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ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss Some Basics of Extended Techniques by Helen Bledsoe

Contents: Harmonics with exercises p. 1 Muliphonics p. 4 Singing and laying with exercises p. 5 !histle tones p. 8 ercussi"e effects p. 8 Circular breathing p. 9 #ist of published studies for further practice p. 10 Selected repertoire with extended techniques for unaccompanied flute p. 10
By Helen Bledsoe sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss Harmonics. Harmonics are produced by overblowing, but we aim to do this in a re ined way by pic!ing out the individual upper partials o a single ingering. Bene its" harmonics strengthen the embouchure, improve upper register and articulation o #uiet attac!s, and they help to amiliari$e one with %natural% tuning. &pplications" to open up the sound, achieve ma'imum resonance or third(octave very rapid passages, use harmonic ingerings or ease. Harmonic ingerings are also very use ul when playing alto or bass lute in the third octave, as the normal )rd octave ingerings are inevitably too sharp.

Multiphonics $ playing two or more notes together. *ne o the easiest to start with" play second octave + and , together by ingering , and adding the two trill !eys. -ee o studies or urther practice% on page 10 or urther resources which include ingerings or muliphonics. Bene its" multiphonics help improve embouchure re inement and strength, control o air pressure and speed, and control and awareness o the angle o your air column. /hec!(points or playing multiphonics" 0lay each note separately, get to !now the speed and angle o the airstream needed or each. 1'plore their range o dynamics. -tarting on one note 2it can be either the lower or the upper3, bring in the other note by changing the angle o the air. 4ry to !eep a steady air speed. 5t may help to thin! o the upper lip playing the upper note, and the lower lip playing the lower note. 5t may help to tune your throat to the wea!est note 2see throat tuning3. -mall interval muliphonics wor! better with the lute pushed all the way in6 large interval muliphonics wor! better with the lute pulled out a bit. Here is some urther advice or preparing harmonic multiphonics, according to 7obert +ic!. Harmonic multiphonics are produced by playing ad8acent partials on the harmonic series together. 9ou ind this, or e'ample, in .uciano Berio:s Sequenza. 0ractice octaves, i ths, and ourths ( in that order. ;ith octaves, it is easiest to begin where the lute has a short tube" /< ( /). then wor! your way down. ;ith i ths and ourths, begin where the lute is longest, low / or B and wor! your way up.

Here are some visual representations that may help you see where the air speeds and angles overlap when playing a muliphonic, and why it is so important to e'plore the complete range o possible air speeds and angles or each individual note. 5 you don:t do that, you may never ind the areas that overlap.

Singing and playing% 4his is activating your vocal chords while playing the lute. Bene its" singing while playing helps to open the sound, improve o the sense o pitch, and control the air low. &t irst, the best way to blend your voice with your lute sound is to sing li!e a child, openly and airily. 5 you try to sing with the ocus o a trained singer, it will inter ere with the ocus o your lute sound. +on:t try to sing %properly% or pro8ect your voice, 8ust !eep on pitch. 4hroat tuning is the best basic application o singing and playing. 4uning your throat to a pitch you want to play will help you to achieve ma'imum resonance. 9ou can ind a more detailed e'planation in 7obert +ic!:s 9outube videos 2http">v?,/'@c5p9A9&3 and his e'ercises rom Tone Development Through Extended Techniques.

Here is one o the e'ercises he demonstrates. 4his e'ercise is also much loved by 0eter .loyd"

-tart with 4a anel B Caubert:s irst daily e'ercise in any !ey. 5 have chosen B( lat because it alls easily in my range. 9ou can also choose any octave you wish. 5n case the musical e'ample is not clear, here is what you do" 1. play the 5(note pattern, <. sing the 5(note pattern while silently ingering the notes on the lute, ). sing and play together, 4. play only, but !eep the eeling and resonance as i you were singing and playing. 9ou may notice a big change in your resonance. &nother application o singing and playing that 5 li!e to utili$e is to use singing as a chec!(point or !eeping a rela'ed throat while playing high notes. 5 you can sing a low note while playing a high one, then li!ely you are using your embouchure and support correctly. 5 you can:t produce a low note while playing high, you are li!ely s#uee$ing your throat in order to %help% the high notes out. 4hat:s the easy way outD & good high register, though, has its support down below, and the lips do the wor! o narrowing the passage o air, not the throat. 4o e'periment, play a high note 2any will do, 5 have C here, but you can go higher or lower3 and see how high and especially how low you can sing while holding that note.

