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. . Structure 26.0 Objectives 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Meaning of Delegation 26.3 Characteristics of

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Structure

26.0

Objectives

26.1

Introduction

26.2

Meaning of Delegation

26.3

Characteristics of Delegation

26.4

Need for Delegation

26.5

Types of Delegation

26.6

Principles of Delegation

26.7

Hindrances to Delegation

26.7.1

Organisational Hindrances

26.7.2

Personal Hindrances

26.8

Limits to Delegation

26.9

Let Us Sum Up .

26.10

Key Words

1 26.11 Some Useful Books

; 26.12 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises

1 26.0 OBJECTIVES

After studying this unit, you should be able to:

* explain the meaning and significance of the delegation

describe the different types of delegation* explain the meaning and significance of the delegation analyse the various principles of delegation discuss

analyse the various principles of delegation the various principles of delegation

discuss the niain hindrances and limitations to delegation. niain hindrances and limitations to delegation.

26.1 INTRODUCTION

hindrances and limitations to delegation. 26.1 INTRODUCTION ' This is an era of large scale organisations.

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This is an era of large scale organisations. As the number of large scale organisations is

increasing day by day organisation, the head

powers with himself, but this is not possible in the case of a large scale organisation. In

the need of delegation has tremendously increased. In a small scale may be able to run the organisation effectively by keeping all the

; large scale organisation the head may formally keep with himself all the powers relating to the operation of the organisation but keeping in view the need fsr efficiency, he is required to delegate his authority to his subordinates. Moreover all organisations are

organised on the basis of the principle of hierarchy which binds different levels and units of the organisation with a continuous chain of authority. The need of delegation is greatly felt with the growth of an organisation. In the words of L.D White, " Circumstances of magnil:l~i: ,-" .-u however, require some delegation of authority and the settlement of much business at the point where it arises" . In this unit, we shall discuss importance, characteristics, types and limitations to delegation in administrative organisations.

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to delegation in administrative organisations. ~, 26.2 MEANING OF DELEGATION Delegation means grant or

26.2 MEANING OF DELEGATION

organisations. ~, 26.2 MEANING OF DELEGATION Delegation means grant or conferment of authority by a

Delegation means grant or conferment of authority by a superior to a subordinate for the accomplishment of a particular assignment. According to Mooney delegation means conferring of specified authority by a higher to lower authority. It is devolution of authority by a person to his agent or subordinate, subject to his right of supervision and cbntrol, It implies that legally delegated authority still belongs to the Delegator ar the person who delegates, but in practice its exercise is allowed to the subordinate or the agent. Albert K. Wickesberg, too, in the same spirit observes: "The act or process of

the subordinate or the agent. Albert K. Wickesberg, too, in the same spirit observes: "The act
the subordinate or the agent. Albert K. Wickesberg, too, in the same spirit observes: "The act

Concepts in Organisation-11

Concepts in Organisation-11 delegation is the assigning to subordinates of s p ecified tasks of the

delegation is the assigning to subordinates of specified tasks of the organisation and the

of s p ecified tasks of the organisation and the granting to one or more persons

granting to one or more persons the authority necessary for directing satisfactorily the activities and duties so assigned." However, writers like George R. Terry do nol agree with this interpretation of delegation. They hold that delegation is not essentially a devolution of authority from higher to a lower authority or from superior to a subordinate. In the words of Terry, " Delegation means conferring authority from one executive or

organisation unit to another." It implies that delegation is not only devolution

to lower level and it can be from lower to a higher authority or between equal authorjties. Delegation, thus can be downward, upward or sideward. According to Terry, Delegation may be classified as (a) Downward: when a higher authority delegates to the lower authority as a sales manager delegates to a salesman (b) Upward: when a lower authority delegates to a higher authority as the shareholders delegate their authority to the Board of Directors, and (c) 'Sideward' when delegation is at an equal level as in a case of a person delegating to his peers in the organisation. Therefore, delegation can be defined as the entrustment of a part of work or responsibility and authority to another and the creation of

accountability for performance.

from higher

creation of accountability for performance. from higher 26.3 CHARACTERISTICSOF DELEGATION Delegation being a
creation of accountability for performance. from higher 26.3 CHARACTERISTICSOF DELEGATION Delegation being a
creation of accountability for performance. from higher 26.3 CHARACTERISTICSOF DELEGATION Delegation being a

