;
wae@wjcm; tm%m&Sifqefvmw,fvkd@qdk=uygw,f?
tm%m& tpk;d &tzGŒJ }uD;atmufu ‘Awvp’ ‘wD,pl b D ’D wk@d e@J tòydiuf awmh qk&d ,
S v f pf
ygwu D cJx G u G of mG ;cJw
h hJ qk&d ,
S ef w
D @dk &ŒJ ArmEkid if aH wmifovl ,form;nD!w G af &;tpnf;t±k;H (wvnp)
eJ@ Armjynftvkyform;tpnf;t±kH;rsm;tzGJŒcsKyf (bDwD,lpD) (Burma Trade Union Congress)
wkd@jzpfygw,f? ‘wvnp’ ukd ocifcspfarmif (0d"l&) uacgif;aqmif+yD; ‘bDwD,lpD’udk ocifvGifu
OD;aqmifygw,f// ‘Awvp’eJ@ ‘wvnp’ [m tòydifjzpfovkd wD,lpDbD (TUCB) eJ@ ‘bDwD,lpD’
(BTUC) [m tòydifjzpfygw,f? Awvp eJ@ wD,lpDbD u tm%m& tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;awGjzpfygw,f?
wvnp eJ@ bDw, D pl D uawmh tm%mrJh twku d t
f cHtzGŒJ oabmrsK;d pifòyid w
f nf&adS ewmjzpfygw,f?
1953 ckESpf ESpfqef;rSm w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_jy\em[m zkH;rEkdif/ zdr& tqifhavmufwifr
uawmhyJ xdyu f adk &muf&v dS mygw,f? ArmjynftwGi;f rw&m;ojzifh 0ifa&mufusL;ausmw f yfpxJG m;
±kHru ajymifajymifwif;wif; Akdvfusrif;rlv_yf&Sm;ae=uwJh w±kwfjzLtiftm;[m tqrwef wkd;yGm;
ae+yDjzpfygw,f? tar&duefu aemufuG,fuyg0if+yD; azmfrkdqmu wdkuf±dkuf tiftm;jznfhwif;
pDpOfaqmif&u G af ewma=umifh w±kwjf zLtiftm; waomif;ESpaf xmifausmrf S waomif;ig;axmifcef@
txd&Sdae+yDjzpfygw,f? tpdk;&umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;Xme&JŒ w&m;0ifcef@rSef;csuft& oHvGifjrpf ta&SŒ
zufjcrf; rkdif;±_; yef,ef;a'owa=umrSm tiftm; (4000) cef@/ ta&SŒajrmuf rlq,f/ erfhcrf; tyg
a'owav#muf tiftm; (3000) cef@/ rkid ;f qwf/ rkid ;f wk/H rkid ;f yefa'otyg e,fajrwav#muf tiftm;
(4000) cef@ armfcs;D / v_id ;f bJŒG / u±kyad` 'orsm;rSm tiftm; (1000) cef@/ pkpak ygi;f tiftm; (12000)cef@
wyfjzef@vy_ &f mS ;ae=uygw,f? a0zefo;Hk oyfoal wGtqdt k &uawmh 'dxufrsm;w,fv@dk q=dk uygw,f?
'ga=umifh 1953 ckESpf/ rwfv (1) &ufae@rSm autrfwD (KMT) w±kwfjzL usL;ausmfr_
jy\emukd ukvor*~tzJGŒcsKyf}uD;xHwifjyzkd@ zqyv tpkd;&tzJGŒu rvJ$omra&Smifom qkH;jzwf
vkduf&ygw,f? 1953 ckESpf/ {+yDvrSmusif;ywJh ukvor*~tzGJŒ}uD;&JŒ (7) }udrfajrmuf taxGaxGnD
vmcH}uD;rSm jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒu wifjywkdifwef;ygw,f? wkdifwef;wJhtcg tar&duef yg0if
ywfoufwJh w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfolrsm;vkd@awmif wdwdyy azmfjywkdifwef;0Hhjcif;r&SdyJ ‘jynfyusL;
ausmfolrsm;’ ‘EkdifiHjcm;wyfrsm;’ vkd@om azmfjywkdifwef;cJh=uygw,f?
{+yDv (22) &ufae@rSm “jrefrmhe,fajray: usL;ausmfaom EkdifiHjcm;wyftm;vkH; tjrefqkH;
xGufcGgoGm;&ef” tqkdukd rJcJGqkH;jzwfwJhtcg EkdifiHaygif; (60) teuf axmufcHrJ (59) rJ/ =um;aerJ
(1) rJeJ@ tjrefqkH;xGufcGgay;&ef qkH;jzwfcJhygw,f? azmfrdkqmu csefau&Sdwftpkd;&ukd,fpm;vS,fu
rJray;yJaecJhygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u ukvor*~}uD;[m w±kwfjynfopf (w±kwfjynfr}uD;) ukd
ukvor*~0ifEkdifiHtjzpf todtrSwfðyrxm;wJh tcdsefjzpfygw,f?
152 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ukvor*~ taxGaxGnv D mcH}uD;&JŒ qk;H jzwfcsut f & jrefrmEkid if t H wGi;f uae w±kwjf zLusL;
ausmfa&;wyftm;vkH; xGufcGgoGm;a&;twGuf tar&duef/ xkdif;/ jrefrmeJ@ w±kwf orRwEkdifiH
(w±kwfjzL) wkd@yg0ifwJh av;EkdifiH ppfzufukd,fpm;vS,f aqG;aEG;yGJusif;yzkd@ tar&duefu urux
vkyyf gw,f? xkid ;f Ekid if H befaumufòrdŒ tar&duefo±H ;Hk rSm arv (22) &ufae@rmS pwifusi;f yygw,f?
tar&duefEkdifiHu autrfwD (w±kwfjzL ulrifwef) udpP oleJ@rywfoufygvkd@om cyfwnfwnfjiif;
aeayr,fh ukvor*~qkH;jzwfcsufxGufvm+yD;wJhtcg tar&duefuyJ uruxðy+yD; ‘(4) EkdifiH
befaumuftpnf;ta0;’ udk uruxðy pDpOfwmjzpfygw,f? jrefrmEkdifiHukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒu
yxrawmh w±kwfjzLukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒeJ@ rsufESmpkHnD xkdifraqG;aEG;Ekdifvkd@qkdwJhtwGuf tar&duef
eJ@ xkdif; ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;[m jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒeJ@ w}udrf w±kwfjzL udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒeJ@
w}udr/f udp&P yfwckudk ESp}f udraf qG;aEG;&ygw,f? jrefrmuk, d pf m;vS,t f zGŒJ ukd Akv
d rf ;ª }uD; atmif}uD;u
acgif;aqmifwufa&mufygw,f?
tjrefqkH;xGufcGga&;twGuf aqG;aEG;=uwJhtcg qkwfcGgay;&r,fh usL;ausmfol w±kwfjzLrsm;
u ArmjynftESH@tjym;&Sd olwkd@wyfrsm;tay: Armhwyfrawmfu typftcwf&yfpJa&;udk csufcsif;ðy
vkyfay;&r,fvkd@ ppcsif;awmif;qkdygw,f? jrefrmbufu ‘jrefrmEkdifiHrS trSefwu,fxGufcGgoGm;
onfhtcsdefwGif oufqkdif&ma'orsm;ESifh oufqkdif&mvrf;a=umif;rsm;ukd vkHòcHaoma'orsm;tjzpf
owfrSwfay;+yD; ESpfzufpvkH;u typftcwf&yfpJ&ef ðyvkyfay;Ekdifa=umif;’ ajz=um;wJhtcg w±kwfjzL
ukd,fpm;vS,fu vufrcHEkdifa=umif; acgif;rmaecJhygw,f? w±kwfjzLrsm;[m olwkd@udk,fwkdifu usL;
ausmf+yD;olrsm; EkdifiHtwGif;a&muf&Sdaeygvsuf usL;ausmfolwkd@udk b,folurS rxd& rwkd@&/ typf
tcwf&yfpJay;+yD; xkdif=unfhae&r,fhoabmrsKd; awmif;qkdaecJhjcif;jzpfygw,f? tar&duefOD;pD;wJh
tar&duefeJ@ xkdif;ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒu jrefrmbuf/ w±kwfjzLbufeJ@ ESpfzufpvkH;ukdaqG;aEG;+yD;
aqG;aEG;ajym=um;csuaf wGtay:uae rlwnf+yD; ‘oabmwlncD surf =l urf;’ ukad &;qGyJ gw,f? tar&d
uef/ xkid ;f / jrefrmtzJŒG rsm;u oabmwlncD =hJ uwJw h idk af tmif usL;ausmo f w l ±kwjf zLbufu oabm
rwlbJ aqG;aEG;yJGudk aESmifhaES;=uef@=umatmif tcsdefqJGjcif; r±kd;rom;ðyrljcif;awGudkom vkyfaecJhyg
w,f?
ZGefv (1) &ufae@rSm w±kwfjzLbufu ‘jrefrmEkdifiHtESH@tjym; typftcwf&yfpJa&;tpm;
oHvGifjrpf ta&SŒbufa'otm;vkH;wGif typftcwf&yfpJ&ef’ vkd@ ajymif;vJawmif;qkdygw,f? ZGef
(2) &ufae@rSm ‘olwdk@ tpkd;&eJ@wkdifyif&ef&Sdonf’ qkd+yD; azmfrkdqmukdjyefoGm;ygw,f? ZGefv (10)&uf
ae@rmS jrefrmbufu rjzpfEidk af =umif; befaumufaqG;aEG;yGaJ umfrw D u D wdk ifjy+yD; w±kwjf zLrsm;xGuf
cGma&;tpDtpOf (3) ckudk ukeu f sr,fph &dwef @J wuG jyifqifwifjyygw,f? ZGef (13) &ufae@rmS w±kwjf zL
ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGΠbefaumufukdjyefa&mufvm+yD; olwkd@a&;qJGvmwJh xGufcGma&;tpDtpOfwck
wifjyvmygw,f? tcsdefr=uef@=umatmifqkd+yD; jrefrmbufu ‘w±kwfjzLbufutpDtpOf’ ukd
jyifqifcsut f enf;i,favmufe@J yJ vufcv H u dk yf gw,f? ¹cGi;f csut f aeeJ@ “rkid ;f qwfEiS t hf jcm;ta&;}uD;
a'orsm;ukd ArmhwyfrawmfrS wku d cf u
dk rf r_ &Syd J 0ifa&muford ;f yku d Ef idk &f rnf” vk@d xnfo h iG ;f awmif;qkyd g
w,f? w±kwfjzLu ‘,m,DoabmwlnDcsufrl=urf;’ ukd vufrcHao;wJhtjyif “rkdif;qwfokd@
aumfrw D D oGm;a&muf&mwGif tar&duefEiS hf xkid ;f wk@d uo dk m oGm;cGiahf y;Ekid +f yD; jrefrmud, k pf m;vS,t
f zGŒJ

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 153


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

ESifh jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;ukd vufrcHEkdifa=umif;eJ@ jrefrmtpkd;&u zrf;qD;xm;onfh w±kwfjzL


rsm;udk ¹cGif;csufr&Sd csufcsif;v$wfypf&rnf” vkd@ xyfqifhawmif;qkdvmjyefygw,f?
w±kwjf zLud, k pf m;vS,t f zJŒG azmfrq dk mjyefaewke;f rSm tar&dueftzJŒG u jrefrmuk, d pf m;vS,f
tzJŒG udk w±kwjf zLuk, d pf m;vS,t f zJŒG eJ@ rsuEf mS pkn
H D aqG;aEG;zk@d wu dk w
f eG ;f wJth wGuf w±kwjf zLud, k pf m;
vS,t f zGŒJ jyefa&mufvmwJt h cg oabmwlncD suf vsijf refpmG taumiftxnfay:ap&efq+dk yD; rsuEf mS
pkHnDaqG;aEG;wmvkyfaqmifygawmhw,f?
ZGefv (14) &uf (23) &ufae@txd rsufESmpkHnD qufvufaqG;aEG;=u+yD; ZGef (23) rSm
w±kwjf zL tyg ud, k pf m;vS,t f zGŒJ (4) zGŒJ pvk;H u ,m,DoabmwlncD surf =l urf;udk rltm;jzifh oabm
wl=uwJhtwGuf jrefrmEkdifiHrS w±kwfjzLwyfrsm; xGufcGma&;twGuf ‘av;EkdifiHoabmwlnDcsuf’
&+yDjzpfa=umif; urBmukda=unmcJhygw,f?
oabmwlnDcsufukd vufawGŒtaumiftxnfazmfzkd@rSmusawmh w±kwfjzLwkd@&JŒ tcsdefqJG
aejcif; r±kd;rom;ðyr_jcif;awGa=umifh rcHcsifp&maumif;avmufatmif Armjynfbufu epfemcJh&yg
w,f?
tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u zqyv tpkd;&ukd vufeufpGJudkifawmfvSefwkdufckdufae=uwJh Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwD/ tvHeD/ jynfolŒ&Jabmf/ autif'Dtkfd/ rGef/ ytkd@/ u&ifeD pwJh vufeufudkiftiftm;pk
pkpak ygi;f ta&twGuf tiftm;xufawmif jynfyusL;ausmo f l w±kwjf zL autrfwD wyftiftm;u
ykdrdkrsm;jym;cJhygw,f? jynfwGif;olykeftiftm;pktm;vkH;xuf jynfyusL;ausmfol w±kwfjzL ta&
twGufursm;cJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh zqyv tpkd;&[m e,fcsJŒorm;eJ@yg vuf0g;csif;±kdufxm;wJh
wkdif;wyg;om; usL;ausmfolrsm;ukd jywfjywfom;om; acsr_ef;wkdufxkwfa&;xuf/ wkdif;&if;om;csif;
jzpfwJh jynfwGif;vufeufudkif tiftm;pkrsm;tay: &uf&ufpufpuf tðywfwkdufa&;udkom OD;wnf
óud;yrf;aecJhygw,f? e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;vuQ%mrawGŒ&yJ e,fcsJŒrSDckda&;vuQ%mom ododomom
awGŒ&Ekdifygw,f?
jynfwGif;wkd;wufwJh EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;u a0zefokH;oyf axmufjyae=uwJh=um;xJu
tar&dueftpkd;&eJ@ pD;yGm;a&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ oabmwlnDcsuf (tD;pDat) pmcsKyfukd csKyfqdkcJhyg
w,f? rv$Jra&Smifom ukvor*~ udkwkdif=um;cJh&+yD;/ w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;udk tar&duefu ulnD
axmufyHhaewm zkH;rEdkifzdr& jzpfay:vmwJhtcgusrS ‘tD;pDat’ pmcsKyfukd ZGefv (30) &ufae@rSm
&yfpJr,fvkd@ a=unmcJhygw,f?
t"du EkdifiHa&;ygwD}uD;wckvnf;jzpf vufeufudkifolykef tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;wckvnf;jzpf
wJh ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D w±kwjf zLusL;ausmrf u _ kd jywfjywfom;om;wku d zf @dk e,fcsŒJ tE &W m,fudk
yl;aygif;umuG,fzkd@qdkwJh &yfwnfcsufeJ@ jynfwGif;ppfudk&yf+yD; trsKd;om;ppftoGifukdajymif;zkd@ urf;
vSr;f tqkðd yygw,f? umuG,af &;0ef}uD; OD;AaqGe@J vkyw f u
l idk zf ufjzpfczhJ ;l wJh ocifcspef @J Akv d af Z,su
awGŒqkHcsifa=umif; (1) e,fcsJŒtE W&m,fukd yl;aygif;umuG,fa&;/ (2) wrsKd;om;vkH;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwf
a&;/ (3) +idrf;csrf;a&;wkd@twGuf aqG;aEG;vkda=umif; ZGefv (18) &ufae@ ae@pJGeJ@ ay;pmESpfapmif
ay;ydk@cJhygw,f? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; OD;AaqGeJ@wuG zqyv tpkd;&u ta&;awmifrvkyfcJhyg? jynf
wGif;twkduftcHtiftm;pkawGtm;vkH;ukd evHrxlEkdifatmif vkyfxm;a&;onfomt"duqkdwJhrludk

154 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

udik pf x JG m;cJyh gw,f? jynfwiG ;f twku d t f cH vufeufuidk o f yl ek af wGukd acsre_ ;f òzdciG ;f zk@d ppfa&;t& tðywf
wku d af &;vrf;pOfuu kd sio hf ;Hk ygw,f? jynfwiG ;f uvufeufuikd rf [kww f hJ wk;d wufwhJ twku d t f cH Ekid if H
a&;tiftm;pkawGudk òzdcGif;zkd@u òzdcJGa&;enf;/ tm%meJ@ zdESdyfa&;enf;awGudk usifhokH;ygw,f?
ajray:rSm&SdwJh twkduftcH EkdifiHa&;ygwDjzpfwJh qkd&S,feD (tvkyform; v,form;ygwD) udk
v$wfawmfwGif;rSm toHrxGufEkdifatmifvkyfxm;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? e,fawG&Sd twkduftcH tiftm;pk
0ifawGudk zq-qkd&S,f =oZmcH aysmuf=um;wyf/ umuG,fa&;wyf qkdwmawG&JΠAdkvfus&rf;um;
npfywfra_ wGe@J zyd gw,f? aemufxyfta&;}uD; tiftm;pkwck twku d t f cHtiftm;pkwcktjzpf ±_jrif
ok;H oyf+y;D ykid yf idk Ef idk Ef idk f udik w f ,
G x f ed ;f odr;f xm;Ekid zf @dk óu;d pm;wmu ‘ausmif;om;’ udjk zpfygw,f? OD;Ek
tyg OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf; wkd@udk,fwkdif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifawGvnf;jzpfcJh=uzl;awmh wuo/
Auo =oZm}uD;w,fqkdwm odxm;=u+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? wuo/ Auo awGxJrSm ‘wkd;wuf
aomausmif;om;tiftm;pk’ ay:ayguv f m+yD; =oZm&Sad ewmukv d nf; odxm;=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? ‘wk;d
wufaom ausmif;om;tiftm;pk’ [m 1951 ckESpfuxnf;u zJGŒpnf;wnf&SdcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
ukb d aumif;/ ukv d 0S if;/ ukad tmifbef;/ ud, k k wk@d [m xif&mS ;wJah usmif;om;acgi;f aqmif wk;d wufaom
tiftm;pk0ifawGjzpf=uygw,f? wuo/ AuorSm zq-qk&d , S f =oZmcHausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifqo dk l
awG ay:ayguzf @dk wwfEidk &f if tiftm;v$r;f rk;d xm;Ekid zf @dk OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wk@d u jyifqifpidk ;f jyif;vm
ygw,f? 1953 ckESpf aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&ufrSm &efukefwuUokdvfausmif;om;tzJGŒawGjzpf=uwJh
ukdukd}uD; udkudkav; tzGJŒ/ jynfaxmifpkausmif;om;rsm;tzJGŒ/ wuUokdvfvli,ftzJGŒ/ oef@&Sif;tzJGŒeJ@
ausmif;om;aygif;oif;qufqHa&;eJ@ oufomacsmifcsda&;tzGJŒ pkpkaygif; ausmif;om;tzJGŒ (5) zJGŒu
ausmif;om;w&mukd OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wk@d qk&d , S v f pfacgi;f aqmif}uD;awGu, dk w f ikd f OD;pD;+yD; qk&d , S f
vpfEkdifiHa&;oifwef; wvykd@csay;ygw,f? tJ'Daemuf oifwef;ykd@cst+yD;rSm ‘'Dtuf(pf)tkd’ qkdwJh
(Democrative Student's Organization) qkd&S,fvpfausmif;om;EkdifiHa&;tzJGŒudk zJGŒpnf;arG;zGm;ay;
vku d yf gw,f? ausmif;om;xkt=um; =oZm&Sw d hJ ‘wk;d wuf’ eJ@ tm%m&tpk;d &ausmaxmufaemufcH
ðy ‘'Dtuf(pf)tk’d [m wuUov kd rf mS tòydijf zpfvmygawmhw,f? orkid ;f wavsmufrmS e,fcsŒJ qef@usif
a&;tpOftvm}uD;cJh+yD;/ jynfolbufu trSefw&m;bufuom jywfjywfom;om; &yfwnfwkdufyJG
0ifcw hJ hJ wuo/ Auo}uD;&JŒ tpOftvmukd zsuq f ;D òzdcyGJ pf+yD; “tm%m&tkypf ;dk oltpk;d &&JŒ tvku d s
wuo/ Auo” jzpfatmif tm;xkwfvkdufwJh azmufjyefwJh ajcvSrf;jzpfygw,f?
Ekid if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek&ŒJ wae@wjcm; tm%m&Siq f efvrS u _ vnf; onf;oef jyif;xefveG ;f
vSwJhtwGuf ,Ofaus;r_Xme0ef}uD; OD;xGef;az (xGef;ae@pOf OD;xGef;az) [m tpkd;&tzJGŒ0if 0ef}uD;
tjzpfuae 1953 ckEpS /f =o*kwv f xJrmS E_wx f uG yf gw,f? olbma=umifh &mxl;uae E_wx f u G &f w,f
qkdwm owif;pmq&mawGukd &Sif;vif;jy±kHru =o*kwfv (13) &ufae@ zqyv tpkd;&tzJGŒuae
E_wfxGuft+yD; owif;pmuaeyg a[m'Dvkd yGifhyGifhvif;vif; &ifzGifhcJhygw,f?
‘0ef}uD;csKyf OD;-ocifEo k nf tm%m&Siq f efonf/ vuf,mqefonf/ vuf0q J efonf tp&Sd
ojzifh okH;pGJae=uaom a0g[m&rsm;. usyfjynfht"dy`g,ft& u|efawmfonf rnfonfhenf;ESifhr#
oabmrwlEkdifyg? tm;vkH; wnDw!Gwfwnf; vufcHxm;=uaomrlukd a&Sα_I 'Drkdua&pDtkwfjrpfcs
ygrnf[I l u|eaf wmfw@dk opPmðyxm;=uaom zqyv. acgi;f aqmif}uD;onf tm%m&Siyf ef;wkid o f @dk