9ou will hear many strange di erence tones while doing this6 as your voice goes up, you may hear a %ghost% glissando going down, and vise versa. Being able to create this e ect is an application 5 love about singing and playing. -ome composers use it e ectively, and it also comes in handy when improvising. Eow, bac! to the point about !eeping the voice low" try playing octaves and !eeping the voice in the lower octave. Feep the voice steady on pitch. &gain, you can choose

any !ey and any octave"

& bit tric!ier is to !eep the voice on a single low pitch while blowing through the harmonic series 2go bac! to page 1 i you need to review the harmonic series3.

/ is a good note to start on, but you can choose another. +on:t be discouraged i you can:t produce the highest harmonics while singing 2or even without singing3 at irst, 8ust wor! on getting them one at a time. Eo vocal glissandi allowed here, really !eep the throat rela'ed and try not to sing higher or louder as you play higher. &nd 8ust because 5 am a bit anatical, 5 wrote a vocalise to one o 7eichart:s daily e'ercises. 4he voice sings the top line"

5 anyone wants the whole e'ercise, 5 can send it as a ,inale or pd ile. Gust send me an email at hbledsoe at helenbledsoe dot com.

!histle tones. 4hese are very #uiet, high tones, not actually whistled, but produced by blowing gently enough to vibrate only the air around the embouchure hole. &lso called ;hisper tones. Bene its" whistle tones help develop control and awareness o the lip:s aperture, they can also be a listening and re ining e'ercise or your air(stream. /hec!(points or producing whistle tones" tongue placement determines the pitch. 4o ind the correct placement, whistle the pitch you need to produce, and i you can:t whistle 2many lutists can:tD3, don:t worry about the lips, 8ust place your tongue where you would i you could whistle the note. 9ou should be able to produce a whisper o the pitch you want. 5t may help to thin! o gently blowing enough to vibrate only the air around the embouchure hole, not the whole lute or even the whole head 8oint. Here are some urther tips or using and producing whistle tones" as a rela'ing=de(stressing e'ercise" wor! on controlling a slow air stream by practising very low whistle tones. 9our embouchure has to be very steady because there is little air behind it to support it. 20atience" 5t too! me a long time to get to low /D3 5t may help to thin! about having a %tall embouchure% 2very open in the middle3. 5t may also help to thin! o having a cushion o air behind your lips 2i.e., your lips are not too lat against your teeth3 and to rela' your 8aw. *nce you can do this reliably, it is a good de(stresser be ore going on stage. i you have trouble producing a ourth octave note, ind the correct angle by irst inding the whistle tone 2you may ind yoursel rolling out more than usual3, then blow. 5t should help. ercussi"e sounds" 4ongue or .ip 0i$$icato, Fey clic!s 4o get a good 0*0 or a pi$$icato, thin! about creating a bubble in your mouth. /lose o your air passage rom behind and in ront, compress the trapped air, then release it" popD 4o bloc! the air rom the bac!, raise the bac! o the tongue as i you are beginning to swallow. 4o bloc! the air rom the ront, you can have the tongue between the lips, or tongue on the palate. 5 on the palate, 5 ind it more e ective i the tongue is actually on the roo o the mouth and slightly retro le' 2aimed up and slightly bac!3. 4here should be an air( tight chamber 2bubble3, with the roo o your mouth as the top, and your tongue as the walls and loor. 4he pressure to create the pop is made by trying to push the air bubble orward. ;hen you eel the pressure, you can release ront o the tongue and

