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INTRODUCTION TO TEXTILE WET PROCESSING

T.KARTHIKEYAN

WHY WET PROCESSING?


TO

IMPART WEARING COMFORTABILITY IMPART APPEARANCE IMPART HANDLE

TO TO

TYPES OF WET PROCESSING


CONTINIOUS SEMI

PROCESS

CONTINOUS PROCESS PROCESS

BATCH

GI STICHING SHEARING & CROPPING SINGEING (OPTION) DESIZING SCOURING BLEACHING MERCERIZING DYEING FINISHING

PROCESS SEQUENCE (COTTON)

FIBER BLENDS
To To

facilitate processing improve properties

Abrasion resistance Strength Absorbency Bulk and warmth Hand Dimensional stability Resistance to wrinkling

To To

produce multi-colored fabrics reduce costs

Objectives in Preparation
Preparation

is the process of preparing fiber, yarn or fabric for subsequent steps such as dyeing, printing, finishing, and/or special processes for apparel and non-apparel end uses. The primary function of preparation is to remove impurities that will interfere with overall processing through all dyeing and finishing functions

Objectives in Preparation
Produce a Substrate that Has: Uniform extraction of impurities, such as sizes, seed husks, pectin's, waxes, chemicals, catalytic substances, etc. Uniform standards of white Uniformly swollen fibers for transport of dyes and chemicals (absorption) Minimal fiber damage Rapid imbibing of water A constant pH Uniform residual moisture content

Preparation Processes
Singeing Desizing Scouring Bleaching Enzyme

Processes (cellulosics only) Mercerizing (cotton only) Heatsetting (synthetics only)

Grey inspection
Perching

- Visual inspection and marking the areas of flaws, stain,knots etc,. Burling - Removal of yarn knots and other imperfections. Mending - Actual repair of imperfections. Means - By manually or laser beam.

INSPECTION MACHINE (WOVEN)

INSPECTION MACHINE (KNITTED)

10

INSPECTION MACHINE (WOVEN)

11

SHEARING & CROPPING


REMOVAL OF PROTRUDING YARNS ON THE RAW MATERIAL SHEARING -- RAISING OF PROTRUDING YARNS CROPPING -- CUTTING OF PROTRUDING YARNS

Singeing
Burning off of the short fiber ends on the surface of fabrics to produce smooth fabric appearance and minimize pilling. The Process

Fabric is passed by gas flames at high speed (up to 250 yd/min) Fabric may be passed over Heated plates or rolls Heated wires

WATER REQUIREMENT
CLEAR

& ODOURLESS CHLORINE FREE LOW HARDNESS(40PPM)

DESIZING
REMOVAL OF SIZING CHEMICALS METHODS: ACID STEEPING METHOD

ENZYME STEEPING METHOD OXIDATION METHOD

ENZYMATIC DESIZING

pH 5.5 to 6.5 Temperature - 60C Bacterial enzyme 1.5 2 g/l Common salt 1 2 g/l Wetting agent 1 2 g/l

The Scouring Process


Purpose Destruction and/or removal of oils, fats, and waxes from textile fibers. Why? These impurities inhibit: Rapid wetting of fibers Absorbency of fibers Absorption of dye and chemical solutions

SCOURING-Techniques for Removal


Saponification

(Fats and Oils) Hot Sodium Hydroxide

Emulsification

Surfactants Extraction Organic Solvents

SCOURING PROCESS

CAUSTIC BOILING SOLVENT ASSISTED


CAUSTIC BOILING

SOAP-SODA BOILING ENZYMATIC SCOURING

SCOURING RECIPE
Sodium

hydroxide 2-3% Wetting Agent 0.5% Sequestering Agent 0.03%

SCOURING SYNTHETICS
These Many They For

fibers may contain spinning, knitting, or coning oils of these oils are selfemulsifiable disperse in water without use of surfactant solid fabrics, may process at 160 degrees F with:0.2 % Surfactant