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 155


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

a&Sα_csw
D ufaeonfr[kw/f oufO;D qHyidk b f &k iftyk cf sKyfa&; (0g) b0&Sirf if;=wm;}uD; wkid ;f jynftyk cf sKyf
rif;vkyaf &;bufo@dk olrjrifaomfvnf; tm;vk;H tjriftm;jzifh odoo d mom}uD;yif a&GŒavsmaeyg+yD?
0ef}uD;csKyf. tðytrluav;rsm;onf t}udrfaygif;rsm;pGm &Sifbk&ifqefvGef;vSojzifh aemufqkH;
tcsdefY b0&Sifrif;=wm;}uD; jzpfzkd@&ef rif;ajrmufwefqm ig;yg;qifjref;zkd@ omvkdygawmhonf//’æwJh?
OD;xGef;az&JΠjrifjyif;uyfuyfeJ@ 0ef}uD;tjzpfuyg E_wfxGuf+yD; owWd&Sd&Sd vufoHajymifajymif
a&;om;vkdufwJh tJ'Dta&;tom; &ifzGifhoH[m OD;Ek&JŒ ±kyfykHrSefudk rD;armif;xkd;jyEkdifcJhygw,f// b0&Sif
rif;=wm;}uD; OD;Ek vkd@uifyGef;wyf&wJhtxdjzpfygw,f//
b0&Sifrif;=wm;}uD;vkd@ uifyGef;wyfcH&wJh 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Eku jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;ukd
csrSwf/ tm%m,pfrl;ae=uwJh qkd&S,fvpf}uD;rsm;u tkyfpkzJGŒ tm;òydif=u&if; oef&moef&m pDrHudef;
awGukd xifovkt d aumiftxnfazmfae=ucsed rf mS umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Akv d cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; &JΠppfwyf
}uD;uawmh wpxufwp tiftm; }uD;xGm;vmygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfudkta=umif;ðy+yD; wyfawGukd
tqufrjywf wkd;csJŒzJGŒ&if; vltiftm;om }uD;xGm;rsm;jym;vmwmr[kwf/ b¾ma&;t&yg ppfwyf
t&if;tESD;udk pwifpkaqmif;rdpðyvmygw,f? umuG,fa&;Xmeppfonfrsm; oufomacsmifcsda&;
twGuq h hJ 'Dtuf(pf)tkid f (DSI) [m tcGix
f +dk y;D pwifzŒGJ pnf;cJw hf ;l cHtjzpf vkid pf ifawGvnf; tvum;&/
tcGefvGwfcGifh uif;vGwfcGifhawGuvnf; b,foleJ@rSrwlatmif cHpm;&wJhtwGuf ppfwyft&if;tESD;
[m wk;d oxufw;dk vmcJyh gw,f? 'Dumv[m tpk;d &u jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f }uD; pwiftaumift
xnfazmfaewJh umvjzpfovkd ppfwyfuvnf; ppfwyft&if;tESD; pwifpkaqmif;aewJhumvvkd@
owfrSwf&rSmjzpfygw,f?
ZGefv (23) &ufuwnf;u jrefrmEkdifiHrS w±kwfjzLrsm; xGufcGma&;udpP/ av;EkdifiH
oabmwlnDcsuf&yg+yDvkd@ urBmukd cyfwnfwnfa=unmcJhayr,fh w±kwfjzLrsm;bufu bmwckrS
vufawGΠrvkyfaqmifvmwma=umifh pufwifbm (7) &ufae@rSm jrefrmtpkd;&u -
(1) jrefrmEkdifiHwGif;rS w±kwfjzLwyfrsm; rnfIrnfr# xGufcGmrnfukd xkwfazmfcef@rSef;&ef?
(2) rkdif;qwfESifh ta&;}uD;ae&m (5) ae&mukd Armhwyfrawmfu wkdufckdufjcif;rðybJ odrf;
ykduf&ef?
qkdwJh tqkd(2)ckukd obmywd tzJGŒxH xyfrHwifjyvm&ygw,f? w±kwfjzLudk,fpm;vS,fu
tqkdtrSwf (1) ukd wdwdusus tajzray;wJhtjyif tqkdtrSwf (2) ukdvnf; Armhwyfrawmfu
ukd,fhzmomukd,f odrf;,l&r,f/ wkdufckdufjcif;rðyyJ at;at;aq;aq; odrf;,la&;ukdawmh w±kwf
ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒrSm wm0efr&Sdvkd@ tajzay;wkef@jyefvmygw,f?
pufwifbm (14) &ufae@rSm Armbufu -
(1) jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;rS w±kwfjzLtm;vkH; xGufcGm&ef?
(2) yxrtokwf wyfom; (5000) ukd oabmwlnDcsuf vufrSwfa&;xkd;+yD; (21) &uf
twGif; xGufcGm&ef?
(3) jrefrmtpkd;&u ukvor*~ukd tpD&ifcH&ef&Sdojzifh txufazmfjyyg tcsuf (2) csufukd
w±kwfjzLukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒu (7) &uftwGif; tajzay;&ef/ vufrcHcJhv#if jrefrm
ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒudk aqG;aEG;yJGrS ±kwfodrf;rnf?

156 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vdk@ av;EkdifiHaumfrDwDukd wifjy&ygawmhw,f? 'gudkvnf; w±kwfjzLbufu vufrcHwJh


twGuf pufwifbm (17) &ufae@rSm aqG;aEG;yJGuae jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒ ±kwfodrf;xGufcGmcJh&
ygw,f? 'guv dk nf; w±kwjf zLbufu vufrcHwt hJ wGuf pufwifbm (17) &ufae@rmS aqG;aEG;yJu G ae
jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒ ±kwfodrf;xGufcGmcJhygw,f? Ekd0ifbm/ 'DZifbm xJusrS w±kwfjzLwyfom;
(2000) avmuf jrefrmEkdifiHuae pwifxGufcGmay;wmvkyfygw,f? 'gawmif wyfom; (2000) eJ@
rSDckdolrsm; xGufcGmwmudk jrefrmbufu raESmuf,Suf&efvkd@ w±kwfjzLbufu owday;vkdufygao;
w,f? w±kwfjzL (15000) ausmfavmuf&SdwJhtxJu (2000) avmufyJxGufay;wmjzpfygw,f?
w±kwjf zLawGord ;f yku d x f m;wJh rkid ;f qwf/ rkid ;f wk/H rkid ;f ,ef;/ rkid ;f a,mif; wd@k uv dk nf; oabmwlvaJ$ jymif;
ay;zk@d befaumufaqG;aEG;yJu G qk;H jzwfxm;wm&Sad yr,fh w±kwjf zLwk@d bufu vk;H 0vku d ef mjcif;r&Scd bhJ J
raxrJhjrif vkyfjycJhygw,f? ArmjynfxJ usL;ausmf0ifa&mufae±kHru wkdif;&if;om;awGtay: ESdyfpuf
apmfum;wmawGvnf; vkyfcJh=uygw,f? vk,ufpm;aomufwmawGvnf; vkyfcJh=uygw,f?
w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_udk jynfwGif;&Sd wkd;wufwJhEkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;u tjyif;txefqef@
usi=f uovkd ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D vnf; qef@usiyf gw,f? uGejf rLepfygwu D w±kwjf zLusL;ausmf
a&;orm;rsm;ukd tpk;d &wyfe@J uGejf rLepfwyfrsm;yl;aygi;f +y;D wku d cf u
dk &f ef/ tJ'v D w dk u dk cf udk &f ef qENr&S&d if
tpkd;&eJ@jzpfyGm;aewJh ppfyGJukd rdrdwkd@bufu wzufowf&yfpJ+yD; ulrifwefwyfrsm;ukd wkdufckdufr,f/
tJ'Dvkd csDwufoGm;a&mufwkdufckdufrSmukd tpkd;&wyfrsm;u taESmuft,Sufray;&eftxd tqkdðy
urf;vSrf;cJhygw,f? &Srf;jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd tpkd;&&JŒ wyfr[m (4) eJ@ wyfr[m (6) u wyfrª;rsm;ukd
pmeJ@a&;om;+yD; urf;vSrf;cJhwmjzpfygw,f? tpkd;&bufu bmrS ta=umif;jyef=um;cJhjcif;r&Sdvkd@qkd
ygw,f?
w±kwfjzLwkd@&JŒ raxrJhjrif apmfum;vGef;r_awGa=umifh wyfrawmfu rvJ$ra&Smifom xkd;ppf
qifra_ wGvyk v f m&ygw,f? 'kAv dk rf ;ª }uD; ausmpf ;kd (aemif rqvawmfveS af &;aumifp0D if) ukd OD;pD;ap+yD;
w±kwjf zLukt d wku d cf ikd ;f cJyh gw,f? ta&;edr+hf yD;wyfvef@jyefc&hJ ygw,f? tJ'aD wmhrS Akv d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm
udkOD;pD;+yD; twdkufckdif;&ygawmhw,f? tJ'Dvkd rwwfEkdifawmhvkd@ wm0efay;&wmawmif tm%m&
qkd&S,fvpf}uD;wcsKdŒu “b,fae@ AkdvfausmfaZm tavmif;ukd oHvGifurf;yg;rSmaumuf&rvJ” vdk@
r=um;w=um; jyuf&,fðycJ=h uw,fqydk gw,f? w±kwjf zLawG&ŒJ tiftm; tqrwefrsm;jym;aewmukd
qkd&S,fvpf}uD;awG aumif;aumif;odxm;wJhtwGufa=umifhjzpfygw,f?
1954 ckEpS /f rwfvrSm Akv d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm OD;pD;wJh ‘bk&ifah emif ppfqifa&;}uD;’pwifygw,f?
Akdvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm [m wyfuav;rjzpfpavmufukdyJ udkifwG,ftokH;ðy+yD; w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_
}uD;udk wkdufcJh&wmjzpfygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfukd t&Sdefjr‡ifh+yD; wkdufckdufaewJhtwGuf jynfwGif;ppfrSm
tokH;ðyaewJh wyfawGxJu wyfawGvkHvkHavmufavmuf xkwfE_wf,lcGifhr&bJ t&HwyfawGr#eJ@om
wku d cf u
dk cf &hJ ygw,f? rjzpfpavmufwyfuav;eJeu J o
dk m tok;H ðy+y;D Akv d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm [m w±kwjf zL
wyfrsm;ukd atmifjrifpmG wku d cf udk jf ycJyh gw,f? w±kwjf zL armif;xkwaf &; wku d yf t GJ wGi;f rSm bk&ifah emif
ppfqifa&;&JŒ ydokumtjzpf Akdvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm&JŒ emrnfay:vGifvmcJhygw,f? qkwfcGmoGm;&wJh
w±kwfjzL wyfawG[m xkdif;eJ@avme,fajrxJ 0ifoGm;=uygw,f?
50-52 ckEpS t f wGi;f uk&d ;D ,m;ppfy*GJ ,ufa=umifh qefaps; aumif;aumif;&vku d wf hJ zqyv
tpkd;&[m 53-54 rSm pyg;awG odrf;usKH;0,fxm;wJhtwGuf *kda'gif&Sdor# qefawG jynfhv#H±kHru
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 157
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

xm;p&mr&Sdatmif jzpfvmygw,f? 52 ckESpf udk&D;,m;ppfyGJ +yD;oGm;csdefup+yD; urBmrSm qefaps;awG


w&dyf&dyfusvmwJhtwGuf rsufvkH;jyL;pðyvmygw,f? qefa&mif;&aiGusvmwJhtwGuf t&HEkdifiHjcm;
aiGyrm%m[mvnf; avsmheJvdkufvmygw,f? 1953 ZGefvu EkdifiHjcm;aiG (126²9) ukaÉ&Sd&mu
1954 Zefe0g&DrSm (96²8) ukaÉom &Sdygawmhw,f?
qkd&S,fvpfpum;ukd ajymaeqJjzpfwJh zq-qkd&S,f tpkd;&[m EkdifiHjcm;om;ykdif pD;yGm;a&;
vkyif ef;}uD;awGukd Ekid if yH idk ðf ya&; vkyaf e&muae tpk;d &eJ@ zufpyfvyk af &;awGqD ajcOD;vSnv hf mygw,f?
54 ckESpfxJrSm wav#mufvkH; Armjynftay:aoG;pkyfvmcJhwJh bDtkdpD a&eHukr`%DeJ@tpkd;& zufpyfvkyf
ygw,f? tpkd;&u (51µ)/ t*Fvdyfu (49µ) &S,f,mowfrSwf+yD; zufpyfvkyfygw,f// armfcsD;owWK
wGi;f eJ@ t*Fvb dk m;rm; oHjzLwGi;f awGrmS vnf; zufpyfvyk yf gw,f? erRwl abmfwiG ;f udak wmh bm;rm;
aumfykd&Sif;eJ@ tpkd;&[m 1951 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmuwnf;u zufpyfvkyfxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f? EkdifiH
jcm;t&if;&Sirf sm;eJ@ tpk;d &a0yku H s tusK;d wlvyk +f yD; tcGit hf a&;awGay;&ygw,f? OD;AaqGu owWKwGi;f
wl;azmfa&;awGudk csKyfuidk yf gw,f? xm;0,f/ +rdwef @J &Sr;f jynfe,frmS &Sw d hJ owWKwGi;f awG&w
dS hJ a'oawG
rSm vrf;awGukd aiGodef;eJ@csD tukeftuscHazmufwJh wm0efukdvnf;,lygw,f?
jynfawmfompDrHudef;t& tif*sifeD,maumvdyf/ pufr_vufr_ody`Hausmif;/ pkdufysKd;a&;
ausmif;/ wd&dp>mefaq;ukoa&;ausmif;eJ@ puf±kH tvkyf±kHawG xlaxmifwnfaqmufygw,f? vkyfykdif
cGi&hf olawG tqift h oD;oD;rSm vdrn f mck;d 0Supf m;aomufciG hf tcGit hf a&;awG&=u+yD; ‘jynfawmfom’
oGm;=uygw,f?
pok;H vk;H &JΠw&m;0ifay:ayguv f mwJh tr_tcif;pm&if;t&rSmyJ (16-3-52 ae@uae 6-8-53)
ae@twGif; tusifhysuftvGJokH;pm;r_ tr_}uD;aygif; (116) r_/ yg0ifywfoufolaygif; (225) OD;/
,dkzdwfqkH;±_H;wefzkd;aiGaygif; (41612491073) usyf&SdcJh+yD;jzpfygw,f? w&m;0iftr_tcif;tjzpf
ray:vmwmawG zkH;zdxm;=uwmawGvnf; trsm;}uD;&SdcJhygw,f?
1954 ckESpf ESpfqef;ykdif;rSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tjzpftysufvkd@qkd&rSmuawmh +Adwdo# ppfrpf&Sif
tzJGŒ w&m;0if±kwfodrf;oGm;jcif;jzpfygw,f? Zefe0g&Dv (3) &ufae@rSm ±kwfodrf;oGm;ygw,f? vufsm
z&D;rif;pmcsKyft& 1951 ckEpS rf mS yxrt}udro f ufwrf;ukeq f ;Hk cJ+h yD; 'kw, d oufwrf; qufvufw;dk
cJh&muae/ 'kwd,oufwrf;ukefqkH;cgeD;rSm rlvpmcsKyftpm; ‘pmcsKyftopf’ csKyfqkdzkd@ jrefrmEkdifiH
tpkd;&u tqkdðycsuftopf wifjycJhygao;w,f? tJ'Dtqkdðycsufukd +Adwdo#wkd@bufu vufrcHyJ
vufsm-z&D;rif; pmcsKyf 'kwd,oufwrf;ukefqkH;+yD;csdefrSm +Adwdo#ppfrpf&SiftzJGŒudk ±kwfodrf;oGm;jcif;
jzpfygw,f?
+Adwdo#ppfrpf&Sif Armjynfu ±kwfodrf;oGm;+yD;wJhaemuf +Adwdo#wkd@&JŒ ppfrpf&Sifae&mrSm
tpm;xk;d ae&m,lEidk zf @dk tar&duefw@dk ajcvSr;f jyifc=hJ uygw,f? Armjynfudk yx0DEikd if aH &;t& tar&duef
wkd@&JΠurBmvkH;qkdif&m ppfa&;aoe*FAsL[mtcif;tusif;t& tar&duefwkd@ rsufaphuscJh=uygw,f?
wzufu uGefjrLepf w±kwfjynfukd +cdrf;ajcmufxm;Ekdifzkd@ urBmvkH;qkdif&m uGefjrLepftE W&m,fudk
umuG,w f m;qD;zk@d e@J wzufu xkid ;f / zdvpfyidk w f @dk rmS ajccsxm;Ekid w f hJ tar&duefppfpcef;wnfaqmuf
xm;r_rsm;eJ@ wqufwpyfwnf;jzpfatmif zefwD;wnfaqmufvkdr_a=umifhjzpfygw,f? Armjynfudk
om em;csodrf;oGif;Ekdifr,fqkd&if tar&duefwkd@&JΠtm&Sqkdif&maoe*FAsL[mtcif;tusif;[m ykdrkd
jynfhpkHckdifcef@vmzG,f&SdwJhtwGufa=umifhjzpfygw,f?
158 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ArmjynfeJ@e,fedrdwfcsif; &Snfvsm;pGmqufpyfaewJh w±kwfjynfuvnf; Armjynf&JŒtae


txm;ukd tqufrjywf tuJcwf=unfhaecJhygw,f? tar&duef&JŒajcvSrf;awGukd *±kwpkduf owd
xm;=unfhae+yD; olŒEkdifiH&JŒvkHòcHa&;twGuf tav;wif;ae&csdefjzpfygw,f? w±kwfeJ@ tar&duef
xdyfxkdufqkHcJh&wJh ukd&D;,m;ppfyGJ}uD;+yD;wm ylylaEG;aEG;yJ&Sdao;csdefjzpfygw,f? tar&duefawG&JŒ
ppfaoe*FAsL[m &nfreS ;f csux f J Armjynfusa&mufroGm;a&;[m w±kwjf ynftwGuf ta&;}uD;aeyg
w,f?
1954 ck ZGefvxJrSm qGpfZmvefEkdifiH *sDeDAmujyefvmwJh w±kwfjynf0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvkdif;
[m 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek&JŒ zdwf=um;csuft& &efukefòrdŒukd (2) &ufwm 0ifa&muf&yfem;ygw,f? ESpfEkdifiH
tusK;d wlupd &P yfawGudkf aqG;aEG;=u+yD; orkid ;f 0if a=unmcsuw f ck xGuaf y:vmcJyh gw,f? tJ'guawmh
“twlwuGyl;wGJaexkdifa&;rl}uD; (5) csuf” qkdwmyg0ifwJh ESpfEkdifiH yl;wJGa=unmcsufjzpfygw,f?
ZGefv (29) &ufae@rSm xkwfjyefa=unmcJhygw,f? 'Drl}uD; (5) csuf[m EkdifiHwumhqufqHa&;e,f/
EkdifiHwumh EkdifiHa&;e,fy,frSm aemifxif&Sm;ay:vGifvmr,fh t"durl}uD; (5) csufjzpfcJhygw,f?
(29-4-54) ae@rSm w±kwf/ tdENd, oabmwlnDcsufrSmvnf; rl}uD; (5) csufygygw,f//) csLtifvkdif;
u ArmjynfutjyefrSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ekukd yDuif;òrdŒokd@ cspf=unfa&;c&D; vma&mufvnfywfzkd@ zdwf
=um;oGm;cJhygw,f?
1954 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmvrSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku w±kwf jrefrme,fjcm;ukd oGm;a&muf
avhvmpkpH rf;zk@d ‘e,fpyfa'owk;d wufr_ pkpH rf;a&;aumfr&Si’f ukd zJŒG pnf;ay;ygw,f? Akv d rf ;ª }u;D apmjrifu
h dk
OD;aqmifap+yD; ylwmtkdajrmufzuf tdENd,-jrefrm w±kwfe,fjcm;up+yD; usKdif;wkHe,f/ rJacgifjrpfe,f
jcm;txd oGm;a&muf+yD; e,fedrdwfykdif;jcm;a&;qkdif&m taxmuftxm;awGukd wwfEkdifoavmuf
pkpH rf;pkaqmif;zk@d wm0efay;ygw,f? txl;wm0efuawmh ‘0’e,ftwGi;f w±kwef w D yfawGa&mufae
w,fqw dk u
hJ pd eP @J w±kwjf ynfu axmufcaH ewJh ‘Auy’ awG w±kwjf ynfukd oifwef;oGm;wufae=u
w,fqdkwJhudpP b,favmufrSefuefa=umif; pHkprf;avhvmzdk@jzpfygw,f?
w±kwjf ynfueG jf rLepfygw[ D m ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J uGejf rLepfygwcD si;f nDaemifygwcD si;f
qufqaH &;&S±d rkH u ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D w&m;0ifapv$wo f al wGuv kd nf; w&m;0ifvufcx H m;&Sd
wm[m 1950-51 avmufuwnf;ujzpfygw,f? ocifAode;f wif acgi;f aqmifwhJ ArmjynfueG jf rLepf
ygwD ta0;a&muf A[kdaumfrDwDukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒtygt0if okH;okwfcJG+yD;a&muf&Sdvm=uwJh Arm
jynfuGefjrLepfygwDu &JabmfawG[m w±kwfjynfrSm a&muf&Sdae=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? 1949 ckESpfu
u&ifah wmfveS af &;eJ@twl ay:ayguv f mcJwh hJ ucsit
f rsK;d om; Adv
k af emfqidk ;f acgi;f aqmifwhJ vufeuf
ukdiftiftm;pk[mvnf; zqyv tpkd;&wyfrsm;eJ@ &ifqkdifwkdufyJGqif&if; aemufqkH;rSm ta&;edrfh+yD;
w±kwfjynfxJ0ifa&mufvm=uwJhtwGuf w±kwftpkd;&u vufeufawGudk ðzwfodrf;+yD; vufcHxm;
vkduf&ygw,f? tJ'ga=umifh 1950-51 xJrSmuwnf;u w±kwfjynfxJrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu
tiftm;pkwpkeJ@ Akdvfaemfqkdif;acgif;aqmifwJh tpkd;&qef@usifa&; tkyfpkwpk[m &SdaecJh+yD;jzpfygw,f?
w±kwjf ynfu ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D tpkuakd wmh nDaemifygwcD si;f tjzpf oabmxm;qufq+H y;D /
Akv
d af emfqidk ;f tpkuakd wmh tajctaet& w±kwjf ynfxJ u|0H ifvmwJh vlrsK;d a&;qkid &f m trsK;d om;i,f
tpkwpktjzpf oabmxm;+yD; vufcx H m;ygw,f? w±kwjf ynfukd ajcukw, f +l yD; Armjynfbuf0ifvy_ f