let the 8aw drop a tiny, tiny bit, that will help the air bubble go down into the lute. ;ith tongue on the lips 2behind or between the lips, both are possible3, the bubble:s top is the roo o your mouth, the walls are the teeth and chee!s, and the loor is your tongue. 4he pressure is built up by s#uee$ing whatever muscles you can 2lips, chee! tongue, whatever wor!s3, then drawing the tongue #uic!ly bac!. .etting the 8aw drop here a tiny, tiny bit can also help here with resonance, getting the air bubble into the lute. 4he pi$$icati sounds will be louder and more resonant i the lute is turned out a bit. 4he more you can ma!e resonance in your own mouth, the better. ,or ma'imum resonance or !ey clic!s, stay in playing position, open your throat as ar as possible, and open your mouth 8ust a bit more over the embouchure hole to create an e'tra resonance chamber. Circular breathing. Bene its" development o the larger muscles or embouchure le'ibility and stamina, ability to play longer phrases in moving passages. &pplications" in classical repertoire, one can use this or rapid or trill passages. 5 li!e to use it or long cadential trills because you can give ull power without ear o having not enough air or the inal note. as a chec!point or resonance. ;hen 5 am warming up or 8ust about to go on stage, 5 chec! my circular breathing regardless i it is re#uired in the piece 5 am about to play. 4his is a sure( ire test to see i either o my nostrils or the bac! o my throat is bloc!ed. 5 5 am clear enough to circular breathe then 5 should be able to play with ma'imum resonance. 4o begin with, choose an easy third(octave note or trill. Here are the basic steps. 9ou could try each step with a straw and glass o water be ore trying it on the lute. 1. practice playing while e'panding your chee!s, bac! o throat, or wherever you plan to store air. <. practice playing using only the air you have stored in your mouth. 4hese will be short bursts o sound. ). playing with only stored air, ta!e a #uic! sni through your nose. 4his will also come in rather short bursts. 4. 0lay normally, store air, ta!e a sni while pushing the air out. -top and repeat until this is coordinated. +on:t worry about the ne't step yet. 5. *!, now you can worry, this is the tric!y part. +o step 4 and before all the air in your mouth has run out, let the tongue gradually 2but swi tly3 move the ront air out, while releasing in the bac! so the air coming rom your trachea can enter the stream. 4he bac! o the tongue really has to glide in order to e#uali$e the pressure o outgoing air with upcoming air. 0lease don:t give up at this point li!e most lutists do.

Studies for further practice

0ierre(9ves &rtaud H Iuatre e'ercices pour la respiration circulaire " applicables J tous les instruments J vent 21ditions Kusicales 4ransatlanti#ues, 19853 /otage " 1.K.4.15L0 1ditions Kusicales 4ransatlanti#ues. 7obert +ic! ( /ircular Breathing or the ,lutist 2KKB Kusic3 7obert +ic! ( ,lying .essons, /oncert -tudies with e'tended techni#ues. Molume 5 and 55 2KKB Kusic3 7obert +ic! ( 4one +evelopment 4hrough 1'tended 4echni#ues 2KKB Kusic3 Nlrich Casser ( 0apierblOten 20aper Blooms3 <4 pieces as intro to new music. 1'planations in ,rench, 1nglish, and Cerman. 1=4 tones, glissandi, harmonics, luttertongue, singing and playing, multiphonics. 0eter(.u!as Cra H /hec! Np or ,lutists <00< 2-chott3. Has chapters on Clissando, whistle tones and singing and playing. .inda Holland ( 1asing into 1'tended 4echni#ues 2/on Brio3. 4his set o boo!s includes instruction and short sample pieces using sing=play, harmonics, multiphonics, pitch bends B inger slides and microtones. Karlaena Fessic! ( 4ecnica &van$ata 2&dvanced 4echni#ue3, 1990. -tudies or harmonics, multiphonics, timbral trills, lissandi, #uarter tones, whistle tones, l$, !ey clic!s, tongue ram, singing and playing and circular breathing. 5talian te't only. &urPle Eicolet, ed. ( 0ro Kusica Eova = -tudies or 0laying &vant(Carde Kusic 2Breit!op B HQrtel3 /ollection with wor!s by 1. +enissov, 0.H. +ittrich, ,. +onatoni, H. 1rbse 2duo3, H. Holliger, F. Huber, ;. Hu schmidt, 9. 5oannidis, F. .echner, 9 0aporis$, &. Mieru, G. ;ildberger. &ll wor!s are short with brie intro to e'tended techni#ues. -ome wor!s or lutes other than / lute.