26.3 CHARACTERISTICSOF DELEGATION

performance. from higher 26.3 CHARACTERISTICSOF DELEGATION Delegation being a .process of devolution of authority 1)

Delegation being a .process of devolution of authority

1) Delegation is the authorisation to a subordinate or another organisational unit to act in . a certain way independently. The delegatee has to act within the limits prescribed by the delegator. Within these limits the delegatee (subordinate) is not free to act arbitrarily but subject to the policy, rules and regulations framed by the delegating authority. 2) Delegation has a dual character. A superior or delegator delegates the authority to the subordinate but at the same time retains the authority. It has been rightly observed by Terry. "It is something like imparting knowledge you share with others who then possess the knowledge, but you still retain the knowledge too."

3)

has the following characteristics:

Delegation implies partial delegation of authority. The delegator does not delegate his entire authority to his subordinates for in case, he delegates all his authority, he cannot exercise the power to supervise and control. Therefore, delegation is subject to specific or limited terms.

4) Authority once delegated is subject to variance. It can be enhanced, reduced or withdrawn. It all depends upon the requirement of the time and accomplishment of the task.

the requirement of the time and accomplishment of the task. 26.4 NEED FOR DELEGATION Delegation is

26.4 NEED FOR DELEGATION

and accomplishment of the task. 26.4 NEED FOR DELEGATION Delegation is a universal phenomenon. No organisation

Delegation is a universal phenomenon. No organisation can work without devolution of authority as it brings not only efficiency and economy, but also makes the administration smooth. Delegation can be justified on the following grounds:

i) Volume of Work

Increasing volume of work requires that there should be some sort of delegation. It becomes difficult for the head of an organisation to keep all the workload to himself. If he daes like this, the work is sure to suffer. There will be neither efficiency nor economy, According to Albert K. Wickesberg: "as the demand for output increase, as,volume goes up, there is a need for additional people to assist in doing the work for which the organisation was formed. With greater number of pleople involved, there is a division of the operative tasks, the actual production arid sellinlg of group services, and their related needs. There is a division of labour, often accompai~iedby increased speculation, There is an identification of tasks which can he performed satisfactorily by others and the assignment of those tasks to new employees.,. Cons~:quently,there are many pressures, which are volume related and which give rise to delegation, redelegation and redefinition of duties and assignments."

ii) Complexity

redefinition of duties and assignments." ii) Complexity The operational procedures bf the organisations are

Complexities of rules and)techniques has further added to the problem. Consequently the need of specialists is greatly felt. The line agencies, being compelled by the complexities delegate the work of deliberation, thinking and formulation of plans to staff specialists, though the ultimate power to approve the plans lies with the line

the ultimate power to approve the plans lies with the line iii) Saves Time for Policy
the ultimate power to approve the plans lies with the line iii) Saves Time for Policy
the ultimate power to approve the plans lies with the line iii) Saves Time for Policy

iii) Saves Time for Policy Formulation and Planning

Executive head always needs more and more time for planning and policy formulation. If he remains busy with minor details, he would not be able to devote much time to planning and decision making. The superior who delegates effectively, is free to do more supervisory work and overall planning. This, in turn, usually results in a smoother running, and more productive organisation. Thus delegation helps the Chief Executive to devote his time and energy to decision making, policy formulation and planning and relieves him off from much of the unimportant load of work which can de easily done through his subordinates.

which can de easily done through h i s subordinates. iv) Educative Value Delegation has an

iv) Educative Value

Delegation has an educative value. As one of the major duties of the manager is to train his subordinates in the art of sharing responsibility and m&ing.decisions, delegation plays a phenomenal role in this direction. It provides an opportunity to the subordinates to get training in the field of sharing responsibility. The subordinates feel encouraged and develop greater loyalty and a sense of belonging to the organisation. It raises their morale and they feel pride in identifying themselves with the organisation.

y) Management 1)rveloprnent

The process of delegation is not only educative in nature but is also productive. It provides managerial development training and helps in the creation of a managerial class of subordinates. The executives at different levels can take decisions and action on many vital issues on their own. They develop a sense of taking initiative slid face the challenges. In this way delegation provides an ample scope for self advancement and self expression. Delegation is, thus, the cardinal srep in managenlent development.

