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The 10th International Scientific Conference eLearning and software for Education Bucharest, April 24 2!

, 2014
10.12753/2066-026X-14-000

MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES AS e-BRICKS FOR SMART CITIES


Gabriela Grossecka, Malinka Ivanovab
a

West University of Timisoara, 4 Bd. Vasile Prvan, 300223 Timioara, Romania b Tec nical University of !ofia, B"l#aria #abriela.#rossec$%e&"vt.ro, m'ivanova%t"&sofia.b#

Carmen olo!esc"c, #a"ra Maliaa


c

University Polite nica Timisoara, 2 Bd. Vasile Prvan, 300222 Timioara, Romania carmen. olotesc"%cs."(t.ro, la"ra.malita%e&"vt.ro

Abstract) *o+adays, + en more t an alf of t e +orld,s (o("lation lives in "rban areas, + en information and -mobile. comm"nication tec nolo#ies are real catalysts for innovations in all domains, t ere are a lot of st"dies and debates related to o+ o"r cities s o"ld become /!mart 0ities/, /!marter 0ities/ or /1"t"re 0ities/, in order to im(rove life 2"ality and to red"ce costs 324, to become a 5!mart 6earnin# 0ity7. T e (a(er starts +it a s ort literat"re revie+ related to t e definitions of t e term /!mart 0ity/ and to t e ste(s 8 action (lans 8 strate#ies re2"ired for s"c a transformation. T e ne+ citi9ens +ill ave vital roles in b"ildin# smart cities: t ey s o"ld be y(erconnected, creative, entre(rene"rs, also t ey s o"ld actively (artici(ate and collaborate in t e cities, activities and decisions. T "s, t e main #oal 8 ("r(ose of t is (a(er is to foc"s on o+ ;assive <(en <nline 0o"rses -$no+n as ;<<0s. can s"((ort t e citi9ens, en#a#ement, learnin# and (artici(ation 3=4, as +ell as t e develo(ment of ne+ s$ills and com(etencies. Keywords: ;<<0: smart city -smart cities.: smart citi9en-s.

I.

SHORT BACKGROUND OF WHAT A SMART CITY IS

In 200$, %or !&e %irs! !ime in &is!or', more !&an &al% o% !&e (orl)*s +o+"la!ion live) in !o(ns an) ci!ies. Moreover, nearl' all !&e +o+"la!ion increases (ill be in "rban areas in !&e )evelo+in, co"n!ries an), accor)in, !o !&e -ni!e) .a!ions, "rban +o+"la!ion is ,oin, !o /"m+ %rom 3.4 billion in 2000 !o almos! 5 billion in 2030. In 1"ro+e alone $02 o% !&e +o+"la!ion lives in ci!ies an) "rbani3a!ion is accelera!in, 4205. 6ccor)in, !o 7o+e!!a 4105 8!&e ci!' is a core +ara)i,m %or !&e mankin), (&ere !ra)e, !ec&nolo,', ar! an) c"l!"re conver,e in )esi,nin, an) b"il)in, !&e sol"!ions !o !&e civili3a!ion risks9. In !&is +rocess, as .am an) :ar)o 4155 s!ress, ci!ies are e;+ose) !o a varie!' o% /eo+ar)ises, an) +roblems. 6s s"c&, i! is im+erio"s !o %in) smar!er (a's !o co+e (i!& !&ese concerns, like makin, inves!men!s in !ec&nolo,', +eo+le an) ins!i!"!ions !&a! co"l) lea) !o s"s!ainable ,ro(!& an) en&ance <"ali!' o% li%e 445. C&o"rabi an) &is collea,"es 465 &i,&li,&! !&a! !&ese ci!ies are increasin,l' labelle) as =smar! ci!ies*. 7&e conce+! o% 8>mar! Ci!'9 is )i%%ic"l! !o )e%ine beca"se a! +resen! !&ere is no consis!en! )e%ini!ion, i! is no! s!a!ic, )escri+!ions bein, o%!en con!e;! )e+en)en!. o(ever, i! is commonl' "n)ers!oo) amon, aca)emia an) +rac!i!ioners !&a! >mar! Ci!ies are 8com+le; ecos's!ems s"++or!e) b' !ec&nolo,ical in%ras!r"c!"res !rans%ormin, ci!i3en en,a,emen!, learnin, an) +ar!ici+a!ion9 415. 6 com+re&ensive lis! o% (orkin, )e%ini!ions can be %o"n) in 4155. 7&e com+le;i!' an) im+or!ance o% !&is conce+! )ra(s !&e a!!en!ion o% !&e 1"ro+ean Commission, !oo. 7&ere%ore, !&e 1- ac!s %or !&e 8>mar! Ci!ies an) Comm"ni!ies Ini!ia!ive9 "n)er !&e "mbrella o% !&e ori3on 2020 +ro,ramme ? 2020->CC-2014/2015@, s"++or!s ci!ies an) comm"ni!ies