&raded' selected list of solos for unaccompanied flute 4he division o 1asy, Koderate, +i icult, and Mery +i icult is sub8ective. 4he technical di iculty o a wor! and the di iculty o the e'tended techni#ues are not always the same level, but 5 have attempted to ta!e both into consideration.
R-, ? can be played on a student lute 2closed holes, / oot3 Easy, moderate tempo2s3, straight orward rhythms 2or rhythms completely ree3, may be technically challenging, but without comple'ity. &ll e'tended techni#ues are arranged so there is time to set them up. 7obert +ic!, ,ish are Gumping, 1999 2KKB Kusic3 7obert +ic! ( .oo!out 219893 2KKB Kusic3 melodic roc! solo or lute that uses singing and playing and easy multiphonics. Fa$uo ,u!ushima ( Kei 2-uivi Serboni3 glissandi, luttert., #uarter tones, and !ey clic!s R-,

Fa$uo ,u!ushima ( 7e#uiem 2-uivi Serboni3 luttert., gliss, timbral trills. R-, &nne .a Berge ( 7evamper ( 2,rog 0ea! Kusic3 singing and playing, one multiphonic, harmonics 2can play with closed holes but need B( oot3 0hyllis .ou!e, 1'tended 4echni#ues(+ouble the ,un, <00) 2&.793 0hyllis .ou!e, 1'tended 4echni#ues(-olos or ,un, <00A 2&.793 ;il * ermans ( ,or the 9oung ,lutist, 1995. 1asy -tudies with Eew 4echni#ues. 5 2Simmermann3 4oru 4a!emitsu, &ir or lute 199A 2-chott3, #uarter tones, harmonics, lutter( tonguing6 re#uires a lute with a low B. 1dgard Marese ( +ensity <1.5 27icordi3, irst use o !ey clic!s in lute repertoire. ;alter ;retschitsch ( ,lute Npdate, Eew Kusic or 9oung ,lutists, <00L> 2.. +oblinger 2B. Her$mans!y3 FC ;ien3 /ollection o wor!s by ;. &igner, K. &ugustin, 7. Eai ar, ;. * ermans, H. HOodl, C. &humanda, ;. 0uschnig, &. ;agendristel, K. ,uss Moderate, ast passages are diatonic=chromatic 2no di icult microtonal passages3 and without comple'ity, but e'tended techni#ues may be challenging. 7obert &it!en ( 5cicle 19LL 2Tditions Kusicales 4ransatlanti#ues " collection %la ,lUte contemporaine% &rtaud. 7obert &it!en ( 0lainsong 2Nniversal 1dition3 multiphonics, air sounds, singing and playing, !ey clic!s 2also w= tongue stop3, glissandi. Better to have open holes or glissandi. Nses low B, but it can be omitted. 5an /lar!e ( Creat 4rain 7ace 25/ Kusic=Gust ,lutes 1dition, 199)=<0013 residual=breathy ast tonguing, multiphonics, singing B playing, lip bending, e'plosive harmonics and an optional circular breathing section. / ,oot and B ,oot versions available. 5an /lar!e ( Soom 4ube 25/ Kusic=Gust ,lutes 1dition, 19993 8et whistle, #uartertones, multiphonics, note bending. 7e#uires open(hole B oot. 7obert +ic! ( & terlight 219L)=843 2KKB Kusic3 Kultiphonics, 8et whistle, harmonics. 55 7obert +ic! ( *r 219843 2KKB Kusic3 small(interval multiphonics, sometimes a #uarter(tone or less. 55 Fa$uo ,u!ushima ( -hun(san %spring glory% 19A9 2Kurumatsu, 5nc.3 luttert., multiphonics, gliss. R-, 4oshi 5chiyanagi ( -till time 5M ( in memory o 4a!emitsu, 1998 2-chott3 1=4 tones, multiphonics Betsy Golas ( 1pisode 5 19A4 2.educ3 and 1pisode -econd" *hne ;orte 19LL 2Heugel3 harmonics, luttert., multiphonic trills, 1=4 tones. open hole / t. &nne .a Berge ( 7ollin 2,rog 0ea! Kusic3 circular breathing, multiphonics,