vi) To bring Flexibility in Organisation

Rigidness in an organisation is always harmful. It proves as an obstacle in the way of increasing the output and efficiency in work. To bring flexibility in the organisation, delegation is an esseiitiality. Delegation removes rigidity and helps in acting in accordance with the changes in the situation.

vii) Geographical Dispersions

Large organisations have geographical dispersions. They have a net work of branches,

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Qver a wide area. Delegation and decentralisation of authority helps

to manage sffectircly tne diversified and dispersed business. The branches and units of a large organisation being away from the head office need delegation of authority. Delegation helps then1 to run efficiently and promptly.

viii) Economy and Efficiency

Delegation of authority helps in the division of labour, essential for the discharge of dudes efficiently and expeditiously. Delegation minimises delays and imakes the organisatitn to act more efficiently and economically. Due to clear demarcation of authority at various levels of administration, delegation is also conducive to an effective control over different branches or levels of organisation.

control over different branches or levels of organisation. ix) Helpsin Successiorr There is a great relation

ix) Helpsin Successiorr

There is a great relation between delegation and niccession. An administrator, by

ix) Helpsin Successiorr There is a great relation between delegation and niccession. An administrator, by
ix) Helpsin Successiorr There is a great relation between delegation and niccession. An administrator, by
Concepts in Organisation-I1 B . delegation can prepare the way for his successor. It means

Concepts in Organisation-I1

B .

Concepts in Organisation-I1 B . delegation can prepare the way for his successor. It means when

delegation can prepare the way for his successor. It means when an administralor quits,

another should be able to succeed him. In the words of Schell. " Delegation is one of the

most effective tools available to an executive in preparing the way for his successor. Indeed, it is the most important tool for selection and training successors." Delegation helps in succession or continuance of ideas also. Every enterprise is based on cerlain ideals

and those ideals continue to exist even after the exit of the administrator.

By referring to American Administration, White has summed up the reasons of delegation

in these words: " Circumstances of magnitude and volume, however,

delegation of authority and the settlement of much business at the point where it arises. The convenience of citizens alone compels most matters to be handled outside Washington. The avoidance of delay in administrative bottlenecks requires decisions at a hundred or a thousand field offices rather than single headquarters establishment. In some cases, proper adjustment of policy and programme to local conditions requires discretionary field decisions. Certainly, the delegation of authority means grcater energy, a higher sense of responsibility and better morale among field agents. They are not content to be mefi messengers and reporters of their washingtori Superiors.

require some

and reporters of their washingtori Superiors. require some - i Check Your Progress 1 J A
and reporters of their washingtori Superiors. require some - i Check Your Progress 1 J A

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Check Your Progress 1

Superiors. require some - i Check Your Progress 1 J A Note: i) Use.the space below

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A Note: i) Use.the space below for your answers. ii) Check your answers with those given at the end of the unit, 1) Define delegation.

those given at the end of the unit, 1) Define delegation. ' : 2) Give three
those given at the end of the unit, 1) Define delegation. ' : 2) Give three
those given at the end of the unit, 1) Define delegation. ' : 2) Give three
those given at the end of the unit, 1) Define delegation. ' : 2) Give three

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: 2) Give three characteristics of delegation.

' : 2) Give three characteristics of delegation. "" 8 3) List four needs of delegation.

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List four needs of delegation.

"" 8 3) List four needs of delegation. 26.I.TYPES OF DELEGATION . .' 8 ' Delegation
"" 8 3) List four needs of delegation. 26.I.TYPES OF DELEGATION . .' 8 ' Delegation

26.I.TYPES OF DELEGATION OF DELEGATION

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Delegation cm be of several types viz., permanent or temporary, full or partially, conditional or unconditional, fornlal or informal, m&direct or indirect. We shall discuss these different types in some detail.