BLEACHING

Two Main Bleaching Systems Chlorine Peroxide Goals Complete removal of non-fibrous matter Extraction of colored impurities of indeterminate type Hydrolysis, oxidation, and removal of residual size Achievement of requisite degree of whiteness with the least possible damage to the fiber Improved absorbency Problems Leftover Bleach Yellowing (strength loss) Holes

BLEACHING PROCESS
OBJECTIVES: Destruction of color impurities in fibers to produce a uniform bright white fabric that is free of motes Usually involves oxidation of the color impurities Can involve reduction of the color impurities

BLEACHING PROCESS

Major Bleaching Agents Oxidative Bleaches Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2) Other Peroxygens Sodium Perborate (NaBO2H2O23H2O) Sodium Percarbonate (2Na2CO33H2O2) Peracetic Acid (CH3COOH) Reductive Bleaches Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) and its derivatives Sodium Hydrosulfite

Hydrogen Peroxide
Recipe

Hydrogen peroxide 0.5 - 0.8% Sodium silicate 0.5 - 1.0% Sodium carbonate 0.5 - 1.0% Sequesting agent 0.02 0.05% pH 9.5 10.5

Chlorine bleaching
Low priced bleach White effect not completely satisfactory Slight danger of damage to Cellulosic fibres;

great danger to Synthetic fibres Corrosion resistant equipment is necessary Unpleasant odours in the factory Continuous and discontinuous processes are possible Stabilization is by adjusting the pH value

Peroxide Bleaching
Tolerable

costly bleach White effect is good and permanent Slight danger of damage to Cellulose and Synthetic fibres No danger of equipment corrosion No unpleasant odours Stabilization plays a decisive role

BLEACHING PROCESS

Parameters Affecting Bleaching Bleach concentration Time of process Temperature of process pH of bleach solution

1, 2, and 3 are interrelated pH is important in controlling concentration of active bleaching agent Bleaching also degrades fiber. Must control conditions to Maximize whitening Minimize fiber degradation

CONTINOUS BLEACHING PROCESS

CONTINOUS PROCESS

CONTINOUS PROCESS

ROPE SCOUR & BLEACH RANGE

COMBINED SCOURING & BLEACHING


COMBINATION HYDROGEN PEROXIDE & CAUSTIC SODA OR SODA ASH

MAINLY FOR KNITS MAINLY FOR BLENDS & SYNTHETICS FOR MEDIUM SHADES ON 100% COTTON

MERCERIZING(FOR COTTON

& ITS BLENDS)

DEFINITION:

Mercerization is the treatment of cotton with a strong caustic solution. This is performed on yarn or fabric, both woven and knits. Tension may or may not be used. Purpose: Improves absorption, increase in dye affinity and yield Improves breaking strength (improved up to 20%) Improves dimensional stability Improves chemical reactivity Improves fabric smoothness Covers immature cotton fibers Luster is increased

When

Greige Any step during preparation After bleaching

to Mercerize

Observable

Deconvolution Fibers become rounder, smoother, and more uniform

Changes

Mercerization Processing Parameters


Caustic concentration 48-54oTw (25-30%) ; (Lower-Less luster, Higher-No effect) Wetting agent (Penetrant) Necessary for grey mercerization Stable and effective in strong alkali Temperature 70-100oF Wet Pickup 100% WPU ;(<100% Incomplete mercerization fabric tearing on stretching) Time > 30 seconds ; (< 30 sec. Incomplete mercerization, > 30 sec. No effect) Framing ;Frame speed no more than 5% greater than padder Washing Caustic solution concentration in fabric should be reduced to less than 5% on frame If not Shrinkage Low luster Fabric should not shrink as it comes off the frame Rinsing Caustic should be thoroughly rinsed Neutralize in weak acid solution

Unmercerized vs. Mercerized Fibers

MERCERISING RANGE LINE DIAGRAME

MERCERISING RANGE

HEATSETTING
Applying High Temperature (350-400oF) above Tgto stabilize fabric.