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 159


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

&Sm;rSmpkd;&drfwJhtwGuf Akdvfaemfqkdif;tpkudkvnf; e,fpyfuaewqifh w±kwfjynftwGif;ykdif;xJtxd


wpwp a&$Œajymif;ae&mcsxm;ay;cJhw,f//
w±kwfjynfu tpkd;&csif;qufqHa&;eJ@ ygwDcsif;qufqHa&;udkcGJjcm;+yD; usifhokH;aecsdefumv
jzpfygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ qufqHa&;udk nDaemifygwDcsif; qufqHa&;tjzpf ta&;xm;
qufqHaeovkd/ 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek tpkd;&eJ@qufqHa&;udkvnf; rdwf0wfrysuf qufqHa&;tjzpf rl}uD;
(5) csufabmiftwGif;uae taumif;qkH;qufqHEkdifatmif óud;yrf;tm;xkwfaecsdefjzpfygw,f?
1954 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvxJrSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek cspf=unfa&;c&D;tjzpf yDuif;udka&mufygw,f?
w±kwfacgif;aqmif}uD;awGjzpfwJh armfpDwkef;/ csLaw;/ vsLa&SmufcsD/ csLtifvkdif;wkd@eJ@ awGŒqkHygw,f?
'DZifbm (12) &ufae@rSm ESpfEkdifiHyl;wGJ a=unmcsufukdxkwfjyef+yD; ESpfEkdifiH oabmwlnDxm;=uwJh
“+idrf;csrf;pGmtwl,SOfwJGaexkdifa&;”rl}uD; (5) csufudk xyfavmif;azmfjy twnfðycJh=uygw,f?
'Dr}l uD; (5) csuf tpOf&iS o f efaezd@k tav;teufxm;a&;/ aumifppf0efcsKyfrsm; tjyeftvSex f m;a&;
tusK;d wlupd rP sm; aqmif&u G zf vS,af &;/ Ekid if o H m;rsm;ukd umuG,af pmifah &Smufay;a&;awGtjyif e,fed
rdwjf y\emeJ@ywfouf+yD; csp=f unfru _ kd t&if;cHum oHwrefenf;vrf;rsm;eJ@ ajz&Si;f a&;awG yg0ifcyhJ g
w,f? w±kwf-Arm e,fedrdwfjyoemajz&Sif;a&;twGuf w&m;0if wdwdusus pwifwJh yxrqkH;ajc
vSrf;vdk@ ajym&rSmjzpfygw,f? OD;Ek w±kwfjynf c&D;xGufcgeD; 0ef}uD;tpnf;ta0;wckrSm 0ef}uD;csKyf
csLtifvkdif;eJ@ awGŒwJhtcg w±kwf-Arm e,fedrdwfowfrSwfa&;udpP aqG;aEG;cJhzkd@ 0ef}uD;tm;vkH;u
OD;Ekukd 0kdif;+yD;rSmvkduf=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? OD;Ek&JŒ w±kwfjynfcspf=unfa&;c&D;[m rl}uD; (5) csufukd
xyfavmif;azmfxkwftwnfðywJhc&D;jzpfovkd/ w±kwf-Arm e,fedrdwfowfrSwfa&;twGuf atmif
atmifjrifjrif pwifEidk cf w hJ chJ &D;vk@d ajymEkid ±f rHk u w±kw-f tar&duef csp=f unfa&;w&m;udyk g ajymjzpf
atmifajymcJhygao;w,f?
'Dc&D;[m OD;EktwGuf jynfyeJ@ywfouf+yD; atmifjrifwJhc&D;wckvdk@ qkd&rSmjzpfayr,fh/ cspf
=unfa&;vrf;a=umif;zGiEhf idk cf w hJ ,fv@dk q&dk rSm jzpfayr,f/h jynfwiG ;f eJ@ywfoufv@dk uawmh OD;ausm+f idr;f
eJ@ trkef;oHo, pcJh&wJh c&D;ozG,fvnf;jzpfcJhygw,f? ta=umif;u OD;EkeJ@ OD;ausmf+idrf; ‘qefudpP’
ra=ureyf jy\emay:cJh&wmvnf; 'Dc&D;twGif;rSm jzpfygw,f?
'Dc&D;twGif;rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku csLtifvkdif;eJ@awGŒwJhtcg Armjynf *kda'gifawGtwGif; pkykH
xm;&wJh qefa[mif;awGukd a&mif;xkwfcsifvkd@ qefa[mif;a&mif;a&; aqG;aEG;cJhygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf
csLtifvidk ;f u 0,fr,fv@kd uwday;vku d wf thJ wGuf OD;Eku Armjynfudk qefa[mif;wefcsed f b,favmuf
&Sad ewm/ bmqefawG&adS ew,fqw dk m vSr;f ar;cJyh gw,f? Armjynfu jyefvnfajz=um;cJjh cif; r&Sv d @dk qdk
ygw,f? tJ'Dvkdar;jref;wmudk OD;ausmf+idrf;uvnf; ‘rod’ vdk@qkdygw,f? tJ'D qefudpPeJ@ywfouf+yD;
OD;Eku OD;ausmf+idrf; tay: oHo, pcJhw,fvkd@qkdygw,f? bmvkd@vJqkdawmh yDuif;uae &efukefukd
OD;Ek oHóud;±ku d +f yD; qefupd aP r;wJah e@rmS yJ OD;ausm+f idr;f acgi;f aqmifwhJ ‘qefqyfaumfrw D ’D u qefa[mif;
awGa&mif;ypfvu kd w
f t
hJ wGuf jzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek vmatmiftxdrapmifb h J bmrS jyefvnfajz
=um;jcif;rðybJ wufokwf±kduf a&mif;ypfvkdufwJhtwGufa=umifh OD;Ek u oHo, p0ifcJhwmvkd@qkdyg
w,f? OD;Eku -
(1) OD;ausmf+idrf;[m qefuufbdeuf tpnf;ta0;udk OD;Ek r&Sd&if wufavhr&SdbJ/ tck
tpnf;ta0;usrS wufjcif;?
160 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

(2) OD;Eku oHóud;±kdufar;+yD;aemuf qefa&mif;zkd@qkH;jzwfwJhtcg twGif;0ef OD;bpef; u


OD;EkqD ta=umif;=um;zkd@ owday;wifjywmudk OD;ausmf+idrf;u jiif;y,fcJhjcif;?
(3) qefukefonfawG arG;xm;wJh t&m&SdawGuwqifh w±kwfEkdifiHukd qefa&mif;awmhr,fh
udpP qefukefonfawG odoGm;+yD; qef0,fzkd@ tavmw}uD; wif'goGif; vkyfudkifoGm;
w,fvkd@ ,lqjcif;eJ@
(4) 0ef}uD;csKyf udk,fwkdifowfrSwfxm;wJh tmrcHaiGukd 0ef}uD;csKyf rodbJ av#mhay;aqmif
&GufcJhjcif;awGa=umifh oHo,0ifcJhwmjzpfw,fvkd@qkdygw,f?
OD;ausm+f ird ;f acgi;f aqmif+y;D qefuufbed ufaumfrw D uD yifvaHk ':Ek,Ofe@J yifvHk a': =unf=unf
ukd qefa[mif;wefEpS o f ed ;f a&mif;csay;cJyh gw,f? tmrcHaiG (5µ) owfrw S x
f m;wmukd (2½µ) eJ@av#mh
cs+yD; a&mif;ay;cJhygw,f?
w±kwfjynfc&D;u OD;Ek jyefa&mufwJhtcg 0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvkdif;eJ@ qefudpPuwdysuf&wJh
twGuaf =umifah &m oHo,a=umihyf g OD;Ek awmfawmfa'gycG yhJ gw,f? tJ'rD a=ueyfcrhJ _ rsK;d aph[m OD;Eke@J
OD;ausm+f idr;f =um; pwifc+hJ yD; aemif zqyv tuGt J +yJawGqt D xd OD;wnfomG ;cJw h ,fv@dk awmif qk=d u
ygw,f? OD;EkeJ@ OD;ausmf+idrf;=um; ESpfukd,fhwpdwf vkyfcJh=u&muae rnD!Gwfr_pwifcJh+yD; òyduGJr_qD
a&Sα_&mrSm 'DqefudpP[m tcsufwcsuftjzpf yg0ifcJhygw,f?
1954 ckESpfukeftxd tajctaeudk csKyf=unfhr,fqkd&ifawmh jynfwGif;ppf}uD; w[kef;[kef;
awmifavmifaeqJjzpfwmudak wGŒ&ygr,f? jynfwiG ;f ppfut dk a=umif;jy+yD; ppfwyf}uD; qufvufw;dk csŒJ
aewmawGŒ&ygw,f? acsmufòrŒd rSm trSwf (10) ajcvsiw f yfr[mXmecsKyf topfwckzŒGJ pnf;+y;D trSwf
(105) (106) (107) ajcjrefwyf&if; (3) &if; xyfrHzGJŒpnf;ygw,f? jynfy&efumuG,fa&;eJ@ jynfwGif;
aomif;usef;r_ESdrfESif;a&;twGufqkd+yD; pypfzkdif;,m; wkdufav,mOftopfawG tpPa&;EkdifiHuae
0,f,lcJhygw,f? tpPa&;EkdifiHudk ppfzufukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJΠapv$wfavhvmapovkd ppfvufeuf
ypPnf;xkwfvkyfa&;twGuf oifwef;ykd@v$wfwmawGvnf;vkyfcJhygw,f? 54 ckESpfwyfrª;rsm; nDvmcH
up+yD; =unf; omru (a&) (av) wyfrª;rsm;yg wufa&mufcGifhðy+yD; =unf;/ a&/ av wyfrawmf
wpkwpnf;wnf;jzpfa&; tm;xkwfjyifqifvmwm awGŒ&ygw,f?
auwDat pDrHudef; a&;qJGolawGu 1954 ckESpfrSm jynfwGif;aomif;usef;r_tm;vkH; csKyf+idrf;
oGm;vdrfhr,fvkd@ cef@rSef;+yD;a&;qGJcJh=uovkd/ tm%m& zqqkd&S,ftpkd;&ukd,fwkdif tðywfwdkufa&;
aºuG;a=umf+yD; (54) ckEpS rf mS jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f oltm;vk;H csKyf+idr;f oGm;zk@d ppfa&;enf;eJ@ tpGr;f ukef
wkdufcdkufóud;pm;cJhayr,fh (54) ckESpftukefrSm jynfwGif;ppf}uD;uawmh qufvufawmufavmif
aeqJjzpfygw,f? tðywfwu dk af &;enf;eJ@ jynfwiG ;f ppfudk b,fvrdk S csKyf+ird ;f atmifvyk v f @dk r&Ekid af =umif;
om"uxljyovkd &Scd yhJ gw,f? 'gayr,fh zqqk&d , S rf sm;[m tðywfwu dk af &;udyk J qufvufuidk pf x JG m;
=uovkd wyfrawmfuvnf; aomif;use;f olacsre_ ;f a&;qkw d muko d m oJ}uD;rJ}uD;qifEcJ$ yhJ gw,f? u&if
jynfe,frmS odEd< ppfqifa&;qkw d m qifEaJ$ ecJ+h yD;/ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwAD [ked @J tvHerD sm;&S&d m yckuLU
c±kdifukd txl;ajcvsifwyf&if;rsm;eJ@ ppfqifa&;awGvkyfcJhygw,f?
jynfyusL;ausmfoljzpfwJh w±kwfjzLjy\emuvnf; qufvuf}uD;xGm;aeqJjzpf+yD;/ puf
wifbm (14) &ufae@u (21) &uftwGif; wyfom; (5000) xGufay;&ef av;EkdifiHaumfrDwDukd

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 161


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

wifjycJah yr,fh w±kwjf zLrsm;u raxrJjh rifvyk af ecJw h t hJ wGuf aemufq;Hk rSm Akv d rf ;ª csKyf ausmaf Zmacgi;f
aqmifwhJ bk&ifah emifppfqifa&;}uD;eJ@ armif;xkw&f ygw,f? bk&ifah emif ppfqifa&;}uD;[m atmifjrif
wJh ppfqifa&;}uD;jzpfayr,fh qkwfcGmoGm;&wJh w±kwfjzLawG[m avmeJ@xkdif; e,fpyfawGxJ ,m,D
0ifajy;oGm;jcif;omjzpfygw,f? ,m,Dqkwfay;&jcif;tjzpfyJ oabmxm;ygw,f? pufwifbm (17)
&ufae@rSm jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒ ±kwfodrf;xGufcGgcJhayr,fh aemufykdif;rSm jyef+yD; befaumufaqG;
aEG;yGJrSm rsufESmcsif;qkdif=ujyefygw,f? aqG;aEG;=ujyefygw,f? w±kwfjzL usL;ausmfr_jy\em[m
(54) ckESpfukeftxdvnf; }uD;rm;+rJ }uD;rm;aeqJjzpfygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek &JŒ jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;[mvnf; rkd;wvkH; avwvkH; qufvufaºuG;
a=umfaeqJjzpfygw,f? jynfoal wGtzk@d jynfawmfrom&ayr,fh zqqk&d , S af wGe@J uefx±ku d f ukeof nf
tjrwf}uD;pm;awG tzk@d awmh jynfawmfomcJ=h uygw,f? pm;p&m 0g;p&m bke;f p&m r[m tcGit hf a&;
}uD;awGeJ@ yJGawmf}uD;ozG,fjzpfcJhygw,f? zqqkd&S,f xdyfoD;}uD;awGtcsif;csif; tkyfpkzJGŒ tiftm;òydif
+yD; wa,mufwayguf xif&mvkypf &m tcGit hf a&;tjynft h 0&&Scd =hJ u+yD; wkid ;f jynf&ŒJ b¾maiGa=u;
awG ae@pOfqkH;±_H;epfemaecJh&ygw,f?
pDrHudef;qJGay;olu auwDat tar&duef/ [efwvkH; yefwvkH; aºuG;a=umf+yD; xifovkd
taumiftxnfazmf=uolawGu tm%m& zqqkd&S,fvpf xdyfoD;}uD;rsm;/ olwkd@&JΠwynfhvuf
om;awGu olckd;"m;jy tcGifhta&;orm;awG trsm;pk}uD;qkdawmh 'Drif; 'Dpkd; 'Dolckd;eJ@ 'Drkd; 'Dav
'DvlawGjzpfcJh=uygw,f?
(54) ckEpS rf mS OD;Ek&ŒJ tpGr;f aqmifEidk q f ;Hk vloal v;pm;p&m tcsut f vufudk jyygq&dk ifawmh
w±kwf0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvkdif;eJ@wGJ+yD; vufrSwfxkd;EkdifcJhwJh “+idrf;csrf;pGmtwl,SOfwJGaexkdifa&;”rl}uD;
(5)csuef @J w±kw-f Arm e,ferd w d uf pd P pwifEidk cf jhJ cif;yJjzpfygw,f? 'DZifbm (28 eJ@ 29) rSm tif'edk ;D &Sm;Ekid if H
‘bkad *g’ rSmusi;f ywJh udv k bH dk ig;Ekid if H tpnf;ta0;udw k ufc+hJ yD; tm&S-tmz&du nDvmcHwckusi;f yzk@d
jyifqif EkdifcJhygw,f?

19 55/ zqyv/ Auy/ yrnw eJ ‹ jref r mEk d i f i H a wmf


1955/

1953-54 ckEpS u
f wnf;u qefaps;awGx;dk usvmwJt h wGuf Armjynf&ŒJ t"duyk@d uek jf zpfwhJ
qefykd@ukefwefzkd;[mvnf; wESpfxufwESpf av#mhusvmygw,f? 52-53 wkef;u qefykd@ukef wefzkd;
(101³9) ukaÉ&Sd&mu 53-54 rSm (81³1) ukaÉxd xkd;usoGm;ygw,f? 54-55 a&mufawmh (80)
ukaÉ om&Sdygawmhw,f? qefa&mif;&aiG wae@wjcm;avsmhvmovkd EkdifiHjcm;t&HaiGyrm%m[m
vnf; 1954 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dwkef;u (96³81) ukaÉ&Sd&mu 1955 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv a&mufawmh
(53³32) ukaÉom usefygawmhw,f?
qefaps;ukd wwefaygif (50) atmuf rusEkdifvkd@ cef@rSef;+yD; qefa&mif;&aiGay: tajccHwGuf
csuf&if; ArmjynfvufawGŒtajctaeawGeJ@ tyfpyfqDavsmfjcif;r&SdpGm xifovdka&;qGJay;xm;wJh
auwDat pDrHudef;}uD;[mvnf; wae@wjcm;vuf!dk;xkd; ±_wfcsp&mjzpfvmcJhygw,f?
162 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)
0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vufawGŒeJ@vnf; r[yfrd/ aiGuvnf; jywfvmwJhtwGuf 1955 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvxJrSm


auwDat pDru H ed ;f ukd &yfqidk ;f ypfvu dk &f ygawmhw,f? ArmjynfrmS auwDat pDru H ed ;f edXw d o H mG ;&yg
awmhw,f?
tar&duef yg&*l}u;D awG a&;qGw J ifjywJh auwDat pD;yGm;a&;pDru H ed ;f awG edwXd o H mG ;&ayr,fh
tar&duef pDtkdifat aemufcHðy autrfwD usL;ausmfr_}uD;uawmh tqkH;rowfEkdifao;wJhtwGuf
1955 ckEpS /f rwfvxJrmS yJ Akv d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm acgi;f aqmif+yD; &ef}uD;atmifppfqifa&;}uD; qifE&J$ jyef
ygw,f? 1954 ckESpf/ rwfv up+yD; bk&ifhaemifppfqifa&;}uD; qifE$JcJh&ovkd 1955 ckESpf/ rwfvu
p+yD; &ef}uD;atmifppfqifa&;}uD; qifE&J$ jyefwmjzpfygw,f? Akv d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm [m 'Dppfqifa&;}uD;
awGudk qifE$Jzkd@ rjzpfpavmufwyfav;awGudkom xkwfE_wf,lcGifh&+yD;/ owif;pm pme,fZif;awGu
wqifh wyf}uD;awG tvkH;t&if;eJ@ ppfqifa&;xGuf&av[ef ppfy&d,m,ftzkHzkH usio hf ;Hk +y;D / uk,
d wf idk f
a&SŒwef;xGuf wku d cf udk Of ;D pD;cJ&h wmjzpfygw,f? wk;d wufzŒGJ pnf;xm;wJh wyftrsm;pk}uD;ukd wkid ;f &if;om;
tcsi;f csi;f wku d cf u dk &f wJh jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;twGi;f rSmyJ ykaH tmtok;H ðy wku d cf udk af pcJ=h uwmjzpfygw,f?
jynfytE W&m,f tjywfwkdufckdufa&; jynfyusL;ausmfoludk tjywfarmif;xkwfa&;xuf jynfwGif;
vufeufukdif tiftm;pkawGtay: tðywfwkdufa&;udkom zqqkd&S,ftpkd;&u aZmif;ay;cJhygw,f?
Akvd rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm&JŒ &Gy&f yG cf |cH |H OD;pD;wku d cf u
dk rf a_ =umifh av;Ekid if t H pnf;ta0; aqG;aEG;yJaG wG
ta=umif;jy+yD; 54§55 ckESpftwGif; w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfa&;orm; (7000) avmuf xGufcGmoGm;cJh
=uygw,f? 'gvJ tkrd if;rpGr;f '%f&m&olawG cGijhf yefawGe@J rdom;pk0ifawGyg a&maESmpm&if;jy xGucf mG
oGm;=uwmvkd@qkdygw,f? ta&;edrfhoGm;=uwJh w±kwfjzLrsm;[m avmeJ@xkdif; bufukd qkwfcGmoGm;
=u+yD; jyefvnfajcukwf,lzkd@ jyif+rJjyifcJh=uygw,f? ArmjynfxJuae t+yD;tykdif at;at;aq;aq;
xGucf mG oGm;a&; oabmxm; b,fwek ;f urS r&Scd =hJ uvd@k qydk gw,f? tar&duef[m Oa&myrSm aewk;d
ppfpmcsKyf tzJGŒzGJŒ+yD; taumiftxnfazmfcJhovkd ta&SŒawmiftm&Sudkvnf; qD;wkd;zJGŒ+yD; Arm
jynfukdusKH;oGif;Ekdifzkd@ óud;pm;aecsdefjzpfygw,f? w±kwfjzLukdudkif+yD; Armjynfukd zdtm;ay;csifwJh &nf
&G,fcsufvnf;&Sdw,fvkd@ EkdifiHa&;okH;oyfolawG wkd;wufwJh tiftm;pkawGu jrifcJh=uygw,f?
w±kwfjynfuvnf; Armjynf tar&duefwkd@&JŒ ppftkyfpk zJGŒpnf;a&;xJ a&mufroGm;a&;[m
tifrwefta&;}uD;wJh jy\emtjzpf ±_jrifxm;ygw,f? xkdif;/ zdvpfykdif/ xkdif0rf/ ygupPwefwkd@[m
tar&duef&JŒ qD;wkd;ppftkyfpk0ifawGjzpfvm=uygw,f? jyifopfe,fcsJŒorm;awG qkwfcGmoGm;&wJh
tif'cdk sKid ;f em;a'oukv d nf; tar&duefawG toGit f rsK;d rsK;d eJ@ ae&m,lEidk zf @dk pwif yg0ifywfoufvm
cJh=uygw,f? 'kwd,urBmppft+yD;rSm e,fcsJŒorm;a=umifh ESpfjcrf;uJGcJh&wJh EkdifiHawGxJrSm tm&Su
uk;d &D;,m; eJ@ AD,uferfw@dk [m txift&Sm;qk;H om"uawGjzpfcyhJ gw,f? uk;d &D;,m;ppfyrJG mS tar&duef
yg0ifywfoufco hJ vkd AD,uferfrmS vnf; jyifopfawGqw k cf mG t+yD; tar&duefawG yg0ifywfoufvm
cJhygw,f? awmifAD,uferfrSm ajc±_wfvmcJh=uygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwD OD;aqmiftm%m&xm;wJh
ajrmufAD,uferfudk òzdcGif;ypfa&;twGuf awmifAD,uferfbufuae tar&duefawG yg0ifulnDpGuf
zufvmcJh=uygw,f? avmeJ@ uarBm'D;,m;EkdifiHawGxJvnf; tar&duefwkd@&JΠppfa&; pGufzufr_ajc
vSrf;awG ododomom jzpfay:vmaeygw,f? xkdif0rfudk tar&duef xD;&dyfatmufrSm qGJoGif;xm;
+yD;/ wkdif0rf&JŒ w±kwfjzLvufeufudkifwyfawGukd Arm/ avm/ xkdif;e,fpyfwav#mufrSm ae&m&,l