harmonics. .owell .iebermann ( 1ight 0ieces 2each movement can be played ad lib on / lute, alto, piccolo or bass lute3 24heodore 0resser3 !ey clic!s. 5stvan Katu$ ( -i' -tudies per ,lauto -olo 2&!!ord Kusic 0ublications3 13 ....21le!3$em ( or prepared lute, / t. <3 Head Goin2t3s ,oot8oint ( played with head and 2B3 oot8oint only 2%Body(less lute%3 )3 -a!ura(-a!ura ( lute is played sha!uhachi style without head8oint R-, 43 %Blaset, Bla(aset...% ( balloon attached to end o lute 2/ or B t.3 53 +ies 5rae ( or prepared lute with 1(mechanism A3 Headlessness ( theatrical satire on Ko$art:s /oncerto in C. ,lute is played without head8oint and then with a sa'ophone mouthpiece. 4ristan Kurail ( Nnanswered Iuestions 21d. .emoine>3 microtones, harmonics, glissandi ;ill * ermans ( Honami 2Simmerman3 luttertounge, note bending, multiphonics. R-, ;ill * ermans ( 4suro(no -ugomori V4he Eesting o /ranesW, 1999 2Simmerman3 4raditional sha!uhachi melody arranged or lute . breath sounds, glissandi, inger vibrato, harmonics. Creg 0attillo H 4hree Beats or Beatbo' ,lute, <011, ,our 1tudes or Beatbo' ,lute, <01<. 0aulo 0ere$$ani ( .:*mbra dell:&ngelo 27icordi3 harmonics and timbral trills. R-, Fai8a -aariaho ( .aconisme de l:&ile 2Gasemusii!!ii ( 1dition 7emers3 ( singing B playing, luttertongue, multiphonic, whistle tone. R-, -alvatore -ciarrino ( *pera per ,lauto Mol 1 B < 27icordi3 2some pieces R-,3" Ciacinto -celsi ( Iuays , 195) 2BQrenreiter3 or / lute or alto lute. luttertongue, 1=4 tones, 1=8 tones. R-, Harvey -ollberger ( Iuodlibetudes or -olo ,lute 2KcCinnis and Kar'3, described as %4hirteen antasias and a coda designed to introduce the player((young or old, student or pro essional((to the e'panded technical and conceptual worlds o the Eew ,lute o the late twentieth century.%6 includes a study tape. Farlhein$ -toc!hausen ( 5n ,reundscha t ( 2publ. -toc!hausen Merlag , /+ also available3 ( E.B. most all o -toc!hausen:s music re#uire some sort o theatrical preparation which may 2but not necessary3 include" costume, prescribed movements, lighting. Kust be per ormed rom memory. harmonics, luttertongue R-, -toc!hausen ( ,reia ( 2-toc!hausen verlag, /+ or cassette available3 see %5n ,reundscha t% above. 4his piece re#uires costume, movement, and i possible,lighting. &lso, microtones, luttertongue, air noises R-, 4oru 4a!emitsu ( 5tenXrant 2-chott Gapan3 2can also be per ormed on alto lute3 timbral trills, luttertongue, timbral notes, multiphonics, whistle tones, glissandi R-,