Permanent and Temporary Delegation and Temporary Delegation

types in some detail. Permanent and Temporary Delegation Delegation may be ofpxmanent or teniporq nature. In

Delegation may be ofpxmanent or teniporq nature. In case of permanent delegation the powers are delegated forever subject to normal conditions. Only in extraordinary

circumsti~accsthis !cintE c.rTn.relc-.gr,tioiami@

circumsti~accs this !cintE c.rT n.relc-.gr,tioia mi@ be revoliec2. Temporitry d:.lega~l~nim~lies $elegntic~n of powers
circumsti~accs this !cintE c.rT n.relc-.gr,tioia mi@ be revoliec2. Temporitry d:.lega~l~nim~lies $elegntic~n of powers

be revoliec2. Temporitry d:.lega~l~nim~lies

$elegntic~nof powers f;.xI. short perjod for the aict:c1rn~1liii11m1cn1:1f some end. Wllan tix end

$elegntic~n of powers f;.x I. short perjod for the aict:c1rn~1liii11m1cn1 :1f some end. Wllan tix end

is achic:ve.d the delegatiorl also ends. Accorclik~gto Erwin Haskell Schr:ll, " E'hr cxrcnt itrid arra r~fdelegatiotl nlny vasy dependirig nipi?n ciicumstariczs. You m;l,y for.exa~rigriawish to delegate rasporrsibilities for Li r~:aspros:!q~ psL.i~~i,pending tl~rctuni of oin 'vvhci iris responsibility as il regedar as.;,ignra~ent."

iris responsibility as il regedar as.;,ignra~ent." Delegafi,on is flail 1:vlien no corrdilio:?~ art;
iris responsibility as il regedar as.;,ignra~ent." Delegafi,on is flail 1:vlien no corrdilio:?~ art;

Delegafi,on is flail 1:vlien no corrdilio:?~art; attached to she delegaiioi~an::; the persillr, WIKPIII pcjavers &redr-:ir:gared, has she fLdla8ri.lority to ninke decision and take action. It is pastir11 when tltc tiecisiidnli taken by him is to be :tpppved by &91edclegntioti i~uthority.FG~c:<arup!u when a dig?lo~n;ttis sent abroad with t't~lFpowers to ~legotiarte.it is r'ull rlt:legation bi.rf when Re is req~.riredto pet advice or. r~pprovalhefore nraakirsg the final rsegoiiation, it is partial clelegntiora,

Csnditiasnila! and UwcaandiWioraaH

partial clelegntiora, Csnditiasnila! and UwcaandiWioraaH Delegation ran be conditional rind t~nconditinnal.
partial clelegntiora, Csnditiasnila! and UwcaandiWioraaH Delegation ran be conditional rind t~nconditinnal.
partial clelegntiora, Csnditiasnila! and UwcaandiWioraaH Delegation ran be conditional rind t~nconditinnal.

Delegation ran be conditional rind t~nconditinnal.Delegation is co~~ditionalwl.1en some conditions are iallposed on the person, on whom the delegation is ccrnf~rred.It is

ex;unple

unconditional when thr' subordinate is lkee to ;act without any reservation. For

when thr decision of the sul~ordin;ltc:is subject to confirmation and revision by the superior it is coorlitionl:slde1ui;iitiora hut when hc: is autllorised to act in his discretion thc

hc: is autllorised to act in his discretion thc delegation i!; n~hcoiiditionai. Dzlegation is fcmml

delegation i!; n~hcoiiditionai.

in his discretion thc delegation i!; n~hcoiiditionai. Dzlegation is fcmml when cml,oilied in written rules,
in his discretion thc delegation i!; n~hcoiiditionai. Dzlegation is fcmml when cml,oilied in written rules,
in his discretion thc delegation i!; n~hcoiiditionai. Dzlegation is fcmml when cml,oilied in written rules,

Dzlegation is fcmml when cml,oilied in written rules, by-1;lws or nrtlcrs; on the other Iiancl it is informal when based on cus!oans, conventions and understanding.

Direct :amd Indirect

Delegatloi~it direct when no intermctilary is involv~ai.But whc:r ;I tillrd rcr\ouor party i:, inveslvtr.!, ie ~lriiybe called l~~dileclrlrlegatton.

inveslvtr.!, ie ~lriiy be called l~~dileclrlrlegatton. Delegation is ~\lways governed by certain principles.
inveslvtr.!, ie ~lriiy be called l~~dileclrlrlegatton. Delegation is ~\lways governed by certain principles.
inveslvtr.!, ie ~lriiy be called l~~dileclrlrlegatton. Delegation is ~\lways governed by certain principles.
inveslvtr.!, ie ~lriiy be called l~~dileclrlrlegatton. Delegation is ~\lways governed by certain principles.