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 163


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

v_yf&Sm;aeapjcif;tm;jzifh tar&duefwkd@&JΠtm&Sqkdif&m ppfa&;&nfrSef;csufawGtwGuf tar&duef


ppfwyf}uD; wwyfcsxm;ay;xm;ovkd tok;H 0ifaecJyh gw,f? xkid ;f Ekid if u H v kd nf; ‘qDw;dk ’ xJ w&m;0if
qGJoGif;+yD;wJhtcg w±kwfjzL ulrifwefwyfrsm;tzkd@ ajcukwf,lp&m tykdifae&m wck&Sd+yD;jzpfwJhtjyif
Arm/ avm/ xkdif;e,fpyfwavsmuf ppfa&;v_yf&Sm;p&m ‘*Gif’ us,fvmcJhygw,f? Armjynfbufu
wku d x
f wk cf &H wJt
h cg xkid ;f eJ@ avmxJ qkwaf y;+yD; tajcpku d wf nf&EdS idk cf iG &hf aeovkd tajctaeaumif;
vmwJhtcg ArmjynfxJ jyef0ifa&mufvmEkdifcGifhvnf; vG,fulaecJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh Armjynf&JŒ
w±kwjf zLusL;ausmo f rl sm; jy\em[m t+yD;tjywf ajz&Si;f vk@d r&wJh jy\emwckvjkd zpfaecJyh gw,f?
tar&d uefwkd@&Jh tm&Sqkdif&may:vpDawGeJ@ wkduf±kdufywfoufaecJhygw,f? Armjynf tm%m&
zq-qkd&S,f rsm;uvnf; ‘e,fcsJŒ tE W&m,fxuf uGefjrLepftE W&m,fu ykda=umufp&maumif;
w,f’ vkd@ cH,lcsrSwf ukdifpGJxm;=uawmh w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfolrsm; armif;xkwfypfa&;[m t"du
ta&;}uD;wm0efr[kwfovkd jzpfaecJhygw,f? tar&duefe,fcsJŒ&JŒ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;/ uGefjrLepf
tE W&m,fwm;qD;um uG,fa&;&yfwnfcsufeJ@ Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfrsm;&JΠuGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;
uGefjrLepfawGudk tðywfwkdufa&; oabmxm;&yfwnfcsuf[m tusKd;pD;yGm;wlay:rSm ajcpkH&yfr_csif;
wlaecJh=uygw,f? w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfcH&r_jy\em[m &ifemp&maumif;wJh trsKd;om;a&;jy\em
}uD;jzpfaewmawmif/ zkH;zkH;zdzdvkyfxm;+yD; tar&duefqef@usifa&;ukd wcGef;wyg'rS qef@usifajym
=um;jcif;rvkyfcJh=uyg? qkd&S,fvpfxdyfoD;}uD; OD;ausmf+idrf;u “ppfrSefwJh uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;orm;
aumif;wa,muf[m ppfrSefwJh trsKd;om;a&;0g'Djzpfw,f” qkdwJh azmufjyefwJht,ltqudk udkifpJG
xm;ovkd OD;AaqG&JΠEkid if aH &;uvnf; uGejf rLepfwu kd af &;om t"dujzpfcyhJ gw,f? olw@kd EpS Of ;D pvk;H [m
ArmjynfrmS “uGejf rLepfygwDusqkH;v#if qkd&S,fvpfygwD tvkdvkdwufvmvdrfhrnf” qkdwJh t,ltq
udkom vufukdifðyxm;cJh=uygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ekuawmh w±kwef @J awGŒ&if tar&duefawG rqd;k a=umif;ajym/ tar&duefe@J awGŒ
&if w±kwfawGrqkd;a=umif;ajym+yD; tar&duefcspf=unfa&;a&m w±kwfcspf=unfa&;yg òydifwlvkyf+yD;
ol@&JŒ a&$jynfat;t,ltqukd vufawGŒusifhokH;Ekdifzkd@ jyifqifaecJhygw,f?
1955 ckEpS /f {+yDvrSm befa'gi;f nDvmcHusi;f yygw,f? tm&S tmz&du Ekid if aH cgi;f aqmifawG
awmfawmfrsm;rsm;wufa&muf=uygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ekvnf; wufa&mufovkd w±kwf0ef}uD;csKyf
csLtifvidk ;f vnf; wufa&mufygw,f? tdE, dN u ae±_;/ tif'edk ;D &Sm;u qlumEk/d uarBm'D;,m;u oD[mEk
wkd@awGvnf; wufa&muf=uygw,f?
aemif ay:xGuv f mwJh befa'gi;f rl}uD; (10) csuq f wdk m/ ae±_;/ csLtifvidk ;f eJ@ OD;Ekw@dk a=unm
cJh=uwJh “+idrf;csrf;pGm twlwuG yl;wJGaexkdifa&;rl}uD; (5) csuf” tajccHay:u xyfavmif;rGrf;rHxm;
wmomjzpfygw,f? “befa'gi;f rl}uD; (10) csu”f rSm Armjynfu 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek &JŒ tcef;u¾vnf;
xifxif&Sm;&Sm; yg0ifcJhygw,f? w±kwfjynf&JŒ ta&mifwifay;csufeJ@ OD;Ek ta&mifxGufvmcJhwmvkd@
vnf; EkdifiHa&;tuJcwfrsm;u qkdprSwfðycJh=uygw,f? EkdifiHwumhqufqHa&;e,fy,frSm OD;Ek *k%f
wufcJhwJhESpf[m 1955 ckESpfu pw,fvkd@awmif ajym&rSmjzpfygw,f?
EkdifiHwumrSm OD;Ek *k%fwufayr,fh jynfwGif;rSmawmh OD;Ek *k%fysufp&mawG jzpfay:vmyg
w,f? rd;k wvk;H avwvk;H [pf+yD; OD;Ek uk, d w f idk f pum;vk;H vSvS a&G;+yD;aºuG;a=umfprD H taumiftxnf

164 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

azmfvu dk wf hJ ‘jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f ’ }uD;uawmh (55) ckEpS t f wGi;f rSmyJ cg;usK;d oGm;ygw,f? t&if;u
vJawmh tzsm;xif;jzpfovdk (55) ckEpS /f Zefe0g&rD mS ‘auwDat’ pDru H ed ;f &yfqidk ;f vku d &f +yD;wJah emuf
jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f }u;D [mvnf; a&pkaH rsmpðycJ&h ygawmhw,f? jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f }u;D bma=umifh
ysuf&ovJqkdwm tajz&Sm=unfhr,fqkd&if wkdif;jynf&JŒ vufawGŒtajctaeeJ@rukdufnDwJh pDrHudef;
awGukd auwDatuqGaJ y;cJ+h yD;/ vma&mufywfouf=uwJh Ekid if jH cm;yg&*lqo dk al wGuvnf; rwefwq
vpm/ rwefwqtcGifhta&;awGudkom &,lcHpm;&if; Armjynftay: apwemrrSefcJhwmawG&Sdjcif;/
qefaps;udk wwef aygif (50) atmuf rusEikd q f w dk hJ pdwuf ;l ,Ofwu G q f r_rsm;/ 1954 ckEpS rf mS aomif;use;f
oltm;vk;H csKyf+idr;f oGm;vdrrhf ,fqw dk hJ rSe;f qr_rsm;eJ@a&mar$+yD; pDru H ed ;f }uD;ukd a&;qGw J ifjycJjh cif;a=umifh
'D ‘auwDatpDrHudef;’ awGudk tajccHxm;wJh jynfawmfom pDrHudef;}uD;[m ysufjym;cJh&wmjzpfyg
w,f? 'g[m tcsufwcsufyJjzpfygw,f?
aemufwcsuu f jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f ukd taumiftxnfazmf=uwJh tpk;d &tzJŒG xdyo f ;D }u;D
awGukd,fwkdif tkyfpkzJGŒ tiftm;òydifae=u+yD; tykdiftpm;&&m ukd,fhae&m ukd,fxifovkd vkyfukdifae
=u&if; oef&moef&m pDru H ed ;f awGudk csrw S t
f aumiftxnfazmfae=uvk@d jzpfygw,f? v,f,mu¾eJ@
pufr_u¾/ or0g,ru¾awG[m qufpyfr_&Sd&Sd nd‡nd‡E_dif;E_dif; taumiftxnfazmf&r,fhtpm;
jy'g;wvrf;oHwvrf;vkjd zpfaecJ=h u+yD; tm%m&qk&d , S yf gwt D wGi;f aumvdyt f yk ef @J bke;f }uD;ausmif;
tkyf&JŒ *kd%f;*%òydifyJGt=um; csdwfqufrrd xifovkdtaumiftxnfazmfcJh=uvkd@vnf;jzpfygw,f?
aemufq;Hk wcsuu f tqift h oD;oD;&Sd zqqk&d , S rf sm;[m rw&m;ojzifh ck;d 0Sucf =hJ u/ bk;H cJ=h u/
pm&if;tif;vdrfvnfcJh=u ukd,fusKd;&SmcJh=uwJhtwGufa=umifhjzpfygw,f? Awvp u trawmfa=u;/
ajrcGeaf =u; aumufyo J ;D ESH a&mif;0,fa=u;awGtay: ck;d =u/ bk;H =u/ vufoif&h mpm;awmfac:a&;vkyf
=u/ pm&if;aysmuf tif;aysmuf *kad 'giaf ysmufvyk =f uwmawG wjynfv;Hk tES@H jzpfay: cJo h vkd or0g,r
eJ@ pufr_vkyfief;/ taqmuftOD;wnfaqmufa&; pDrHudef;vkyfief;awGbufuvnf; uefx±kdufeJ@
aygi;f ukeo f nfe@J aygi;f +yD; rw&m;pD;yGm;&Sm=u/ tjrwfxw k =f u/ vufajymif;vufvcJ$ sxm;a0iS/ rwef
wq0g;òrdpm;aomuf uk, d u f sK;d &SmcJ=h uwmawG ae&ma'otoD;oD;rSm ausmrf aumif; =um;raumif;
jzpfay: cJhygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u owif;pmawGay:rSm ‘Awvp}uD; trawmfa=u;awG bkH;vkdufjyef+yD’
‘qkd&S,fvpf}uD; 0g;vkdufjyef+yD’ qkdwJh owif;awG[m ae@pOfowif;awGvkd jzpfaecJhygw,f? b0opf
pDrHudef;qkdwmawGrSmvnf; wESpf (10) ukaÉavmuf/ aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfief;awGrSm (6) ukaÉ
avmuf[m tv$JokH;pm;r_awGa=umifh avvGifhqkH;±_H;cJh&w,fqkdygw,f?
'ga=umifh jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f awGudk jynfawmfrompDru H ed ;f awGv@dk awmif vlxu k ac:a0:
avSmifajymif uifyeG ;f wyfay;cJ=h uygw,f? OD;Ek&ŒJ ‘jynfawmfom’ qkw d hJ vSvyS y pum;vk;H [m avSmif
ajymifoa&mfp&m pum;vk;H wckozG,f jzpfcyhJ gw,f? t"dyg` ,t f rsK;d rsK;d eJ@ ajymif=u avSmif=u oa&mfchJ
=uwmawGvnf; ay:cJhygw,f?
jynfawmfompDru H ed ;f }uD; cg;usK;d +yD; a&pkeaf r#m&wJt h csed rf mS jynfawmfom&JΠajc&mvuf&m
tjzpf ajymp&m&,fvkd@ usefcJhwmu tnmaus;vuf rkd;acgifa&&Sm;&yf0ef;a'o aus;&GmwcsKdŒrSm
usecf w hJ hJ ‘jynfawmfomwGi;f ’ qkw d meJ@ ‘uE mW &yif’ awGy&J ydS gawmhw,f? ayw&m ESp&f mavmuftxd
oHyu dk v f ;Hk av;cs+yD; ajray:rSm cg;apmif;omomavmuftjrifh oHyu dk vf ;Hk xGm qkid u f , kd x f nfiw k w f w k f

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 165


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

eJ@ wa*smif;a*smif; vufqGJp&m oHarmif;wHwyf/ t0dpda&wGif;av;awGukd ‘jynfawmfomwGif;’


vk@d ac: =uygw,f? tnmwcGif pdr;f vef;pkad jya&;twGuq f +dk yD; av,mOfysaH y:uae }uJcsay;cJw h mvk@d
vnf;qkd=uwJh ‘tpPa&;’ u o,fvmwmvm;/ b,fuo,fvmwmvJqkdwm odyfruGJjym;vSwJh
uE mW &yif qkw d mawGuawmh tnma'ow0ku d f awmx+yD; &Sio f efuse&f pfcyhJ gw,f? ql;awG tòydi;f
t±kdif;eJ@ vleif;rdvnf; tE W&m,f/ u|JEGm;awGtzkd@vnf; roufomvSwJh uE Wm&yifawG usef&pfcJh
ygw,f?
'D 1955 ckEpS x f rJ mS yJ tpk;d &eJ@ t"dutwku d t f cHvnf;jzpf vufeufuidk af wmfveS af &; qifEJ$
aewJh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD (Auy) [m ‘55 vrf;pOf’ ukd w&m;0if azmfxkwfvkdufygw,f? 55
vrf;pOfudk jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;/ jynfwiG ;f +ird ;f csr;f a&;vrf;pOfv@dk ac:ygw,f? 55 vrf;pOf[m ‘ppfa&;csKd
Ekid if aH &;yk’d qkw d hJ azmfxw k of eH @J twl jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpzJ @dk / jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&; jyefvnfwnfaqmuf
zkd@ tqkdðyxm;ygw,f? 1951 ckESpfwkef;u csrSwfxm;cJhwJhvrf;pOfuvnf; ‘'Drdkua&pD+idrf;csrf;a&;
!Ge@f aygi;f tpk;d &vrf;pOf’ omjzpfcyhJ gw,f? vrf;pOf (2)ck pvk;H rSm ‘+idr;f csr;f a&;’ ukd tav;wif;azmfjy
cJhwmawGŒ&ygw,f? jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;ukd tav;xm;E_d;aqmfcJhwm awGŒ&ygw,f? 55 vrf;pOfrSm
=uawmh jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;udk xdyfpnf;wif acgif;wyf+yD;ukd OD;wnfazmfjycJhwmawGŒ&ygw,f?
1955 ckEpS x f rJ mS yJ zqyv tpd;k &u azmfvu dk wf muawmh ‘ysLapmxD;’ pDru H ed ;f jzpfygw,f?
Auy tygt0if jynfwGif;vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkawGukd ppfwyfeJ@ tðywfwkdufa&;
ay:vpDudkifpJG+yD; tjyif;txef xkd;ppfqif wkdufckdufaewmukd tm;r&ao;yJ ppfwyf}uD;udk tquf
rjywf wdk;csJŒwnfaqmufaewmukd tm;r&ao;yJ aomif;usef;olESdrfESif;a&;eJ@ &yf&Gm+idrf0yfydjym;a&;
twGuq f k+d y;D ‘ysLapmxD;’ ukd zJŒG pnf;zk@d jyifqifwmjzpfygw,f? ppfwyf[m twGi;f wyfjzpf+y;D ppfwyfudk
tjyifuae taxmuftulðyzk@d / ysLapmxD;ukd tjyifwyftjzpfwnfaqmufz@dk &nf&, G w f mjzpfygw,f?
ysLapmxD;udk 1955 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmvrSm 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek OuUÏtjzpfaqmif&GufwJh trsKd;om;
umuG,fa&;aumifpDqkH;jzwfcsuft& zJGŒpnf;apwmvkd@qkdayr,fh pufwifbmv (14) &ufae@rSm
r*Fvm'kHrSmusif;ywJh wyfrawmfnDvmcHrSmuwnf;u ppfwyfu 'DysLapmxD;pDrHudef;ukd zwf=um;
wifjy aqG;aEG;cJh=u+yD;jzpfaewm awGŒ&ygw,f?
ppfwyf[m ppfwyfacwfrDwkd;wufa&;twGuf ppfbufavhvma&;tzGJŒawG zGJŒ+yD; EdkifiHjcm;
wkdif;jynfawGukd apv$wfwm avhvmapwm vufeuf0,f,l pkaqmif;wmawGvnf; 55 ckESpfxJrSm
trsm;qkH;ðyvkyfcJhygw,f? 55 ckESpf/ {+yDvqef;rSm Akdvfrª;csKyf oef;az/ Akdvfrª;}uD; wifaz/ Akdvfrª;}uD;
armifarmifw@dk acgi;f aqmifwhJ tzJŒG [m tzJŒG (2) zJŒG cJ+G yD; ,l*pdk vm;AD;,m;/ taemuf*smr%D/ tpPa&;/
jyifopfw@dk uo dk mG ;cJyh gw,f? ,l*pdk vm;AD;,m;u ay;tyfr,fh wyfr[mwckpm vufeufc, J rf; rD;ausmuf
eJ@ 0efwifwd&p>mefawGudkyg vufcH&,lcJhygw,f? usnfqH (2) oef;xkwfvkyfEkdifwJh pufukdvnf;
taemuf*smr%DEkdifiH z&pf0gemukr`%D uae 55 ckESpf/ rwfv (9) &ufae@uwnf;u pmcsKyfcsKyfqkd
0,f,lcJh+yD;jzpfygw,f?
55 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvrSm ypPnf;axmufyHha&;0ef}uD; Akdvfrif;acgif eJ@twl ppfzufukd,fpm;
vS,fawG[m tpPa&;/ ,l*kdpvm;AD;,m;/ [efa*&D/ csufukdpvkdAufuD;,m;/ ta&SŒ*smr%DeJ@
qkdAD,uf wkd@udkvnf; oGm;a&mufcJh=ujyefygw,f?

166 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tJ'D pufwifbmvxJrSmyJ w±kwfjynfumuG,fa&;0ef}uD;&JŒ zdwf=um;csuft& w±kwfjynf


c&D;udkvnf; AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; udk,fwkdif acgif;aqmif+yD; oGm;a&mufcJh=ujyefao;w,f? w±kwfjynf
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;&JŒ zdwf=um;csuft& w±kwfjynfc&D;udkvnf; AkdvfcsKyf}uD; ae0if; udk,fwkdifacgif;
aqmif+yD; oGm;a&mufcJh=ujyefygw,f?
1955 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (28) &ufae@rSm ppfOD;pD;csKyfukd umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfvkd@ trnf
ajymif;vJac:a0:cJ+h yD;/ a&wyfO;D pD;csKyfudk 'kw, d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf (a&)/ avwyfO;D pD;csKyfudk 'kumuG,f
a&;OD;pD;csKyf (av) vk@d ajymif;vJ ac:a0: cJo h vk/d atmufwb dk m (1) &ufae@up+y;D umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyu f dk
'kumuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf (av/ a&) wk@d &ŒJ vkyyf idk cf iG ehf @J tm%mtm;vk;H udyk g tyfEiS ;f vdu k yf gw,f? =unf;/
a&/ av tm;vk;H [m umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Akv d cf sKyf}uD; ae0if; &JŒvufatmuf wpkwvk;H wnf;a&muf
&SdoGm;apwJh oabmjzpfygw,f?
1955 ckEpS x f rJ mS 1950 jynfEh pS uf wyf&if;opfawGzŒJG pnf;&mrSm xnfo h iG ;f zJŒG pnf;cJw
h hJ ‘ppf0ef
xrf;wyf’ awGteuf/ useaf eao;wJh wyf&if; (13) &if;ukd zsuo f rd ;f ypf+yD;/ ajcvsiw f yf&if;awGtjzpf
ajymif;vJzJGŒpnf;ygw,f? wyf&if; (25) uae (31) txd ajcvsifwyf&if; (7) &if;jzpfay:vmygw,f?
trSwf (104) ajcjrefwyf&if;ukdvnf; wkd;csJŒzGJŒpnf;vdkufygw,f?
1955 ckEpS /f Ek0d ifbmvrSm aomif;use;f r_umuG,af &;twGuq f +dk yD; ppfbuf/ &Jbuf/ tkycf sKyf
a&;bufawGpkaygif;+yD;/ ysLapmxD; ppfqifa&;pDrHudef;}uD;udk taumiftxnfazmfvkdufygw,f?
‘ysLapmxD;’ wyfawG w&m;0ifay:vmygw,f? 51-52 a&G;aumufyJGwkef;u aomif;usef;&rf;um;cJh
=uwJh emrnfqkd;eJŒausmf=um;cJhwJh ajymufusm;0efxrf; umuG,fa&;qkdwJh cg;ykdufaqmifwyfawGukd
ysLapmxD;vk@d trnfajymif; zJŒG pnf;vku d w f momjzpfw,fv@dk twku d t f cHEidk if aH &;tiftm;pkawG/ ygwD
tzJGŒtpnf;awGu a0zefaxmufjy=uygw,f? ysLapmxD; zJGŒpnf;awmhzkd@ w&m;0if pwifa=unm
uwnf; uvnf; a0zef qef@usif uef@uGufcJh=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh zqyv tpkd;&u ysLapmxD;ukd
zJGŒjzpfatmif zJGŒvkdufygw,f? zJGŒpnf;+yD;csdefup+yD;awmhvnf; ysLapmxD;awG[m a'otoD;oD;rSm
w&m;0ifvufeufukdif&rf;um;r_awG usL;vGefawmhwmjzpfygw,f? w&m;0ifvkdifpif&awGjzpfvmcJhyg
w,f?
1955 ckESpfxJrSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm; xGufay:vmwmwckvkd@ qdk&rSmuawmh zqyv tpkd;&&JŒ
‘vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdef’ a=unmcsufyJjzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek OuUÏ tjzpfaqmuf&GufwJh
umuG,af &;aumifpq D ;Hk jzwfcsuf ysLapmxD; pDru H ed ;f }uD;eJ@twl a&SŒqifah emufqifh xGuaf y:vmcJw h m
jzpfygw,f? ‘ysLapmxD;’ u aomif;use;f olawGukd ESrd ef if;zk@d / vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGihf trde@f a=unmcsuf
}uD;u aomif;use;f olrsm; tvif;0ifvm=uzk@d jzpfygw,f? 0ifapcsiw f t hJ ayguu f kd zGiahf y;+yD; wzufu
wkwfjyifvkdufwJhoabmjzpfygw,f? aemufwpfcsufu aemufxyf vtenf;i,ftwGif; usif;y&
awmhr,fh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;twGuf vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdef@xkwf+yD; rJqG,fajcvSrf;
pvkdufwmvnf;jzpfygw,f? 'kwd,t}udrf ygvDref'Drkdua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;u 1956
ckESpf/ {+yDvrSm usif;y&awmhr,fjzpfygw,f? vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh trdef@a=unmcsufudk jynfxJa&;
0ef}uD;Xmeu 1955 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbm (1) &ufae@ ae@pGJeJ@ xkwfjyefa=unmvkdufygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 167