Purpose: Establishes fabric memory Polyester, nylon, triacetate Not rayon, cotton, or acrylics Problems: Shade change (before or after dyeing) Yellowing Width variation Side-center-side heat history variation Excessive moisture in fabric prevents fiber from reaching heat-setting temperatures

Factors influencing heatset: Time Temperature Moisture Tension Heatsetting examples: Resistance to wrinkling during water Resistance to shrinkage during washing and dry cleaning Provides wash-wear properties Reduces pilling tendency Provides permanent pleats and creases

COLOR
PSYCHOPHYSICAL

PHENOMENA ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION DUE TO PHOTO-CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN THE EYE VISUAL EXPERIENCE INDEPENDENT OF SHAPE OR DURATION

COLOR
REQUIREMENTS

LIGHT SOURCE OBJECT OBSERVER

OBJECT COLOR

Mixing of Colors Additive

Mixing of Colors-Subtractive

METAMERISM
Objects

which appear to match or evoke the same color under at least one light source, but have different spectral reflectance curves appear mismatched under a different light source are metameric objects or exhibit metamerism. Variations: Illuminant metamerism Observer metamerism Geometric metamerism Instrument metamerism

COLOR MEASUREMENT
COLORIMETER-MEASURES

THE AMOUNT OF VISUAL RED, GREEN, AND BLUE COMPONENTS REFLECTED FROM A PARTICULAR COLOR SAMPLE.
TRI-STIMULUS VALUES, X, Y, Z REVEALS METAMERISM

SPECTROPHOTOMETER-GIVES

NONMETAMERIC COLOR MATCHESSPECTRAL REFLECTANCE COLOR EYE-COMBINATION OF A COLORIMETER AND A SPECTROPHOTOMETER

COMPUTER COLOR MATCHING

Reduce

the number of production

adds Match colors at lower costs Provide consistent distribution of shades Control dye inventory levels Monitor dye quality

Sources of Color Variations


Raw Materials Substrate (fiber, yarn, or fabric) Preparation of substrate Dyes Dyeing Assistants (chemical auxiliaries) Water Processing Time Temperature Machine speed Steam Quality Liquor Ratio Etc. (including subsequent processing, i.e. finishing)

DYEING
Materials Dyed Fibers Stock dyeing Dope dyeing Yarns Skein dyeing Package dyeing Beam dyeing Fabrics Piece dyeing Printing Roller application, resist, discharge Flat Screen Rotary Tie Dyeing Garments Garment dyeing

DYEING
OBJECTIVES OF DYEING SHADE FASTNESS PROPERTIES COST FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE APPARENT SHADE LIGHT SOURCE SURROUNDINGS AGE OF OBSERVER EMOTIONS EYE FATIGUE FABRIC SURFACE KEYS TO GOOD QUALITY CONSISTENCY UNIFORMITY KNITS-LOW TENSION WOVENS-PENETRATION

TYPES OF DYEING SYSTEMS

Aqueous-in

water Non-aqueous-in organic solvents Sublimation-thermosol, heat transfer

DYEING - REQUIREMENTS

ABSORBENCY

SHOULD BE BELOW 3

SECONDS.
pH

SHOULD BE NEUTRAL ( 7.0 ) INDEX SHOULD BE ABOVE

WHITENESS

50

Factors Which Influence Dyeing


Liquor

ratio Machine parameters Fiber structure and composition Temperature Dye purity Dyebath conditions

Causes of Non-Level Dyeings


Too little agitation Too low liquor ratio Rate of dyeing too high Uneven pick-up in padding Uneven moisture penetration Migration during dyeing Chemical or mechanical barre

fabric Dyebath instability Construction

in the

FACTORS IN SELECTING DYES


Economy Shade

(brightness or dullness) Fastness requirements Level dyeing properties Barre control Ease of dispersion/dissolving Dusting Environmental issues

Different Types of Dyeing


Fiber:

Method where bundles of cotton fibers are typically dyed in baskets. Dyed fibers are typically blended in yarn manufacturing to obtain the final shade. This is necessary for specific textile styles. Yarn: Technique where yarn is dyed on packages in skeins, hanks, or beams. This method is necessary to produce stripes, plaids, or jacquard patterns.