Delegation is ~\lwaysgoverned by certain principles. klnler;s these pritlciplcs are observed, delegation can not be mnde effective. 'll'he ti)llipwing princinics :ire genei~allyohserved at the time of delegation of authority:

i) Delegtation should he done In a clenr rnitnncl- 'I'here should be no an:biguiry ahvut rh~, authority that has been dt-legated. Policies regulations and procedure:, should be well defined as to give r?o irriL.~rider~tandinyto the subordinates using discretionary powrrs.

ii) Thc del~gateemust know exactly how much authority has been clelegrrtc'd: The orclers of rielegation should he issued in written fo'onn, so that the pcrhonr, \shoin powcrs h:lve been delegated, should be clew ijbout the limits to delegation.

ili) Tht: i:uthority is delegated to gel certain rcsults by perfonn~ngpii~-trc~rlar;tclivdieh: The authority delegated to a subordinate should be adequate to assure his abtliiy to acco~nplishthe task assigned to him The delegatee should be givcra thr autilor~lyto use his discretion and tlzc rlelegatec should 11ot expect hit11 to act according to hi\ own wishes. The s~tbordinatesshot~lldbe granted all the authority land responsibility they riin handle.

iv)

Authority agld responsibility should go as co-equal: Authority entrusts a ~ubordiriittethe right of taking and enforcing d~cisionto achieve the assigned activities while .responsibility places the obligation upon iiim to perform these activities by using ti3i.i authority. Authority without rt*q~onsibilitylacks an ultimate purpose, and like~vi.,e, responsibility without authority to carry on assigned activities has a hollow arllb;. I-Ience authority and rcsponsibility should go together on the baas of parity.

should go together on the baas of parity. V) Total responsibility of the superior: As total
should go together on the baas of parity. V) Total responsibility of the superior: As total
should go together on the baas of parity. V) Total responsibility of the superior: As total
should go together on the baas of parity. V) Total responsibility of the superior: As total
should go together on the baas of parity. V) Total responsibility of the superior: As total
V)
V)

Total responsibility of the superior: As total responsibility can not be delegated the superior can not avoid his responsibility for the overall activities assigned to him mer-!y by delegating his authority to his subordinates. The subordinates is always

overall activities assigned to him mer-!y by delegating his authority to his subordinates. The subordinates is

Conceptsin Organisation-- I1

responsible to the superior for the activities assigned to him. No superior can avoid his overall responsibility.

vi) Delegation is based on he principle of unity of command: This implics that a subordinate should be responsible to a single superior and should get the authority from him. Tile direct relalionship between the superior and subordinate eliminates confusion and ambiguity. Responsibility to a single superior lessens the problem of conflict in instructions and creates a feeling of greater responsibility for results. Contrary to this, responsibility can not be fixed accurately 'and the authority of the superior is undermined.

vii) " Keeping the communication open": These words emphasise that even after. getting delegated assignment, the subordinates should be allowed to meet and consult the administrator whenever he feels the need for the same. The administrator should always be ready to guide the subordinate. I-Ie should not grumble when a subordinate commits a mistake in connection with the delegated job but should rather come to his rescue by providing necessary heip and guidance.

viii)

rescue by providing necessary heip and guidance. viii) Delegation should be succeeded by appraisal: @he11 a

Delegation should be succeeded by appraisal: @he11 a delegated assignment is

completed it should be followed by an appraisal of the subordinates performance. As authority is pushed downward, top management must exercise a restraining hand, so as to be sure that the interests of the programme are not jeopardised by cor~flictingpolicies.t~orthis purpose systematic reporting system should be introduced. It will provide an opportunity to the superiors to review the progress of subordinates.

to the superiors to review the progress of subordinates. ix) Delegation should be properly planned and
to the superiors to review the progress of subordinates. ix) Delegation should be properly planned and

ix) Delegation should be properly planned and be systernatic: Authority and responsibility for each position in the management of an organisation should be spelt out and delegation should be made to a position rather than an individual.

In spite of the above mentioned principles of delegation, it can be said that delegation is a difficult process, which is not based on any precise principle. The above narrated principles are simply for guidance of the administrators, and they are not prescriptions for all sitpations.