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

atmufwkdbm (1) &ufae@u 1956 ckESpf/ rwfv (31) &ufae@txd (6) v oufwrf;owf
rSwaf y;xm;+yD; vufeufuikd f ykeu f efqef@usiaf e=uolrsm; tcGit hf a&;ukt d &,l+yD; tjrefq;Hk tvif;
0ifz@dk aqmf=oxm;ygw,f? 'Dvw G +f idr;f csr;f omcGit hf rde@f u vufeufuidk yf ek u
f efqef@usiaf e=uolawG
vufeufcstvif;0ifzkd@oufouftwGufyJ &nf&G,fxkwfjyefcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
'D 1955 ckEpS x f rJ mS yJ xl;xl;jcm;jcm; rSww f rf;wifp&m ay:xGe;f vmwmuawmh jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkdifiHtrsKd;om;nD!Gwfa&;wyfaygif;pkqkdwJh yrnw tzJGŒ}uD; ay:xGef;vmwmjzpfygw,f?
yrnw tzGŒJ }uD;[m ajray:twku d tf cH Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;&JŒ wyfaygi;f pk}uD;tjzpf ay:xGe;f vm
cJhygw,f? 51-52 ckESpf yxrt}udrf ygvDref'Drkdua&pDa&G;aumufyJG}uD;wkef;u a&G;aumufyGJrwdkifrD
twkduftcH EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;[m cdkifrmwJh wyfaygif;pkwck atmifatmifjrifjrif zJGŒpnf;oifh
ygvsuf rzGJŒpnf;EdkifcJh=uyg? 'kwd,t}udrf ygvDref'Drkdua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD; usif;ycgeD;
usrS twkduftcH EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;&JŒ wpkwpnf;wnf;aom wyfaygif;pk}uD;tjzpf ‘yrnw’
ukd zJGŒpnf;EdkifcJhjcif;jzpfygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfjzpfae&wJhtwGuf jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH; 'kuQtrsKd;rsKd;eJ@
&ifqkdifae&+yD;/ 'Dvkdtajctaeqkd;awGrS jynfoludku,fwif&efqkd+yD; ‘yrnw’ }uD;ukd zJGŒpnf;vdkuf
wmvkd@ aºuG;a=umfygw,f? 1955 ck/ Ekd0ifbm (18) &ufae@rSm ‘yrnw’ ay:xGufvmygw,f?
‘yrnw’rSm
(1) ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m 'dk@Armtpnf;t±kH;/
(2) jynfol@nD!Gwfa&;ygwD/
(3) jynfol@+idrf;csrf;a&;tzJG@aygif;pk/
(4) Armjynf tvkyform; v,form;ygwD/
(5) Armjynf tvkyform; tpnf;t±kH;rsm;tzGJŒcsKyf/
(6) awmifolv,form;nD!Gwfa&; tpnf;t±kH;/
(7) jynfolŒvli,ftzJGŒcsKyf/
(8) w&m;r#wr_tzJGŒ/
(9) rGef/ wkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t±kH; eJ@
(10) ref;xGe;f &if tp&Sw d hJ vly*k Kd~ vf vlwef;pm;tzGŒJ tpnf;uk, d pf m;vS,rf sm;yg yg0ifc=hJ uygw,f?
vli,fhwyfOD;wkd@tjyif tr_xrf;or*~ OuUÏ a[mif; OD;xGef;atmifausmf wkd@vnf; yrnw
rSmyg0ifvmcJh=uygw,f? yrnw xJrSm tiftm;t}uD;qkH;uawmh qkd&S,feDrsm;jzpfygw,f?
awmckv d ufeufuidk t f zGŒJ tpnf;jzpfwhJ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD (Auy) u jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpJ
a&;/ jynfwiG ;f +idrf ;f csr;f a&;vrf;pOfudk aºuG;a=umfovk/d w&m;0if ajray:tzGŒJ tpnf;}uD;jzpfwhJ yrnw
uvnf; jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;/ jynfwiG ;f +ird ;f csr;f a&;toHuykd J yJw h ifxyfapcJyh gw,f? ‘yrnw’ }u;D [m
xif&mS ;wJh ajray: Oya'wGi;f twku d tf cH Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pk}uD; jzpfvmcJyh gw,f? yrnw &JŒxif&mS ;
wJh EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifawGuawmh ocifcspfarmif (0d"l&)/ ocifvGif/ ocifvSau|/ OD;odef;azjrifh/
Akv
d cf sKyftudk OD;atmifoef;/ OD;b+idr;f / w&m;0ef}uD;a[mif; OD;at;armif/ OD;bxGe;f pwJo h al wGjzpf=uyg
w,f? OD;at;armifu w&m;0ef}uD;&mxl;u E_wfxGuf+yD; ‘w&mr#wr_ygwD’ axmif/ aemufykdif;
ocifcspfarmifwkd@ tvkyform; v,form;ygwDeJ@wGJ+yD; ‘yrnw’ zJG@&mrSm yg0ifvmwmjzpfygw,f?

168 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

‘yrnw’ ukd zqyv tpk;d &u ‘ajray:uGejf rLepf’ awGv@dk uifyeG ;f wyfcyhJ gw,f? yrnw wyfaygi;f
pk}uD; ay:vmwm[m zqyv tpkd;&&JŒ rl0g' ay:vpDawGudk a0zef ±_wfcs zGifhcsEkdifcJh+yD; jynfolvl
xk&JŒ óuHawGŒ&ifqkdifae&wJh vlr_b0taxGaxGukd rD;armif;xkd;jyEkdifcJhygw,f?
1955 ckEpS f ESpuf ek yf idk ;f rSm ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD (Auy) &JΠjynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;/ jynfwiG ;f
+idr;f csr;f a&; aºuG;a=umfoaH wGe@J twl yrnw tzJŒG }uD;&JŒ jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;/ +idr;f csr;f a&;awmif;qkd
oHawGtjyif wuUov dk af usmif;om;rsm;or*~ (wuo) &JΠjynfwiG ;f ppf&yfp+J yD; jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;
ukd t&,l=uzkd@ awmif;qkdoHawGyg us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ pnfpnfa0a0 xGufay:vmcJhygw,f? 1955
ckEpS /f 'DZifbm (5) &ufae@/ (35) ESpaf jrmuf trsK;d om;ae@rmS ‘wuo’ u +idr;f csr;f a&;tqkw d ifoiG ;f
vkduf+yD; tpkd;&eJ@ vufeufudkifawmfvSefaeolrsm; awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;=uzkd@ awmif;qkdvkdufygw,f?
1955 ckESpf[m Armjynforkdif;rSm awmfawmfxl;jcm;wJhESpfvkd@ ajym&ygvdrfhr,f? Armjynf
0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek vnf; uruxðyolwpfOD;tjzpf yg0ifcJhwJh ‘befa'gif;nDvmcH}uD;’ usif;yEkdifcJh+yD;
Armjynftpk;d &&JΠEkid if jH cm;a&;qkid &f m *k%w f ufcw hJ EhJ pS jf zpfovk/d zqyv tpk;d &&JΠauwDat pDru H ed ;f
&yfqkdif;vkduf&wJhESpf jynfaxmifompDrHudef; a&pkefar#mvkduf&wJhESpfvnf;jzpfygw,f?
w±kwjf zLwku d x f wk af &;twGuf &ef}uD;atmifppfqifa&;}uD; qifEcJ$ o hJ vk/d ppfwyfu ppfzuf
qkdif&mv_yf&Sm;r_awG wkd;csJŒwnfaqmufr_awG vkyfcJhwJhESpfjzpfygw,f?
Auy &JΠ55 vrf;pOf/ jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;vrf;pOf ay:xGufcJhwJhESpfjzpf
ovkd zqyv tpdk;& &JŒ ysLapmxD;pDrHudef;/ ysLapmxD;zJGŒpnf;r_awG ay:aygufcJhwJhESpfjzpfygw,f?
zqyv tpk;d & &JΠvGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGit hf rde@f xGuaf y: cJo h vkd twku
d t f cH Ekid if aH &;tiftm;
pkawG&JŒ wyfaygif;pk ‘yrnw’ }uD; ay:xGufcJhygw,f?
ajray:ajratmuf Oya'wGif; Oya'y EkdifiHa&; tiftm;pkawG tygt0if tm%m& zqyv
tpdk;&tzJGŒuvJGvkd@ wjynfvkH; jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;toHawG pnfpnfnHnH
pwifazmfusL;vmwJhESpfvnf;jzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek qkdAD,uf,leD,HoGm;+yD; c±k&SufeJ@ cspf=unf
a&;vkyfcJhovkd c±k&SufeJ@ bl*geifwkd@vnf; ArmjynftvnfvmcJh=uwJhESpfjzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf
OD;Ek omoemh 'g,umbJGŒcHzkd@ qXoHCm,emwifyGJvnf; pcJhygw,f?

_id r f ; csrf ; a&;/ tðywf w k d u f a &;eJ ‹ jref r mEk d i f i H a wmf

wzufu jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;toHawG v_yf&Sm; pnfnHvmptcsdef rSmyJ


zqyv tpdk;& &JŒ oabmxm;trSefudk xif[yfjyvkdufwJh ‘atmifrmCppfqifa&;}uD;’ xGuf
ay:vmygw,f? 1956 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvqef;up+yD; wyfrawmf&JŒ trSwf (10) ajcvsifwyfr[m&JŒ
uGyuf rJ e_ @J atmifrmCppfqifa&;}u;D ukd pwifqifEyJ$ gw,f? aomif;use;f olvufeufuidk t f m;pkawGukd
tðywfwkdufa&;twGufqkd+yD; pwifvkdufwmjzpfygw,f?
rwfv (31) &ufae@txd oufwrf;owfrw S xf m;wJh vGw+f ird ;f csr;f omcGit
hf rde@f ukd vufeuf
csa&;/ tvif;0ifa&;wk@d twGuf zGiahf y;xm;+y;D wòyid ef ufwnf;rSm ppfa&;t&zdtm;ay;zk@d vufeufrcs

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 169


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

csifolawGudk tjywfacsr_ef;zkd@ ‘atmifrmC’ udk pwifvkdufwmjzpfygw,f? jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;


jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;toHawGudk ppfoHeJ@ zkH;ypfvkdufygw,f?
'gayr,fh +idr;f csr;f a&;toHawGu aysmufroGm;bJ qufay:vmygw,f? ‘atmifrmC’ p+yD;
vkd@ (14) &uft=um Zefe0g&D (20) &ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD OuUÏ ocifoef;xGef;u
0ef}u;D csKyf OD;Ek qD Akv d v f usmf uwqifh pmwapmifay;yk@d ygw,f? awGŒqkaH qG;aEG;a&;twGuf urf;vSr;f
a&;wJh pmjzpfygw,f? pmrSm -
(1) Armjynftpdk;&onf t*Fvdyf-tar&duefwkd@. usL;ausmfa&;*kd%f;twGif;okd@rygbJ
trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;ESifh +idrf;csrf;pGm twl&Sda&;0g'ukd jywfom;pGm usifhokH;&rnf?
(2) wjynfv;Hk wGif 'Dru dk a&pDtcGit hf a&;rsm;ay;&rnf? jynfow l @kd . 'Dru dk a&pD tcGit hf a&;
rsm;ukd tmrcH&rnf? uGefjrLepfygwD0ifESifh tjcm;wkd;wufaom EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;
tm;vkH;ukd v$wf&rnf?
(3) ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifh &Sdor#aom 'Drkdua&pDygwDrsm;ESifh vlxktzGJŒtpnf;rsm;.
Oya'wGif; wnf&SdcGifhESifh vkyfukdifaqmif&GufcGifhrsm;ukd tmrcH&rnf?
[laom tcsuf (3) csufudk tajccHI zqyv tpkd;&ESifh awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;vkdonfvkd@ azmfjy
urf;vSrf;ygw,f?
wuUov dk ef @J aumvdyaf ygi;f pkH aqG;aEG;yJ}G u;D uae ausmif;om;xk&ŒJ awmif;qkyd ef=um;oHtjzpf
‘jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;yef=um;v$m’ vnf; qufwu dk x f u
G af y:vmygw,f? ausmif;om;xk&ŒJ yef=um;
v$m[m ausmif;om;uk, d pf m;vS,af ygi;f (126) OD;/ avhvmol (65) OD; wufa&mufwhJ &efuek w f uUov dk f
wuo taqmuftOD;rSmusi;f ywJh 'kw, d t}udraf jrmuf wuUov dk af umvdyaf ygi;f pkH aqG;aEG;yG}J uD;&JŒ
&v'ftjzpf xGuaf y:vmwmjzpfygw,f? &efuek w f uUov dk /f rE aW v;wuUov kd /f armfvòrid Of ypmaum
vdyf/ rauG; Oypmaumvdyfu ausmif;om;ukd,fpm;vS,fawGeJ@ wuUodkvfaygif;pkH tzJGŒaygif;pkH udk,f
pm;vS,af wG[m wuo taqmuftOD;rSm Zefe0g&D (23) uae (25) &ufae@txd (3) &ufwidk w f idk f
awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;=u+yD;wJhaemuf 'Dyef=um;v$mukd xkwfjyefvdkuf=uwmjzpfygw,f? ynma&;tokH;
p&dwu f adk v#m+h yD; jynfwiG ;f ppftok;H p&dwu f dk ykrd o
kd ;Hk pGaJ ewm/ ynma&;t=uyftwnf;awG ykrd edk uf±id_ ;f
vmwmawGudkaxmufjy&if;/ jynfwGif;ppfukd jynfolw&yfvkH;u&yfpJ&ef vkdvm;ae=uwmudk azmfjy
+yD;/ ppfa&;t& t=urf;zufESdrfESif;jcif;eJ@ jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;rSm rjzpfEkdifa=umif; (7) ESpfausmf
tawGŒtóuHrsm;u oufaojy+yD;jzpfwJhtwGuf awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;a&;enf;eJ@ jynfwGif;ppfukd &yfpJ=uzkd@
azmfjywkdufwGef; yef=um;xm;wmawGŒ&ygw,f?
azazmf0g&D (13) &ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD OuUÏ ocifoef;xGef; ay;pmt& ocif
oef;xGef; aqG;aEG;vdkw,fqkdwJh tcsuf (3) csuftay: zqyv tpdk;&u w&m;0ifwkef@jyef jyef=um;
ygw,f? jrefrmEkid if aH wmftpk;d &&JŒoabmxm;ukd azmfjywJt h aeeJ@ jyef=um;a&;0ef}u;D OD;xGe;f 0if; uae
azazmf0g&D (13) &ufnrSm toHvi$ hf &Si;f vif;ajym=um;apcJyh gw,f? ocifoef;xGe;f aqG;aEG;csiw f ,f
qkdwJh tcsuf (3) csuf[m aqG;aEG;&efrvkdawmhwJh tcsufawGjzpf+yD; EkdifiHawmftpkd;&u ay;xm;+yD;
om;jzpfwJhtwGuf ‘vmcsifv#ifteD;av;/ rvmcsifvkd@ c&D;a0;atmifvkyfaewJh tcsufawGomjzpf
a=umif; wkef@jyefajymqkdcJhygw,f? tcsuf (3) csufudk wcsufcsif;&Sif;ygw,f?

170 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

eHygww f pftcsuu f &kd iS ;f wJth cg “u|Eykf w


f @dk tpk;d &onf t*Fvyd -f tar&duef tkypf u k o kd mv#if
ru rnfonfh *k% d ;f / rnfonft h yk pf k bufur# r0ifbaJ ecJo h nfukd Arma&m urBmuyg od+y;D jzpfonf?
twkduftcH EkdifiHtkyfpkzGJŒjcif;udk a&S;uvJ raxmufcH/ ,ckvJ raxmufcH/ aemufvJaxmufcHrnf
r[kwf” vkd@ qkdvkduf+yD; “zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'udk ,ae@txd opPmrazmufzsufcJhaom
tpkd;&rSmvnf; u|Ekfyfwkd@ tpkd;&omv#ifjzpfonf” vkd@ &ifhusL;vkdufygw,f?
eHygwf (2) csufukdvnf; “u|Ekfyfwdk@tpkd;&onf tajccHtcGifhta&;rSefor# jynfolvlxk
w&yfvkH;tygt0if rnfonfhtwkduftcHtzJGŒtpnf;rsm;udkrqkd ay;xm;+yD;jzpfonf” vkd@
&Sif;vif;vkduf+yD; tusOf;om;rsm;eJ@ ywfouf+yD;vnf; EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;qkdwm r&Sd/ ykefuefxºuG
aomif;usef;r_awGeJ@ zrf;qD;xm;olawGom&Sdw,fvkd@ wkef@jyefajymqkdygw,f?
eHygwf (3) tcsuu f adk wmh “awmckad omif;use;f olrsm; tvif;ok@d 0if/ vufeufenf;jzifh ykeu f ef
aomif;use;f r_ukd pGe@f vw $ af =umif; a=unmonfw h ae@wiG f awmckyd gwrD sm; w&m;0iftoif;tjzpfo@dk
jyefvnfa&muf&Sdap&rnfvdk@ a=unm+yD;jzpfw,f” qkdwmeJ@ &Sif;vif;wkef@jyefvkduf+yD; ‘vGwf+idrf;csrf;
omcGiftrdef@’ wHcg;aygufzGifhxm;+yD;jzpfw,f? rwfv (31) &ufae@rSm 'DwHcg;aygufydwfawmhrSm
jzpfwJhtwGuf 'DtcGifhta&;ukd t&,l+yD; vufeufcstvif;0if=uzkd@eJ@ tqkH;owfxm;ygw,f?
jyef=um;a&;0ef}u;D OD;xGe;f 0if; toHvi$ ahf jym=um;&Si;f vif;wJh zqyv tpk;d & &JΠoabmxm;udk
csKyf=unfhr,fqkd&if ‘vufeufcstvif;0if=u’ qkdwmomjzpfygw,f? vufeufcs tvif;0ifa&;
twGufvnf; v$wf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh trdef@xkwfxm;+yD;jzpfwJhtwGuf wHcg;yGifhae+yD;jzpfw,f?
w&m;0ifwnf&SdcGifh EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;cGifhawGtwGufuawmh vufeufudkifenf;eJ@ ykefuef
aomif;use;f r_ukd pGe@f vw $ af =umif; a=unm/ tJ'v D dk a=unm+yD;&if w&m;0ifwnf&cdS iG hf &&Sv d mvdrrhf ,f
vkd@yJ t"dy`m,fxGufapcJhygw,f? wdwdusus &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;awmh azmfjyrxm;yg? w&m;0ifwnf&Sd
cGifhudk vufeufcsa=umif; vufeufukdifvrf;pOf pGef@a=umif; t&ifa=unm+yD;rS pOf;pm;r,fhoabm/
aemufwqifhudpPtjzpf oabmxm;ovkd tmrcHcsufrJhaeygw,f?
azazmf0g&D (25) &ufae@rSm wyfrawmfrSvnf; ‘tvif;0if&ef zdwfac:csuf’ qdkwmudk xyfrH
xkwjf yefygw,f? “tjrefq;Hk om tvif;ud0k ifcahJ yawmh” qkw d hJ pum;&yfe@J tqk;H owfxm;wJh wkw d dk
wkwfwkwf a=unmcsufjzpfygw,f? awmfvSefykefuefr_/ opPmazmuf ykefuefr_oufoufqkd&if vkH;0
vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGi&hf r,fqw dk m &Si;f jy+yD; b,fvt dk r_rsK;d [m awmfveS yf ek u
f efr_ opPmazmufzsuyf ek f
uefr_qdkwm &Sif;jyxm;wJh a=unmcsufjzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dvkd &Sif;vif;csuf a=unmcsufawG xGufay:t+yD; r=umcifrSmyJ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD
u +idr;f csr;f a&;twGuf jzpfEidk o f r#enf;vrf;awGukd &SmazGz@dk yk*Kd~ vfwOD;udk wm0efay;apv$wyf gw,f?
=um;vltjzpf AkdvfvusmfukdowfrSwf+yD; Akdvfvusmfuwqifh tpdk;&tzGJŒeJ@ qufoG,fapwmjzpfyg
w,f? Akv d v f usmu f tJ'yD *k Kd~ vfe@J tpk;d &tzJŒG awGŒqkaH qG;aEG;apvkad =umif; jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; Akv d cf if
armifuav; eJ@ Adv k rf ;ª }uD; atmif}uD; wd@k udk ta=umif;=um;ygw,f? Akv d cf ifarmifuav;eJ@ Akv d rf ;ª }uD;
atmif}uD; u 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ekukd qufvufwifjyygw,f? OD;Eku tpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ@ Auy
u wifajr‡mufxm;wJh=um;vl AkdvfvusmfeJ@om awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;zkd@ trdef@csrSwfay;+yD;/ aqG;aEG;wJh
tcgrmS vnf; tvif;0ifa&;tpDtpOfudk b,fvpkd pD Of&r,fqw dk mavmufuykd J aqG;aEG;+yD; Ekid if aH &;udpP

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 171


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

ukd vk;H 0raqG;aEG;zk@d vkid ;f csay;cJyh gw,f? 'ga=umifh Akv


d cf ifarmifuav;eJ@ Akv
d rf ;ª }uD;atmif}uD; wk@d [m
Akv
d v
f usmef @J yJ aqG;aEG;r_vyk yf gw,f? aqG;aEG;wmudv k nf; “vufeufcstvif;0ifa&;twGuf vkt d yf
wJhtpDtpOfawGðyvkyfa&;” qkdwJh tcsufay:rSmyJ t"duxm; aqG;aEG;=uw,fqkdygw,f?
Akv
d vf usmef @J aqG;aEG;r_awGtay:uae ‘uGejf rLepfawG tvif;0ifa&;[m &mE_e;f jynfh ,k=H unf
pdwfcs&avmuf+yD’ vkd@,lqwJhtwGuf jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; Akdvfcifarmifav;eJ@ Akdvfrª;}uD; atmif}uD;
wkd@u uGefjrLepfrsm; vufeufcsa&;eJ@ywfouf+yD; tpDtpOf trdef@!¸ef=um;csufawGudk toHv$ifh
a=unmygawmhw,f?
rwfv (25) &ufae@rSm “uGefjrLepfrsm;vufeufcsa&;eJ@ywfoufI zqyv tpdk;& jynfxJ
a&;Xme0ef}uD; Akdvfcifarmifav; . toHv$ifhcsuf” qdkwmeJ@ “uGefjrLepf rsm;vufeufcsa&;ESifh
ywfoufI wyfrawmfrS Akdvfrª;}uD; atmif}uD; . toHv$ifhcsuf” qkdwm ESpfck a&SŒqifhaemufqifh
xGufay:vmygw,f? Adkvfcifarmifav;&JΠa=unmcsufu -
(1) tpd;k &onf tpk;d &ESihf vufeufuikd af omif;use;f olrsm; awGŒqkaH phpyfaqG;aEG;aomrlukd
rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# vufrcH?
(2) vufeufcsa&;onf EkdifiHa&;vkH;0rygbJ ±kd;±kd;vufeufcsa&;omjzpf&rnf?
(3) vufeufcsvadk omvlrsm;onf tpd;k &u a=unmxm;onft h wkid ;f 31-3-1956 &uf
ae@ rukefqkH;rD teD;qkH; vufeufudkifwyfrsm;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;bufokd@ vufeufcs
vkda=umif; ta=umif;=um;&rnf?
(4) Todk@ vufeufcsvkda=umif; ta=umif;=um;onfESifhwòydifeuf vufeufcsEkdifa&;
twGuf vkdtyfaomtpDtpOfrsm;udk ðyvkyfay;rnf?
tu,fI vkdv#if tcsKdŒaom vufeufcsrnfhae&mrsm;odk@ ajrmufykdif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyfrS
Adkvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm ESifh awmifykdif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyfrS Akdvfrª;csKyf bvdwf wkd@udk,fwkdif wm0ef,lI
vufeufcsa&;udpPrsm;udk aqmif&Gufay;rnfqkdwmjzpfygw,f?
aomif;usef;olrsm; vufeufcs+yD;wJhaemuf aoewf0g'udkpGef@v$wf&if 'Drkdua&pDpnf;0kdif;
twGif;rSm vGwfvyfpGm a[majympnf;±kH;a&;om;cGifh 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;awGudk ay;r,fvkd@vnf;
azmfjyajymqkdoGm;ygw,f?
Akdvfrª;}uD;atmif}uD; &JŒ a=unmcsufu -
epfjzLygwD0if vufeufudkifaomif;usef;olrsm; tpkvkduf tòyHvkduf vufeufcs 0ifa&muf
zG,&f mta=umif;&So d nf? vufeufcsa&;udk vufcaH qG;aEG;yg? vufeufcs&efaqG;aEG;ovkðd y+yD; vuf
eufcsa&;udpPr[kwfaom EkdifiHa&;udpPrsm;udk aqG;aEG;v#if aqG;aEG;yJGudk&yfpJ+yD; awmxJodk@jyefygap?
uGejf rLepfrsm;u vufeufcsvo dk nfth wGuf rnfo@kd rnfyHk vufeufcs&rnfh tpDtpOfðyvkyf
&efom aqG;aEG;jcif;jzpfI EkdifiHa&;t& aphpyfa&;vkyfjcif;r[kwfqdkonfudk owdðyapvkdonf? vuf
eufcsonft h cg &&Srd nfth cGit hf a&;rSm ,cifa=unm+y;D twkid ;f jzpfI rwfv (31) &ufae@txdom&Sd
onf? vufeufcsa&;twGuf aqG;aEG;aepOf ppfqifa&;rsm;udk qkid ;f iHx h m;jcif;/ &yfpx J m;jcif;rðyvky&f ef
ponfjzifh azmfjyajymqkdoGm;ygw,f?