Fabric: Method where fabrics are dyed using batch machines, padbatch systems, or continuous ranges. The specific process chosen depends on fabric style, production requirements, and other quality/cost considerations. Textile printing is a specialized form of fabric dyeing. This is the most versatile and highest productivity method. Garment: Dyeing process where sewn garments are dyed in batch machines. This technique has both advantages, disadvantages, and limitations because of the garment form. This method allows for the quickest response to changes in the color market.

Four Steps in the Dyeing Process

Exhaustion Dyeing

Purpose of Dyeing Machinery


Batch

Dyeing Move the dye liquor through the goods Move the goods through the dye liquor Continuous dyeing Apply a concentrated solution of dye evenly uniformly to the goods with thorough penetration

FIBRE/YARN PROCESSING

Package Dyeing

FIBRE/YARN PROCESSING

FOR KNITTED FABRIC PROCESSING

JET DYEING

SOFT OVER FLOW DYEING MACHINE LINE DIAGRAME

SOFTFLOW M/C

CLOSED JIGGER

Continuous Dyeing
Definition-a

dyeing method where concentrated dye solution is applied across the full width of the fabric by padding or foam application continually followed by subsequent fixation of the dye by chemical or thermal means.

Pad/Continuous Dyeing
Long

runs-High speed Uniform pad pressure Constant and accurate bath concentration % Wet pickup

Reactive Dyes
Properties Soluble in water Two types HOT BRAND COLD BRAND Excellent washfastness-dye chemically bonded to cellulose Good lightfastness Fair-good fastness to bleaching (not with chlorine) Fair-good crockfastness

Disperse Dyes
Properties Insoluble in water Water dispersible Nonionic Dyes all synthetic fibers Sublime when heated Stains cellulose fibers Stains protein fibers

Batch Dyeing Polyester

Thermosol Dyeing of Polyester

Important Factors in Dyeing Blends


Dye selectivity Dyebath conditions

Dye auxiliaries Dyebath temperature Stress on fabric Dyestuff blockage Retarding agents Dye-molecule blockage Determination on dyeing on various fibers

Positives

Fiber Dyeing

Novel dye effectswithin yarnwithin fabric Blends of fiber with cross dyeing capability different fiber types different types of cotton


Negatives
Highest dye costs Expensive colored waste Small lot dyeing variability Impacts yarn spinning quality short fiber fly lower spinning efficiency Fiber contaminants Blending, net dyeing, for shade

Yarn Dyeing

Positives Novel color effects stripes, plaids jacquards Smoother initial fabric surface High color quality for pattern effects Multiple styling possibilities for 100% cotton fabrics Negatives High dyeing costs Color variability within and between yarns Expensive colored waste Colored fly contamination in knitting High inventory costs Somewhat count limited

Positives Versatile, multiple fabric types knits,wovens &non-conventional High productions, economy of scale High quality of coloration Low costs, non-colored waste Good use of water, energy, and chemicals Negatives Solid colors for 100% cotton fabrics No true heathers Fuzzy fabric surface Increased fabric shrinkage and distortion Greater chance of color defectsstreaksblotchesrope marks

Fabric Dyeing

Garment Dyeing

Positives Quick response to market Just-in-time processing Possible garment finishing at lower costs Minimum garment shrinkage Lower total waste Negatives Lower productivity Issues with the garment mixed panels puckered seams surface abrasion uniform dye penetration Stricter requirements for garment assembly Ultimate preparation requirements Higher overall dyeing costs

THANK U

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