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26.7 HINDRANCES TO DELEGATION

No doubt delegation is of great significance for all organisation, still, it is often seen that the superior officers hesitate to delegate authority. In fact, there are several hindrances to delegation which can be grouped as, (a) Organisational and (b) Personal.

can be grouped as, (a) Organisational and (b) Personal. 26.7.1 Organisational Hindrances They are as follows:

26.7.1 Organisational Hindrances

They are as follows:

i)

Lack of established methods and procedures: For making delegation a success it is essential that definite procedures for delegating the authority should be laid down. Delegation becomes easier if procedures and rules are well established.

becomes easier if procedures and rules are well established. ii) Lack of co - ordination and

ii) Lack of co - ordination and communication: Co -ordination is the cardinal principle of organisation. Without co-ordination no organisation can work. But co-ordination requires close communication between the different units of an organisation. Without communication there can not be any delegation and co-ordination.

iii) Unstable and non-repetitive nature of work: Stability is a must for delegation. Stable

and repetitive work affords a greater degree of delegation.

. iv) Size and location of an organisation: Size and location of the units of an organisation sometimes hinder the delegation of authority. The larger the organisation and broader its geographic coverage, the greater are the chances for delegation.

v) Lack of properly spelled out positions and unspecific terms of delegation of duties and authority cause confusion and adversely affects the delegation of authority.

26.7.2 Personal Hindrances

Personal factors, too, stand in the way ol' delegation. These factors can be egoism tendency to have credit for everything, fear of disloyalfy on the part of the subordinates, lack of 10 . confidence in the capacity and competence of the subordinates; lack of emotional maturity

lack of 1 0 . confidence in the capacity and competence of the subordinates; lack of

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on the part of the delegating authority or pcrson; lack of Itnowledge of what to delcgate and authority or pcrson; lack of Itnowledge of what to how; fear of accountability to the higher how; fear of accountability to the higher ups or the legislature or the people. According to Pfiffner the Ihllowing human causes hinder the proces? of delegation of authority to the authorities:

1) Pessons who rise to positio~iof hierarchical leadership have rnore than nom~alegotism. 2) They are afraid that others will not make the proper decision or carry them out in the desired manner. 3) They fear that disloyal or subversive powers will devclop among strong'subordinates.

4) Strong, vigorous, and high1y motivated persons beconic impatient with the slower pace and indecisiveness of suborctinates. 5) In Public Administration, political considerations often make delegation difficult.

6) The cultural heritage of man has been one of authorilarian, patriarchal leadership; thus the practice of delegation is partly dependent on cultural change.

7) The act of delegiltion requires an emotional maturity which apparently is rare, even among successful persons. 8) The symbols of leadership (those personal qualities and traits which attract the attention of others) are inconsistent with the philosophy of delegation. Those striving to succeed must make theniselves prominent.

9) Persons who desire to delegate do not know how to do it. 10) They do not know how far lhey should delegate at least for two reasone (i) the science nf organisation and management is immature; and (ii) their work experience has not taught them to neglect bccause most organisations fail to practice delegation."

most organisations fail to practice delegation." In addition to these hindrance the non-acceptance of
most organisations fail to practice delegation." In addition to these hindrance the non-acceptance of
most organisations fail to practice delegation." In addition to these hindrance the non-acceptance of
most organisations fail to practice delegation." In addition to these hindrance the non-acceptance of
most organisations fail to practice delegation." In addition to these hindrance the non-acceptance of
most organisations fail to practice delegation." In addition to these hindrance the non-acceptance of

In addition to these hindrance the non-acceptance of delcgation on the part of thc subordinates too has a great bearing. The main reasons for non-acceptance can bc summed up as (i) fear of criticism (ii) lack of needed information and resources to do a good job (iii) lack of confi&uce to exercise delegated authosity and make corrcct decisions (iv) lack of initiative and drive and (v) more work than one's capacity.