172 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

a=unmcsuf (2) ckpvkH;[m tay:pnf;ucsnf;jzpfygw,f? Auy rsm; vufeufcszdk@awmh


aocsmae+yDqw dk hJ ,k=H unfem;vnfxm;r_tay:uae cyfwif;wif;a=unmcJ=h uwmjzpfygw,f? =um;
vl Akv d vf usmf eJ@ ajymqkad qG;aEG;&csuaf wGtay:uae/ Akv d v f usmf &JŒpmtay:uae tykid w f u G qf +yD;
zqyv tpkd;&&JŒ oabmxm;udk tay:pnf;uae xkwfazmf!¸ef=um;ajymqkdcJh=uwmjzpfygw,f?
aemufwpf&uf rwfv (26) &ufae@usrS ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD ukd,fpm;vS,f&JŒ ‘Akdvfcif
armifav; xHay;pm’ [m Akv d v
f usmq f u
D ae a&muf&v dS mygw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D wm0ef
ay;apv$wx f m;wJh yk*Kd~ vf[m &Jabmfwifa&$ ac: OD;csr;f at;jzpfygw,f? rwfv (26) &uf ae@ppJG mrSm
tcsuf (3) yg0ifygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[kdudk,fpm;vS,f OD;csrf;at;&JŒpmrSm -
(1) u|efawmfonf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD OuUÏ ocifoef;xGef;u EkdifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf
OD;EkxH jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;twGuf jzpfEidk o f r#aomenf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazG&ef wm0ef
ay;tyfjcif;cH&aom udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfygonf?
(2) ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDonf jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf vufeufudkifwkdufyJGudk pGef@
v$wf+yD;/ EkdifiHawmfzJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'twGif;Yom 'Drkdua&pDenf;t&
tm%m&,lvkda=umif; twdtvif;a=unmvkdayonf?
(3) xk@d a=umifh Ekid if aH wmfzŒGJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyOHk ya'twGi;f aqmif&u G af &;twGuf ay:ayguv f m
rnfjh y\emrsm;udo k m aqG;aEG;vkyd gonf? e,fcsŒJ tkypf 0k if r0ifqadk omjy\em/ !¸e@f
aygif;tpdk;& zJGŒpnf;a&;jy\em ponfhjy\emrsm; aqG;aEG;rnfr[kwfyg? aqG;aEG;zkd@
vnf;rvkdyg?
od@k jzpfI jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&; Ekid if zH ŒGJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyOHk ya't& aqmif&u G cf iG &hf a&;wk@d twGuf
aqG;aEG;&ef ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f ppfXme wae&mwGif tpd;k &bufrS oufqidk &f mtm%mykid rf sm;ESihf Armjynf
uGejf rLepfygwrD u S , dk pf m;vS,rf sm;awGŒqk&H ef tpDtpOfðyvkyaf y;apvkad =umif; vk@d azmfjyxm;ygw,f?
‘csr;f at;’ vk@d vufrw S xf ;dk xm;ygw,f? tpk;d &bufu Akv d cf ifarmifav;/ Akv d rf ;ª }u;D atmif}u;D wk@d &ŒJ
toHvi$ ahf =unmcsuyf g oabmxm;&yfwnfra_ wGe@J uGv J q JG ef@usiaf eovkd Akv d cf ifarmifav; Akv d rf ;ª
}uD;atmif}uD; wk@d &ŒJ (Akv d vf usmf qDuwqifh aqG;aEG;&mu em;vnfxm;wJ)h vufeufcsa&; ,k=H unf
xm;r_[m wjcm;pDjzpfaewm awGŒ&ygw,f?
tcsKyfu tpk;d &bufu vufeufcsa&;om aqG;aEG;vkw d mjzpf+y;D Ekid if aH &;udpP bmrSraqG;aEG;
Ekdifqkdwm &yfcHxm;ygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDbufu ocifoef;xGef;ay;pmrSm azmfjycJhzl;wJh tcsuf
(3) csuftygt0if EkdifiHa&;udpPawGudk raqG;aEG;&bl;qkd&if raqG;aEG;yg? vufeufudkifwkdufyJGudk
pGe@f vw$ +f yD; zJŒG pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk Oya'abmiftwGi;f uae 'Dru dk a&pDenf;t& tm%mudk &,lcsiyf gw,f?
tJ'Dvkd&,lEkdifzkd@twGuf vkdtyfvmr,fh zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHOya'qkdif&m jyoemawG&SdvmEkdifygw,f?
tJ'jD y\emawGu bmawGv/J zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk Oya't& bmawGukd tmrcHz@dk vadk o;ovJ/ pojzifh
pojzifh jzpfay:vmEkdifwJh zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHOya'abmiftwGif;u ay:aygufvmr,fh jyoemawGukd
awGŒqkaH qG;aEG;zk@d jzpfygw,f? wqifah v#m+h yD; aqG;aEG;wmjzpfygw,f? 'gukd zqyv u vufrcHEidk b f J
tay:pnf;uae y,fcswmjzpfygw,f? vufeufcstvif;0ifa&;udpu P vJvG @dk bmrSraqG;aEG;Ekid q f w dk hJ
wif;rmwJhoabmxm;udkom xkwfazmfjyocJhwmjzpfygw,f? tykdifwGufq+yD; a=unmvkduf=uwJh

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 173


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

Akdvfcifarmifav; eJ@ Akdvfrª;}uD; atmif}uD; wkdk@&JŒ toHv$ifha=unmcsufawG[m zqyv tpkd;&eJ@


wyfrawmf&JΠarmufrmr_ +idrf;csrf;a&;rvkdvm;r_awGudkom azmfjyvkdufovkdjzpfcJhygw,f?
Zefe0g&v D (10) &ufae@uyJ 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek u owif;pm uGezf &ifrh mS owif;pmq&mawG&ŒJ
tar;udk jyefvnfajz=um;&if; ‘ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ¹cGif;csufr&Sd vufeufcsv#if w&m;0if
wnfaecGiu hf kd todtrSwðf yrnfjzpfa=umif;/ xko d @kd ðy±koH mru uGejf rLepfygwED iS hf vlxak &SŒarSmufwiG f
'Drudk a&pDenf;t& tcsed rf a&G;,SOòf yid &f aJ =umif; ’aºu;G a=umfc+hJ y;D / Zefe0g&D (20) &ufrmS ocifoef;xGe;f
u tcsuf (3) csufazmfjy+yD; awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;=u&ef urf;vSrf;vmawmhrS yxrqkH; OD;xGef;0if;u
tcsuf (3) csuu f dk ykwx f w k zf ,f&mS ;cJyh gw,f? ocifoef;xGe;f u ud, k pf m;vS,q f ufvw $ +f yD; awGŒqkH
aqG;aEG;a&; óu;d pm;jyefawmhvnf; vufeufomt&ifcs usew f mawGraqG;aEG;Ekid q f +dk y;D Akv fd cf ifarmifav;/
Akdvfatmif}uD; wkd@wawG&JΠtoHv$ifha=unmcsufawGeJ@ +idrf;csrf;a&;wHcg;aygufukd t+yD;tykdifydwf
vkdufwmomjzpfw,fvkd@ yrnw obmywdtzJG@u aumufcsufqJGjycJhygw,f? Armjynf uGefjrLepf
ygwu D +ird ;f csr;f a&;twGuf qufvufóu;d yrf;OD;r,fv@kd azmfjycJ+h y;D tpd;k &uawmh atmifrmC xk;d ppf}u;D
ukdom wkd;+yD;qifE$Jygw,f? zqyv tpdk;&&JΠwif;rmwJhoabmxm;[m EkdifiHa&;t& yGifhusoGm;cJhyg
w,f? jynfov l xl &k ŒJ +idr;f csr;f a&;ar#mv f ifch suu
f v kd nf; zsuq f ;D ypfvu dk of vkjd zpfcw hJ t hJ wGuf Ekid if aH &;
t&/ pnf;±kH;a&;t& t±_H;xGufoGm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh t±_H;xJu tjrwfxGufoGm;ovkd jzpfcJhwmu
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D apv$wv f ukd w f hJ A[du
k , kd pf m;vS,f OD;csr;f at; udk ykid yf idk Ef idk Ef idk f &&Svd u dk jf cif;
yJjzpfygw,f? OD;csr;f at;ud, k w f idk uf vufeufcsomG ;wmvm; tpk;d &uyJ zrf;qD;vku d w f mvm;qkw d m
pOf;pm;p&mjzpfayr,fh bma=umifyh jJ zpfjzpf aemifxu G af y:vmr,fh ‘csr;f at;ppfwrf;’ qkw d muawmh
tpdk;&óuduf jzpfoGm;cJhygw,f? OD;csrf;at; vufeufcsjzpfoGm;ygw,f?
atmifrmC xkd;ppf}uD;udk rD;ukef,rf;ukef t}uD;tus,fqifE$J+yD; tðywfwdkufa&; toHjyef
us,fvmygw,f? atmifrmC xkd;ppf}uD;eJ@twl Armjynftxufykdif;&Sd vufeufukdifawmfvSefa&;
tiftm;pkawGtay: Oya'/ tvif;a&mi/f rk;d óud; eJ@ rdwW ppfqifa&;awGvnf; azmfxw k f csrw S q f ifEcJ$ yhJ g
w,f? trSwf (103) ajcjrefwyf&if;opfeJ@ ‘yl;aygif;ppfqifa&;ESifh avxD;oifwef;ausmif;’ ukdvnf;
ppfwyfu wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;cJhygw,f?
wkdif;jynf&JΠpD;yGm;a&;tajctaeuawmh wufrvmyg? jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;vnf;
zqyv awG ckd;=u 0Suf=u bkH;vkdfuf=uwJh twGuf a&pkefarsmoGm;&+yD; t&HEkdifiHjcm;aiGyrm%m[m
ukefoavmufjzpfoGm;ygw,f? 55 ckESpf =o*kwfvrSm pm&if;t& (36²6) ukaÉom usefawmhwJh
twGuf cg;usKd;oGm;&wJh jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;udk jyefvnfðyjyifwJhtaeeJ@ pyg;pkdufysKd;a&;udk
OD;pm;ay;+yD; pdDrHudef;topfa&;qGJ&if; (1956-60) yxr av;ESpfpDrHudef;}uD; ay:vmjyefygw,f?
1960 jynfhESpfrSm Armjynfukd ppfrjzpfrDu tajctae jyefa&mufzkd@vkd@qkdygw,f? 'DpDrHudef;udk
1956 ckESpfup+yD; taumiftxnfazmfzkd@ óud;pm;jyefygw,f? 'D av;ESpfpDrHudef;}uD;[mvnf; jynf
awmfompDrHudef;}uD;vkdyJ puULay:rSmom zwfvkd@aumif;aecJhygw,f?
tpd;k & u zG@J pnf;ay;vku d w f hJ ysLapmxD;rsm;uawmh {+yDvrSm usi;f yawmhr,fh a&G;aumufyGJ
}uD;rSm tm%m& zqyv tEkdif&&Sda&;twGuf twkduftcH yrnw udk,fpm;vS,favmif;awGeJ@
yrnw bufu aqmif&Guf=ur,fh yk*~dKvfawGtay: +cdrf;ajcmufwm jy\em&Smwm tEkdifusifhzkd@

174 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

óud;pm;wmawG ae&mtESH@rSm enf;rsKd;pkHeJ@ vkyfaqmifðyrl=u±kHru/ jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH;tay:vnf;


rw&m;ðyusifhwm/ ESdyfpufuvlvkyfwm/ apmfum;zdESdyfwmawG vuf&JZuf&J ðyusifhvm=uygw,f?
rzJGŒpnf;rDuwnf;u ysLapmxD; zJGŒpnf;a&;udk tjyif;txef uef@uGufcJh=uwJh yrnwrsm; óudwif
ok;H oyf cJjG crf;pdwjf zmjycJo
h vkd vmr,fah &G;aumufyrGJ mS vnf; ysLapmxD; awG[m cg;yku
d af qmifwyfawG
tjzpf rawmfrw&m; aESmuf,Suf=uOD;rSmjzpfa=umif; wifóudajymqkd pGyfpGJcJhzl;ovkd wu,fvnf;
taESmuft,Sufðy=u &rf;um;cJh=uygw,f? tm%m& zqyv}uD;&JŒ txl;ojzifh qkd&S,fvpfawG&JŒ
cg;ydkufaqmifvufeufudkifwyf ppfppfawGjzpfcJh=uygw,f?

19 56 ck E S p f ygvD r ef ' D r d k u a&pD t axG a xG a &G ; aumuf y J G / tm%m& zqyv tuG J e J ‹


1956
jynf w G i f ; ppf & yf p J a &;aºuG ; a-umf o H

1956 ckESpf/ {+yDv (27) &ufae@rSm ygvDref'Drkdua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;ukd wjynf


vkH;rSmusif;ycJhygw,f? ‘56 ckESpf a&G;aumufyJG’ vkd@ twkdac:a0:cJh=uygw,f? 56 ckESpf a&G;aumufyGJ
[m ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; a=unmEkdif+yD;aemuf usif;ywJh 'kwd,t}udrfajrmuf ygvDref'Drkdua&pD
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ}uD;jzpfygw,f?
t"dutm;jzifh tm%m& zqyv tzJGŒ}uD;eJ@ twkduftcH EdkifiHa&;wyfaygif;pk (yrnw)
tzJGŒ}uD;wkd@ t}udwfte,f ,SOfòydifta&G;cs,fcHcJh=uwmjzpfygw,f? zqyv [m tm%m&tzJGŒ
tpnf;}u;D jzpfwt hJ wGuf tiftm;awmifw h if;+y;D wyef;om+y;D jzpfovkd “yrnw” tzJŒG }u;D uvnf;
EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;eJ@ wyfaygif;pktjzpf zJGŒpnf;xm;wmjzpfwJhtwGuf tiftm;awmifhwif;ae+yD jzpfwJh
twdkuftcH tzJGŒtpnf;}uD;jzpfygw,f?
zqyv tzJGŒ}uD;u ‘zqyv}uD;tESpfav;q,ftm%mwnfap&r,f’ aºuG;a=umf+yD; a&G;
aumufyrJG mS pnf;±k;H ygw,f// rwfv(31) &ufae@txd oufwrf;&Sw d hJ vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGihf trde@f xw k f
jyefcJhwm[mvnf; rJqG,fpnf;±kH;jcif;wrsKd;jzpfygw,f? AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; ukd,fwdkifyg0if+yD; pwifzJGŒ
pnf;cJhpOffu &SdcJhwJh zqyv }uD;&JŒtpOftvmaumif;awG qufvuf,liifpm;okH;+yD; vlxkudk rpm;&
0cref; yg;pyfuwdawGukday;&if; vlxkudkrJqG,fpnf;±kH;cJhygw,f?
yrnw tzGŒJ }uD;uawmh ‘jynfwiG ;f ppfrck s&yfp&J r,f’ qkw d hJ jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;aºuG;a=umf
oHukdukdifpJG+yD; a&G;aumufyJG0ifygw,f? zqyv tpkd;&&JΠjynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; oabmxm;awGukd
a0zef/ jynfwGif;vufeufukdiftiftm;pkawGeJ@ awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;zkd@ ta&;qkdv_HŒaqmfwkdufyGJ0if&if;
pnf;±kH;rJqG,fygw,f?
+idrf;csrf;a&;udkar#mfvifhae=uwJh jynfolvlxk}uD;u yrnw &JŒ aºuG;a=umfoHukd tav;
teufxm;cJ=h uygw,f? 'ga=umifh zqyv tpk;d &&JΠtm%mpuf=um;u/ tm%m& bufawmfom;
toD;oD;&JŒ +cdrf;ajcmuf&efvkdr_=um;uae ‘yrnw’ ukd rJay;vm=uwmawGŒ&ygw,f? e,fawGrSm
ysLapmxD; awGunpfywfpu G zf ufc=hJ uovd/k wyfrawmfuvnf; zqyv bufu yif;cJyh gw,f? ae&m
wcsKd ŒrSm zqyvud, k pf m;vS,t f Ekid &f a&; uvdeu f uspv
f yk cf =hJ uwm&Syd gw,f? wyfrawmfacgi;f aqmif

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 175


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

xdyfoD;}uD;awGtrsm;pk[m qkd&S,fvpfEG,f0if}uD;awGjzpfcJh=uwJhtwGuf qkd&S,fvpfygwDtay:


oHa,mZOf&=dS u+yD;jzpfovkd yrnw&JŒ+idr;f csr;f a&;aºuG;a=umfou H dk eJeaJ v;rS vufrcHEidk =f uwmvnf;
ygygw,f? olykefawGeJ@ awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;a&;qkdwmudk b,fvkdenf;eJ@rS róudufESpfoufEkdifcJh=uyg?
zqyv}uD;xJrmS xdyo f ;D awG=um; tkypf zk ŒGJ r_ òydiqf idk rf _ remvkrd ±_prd Ehf idk rf a_ wG tkeH @J usi;f eJ@&adS e
ayr,fh a&G;aumufy}GJ uD;rSm zqyv tjywftowftEkid &f &Sad &;rSmuawmh tusK;d wlcsi;f &ifcsi;f uyf
cJh=uygw,f?
zqyv &JŒ rJykH;ta&mifu teDa&mifjzpf+yD; yrnw&JŒ rJykH;&JŒta&mifu rkd;jyma&mif
owfrSwfxm;ygw,f?
rJvrd rf /_ rJc;dk r_/ rawmfrw&m;vkyrf a_ wGvnf; tenf;eJ@trsm;&Scd yhJ gw,f// ppfwyfu zqyv
bufu yif;cJhovkd awmckdolykeftiftm;pkrsm;uvnf; yrnw udk tm;ay;cJh=uwmawGŒ&ygw,f?
rJvrd f rJnpfra_ wGe@J ywfoufv@dk tm%m&rsm;bufu awmfawmfrsm;rsm;vkycf =hJ uygw,f? a&G;aumufyGJ
rwkid rf n
D uwnf;u teDa&mifryJ ;Hk xJ rJawGóudwifxnfx h m;jcif;/ zqyv trmcHqo dk rl sm;u olw@dk
rJ0,fxm;olawGukd wOD;csif;rJay;apwJhtcg wOD;csif; rJay;[efðy/ jyefxGufvm+yD; rJ±kHrª;u w&m;0if
xkwaf y;vku d w f hJ rJjym;ukd olŒqD ttyfcidk ;f +yD;rS rJtrsm;tjym;ukd olxnf&h r,ft h vSnrhf mS wpkwvk;H
wnf; ykaH tmxnfv h u dk jf cif;/ +cdr;f ajcmuf+yD; rJxnfah pjcif;/ vlwa,mufxu J t0wftpm; trsK;d rsK;d
ajymif;/ tcsed af jymif;+yD; oltykid o f +d yD;olrsm;&JΠtrnfrsm;eJ@ rJjym;ukd vdrx f w k u f m xyfausmh t}udrf
}udrfxnfhjcif;/ (um,uH&SifvmwJhtcg olŒemrnfeJ@ rJjym;[m xkwf,loGm;+yD;jzpfaewJhtwGuf
jy\emay:&ayr,fh bmrSrwwfEkdifawmhjcif;)/ ±kd;tol/ ouf}uD;&G,ftkdjzpfolrsm;&JŒ rJjym;ukd ulnD
vkdufykd@ rJxnfhapwJhtcg zqyv ykH;twGif;okd@om xnfhay;jcif; pwJhenf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ rJvdrf
rJnpfwmawG jzpfay: óuHawGŒ&ygw,f?
&yf&GmwcsKdŒrSmawmh yrnw udkyJ rJay;zkd@vm=uw,fqkdwm tykdifodwJhtcg wjcm;&yf&Gm
a'o&Sd zqyv cg;ykdkufaqmifwyfukd vSrf;ac:xm;+yD; vrf;w0ufuae jzwfwm;apvsuf ‘usKyfwkd@
tvHeDawGyJ/ cifAsm;wkd@ rJay;oGm;rSmqef@usifw,f/ a&G;aumufyJGudkqef@usifw,f/ tckjyef’ vkd@
vufeufjy +cdrf;ajcmuf armif;xkwf[ef@wm;ypfcJhwmrsKd;awGvnf; ay:aygufcJhygw,f? tpkdk;&wyfu
tvHeaD ,mifaqmif+y;D ykrH mS ;±ku d f armif;xkwcf w hJ mrsK;d jzpfygw,f? yrnw rJ±u Hk ,dk pf m;vS,af &m zqyv
rJ±kHukd,fpm;vS,fa&m &Sdae&mu rJay;cgeD; uyf+yD; yrnw udk,fpm;vS,fudk &Jt&m&Sdu uGefjrLepfeJ@
tquftoG,&f rdS &Sd ppfaq;&ef&w dS ,fv@dk qkud mac:oGm;+yD; tcsefd =f umjrifah tmifac:,lppfaq;aewke;f
zqyv rJ±kHrª;u rJjym;awGudk pdwfóudufvkyfEkdifcJhwmrsKd;awGvnf; jzpfay:cJhygw,f?
zqyv tEkid &f &Sad &;twGuf a&G;aumufyu JG t kd a=umif;ðy+y;D vlowfr}_ u;D awGvnf; ay:ayguf
cJyh gw,f? rif;vS/ ppfuiG ;f / wmqkH teD;rSm towfc&H wJh ‘yrnw’ bufu &Jabmfbv_id /f &Jabmfcif
armif}uD;/ &JabmfwifOD;/ &Jabmf!dkat; wkd@[mqkd&if ae@cif;a=umifawmif ajymifajymifwif;wif;udk
towfcHcJh=u&wmjzpfygw,f?
a&G;aumufyrGJ mS zqyvrsm; tEkid &f zk@d bl;oD;awmifarmif;awmrSm ukvm;awGukd orŠmefe@J
ac:oGif;vmcJh=uw,fqkdwJh toHvnf; xGufay:vmcJhygw,f?