5sang 9un ( -ori 2Bote B Boc!3 gliss., 1=4 tones, luttert. R-, Gos Swannenburg ( -olo or 0repared ,lute 2&scolta Kusic 0ublications3 lute is prepared with an end cor! and cigarette paper under the &(!ey. whistle tones, ghost tones, 8et whistle, tongue ram. Gos Swannenburg ( -even 0ieces or -olo ,lute (4o -tudy 1'tended 4echni#ues 2+onemus3 harmonics, gliss., lip pi$$icato, vocal colori$ations, whistle tones, multiphonics, singing and playing.R-, (ifficult, re#uires a general high level o techni#ue. Kay include" rapid microtones, di icult multiphonics, comple' rhythms or 4th octave notes above high +. .uciano Berio ( -e#uen$a 5 1958 2Serboni=Nniversal3 luttertongue, multiphonic. R-, Kaarten Bon ( ;histle or a ,riend 2+onemus3 luttert., 1=4 tones, timbral notes, 4th octave passages, gliss., !ey clic!s, some theatrical elements. R-, 1lliott /arter, -crivo in vento 2Hendon Kusic3, lutter(tonguing and multiphonics. -imon +esorgher ( /oncert -tudies 2Nnited Kusic 0ublishers .td.3 1985. /oncert -tudy 5 2....speed within stillness3, microtonal trills= /oncert -tudy 55 2....many within one3, multiphonics and multiphonic trills= /oncert -tudy 5552...strength rom so tness3, microtones, lip attac!s, lip bu$$, whistle tones, harmonics, glissandi, no. 555 to be played on closed hole lute. 7obert +ic! ( ,lames Kust Eot 1ncircle -ides 219803 /ombines multiphonics and circular breathing, continuous multiple trills /hristobald Hal ter ( +ebla 2Nniversal 1dition3 1=4 tones R-, Genni er Higdon ( 7apid ,ire 2Higdon3 luttert., harmonics, some theatrics, including stomping on iresnaps. Hein$ Holliger ( 2t3aire2e3 ( 2publ. -chott:s -oehne, Kain$3 air noises, glissandi, timbral notes, #uartertones, harmonics, 8et whistle, !ey clic!s, tongue ram, trumpet bu$$ and inhaled whistles. Eormal whistle tones and whistling while playing, singing and playing, and circular breathing 2can be played on open(holed lute with /( oot3 0hilippe Hurel ( 1olia ( 2publ. Billaudot3 !ey clic!s, spea!ing while playing, tongue ram, glissandi, multiphonics, luttertongue, whistle tones. 0hilippe Hurel ( .oops ( <001 2Henry .emoine3 lip pi$$, #uarter(tones, lutter tongue. 4oshi 5chiyanagi ( 5n a .iving Kemory, <000 2-chott3 1=4 tones, harmonics, !ey clic!s, multiphonics. -hirish Forde ( 4enderness o /ranes 2Eeuma 0ublications3 Breath noises, sha!uhachi sounds, gliss., harmonics, luttertongue, multiphonics, microtones. Bruno Kantovani ( ,rOh ( 21ditions Henry .emoine3 1998 air sounds, bisbigliando, !ey clic!s Brice 0auset ( 1uridice 1998 2.emoine3 microtones -hulamit 7an ( 1ast ;ind 1988 24heodore 0resser3 lip and inger glissandi, luttert.,

tongue pi$$, !ey clic!>, passages in 4th octave. -alvatore -ciarrino ( *pera per ,lauto Mol 1 B < 27icordi3 2some pieces R-,3 -toc!hausen ( @i ( 2-toc!hausen verlag, /+ available3 microtones R-, 4oru 4a!emitsu ( Moice 2-alabert3 spea!ing and playing, breath(tones, multiphonics, timbral trills, timbral notes, harmonics, luttertongue, glissandi, !ey clic!s R-, )ery (ifficult, may include rapid micro( or 1=4 tone passages, high degree o rhythmic comple'ity, e'tremes o range 2may include e'tended passages above high +3, di icult multiphonics, rapid changes rom one e'tended techni#ue to another, and a general high level o energy. 4hese pieces should be real tests o endurance Games +illon ( -gothan 2/.,. 0eters3 harmonics, glissandi, lip pi$$icato, tongue ram, singing and playing, whistle tones, circular breathing, lutter tongue, highly microtonal. Brian ,erneyhough ( /assandra:s +ream -ong 20eters3 lip pi$$., !ey clic!s, microtones, luttert., harmonics, singing and playing, timbral notes. R-, 5M( Brian ,erneyhough ( /arcieri d:5nven$ione 55b 20eters3 highly microtonal, luttert., lip pi$$., !ey clic!s, harmonics, microtonal trills. Brian ,erneyhough ( Nnity /apsule 20eters3 luttert., e'tended use o vocal sounds and !ey clic!s 2music is notated in ) staves, one or %normal% notes, another or the !ey noises, and a third or the vocal sounds3 Kichael ,innissy ( -i!angnu#a 2 ormerly publ. Nnited Kusic 0ublishers, now available rom composer3 19L9 microtonal. Bernhard .ang ( -chri t 1.< 1998 2Seitvertrieb, ;ien3 4ongue 7am, !ey !lic!s, singing and playing, multiphonics, harmonics, whistle tones. /harles ;uorinen ( Mariations 5 2KcCinnis and Kar'3, Mariations 55 20eters3 luttert., harmonics, !ey clic!s, 4th octave notes