No doubt the above mentioned hindrances stand in the way of delegation but the significance of delegation in an orgiunisation set up can not be denied. No organisation can work without delegation and devolution. As delegation is ii must, the only way to meet these challenges is to remove the bottlenecks as far as possible. For removing the organisational factors proper procedures and methods should be established and all concerned should follow them at the time of delegating the authority and performing the

assigned responsibilities.

and responsibilities of the incumbents holding differcnt positions in organisational hierarchy should be clearly defined. The organisation must possess a proper system of cn-

ordination and communication at different levels of administration.

Pfiffner has described the following techniques to niake the delegation effective:

following techniques to niake the delegation effective: The organisations shoulci develop a system in which the
following techniques to niake the delegation effective: The organisations shoulci develop a system in which the

The organisations shoulci develop a system in which the duties

organisations shoulci develop a system in which the duties \ 1 , 1 i ) ii)

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i)

ii)

Select subordinatcb capable of shouldering responsibility. Define such responsibility.

' / iii) Train them to carry it.

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iv) Establish general policies and disseminate them throughout the organisation.

policies and disseminate them throughout the organisation. v) strive towards maximum standardisation of both

v) strive towards maximum standardisation of both functional and house keeping procedures.

vi) Carry on perpetual management planning consisting of job analysis, organisation study, budget planning, work flow study and sintplification of system and procedure,

vii) Establish external checks which auto~naticallyshow danger signals. viii)~ssurethe flow of information up, down and across the hierarchy.

the flow of information up, down and across the hierarchy. Delegation 26.8 LIMITS TO DELEGATION No

Delegation

of information up, down and across the hierarchy. Delegation 26.8 LIMITS TO DELEGATION No doubt delegation

26.8 LIMITS TO DELEGATION

No doubt delegation is a must in all the organisations, but no chief or superior officer can be allowed to delegate all his authority. The delegation of complete aulh~rilymakes the executive superfluous. Though, the extent of delegation vary from case to case depending

- 11 upon the nature of the case, circumstances and organisational structure, there are some
- 11 upon the nature of the case, circumstances and organisational structure, there are some

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upon the nature of the case, circumstances and organisational structure, there are some well recognized limits to delegation. According to M.P. Sharma the following powers cannot be delegated:

i) The supervisio;~of work of the first line or immediate subordinates.

ii) General Financial supcrvision and the power to sanction expenditure above a specified arnount.

iii) Power to sanction new policies and plans and departures from established policy or precedent.

iv) Rule making power wherc it is vested in the delegating officer.

V) Making specified higher appointments.

vi) Hearing of appeals from the decisions of at least the immediate subordinates.

Without retaining these powers the chief executive can not control the organisation ~ffcctively.It may reducc him io be an ineffective entity.

Check Your Progress 2

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Note: i)

Use the space below for your answers. ii) Check your answer with those given at the end of the unit.

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your answer with those given at the end of the unit. - . I I) Distinguish

I) Distinguish between different types of delegation.

. I I) Distinguish between different types of delegation. 2) Explain any three principles of delegation.
. I I) Distinguish between different types of delegation. 2) Explain any three principles of delegation.
. I I) Distinguish between different types of delegation. 2) Explain any three principles of delegation.

2)

Explain any three principles of delegation.

types of delegation. 2) Explain any three principles of delegation. 3) What are the hindrances to
types of delegation. 2) Explain any three principles of delegation. 3) What are the hindrances to
types of delegation. 2) Explain any three principles of delegation. 3) What are the hindrances to
types of delegation. 2) Explain any three principles of delegation. 3) What are the hindrances to

3)

types of delegation. 2) Explain any three principles of delegation. 3) What are the hindrances to

What are the hindrances to delegation?

2.

types of delegation. 2) Explain any three principles of delegation. 3) What are the hindrances to
4) Discuss the limits of delegation. 26.9 LET UarZTP Delegation is the most important problem

4) Discuss the limits of delegation.

4) Discuss the limits of delegation. 26.9 LET UarZTP Delegation is the most important problem of
4) Discuss the limits of delegation. 26.9 LET UarZTP Delegation is the most important problem of
4) Discuss the limits of delegation. 26.9 LET UarZTP Delegation is the most important problem of
4) Discuss the limits of delegation. 26.9 LET UarZTP Delegation is the most important problem of
26.9 LET UarZTP
26.9 LET
UarZTP

Delegation is the most important problem of management. No.organisation can work without the provision of delegation. 'Delegation in simple words implies conferring . specified authority by a higher to a lower authority. In other words, it means assigning of authority and duties to others for the attainment of desired ends. Delegation, however, is

not the final and authority can be taken back

by the person who deleg.ates authority.