176 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

zqyv buf[m ysLapmxD;wyfvufeufudkif cg;ykdufaqmifwyfawGtultnDeJ@ rw&m;


ojzifh npfywfcJh=uwm +cdrf;ajcmufAkdvfus rJxnfhckdif;wmawG vkyfaqmifcJh=uw,fvdk@ twkduftcH
yrnw tzGŒJ }u;D u pGypf cJG o hJ vd/k zqyv tzJŒG }u;D uvnf; aomif;use;f olvufeufuikd f olyek rf sm;
[m olwkd@}uD;pkd;&me,fajrawGuae vufeufjy +cdrf;ajcmuf+yD; &Gmol&Gmom;awGukd yrnw udk
rJay;zkd@ vkyfaqmifcJh=uw,fvkd@ tjyeftvSef wkef@jyefpGyfpGJygw,f?
a&G;aumufy}JG uD;rSm ‘zqyv’ u (1743816) rJ &&Scd +hJ yD; yrnw (1139286) rJ &&Syd gw,f?
yrnw tygt0if twku d t f cHppk ak ygi;f taeeJ@ u (1530630) rJ&&Syd gw,f? pkpak ygi;f rJta&twGuf
[m odyfruGmvSwmukd awGŒ&ayr,fh a&G;aumufyJGusif;yykHpepft& trwfae&m tEkdif&r_uawmh
uGmjcm;cJyh gw,f? tm%m& zqyvtzJŒG }u;D u trwfae&m (144) ae&m&&Scd +hJ y;D yrnw tzJŒG }u;D u
trwfae&m (46) ae&m yJ&&SdcJhygw,f?
trwfae&mt& ‘zqyv’ u tjywftowftEkdif&&Sdw,fqkdayr,fh vlxkaxmufcHr_
pkpkaygif;rJta&twGufu odyfuGmvSwmr[kwfwma=umifh ‘zqyv’ tzkd@ rsufvkH;jyL;p&mawmh
jzpfvmygw,f? ‘yrnw’ ukd ayghayghoabmxm;vkd@r&awmhbl;qkdwm odoGm;&ovkd/ arv (22)
&ufae@rSm usif;yzkd@a=unmxm;wJh jynfolŒv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJeJ@ wqufwpyfwnf;jzpfwJh
vlrsKd;pkv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyJGrSm ‘zqyv’ awGtEkdif&&Sda&;udk tav;xm;aqmif&GufEkdifzkd@
owday;vkdufovkd jzpfoGm;cJhygw,f?
'ga=umifh ‘zqyv ’ [m vlrsK;d pk v$waf wmfa&G;aumufyrJG mS zqyv uk, d pf m;vS,af vmif;
tEkid &f a&; tm;oGeóf ud;yrf;ygw,f? vlrsK;d pkvw $ af wmfa&G;aumufy}JG uD;rSmawmh zqyv [m tjywf
towf atmifyGJcHEkdifvkdufygawmhw,f?
56 ckESpfa&G;aumufyJGt+yD; ay:vmwJhtpdk;&tzJGŒuawmh atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygw,f?
1? OD;Ek - 0ef}uD;csKyf/
2? OD;AaqG - 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifhumuG,fa&;0ef}uD;/
3? pyfcGefcsdK - 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifhEdkifiHjcm;a&;/ &Srf;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;/
4? OD;ausmf+idrf; - 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifhtrsKd;om;pD;yGm;a&;Xme0ef}uD;/
5? ocifwif - 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifh jynfolŒvkyfief;Xme0ef}uD;/
6? a'gufwmapmvSxGef; - u&ifjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;/
7? OD;Zefxm;qif - ucsifjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;/
8? pyf0À - u,m;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;/
9? OD;Zm&Jv#ef - csif;a&;&mXme/
10? OD;wif - ukefoG,fr_wdk;wufa&;XmeESifhaxmufyHha&;0ef}uD;/
11? Adkvfcifarmifav; - b¾ma&;ESifh tcGefawmfXme0ef}uD;/
12// ocifomcif - jynfxJa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
13// ocifausmfxGef; - v,f,mESifhopfawmXme0ef}uD;
14? OD;cifarmifvwf - w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
15? Adkvfrif;acgif - o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;/ pmwdkufESifha=u;eef;0ef}uD;/

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 177


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

16? OD;&m&Spf - owWKwGif;Xme0ef}uD;/


17? OD;bapm - vlrl0efxrf;XmeESifh omoema&;Xme0ef}uD;/
18? OD;xGef;0if; - or0g,rXme0ef}uD;/
19? ocifcspfarmif - jyef=um;a&;Xme0ef}uD;/
20? OD;&dSefxef - u,fq,fa&;ESifhjyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;0ef}uD;/
21? OD;atmify - a&a=umif;ESifhòrdŒjyava=umif;Xme0ef}uD;/
22? qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif - jynfolŒvkyfief;/ tdrf,maqmufvkyfa&;/
23? ocifyef;òrdif - 'Drdkua&pDa'oE W&tkyfcsKyfa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
24? ocifwifarmif - jynfol@vkyfief;ESifh tdrf,maqmufvkyfa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
25? ocifpHjrifh - v,f,majrEdkifiHydkifðyvkyfa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
26? OD;wif!Gef@ - tvkyform;Xme0ef}uD;/
27? Adkvfcifarmif - pufr_vufr_Xme0ef}uD;/
28? pyfxGef;at; - trsKd;om;rSwfyHkwifa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
29? OD;xGef;wif - ynma&;ESifh,Ofaus;r_Xme0ef}uD;/
30? a'gufwmpdefbef; - usef;rma&;Xme0ef}uD; - wdk@jzpfygw,f?
wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ Oao#mift}uD;tuJjy,k*t f jzpf Edik if aH wmforw}uD;jzpfvmwmuawmh u&if
trsdK;om;vnf;jzpf/ zufqpfawmfvSefa&;rSm tdEdN,jynfoGm;cJh+yD; avxD;qif;AdkvfwOD; vnf;jzpfcJh
wJh ‘ref;0if;armif’ jzpfygw,f?
twdu k tf cH yrnw }uD;[m trwfae&mav;q,fausmo f m&&dcS ahJ yr,fh v$waf wmftwGi;f
rSm t"dutwdu k t f cHtiftm;pk}uD;tjzpf ay:vGiv f mcJyh gw,f? tpd;k &&JΠrl0g'ay:vpDawGukd csu=f u
vuf=u axmufjya0zefqef;ppfEikd w f hJ wu,ft h zJŒG }u;D tjzpf ae&m,lEikd v f mcJyh gw,f? ocifcspaf rmif/
OD;ode;f azjrif/h OD;b+idr;f / OD;at;armif wd@k [m tajymaumif; ta[maumif;awGjzpf=uovdk aumfv;kH
uyfvHk; ax@vHk; axmufvHk;aumif;olawGvnf;jzpf=uwJhtwGuf olwdk@toHawGudk wdkif;jynfu
tm±Hkpdkuf em;axmifvm&wJhtxd tpGrf;xufcJh=uygw,f? jynfolvlxk}uD;u +idrf;csrf;a&;qENudk
tm%meJ@uef@owfxm;wJh=um;uae wcJeuf azmfjyvdkuf=uwmjzpfwJhtwGuf yrnw }uD;[m
tcsed wf w kd t kd wGi;f 'Davmufatmifyef;qifEikd cf w hJ mjzpfygw,f? trwfae&m&&drS l uGm[vGe;f ayr,fh
rJta&twGuf odyu f mG vSwmr[kww f mudk Edik if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Eku owdrrl yd gw,f? a&G;aumuf
yJG}uD;t+yD;rSm a&G;aumufyJG&v'fudk jyefvnfoHk;oyf=uwJhtcg zqyv tzJGŒ}uD;twGif;rSm rwljcm;
em;wJ@ t"dutjrif (2) ck xGufay:vmygw,f?
OD;Eku zqyv}uD;twGif;rSm zqyvawG tm%mtvJGoHk;pm;vkyfr_/ jcpm;r_/ vlxktay:
rawmfrw&m; Adv k uf stjrwfxw k rf a_ wGrsm;vmvd@k 'Dvjkd zpf&wmvd@k jrifygw,f? OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idrf ;f
wdk@acgif;aqmifwJh uGefjrLepfqef@usifha&; acgif;rmqdk&S,fvpfxdyfoD;}uD;awGuawm@ yrnw awG
tiftm;aumif;vm&wm[m aiGuakd &vdo k ;kH +yD; awmwGi;f uGe¹f rlepfawGu vufeufe@J +cdr;f ajcmuf+yD;
rJxnfch ikd ;f cJvh @kd 'Davmufjzpfvmwmvd@k jrifygw,f? tJ'v D @kd rwljcm;em;wJh tjrif (2) rsKd ;tay:uae
rwljcm;em;wJh aumufcsuf (2) rsdK; oabmxm; (2) rsdK; ay:xGufvmygw,f?

178 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf
OD;Eku zqyv}uD;udk jyefvnftm;aumif;vmzd@k tm%mtvJo G ;kH pm;vkyrf /_ rawmfrw&m;
ðyr_/ jcpm;r_}uD;awGudkwdkufzsuf&r,f/ zqyvpnf;±Hk;a&;udk pepfwusjyefvkyf&r,f? zqyv
oef@&iS ;f a&;udv k yk rf jS zpfr,f/ zqyvtzJŒG }uD;&JŒ odumQ usqif;vmr_ukd tzwfq,f&r,fv@kd oabm
xm;ygw,f?
OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@wodkufuawmh uGefjrLepfawGa=umifhjzpf&wm/ uGefjrLepfawGudk
tðywfwdkuf&r,f/ uGefjrLepfawG usqHk;oGm;&if tvdkvdkpnf;±Hk;a&;wufvmvdrfhr,f/ uGefjrLepf
acsre_ ;f a&;onfomt"duvd@k oabmxm;+yD;/ &d&S if; uGejf rLepfqef@usi@f a&;wHceG u f kd wqifw h ;kd pdu
k xf l
ygw,f? tm%m& zqyvtpdk;&tzJGŒtwGif;u ‘wyfrawmf’ uvnf; Adkvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm wdk@vdk
avmufuvJ+G yD; xdyo f ;D acgi;f aqmiftrsm;pk[m qd&k , S v f pfygwD wyfwiG ;f tpk0ifawGtjzpfu vm=u
olawGjzpfawmh/ tðywfwdkufa&;&yfwnfcsufcsif; wom;wnf;usaecJh=uygw,f? 55 ckESpfxJtxd/
Adv
k af e0if;u ygwu D eHygww f pfpnf±;kH a&;udk aumif;aumif;xde;f xm;yg? olu wyfux kd ed ;f +y;D a&SŒquf
Edik af &;vkyaf qmifomG ;r,fqw kd m wifjyt=uH^m%fay;cJzh ;l ygw,f? OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wd@k u tav;
rxm;cJh=uvdk@qdkygw,f? 'ga=umifh 56 ckESpfavmufup+yD; wyfrawmf[m Adkvfae0if; wOD;wnf;&JŒ
OD;pD;r_atmufuae wyfupd /P wyfwm0efawGuo kd m tav;xm;vky&f if; wpxufwp ppftiftm;pk
}u;D wpkozG,jf zpfvmaecJyh gw,f? zqyvwGi;f tkypf òk yid yf aGJ wG=um;rSm wyfuawmh vGwv f w G v
f yfvyf
}uD;xGm; pkpnf;cGifhawG&aecJhygw,f zqyv qdk&S,fvpf}uD;rsm;uvnf; wyf[m olwdk@vltjzpfeJ@
tydik w f u
G x f m;ovdk OD;Ekuvnf; wyfut kd a&;ay; acsmjh rLxm;cJyh gw,f? OD;Eku wyfukd ,H=k unfpw d f
csaecJhygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; [m OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@ qdk&,fvpf}uD;rsm;&JΠ,Hk=unfrla&m
OD;Ek/ OD;wif wdk@vdk trsdK;om;a&;0g'D zqyv }uD;rsm;&JΠudk;pm;tm;xm;r_udkyg tvdktavsmuf&&dS
aecJyh gw,f? txl;ojzifh uGejf rLepfqef@usiahf &;pdw"f mwf jyif;xefvw S hJ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f ird ;f wd@k tyk pf &k ŒJ
uGejf rLepfacsre_ ;f a&;/ tðywfwu kd af &; &nfreS ;f csuef @J Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; OD;aqmifxm;wJh wyfrawmf&ŒJ
aomif;usef;ol tjrpfjywfa&; ppfqifrlawG[m wom;wnf;usaecJhygw,f? tðywfwdkufa&;
aomif;usef;olEdSrfeif;a&;rSm wom;wnf;us+yD; uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; tajccHay:rSm ajcpHk&yfr_csif;
wlnaD e=uayr,fh wzufuwyf[m txl;tiftm;pk}uD;w&yftoGif ajymif;vJjzpfay:vmaewmudk
awmh zqyv EdkifiHa&;pnf;0dkif;twGif;u OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf; tkyfpkua&m OD;Ek/ OD;wif ociftkyfpk
uyg jyufjyufxifxif ±_jrifEdkifr_r&dScJ@=uyg?
bmoma&;udk udkif;±dkif;+yD; qXoH*g,emwif rif;aumif;rif;jrwfbJG@udk cH,lcsifvGef;vSwJh
0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek[m 0ef}uD;csKyftm%mudkudkifpJG+yD; 1955 ckESpfxJuwnf;u tcrf;tem;}uD;awG 0JS+cD;
usif;y&if; pwifaqmif&GufvmcJhwJh qXoH*g,emwifyJG}uD;udk 1956 ckESpf/ arvxJrSm atmifjrifpGm
tqHk;owfEdkifcJhygw,f// qÏoH*g,emwifyJG}uD; atmifjrifpGmusif;y+yD;+yDqdk&if 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;u
EkwfxGufr,fqdkwJh ol&JŒ yk*~vdut"dÏmefa=umifha&m/ zqyv}uD;udk oef@&Sif;a&;vkyf+yD; jyefvnf
pnf;±Hk;a&;vkyfrSjzpfr,fqdkwJh cH,lcsufa=umifhyg? oH*g,emwifyJG}uD;+yD;+yD;csif; r=umrDrSmyif OD;Ek
0ef}uD;csKyftjzpfu E_wx f u
G zf @kd jyifygw,f? zqyv tr_aqmifrsm;u wm;=uygw,f? aemufq;kH rSm
OD;Ek 0ef}uD;csKyfu E_wfxGuf+yD; zqyvtzGJŒ}uD;rSm OuUÏtjzpf wESpfvkyfay;r,fqdkwm twnfjzpf
oGm;ygw,f? ocifomcif&ŒJ tqdw k ifoiG ;f r_t& wESpjf ynf&h if 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf wESpt f wGuf jyef+yD;
vufcH&r,fqdkwmeJ@ twnfðyqHk;jzwfcJh=uygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 179
tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf qdk&S,fvpf}uD; OD;AaqGudk &mxl;vJ$ay;ygw,f? 'k0ef}uD;


csKyftjzpf xm;cJhwmuawmh pyfcGefcsdK/ OD;ausmf+idrf;eJ@ ocifwifjzpfygw,f?
OD;Eku OD;ausmf+idrf;udk zqyv taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;ae&mu txGufcdkif;ygw,f? ocif
ausmfxGef;udk 0ef}uD;tjzpfu E_wfxGufap+yD; tJ'D taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;ae&mudk t,lcdkif;um
olŒatmufrSm yl;wJGxm;vdkufygw,f?
zqyv oef@&iS ;f a&;vkyzf @kd pDpOfvu kd w f hJ OD;Ek[m tJ'h v
D kd &mxl;tajymif;tvJvyk w f mawGukd
b,fol@udkrSrwdkifyifbJ olŒpdwfwdkif;us vkyfcsifovdkvkyf trdef@ay;ae&mcsxm;ay;cJhwmjzpfygw,f?
¡aemifrSm OD;Ek tJ'Dvdk 0ef}uD;csKyfu xGufay;wm[m aA'ifudef;cef;t& ,=wmacszdk@vkyfcJhwmvdk@
vnf; OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf; wdk@u pGyfpGJ=uwmvJ&dSygw,f?¢
zqyv tzJGŒ}uD; oef@&Sif;a&;vkyfzdk@ tJ'DvdkpDpOfvdkufwm[m ‘zqyv’ tzJGŒ}uD; òyduJGzdk@
pwifvu kd w f mjzpfcyhJ gw,f? qH;k jzwfcsuu f kd em;axmifvufcv H u kd af yr,fh OD;ausm+f idr;f [m awmfawmf
rausreyfjzpfcJhygw,f? 54 ckESpf qefudpPrSmuwnf;u qdk&S,fvpf &efyHkaiGtwGuf vmbfpm;+yD;
qefa&mif;pm;xm;wmvd@k oHo,0ifaecJ+h yD; pwiftòid;xm;cJ&h muae olŒudck sypfawmhz@kd jyifqifwm
jzpfw,fvdk@ OD;ausmf+idrf;u ,lqcJhygw,f?
1956 ckESpf/ ZGefv (12) &ufae@rSm OD;AaqG 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmygw,f? OD;Ek zqyvOuUÏ
&mxl;,lygw,f? zqyvoef@&Sif;a&;udk zdzdpD;pD; pwifaqmif&Gufygw,f? ol pwifzJGŒpnf;cJhwJh
‘poHk;vHk;’ tzJGŒ}uD;udk vkyfydkifcGifhtm%m tjynfht0ay;+yD; jcpm;r_ azmfxkwfta&;,la&;awGudk
vkyfaqmifapygw,f?
tJ'Dvdk ðyvkyfaqmif&Gufr_awGa=umifh wav#mufvHk; olwyg;tay:om vufOD;rl&dS&dS ta&;
,lprD cH ef@cv GJ mcJw
h hJ OD;ausm+f idr;f [m rcHr&yfEikd af tmifjzpfcyhJ gw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f awmfawmf rausreyf
jzpfaewJhowif; OD;EkqDa&mufvmwJhtcg OD;Eku“rif;ig@udkrausreyfjzpfaew,fvdk@ =um;&w,f/
tJh'Draus reyfcsufawG bmawGvJqdkwm pma&;+yD; ig@qDydk@vdkuf/ 'Dpm&wJhtcg rif;eJig aqG;aEG;r,f”
vdk@ OD;Ek u wkef@jyefvdkufygw,f?
1956 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (3) &ufae@rSm OD;ausmf+idrf; &JΠw&m;0if &ifzGifhv$m OD;EkqDa&mufvm
ygw,f? Zlvdkif (6) &ufae@rSm OD;Ek&JΠOD;ausmf+idrf;xH jyefpmxGufay:vmygw,f?
'DpmESpfapmif[m &mZ0ifwGifcJhwJhpmESpfapmifjzpfygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf; &JŒpmxJhrSm ²²²
²²² &efukefòrdŒ olykefawG0dkif;aepOfu bmwckrSraqmif&GufcJhwJh ukefonf}uD;awG/ vdkifpifpD
}uD;awG/ tjrwfawmfceG af &Smifwv hJ al wG/ Edik if jH cm;aiGc;kd xkwwf vhJ al wG/ omaygi;f nmpm;awGwcsKd Œ[m
OuUÏ }uD;em;rSmuyf+yD; ajr‡mufae=uw,f? qdk&S,fvpfawGeJ@ &efwdkufay;ae=uw,f? olwdk@u
tjyifrSm vdkifpifa&mif;pm;vdk@ csrf;omoavmuf/ OuUÏ}uD;óudufwJh tvªtwef;awGrSm vª=uwef;
=uw,f? (t&ufóuduw f hJ vlem;usawmh 'Dval wGu ykvif;armh=uw,f) OuUÏ}uD;ysi;f &if; td;k pnf';kd
ywf0ikd ;f vJ ujy=uw,f? w&m;emcsi&f ifvnf; ,yfvw JS &m;av;bmav; a[majymwwfw,f/ tvsO;f
oifw h t hJ cg b,fq&kd , S vf pfacgi;f aqmifu acgi;f aqmif}uD;udk b,fvrkd w&m;ajymygw,fv@kd &efwu kd f
=uw,f? “*syefacwf t"dywdvkyfaewkef;u ightem;rSm nmaewJh pD;yGm;a&;orm;cyfrsm;rsm;[m
tck ocifEktem;a&mufae+yD” vdk@ a'gufwmbarmf uajymaewmudk wqifh=um;&w,f/ rSef rrSef