*.Delegation can be of several types. It can be pennanent and temporary, full and partial, conditional and unconditional, fonnal and informal and direct and indirect.

The need of delegation is evident, for all organisations. It helps in division of work and reduction of complexity in the working of organisational procedures. It helps in saving more time for policy fornlularion and planning. It has an educative value and provides an opportunity to the subordinates to sl~ouldermore responsibilities with courage and efficiency. It brings flexibility in the working of an organisation. It makes the administration of an organisation efficient by raising the rnorale of its cnnployees.

Delegation is governed by certain principles without which it is not possible lo delegate authority effectively and efficiently. It should be written and specific. Authority and responsibility for each position in the organisation should be clearly spelled out. It should be confined to the position and not to the individual. Delegation should be planned and systematic. As complete delegation is not possible, only that much authority should be delegated as it is within the competence of subordinates to exercise with caution. There should be a provision of reporting and appraisal. Policies, regulations and procedures should be clearly defined so that there may not remain any ambiguity regarding the powers delegated by a superior to the subordinates.

the powers delegated by a superior to the subordinates. DeEr~. is fl.'-:-rt to both organisational ancl

DeEr~. is fl.'-:-rt to both organisational ancl personal hindrances. Lack of methods and procedures, lack or irieans of coordination and communication, size and location of organisation and personal factors like egoism, tendency to concentrate power, emotional immaturity and the reluctance to delegale powers stand in the way of delegation.

As complete delegation is neither essential nor practicable nor in the interest of the chief executive and the organisation, it is subject to some limits. Powers pertaining Lo finance, appraisal, fotlnulation of policy and planning, power of appeal against unjust decisions, etc. cannot be delegated.

appeal against unjust decisions, etc. cannot be delegated. 26.110 KEY WORDS - - - - -

26.110 KEY WORDS

-------

Cardinal: Fundamental.

Disseminate: Scatter. Egoism: Self interest as moral basis of behaviour.

--

i
i

Concepts in Qrgnnisation- II

i Concepts in Qrgnnisation - II Job analysis: Systematic examination, determination of nature, charactel.islics,

Job analysis: Systematic examination, determination of nature, charactel.islics, functions, activities of a job and knowledge, skills, experience necessary to perfom1 it.

Work flow study: Study of procedures of the job of the employees at work.

26.11 SOME USEFUL BOOKS

job of the employees at work. 26.11 SOME USEFUL BOOKS Mooney, James D. 1957. Principles of

Mooney, James D. 1957. Principles of Orgnnisation; Harper and Brothers: New York.

Pfiffner John M. and Sherwood, Frank P, 1968. Administrative Orgarzisatiorr; Prentice Hall of India: New Delhi.

Terry, George R, 1964. Principles of Management; Homewood: Illinois.

White L.D., 1958. Introduction lo Public Administration; Eurasia Publishing H~LISC(P) Ltd. : New Delhi.

,

Eurasia Publishing H~LISC (P) Ltd. : New Delhi. , 26.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS EXERCISES

26.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS EXERCISES

, 26.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS EXERCISES Check Your Progress 1 1) See Section 26.2

Check Your Progress 1

1) See Section 26.2 2) See Section 26.3 3) ~kesection 26.4

Section 26.2 2) See Section 26.3 3) ~ke section 26.4 Check Your Progress 2 1) See
Section 26.2 2) See Section 26.3 3) ~ke section 26.4 Check Your Progress 2 1) See

Check Your Progress 2

1) See Section 26.5 2) See Section 26.6

, 3) See Section 26.7 4) See Section 26.8

26.4 Check Your Progress 2 1) See Section 26.5 2) See Section 26.6 , 3) See
26.4 Check Your Progress 2 1) See Section 26.5 2) See Section 26.6 , 3) See
26.4 Check Your Progress 2 1) See Section 26.5 2) See Section 26.6 , 3) See
26.4 Check Your Progress 2 1) See Section 26.5 2) See Section 26.6 , 3) See
26.4 Check Your Progress 2 1) See Section 26.5 2) See Section 26.6 , 3) See