180 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

rodyg²²²²” qdkwmutp²²²
“²²²²0ef}uD;csKyftaeeJ@ ab;uvlawGu ‘rSefyghz,m;’ vkyf=uawmh rif;pdwfrif;rmefawG
rsm;vmygonf? 0ef}uD;tpnf;ta0;awGrmS aomfvnf;aumif;/ zqyv tvkyt f r_aqmiftzGŒJ wGi;f
rSmaomfvnf;aumif; aqG;aEG;&mwGif rdrd.,lqcsuf qef@usifIajymonfudk onf;rcHvdkaompdwf
ay:aygufvmygonf? rdrd.,lqcsufESifh qef@usifI aqG;aEG;aomolonf uvefuqefvkyfonf/
vla&SŒrSm ighudkjyefajymonf? t&SufcJGonf[k ,lqvmonf²²²²”
qdkwmawGtqHk; rausreyfcsufawGudk wef;pD+yD; &ifzGifhxm;ygw,f// OD;Ek&JŒjyef=um;pmxJ
rSmawmh -
“²²²²ightusdK;ta=umif; rif;todyJ? i,fpOfuwnf;u rif;eJ@aygif;vmwmyJ? pdwfwdkwwf
w,f/ pdwjf yif;xefw,f/ rif;wd@k e@J omr[kwzf ;l / tdru f om; r,m; tdro f t l rd o
f m;awGe@J vnf;'Dvykd /J
'gayr,fh t+rJwef; 'Dvdkpdwfwdk+yD; pdwfjyif;xefaewmr[kwfzl;? pdwftwdkjrefoavmuf pdwftajy
jrefwmyJr[kwfvm;/ pdwfajywmeJ@ onf;cHzdk@ awmif;yefcJhwmvnf; t}udrf}udrfyJr[kwfvm;?
pdwv f ukd rf mefygvyk w f m[m 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmrSvyk w f ,fq&kd if ajymp&m&daS o;&JŒ? tckawmh
ausmif;om;b0uwnf;u 'DvdkyJ pdwfvdkufrmefygvkyfwwfw,fqdkwm rif;up+yD; igholi,fcsif;
t&if;awGtm;vHk; od=uygw,f? tJ'gudk t&ifu bmrSrpGyfpJGcJhayyJ/ rif;ta=umuf}uD;a=umufvm
wJhtcgusrS tm%m&Sifpdwfaygufw,fvdk@ pGyfpGJwm igodyf+yD;&,fcsifw,fausmf+idrf;”²²²
qdk+yD; y,fy,fe,fe,f jyefa&;cJhovdk OD;ausmf+idrf;&JΠrauseyfcsufawGudk a'gifhaphatmifjyef
wkef@jyefcJhwmawGŒ&ygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;&JŒ OD;EkxHay;pmtcsKyfu²²²
OD;Ek&JŒ ygwDoef@&Sif;a&;onf qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifrsm;udkz,f&Sm;um ‚if;ae&mrsm;Y rdrd
aemufvu kd rf sm;udk tpm;xd;k &efjzpfa=umif;/ OD;AaqG/ ocifwifEiS hf OD;ausm+f ird ;f wd@k ukd zqyv/ Awvp/
tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;rsm;u E_wfxGufapI 'k0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;wGifxm;jcif;/ vmbfpm;aom
acgi;f aqmiftcsKŒd udk ta=umif;ðyI rvdv k m;aom qd&k , S v
f pfacgi;f aqmifrsm;tm; poH;k vH;k Oya'tm;
vufudkifðyum rw&m;zrf;qD;jcif;/ OD;EkwGif tm%m&Sifpdwfrsm;ay:vmjcif;/ OD;ausmf+idrf;u
twdu k t f cHvyk v f eG ;f I OD;Eku rsurf ek ;f usK;d aejcif;/ zqyv twGi;f a&;rª;cef@xm;&ef/ Edik if aH &;0gEak o;
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wkef@jyefpmtcsKyfuawmh æ
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poHk;vHk;u oufaotaxmuftxm;cdkifvHkpGmjzifh zrf;qD;cJhjcif;jzpfa=umif;/ tm%m&Sifqefonf[k
pGypf rJG E_ iS yhf wfoufI use;f rma&;csKŒd ,Gi;f vmr_a=umifh pdww f w
kd wfvmjcif;ESihf pdwt f wdjk refoavmuf
pdwftajyjrefa=umif;/ 'gudk i,fuwnf;u aygif;oif;cJhonfh OD;ausmf+idrf; od+yD;jzpfygvsuf/ ,ckrS
ta=umuf}uD;a=umufvmum tm%m&Sifqefonf pGyfpGJjcif;rSm &,fp&mjzpfa=umif;” qdkwmjzpfyg
w,f?
OD;ausm+f idr;f eJ@ OD;Ekw@kd &ŒJ tjyeftvSeaf y;pmESpaf pmif[m zqyv tvkyt f r_aqmifpm;yJaG y:
twl,OS w f aJG &mufvm+yD;wJah emufyikd ;f / OD;ausm+f idr;f axmufco H t
l yk pf Ek iS hf OD;Ekaxmuf cHot l yk pf q
k +kd yD;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 181


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

tkyfpk (2) pk ododomomuGJvmygawmhw,f? 52 ckESpfaemufydkif; tajcwnfcJhwJh aumvdyftkyfeJ@


bke;f }uD;ausmif;om;tkyt f uJt G ay:rSm xyfqifo h &zlaqmif;ay;vdu k wf muawmh 'D (56 ckEpS t f uJ)G
yJjzpfygw,f?
'DtuJ[ G m uJG uGjJ cif; zH;k zdxm;=uao;ayr,f/h Xmeqdik &f mawGtwGi;f tkycf sKyfa&;,E &W m;awG
twGif;xd *,uf±dkufcJhygw,f? 0ef}uD;tzJG@&JŒ tajccHvkyfxHk;jzpf&r,fh pkaygif;wm0ef,lpepfvnf;
ysufoGm;cJh+yD; 'DXmeeJ@ [dkXmerwnfh/ twlyl;wJGaqmuf&Gufr&qdkwmawGyg ydkrdkodompGm jzpfay:vm
cJyh gw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f eJ@ OD;Ek wd@k &ŒJ tjyeftvSeaf y;pm (2) apmifukd owif;pmawGtxd rwifcahJ o;yJ
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OD;Eku zqyv oef@&Sif;a&;udk qufvkyfzdk@jyifygw,f? OD;Ek&JΠzqyv oef@&Sif;a&;vkyfr_awG
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vdu k yf gw,f? OD;AaqG u ESpzf ufpvH;k eJ@ oifjh rwfaecJyh gw,f? zqyv tvkyt f r_aqmiftzJŒG aqG;aEG;yGJ
pnf;a0;yGaJ wGrmS awmh t&ifuvdk at;at;aq;aq; wdww f wd q f w d qf wd f r+yD;=uawmhyJ a'goawG
pGyfpJGoHawG vd_ifvmcJhygw,f? zqyv twGif; yÉdyuQt&dSefjyif;vmwJhtwGuf xdyfoD;}uD;awG&JŒ
oufawmfapmifhawG zqyv taqmuftOD;wGif; 0ifvm=u&if aoewfawG ,lrvm&qdkwJh trdef@
awmif OD;Ek u xkwfjyefvm&ygw,f?
jynfolvlxk=um;xJrSmvnf; ‘zqyv’ &JŒ pnf;±kH;a&;[m usqif;vmygw,f? zqyv
eJ@ zqyv vufatmufcHtzJGŒtpnf;toD;oD;rSm rSwfyHkwifxm;=uwJh toif;0ifOD;a&[mvnf;
ododomom}uD;udk xdk;qif;oGm;ygw,f? 1955 wkef;u (628981) a,muf&dS&mu 1956 rSm
(245905) a,mufyJ&dSygawmhw,f?
vlxkudkjyefvnfpnf;±Hk;zdk@ zqyvoef@&Sif;a&;vkyfaewJh OD;Ek u udk,fhudk,fudka0zefa&;
vkyfovdkyHkpHrsdK;eJ@ zqyv}uD;&JΠtjypftemtqmawGudk zGifh[0efcHa0zefwmrsdK;awG vkyfvmyg
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au|;vdkuf&if ukefwmaES;csifaES;tHk;r,f/ jrefjrefukefcsif&if zqyv awG=um; csau|;vdkuf” wdk@
“zqyv” acgif;aqmifawG[m olwdk@&JŒnpfywfr_awGudk &yfwef;u&yf=uyg? r&yf&if a=umifusr
usb;l / acG;ususvrd rhf ,f” wd@k pum;vH;k ajymifajymife@J ajymqdv k m&if; toHaumif;[pf 0efcaH zmfxw k f
wmawGvkyfcJhygw,f? OD;Ek[m pum;vHk;aumif;aumif;a&G;+yD; ajymwwfqdkwwfolwOD;jzpfygw,f?
jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;eJ@ wqufwnf;ay:aygufvmwJh ‘jcpm;w,f’ qdkwJhpum;vHk;[m OD;Ek
&JŒpum;vHk;jzpfygw,f?
wavsmufvHk; twdkuftcH EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkawGtay:om vuf!kd;xdk; w&m;cH&Sm+yD;
‘zqyv’ }uD;udk ta&mifwifqo D wk vf mcJw
h mjzpfayr,fh rv$rJ a&Smifom ‘zqyv’ wd@k &ŒJ npfywfr_
pkwfyJhr_/ q&mwynfharG;r_ tusifhysufr_awGudk xkwfazmf0efcHvm&ygw,f? 'Davmuf qdk;0g;pkwfyJh
r_awGukd ckryS o J &d awmhv@kd / odocd si;f oluawmh trSew f &m;orm;rd@k 'gawGuv kd ufrcHa=umif; jyif;jyif;
xefxef a0zef±w _ cf sjy&if; qef@usib f ufuae pnf;±H;k a&;enf;rsKd ;eJ@ pnf;±H;k aewmjzpfygw,f? olrsm;

182 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

axmif;&if ydek mEdik w f t hJ wGuf ud, k [


hf mud, k af xmif;jy&if; qef@usib f ufenf;eJ@ pnf;±H;k vdu k w f mrsKd ;vd@k
vnf;jzpfygw,f? bmbJjzpfjzpf OD;Ekudk,fwdkif0efcH&ovdk zqyvtzJGŒ}uD;[m ykyfcsifwdkif;ykyf yGcsif
wdik ;f yGaecJ+h yDjzpfygw,f? teH@waxmif;axmif;xaewJh acG;aoaumifyyk }f uD;vdk jzpfaecJ+h yDjzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dvdk zqyv }uD;[m teH@waxmif;axmif;xGufaewJh acG;aoaumifykyf}uD;jzpfaewJh
twGuaf &m/ zqyv &JΠAwvp/ zqqd&k , S of cl ;kd }u;D rsm; jcpm;vdu k =f u/ xifovdb k ;kH vdu
k =f uwJt h wGuf
wdkif;jynfb¾mawG ta[moduHjzpfcJh& qHk;±_H;epfemcJh&wmawGtwGufa&m/ zqyv tpdk;&}uD;&JŒ
atmufu ysLapmxD;/ vJA;D / ajymuf=um;jzLtyg ppfwyf}uD;wckv;Hk u jynfov l x l }k uD;tay: Adv k u f s
cJ=h u/ armufrm±dik ;f pdik ;f &ufpufc=hJ uwmawGtwGuyf g b,foŒl rSmwm0eft&dq S ;kH vJ/ eHygww f pf w&m;cH
[mb,fov l /J 'DtwGuf tpd;k &tzJŒG }uD;u b,fvw kd m0ef,rl vJqw kd mudak wmh Ekid if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyf
OD;Ek wcGef;rSrajymcJhyg? (8) ESpfausmfausmf awmufav#muf0ef}uD;csKyfvkyfvmcJhwJhol[m wm0eft&dS
qH;k jzpfaewmudak wmh wvH;k wyg' wcGe;f uav;rS r[cJyh g? OD;ausm+f idr;f tkypf u k awmh r*Fvm'Ht k em;
rSm “ausm+f ird ;f òrdŒ” wnfaxmifz@kd awmif pdwu f ;l ae=uygw,f? Zlvi_d v f vnfavmufrmS bmomjyef
pmaytoif;}u;D u }u;D rª;usi;f ywJh owif;pmq&mavmif;rsm; ausmif;qif;yJrG mS awmh OD;Ek u 1957
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvus&if olŒ zqyv OuUÏ&mxl;u E_wfxGufawmhr,fvdk@ a=unmajymqkdcJhygw,f?
OD;Ek u zqyvoef@&Sif;a&;acgif;pnf;eJ@ zqyv 0ef}uD;eJ@ tvkyftr_aqmiftzJGŒ0ifawG
udk “rdrdwdk@ydkifypPnf;awGudk 1956 ckESpf/ Zlvldifv (31) ae@ aemufqHk;xm;+yD; pm&if;vkyf/ zqyv
taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rª;xHwifjy/ wefb;kd aiGw&mxufyw kd hJ vufaqmifypPn;f r,l&/ vufc&H w,fqkd
&ifvnf; taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rª;xHwifjy=u” qd+k y;D 0uft=l uyfay;wmvkyyf gw,f? zqyv oef@&iS ;f
a&;twGuf tjypf&w Sd ,fv@kd owif;&xm;wJo h al wGuv kd nf; poH;k vH;k Oya't& jynfxaJ &;u jynfxJ
a&;eJ@ppfwyf aygif;+yD; zrf;qD;apygw,f?
0ef}uD;eJ@ tr_aqmifawGudk 0uftl=uyfay;wJhtwGuf qdk&S,fvpf}uD;awG ra=ueyfjzpf=u
ovdk poH;k vH;k Oya'eJ@ zrf;qD;wJt h cgrmS vnf; qd&k , S v f pfygw0D ifawGc&H wmu trsm;tjym;jzpfaewJh
twGuf OD;Ekudk a'golykefx=uygw,f? ygwDoef@&Sif;a&;qdkwm qdk&S,fvpfawGtay: tjypf&Smjcif;vdk@
OD;ausm+f idr;f u ±_jrifoabmxm;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh OD;ausm+f idr;f uvnf; 'Dru dk a&pDEikd if H 'Dru kd a&pDpepf
eJ@ rudkufnDwJh poHk;vHk;Oya'udk jyifqifoifha=umif;vdk@ wkef@jyefygw,f? OD;Ek eJ@ OD;ausmf+idrf; =um;
oabmxm;uJGr_awG ydk}uD;vmygw,f//
Armhwyfrawmfuawmh atmifrmCxd;k ppf}uD;udk t&deS jf yif;jyif;csŒJ +yD; qifEaJ$ e&if; wzufu
ppfwyfudk tiftm;}uD;oxuf}uD;atmif wkd;csJŒwnfaqmufwm/ ajymif;vJzJGŒpnf;wmawG tquf
rjywfvyk af ecJyh gw,f? umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Adv k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; wOD;wnf;&JŒatmufrmS wyfawGtm;
vHk; (=unf;/ a&/ av tyg) &dS&dSor#udk vG,fvG,fulul uGyfuJEdkifzdk@ ppf±Hk; (War Office) udk umuG,f
a&;0ef}uD;Ïme (Ministry of Defence) tjzpf jyifqifzJG@pnf;ygw,f// =unf;wyftjyif a&wyfeJ@
avwyfudkvnf; wdk;csJŒwnfaqmufygw,f? a&wyfeJ@ywfouf+yD; &dS+yD;a&wyfpcef;XmecsKyfwdk@udk
wd;k csŒJ zGŒJ pnf; zGiv hf pS v f u kd yf gw,f? avwyfe@J ywfouf+y;D vnf; rdwv DW mavwyfpcef;udk Armhwyfrawmf
avwyfavhusiahf &;pcef;}u;D tjzpf ajymif;vJzŒGJ pnf;ovd/k trSwf (501) avwyftyk pf ek @J trSwf (502)
avwyftyk pf w k @kd uv kd nf; zJŒG pnf;vdu k yf gw,f? avwyfacwfraDS &;twGuf 1956 ckEpS x f rJ mS tar&duef

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000) 183


tarSmif=um;u Armjynf 0if;wihfxGef;

EdkifiHrS pufpem (Cessna Modle 180) av,mOfrsm;udkvnf; 0,f,ltm;jznfhygw,f? wyfrawmf


(av) rSm &[wf,mOfrsm;udkvnf; 56 ckESpfxJrSm pwiftoHk;ðyygw,f?
tm%m& zqyv tzJŒG }uD;twGi;f tuJt G +yJawG zH;k rEdik zf rd &jzpfvmaepOftwGi;f rSm/ wyfr
awmf}uD;u tiftm;}uD;oxuf}uD;vmaeovdk/ jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH;&JΠjynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; jynf
wGi;f +ird ;f csr;f a&;qENuvnf; nHoxufnv H mcJyh gw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu D (55 vrf;pOft&)
jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;tvHukd wd;k +yD;v$io hf vd/k q&m}uD;ocifu, kd af wmfrid_ ;f OD;aqmifwhJ +idr;f csr;f a&;tzJŒG
&JŒtoH[mvnf; ydk+yD;yJhwifxyfvmcJhygw,f? q&m}uD;[m jynfwGif;ppfpuwnf;u jynfwGif;+idrf;
csrf;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk tqufrjywf OD;aqmifvmcJhygw,f? 56 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv/ rwfvup+yD;
txufArmjynfwcGif vSnv hf nf+yD; urBm+h idr;f csr;f a&;/ jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;w&m;awG tqufrjywf
vdu k v f aH [majymcJo h vdk rE aW v;òrdŒ av;jyifav;&yfq&mawmf (143) yg;udk jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;yef
=um;v$m wifqufav#mufxm; =o0g'cH,cl o hJ vd/k &efuek f a&$w*d akH pwDawmf awmifbufapmif;wef;
OD;b&DZ&yfrmS ‘urBm+h idr;f csr;f a&;uGe*f &uf’ u }uD;rª;usi;f ywJh &efuek òf rdŒ&dS q&mawmfrsm; qENc, H yl GJ
rSmvnf; q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;[m jynfwGif;jynfy +idrf;csrf;a&;yef=um;v$mudk wifquf
av#mufxm;cJhygw,f?
“jynfwiG ;f ppfukd rkcs&yfpaJ p&r,f” qdw k hJ aºuG;a=umfoeH @J a&G;aumufy}GJ uD;twGi;f yg0if,OS f
òydifcJh+yD;/ v$wfawmftwGif;rSm t"dutwdkuftcH tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;ae&mudk &&dSvmcJhwJh ‘yrnw’
tzJGŒ}uD;uvnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;toHudk wufwufºuGºuGay;vmygw,f?
1956 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (29) &ufae@uae (31) &ufae@txd &efukefòrdŒ òrdŒawmfcef;rrSm
‘yrnw’ tzJGŒcsKyf&JŒ yxrt}udrf EdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ‘yrnw’ nDvmcH}uD;udk pnfpnfum;um;
usi;f yðyvkyyf gw,f? c±dik af ygi;f (31) c±dik òf rŒd e,faygi;f (104) òrŒd e,fu ud, k pf m;vS,af ygi;f (534) OD;/
avhvmolaygi;f (188) OD; wufa&mufpak 0;wJh nDvmcH}uD;jzpfygw,f? Adv k cf sKyftudk OD;atmifoef;u
nDvmcHobmywdvkyf+yD;/ 0d"l&ocifcspfarmifu twGif;a&;rª;tjzpfeJ@ nDvmcH}uD;udk OD;pD;zGifhvSpf
usif;ycJhygw,f?
nDvmcHrSm yrnwtzJGŒcsKyf&JŒ {nfhcHaumfrwDOuUÏ OD;bxGef; u rdef@cGef;¹rGuf=um;ovdk
nDvmcHobmywd OD;atmifoef; (Adv k cf sKyftud)k uvnf; obmywdred @f ceG ;f &Sn}f uD;udk ajym=um;cJyh g
onf?
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aomhcsuf[m jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;eJ@ trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;jzpfw,f” vdk@azmfjyoGm;yg
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OD;atmifoef;uawmh “uae@&dSaewJh tar&duefOD;aqmifwJh e,fcsJŒ*dk%f;}uD;eJ@ qdkAD,uf/
w±kwf acgi;f aqmifwhJ +idr;f csr;f a&;*d% k ;f }uD;&,fv@kd *d% k ;f }uD; (2) *d% k ;f &daS e&mrSm b,fbufuv kd u
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awG/ ,kw, f w k rf mrmvky}f uHowfjzwfcw hJ mawGukd zGichf sajymqdyk gw,f? a&G;aumufyt GJ wGi;f rSm yrnw
au'g (4) OD;udk ae@cif;a=umifawmif ayw&mvrf;r}uD;ay:rSm b&if;*ef; pwif;*ef; vufeuf}uD;awG
eJ@ raorcsi;f ypfowfomG ;cJw h hJ rif;vS av;avmif;òydiv f o l wfy}GJ uD;eJ@ tJ'v D o l wform;awGukd uae@

184 teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)


0if;wihfxGef; tarSmif=um;u Armjynf
txd zrf;qD;ta&;,lao;jcif;r&dSbJ &JtzJGŒuvnf; rsufESm}uD; vlowform;awGrdk@ ta&;r,l&JbJ
vufrid_ cf sae&yHak wGuv kd nf; azmfxw k o f mG ;ygw,f? zqqd&k , S tf pd;k &[m jynfwiG ;f a&;rSm +idr;f csr;f a&;
vrf;rSeu f rkd vdu
k bf J tðywfwu kd af &;udyk J usio hf ;kH ae&if;/ jynfya&; (Edik if jH cm;a&;) rSmawmh +idr;f csr;f pGm
ajz&Sif;a&;vrf;pOfudk vufcHygw,fvdk@ aºuG;a=umfaewm[m jynfwGif;a&;0g'eJ@ EkdifiHjcm;a&;0g'
yÉdyuQjzpfaewJhta=umif;/ EkdifiHjcm;a&;0g'[m jynfwGif;a&;0g'&JŒ tqufomjzpf&r,fhta=umif;
a0zefajym=um;ygw,f? zqyvtpd;k &&JŒ tðywfwu kd af &;vrf;pOf rrSew f mudk jynfwiG ;f ppf &SpEf pS af usmf
udk;ESpfordkif;u oufaojyae+yD;jzpfvdk@ ppfrSefwJh+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf yrnwu wifjyaewJh aphpyf
aqG;aEG;a&;enf;udkom vdkuf=u&rSmjzpfa=umif;/ zqyvtpdk;&u tðywfwdkufa&;vrf;pOfudkvdkuf
aewm[m jynfwGif;ppfrD;udkar$;xm;wJh e,fcsJŒorm;rsm;&JŒ=oZmudk rvSefEdkifwmuwa=umif;/
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trsK;d orD;awG rk'rd ;f usiahf ewJh cseaf u&Sw d f w±kwjf zL"m;jyawGe@J befaumufaqG;aEG;yJrG mS wpm;yJx G J
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