!o 8ac! as mo!ors o% innova!ion, smar! !ec&nolo,ies an) ,ro(!&9 4215 an) %oc"ses on !&e iss"es o% smar! ci!ies learnin, an) learnin, !rans%orma!ion in)"ce) b' smar! ci!ies. 7&e %oc"s on smar! ci!ies is base) on !&e Gi%%in,er mo)el 4125, (&ic& i)en!i%ie) si; c&arac!eris!ics !&a! assess a ci!'*s +er%ormance as a smar! ci!'. 7&ese c&arac!eris!ics concen!ra!e on !&e +ers+ec!ives o%%ere) b' Ao') Co&en 475 in &is 8>mar! Ci!' B&eel9 ?%i,"re 1@C !mart >conomy D Com+e!i!ivenessC en!re+rene"rs&i+ E innova!ion, +ro)"c!ivi!', local E ,lobal in!erconnec!e)nessF !mart >nvironment D .a!"ral reso"rcesC ,reen b"il)in,s, ,reen ener,', ,reen "rban +lannin,F !mart ?overnance D :ar!ici+a!ionC enablin, s"++l' E )eman) si)e +olic', !rans+arenc' E o+en )a!a, IC7 E e-,overnmen!F !mart 6ivin# D G"ali!' o% #i%eC &eal!&', sa%e, c"l!"rall' vibran! an) &a++'F !mart ;obility D 7rans+or! an) IC7C in!e,ra!e) IC7, +riori!i3e) clean E non-mo!ori3e) o+!ions, in!e,ra!e) IC7, mi;e)-mo)al accessF !mart Peo(le D >ocial an) "man Ca+i!alC embrace crea!ivi!', incl"sive socie!', 21 s! cen!"r' e)"ca!ions.

Hi,"re 1. 7&e >mar! Ci!ies B&eel )evelo+e) b' Co&en 475 Car!elli 455 )ra(s !&e a!!en!ion !&a!, "n%or!"na!el', in !&e c"rren! smar! ci!' mo)els )evelo+e) s"bse<"en! !o Gi%%in,er*s (ork, e)"ca!ion is no! seen as a +illar o% %"!"re ci!' smar!ness. 7&is lea)s "s !o (on)er abo"! !&e role o% e)"ca!ion an) e)"ca!ors in envisa,in, !&e cons!r"c!ion o% smar! ci!ies an) !rans%ormin, learners in!o ac!ive ci!i3ens. II. UNBUNDLING OF URBAN EDUCATION

6s ill men!ione) in &is mani%es!o, 8!&e ci!' is i!s +eo+le9 ma' be !&e )irec!ion !o(ar)s a smar! ci!' 4135. 7&ere%ore, in or)er !o accom+lis& i! (e nee) smar! ci!i3ens. 7&e <"es!ion raise) is &o( can (e ac&ieve !&is ,oalI B&e!&er 'o" are a +ro%essional (&o (an!s !o im+rove &imsel% or /"s! an or)inar' &"man bein, +reocc"+ie) !o c&an,e &is ci!', one o% !&e m"l!i+le sol"!ions can be !&e "nb"n)lin, o% "rban e)"ca!ion. 6 si,ni%ican! +ar! o% !&is !ren) is re+resen!e) b' !&e MJJC movemen!

as a c&allen,e !o !ra)i!ional &i,&er e)"ca!ion ins!i!"!ions. H"r!&ermore, a++l'in, !&e s",,es!ion o% 415 !o consi)er smar! ci!ies as learnin, +laces ?8smar! learnin, environmen!s9@, b' "nb"n)lin, e)"ca!ion !&ro",& MJJCs, aca)emic ins!i!"!ions can crea!e o++or!"ni!ies %or ci!i3ens* +ersonali3e) learnin, e;+eriences in vie(s o% en,a,emen!, learnin, an) +ar!ici+a!ionC !o con!rib"!e in a smar! manner !o en,a,e ci!i3ens in!o a collabora!ive )evelo+men! o% !&eir o(n ci!'F !o make in%orme) )ecisions ?since 2012 !&ere is an e;+losion o% cro()-so"rcin, an) cro()%"n)in, +la!%orms@F !o learn abo"! !&e ne!(ork e%%ec!s o% social me)ia - !&is can le) !o "rban ac!ivism %or a +ar!ici+a!or' )emocrac'F see %or e.,. !&e even!s s+rea) !&ro",& social me)ia !ools like 7(i!!er ?8Jcc"+' 1ver'(&ere9@, Hacebook ?86rab >+rin,9@, AlackAerr' Messen,er ?8-K rio!s9@, +ro!es!s in "rban C&ina e!c.F as (e alrea)' learn! !&ese even!s &ave !&e +o(er !o c&an,e !&e ci!'F !o crea!e a +ar!ici+a!or' "rban c"l!"re. III. CASE STUDY: MOOCs TO EXPLORE CITIES

1;am+les o% MJJCs !&a! )eal (i!& ci!ies come in man' varian!s. In or)er !o ill"s!ra!e &o( MJJCs !rans%orm learnin, con!e;!s !o make !&e ci!' rea)' !o s"++or! ci!i3ens* en,a,emen! an) a +ar!ici+a!or' )emocrac' (e con)"c!e) a searc& on Mooc-#is!.com ?an a,,re,a!or / )irec!or' o% Massive J+en Jnline Co"rses %rom )i%%eren! +rovi)ers@ in or)er !o i)en!i%' relevan! co"rses ?relevan! means !&a! !&e main ,oal o% !&e co"rse (as !o e;+lore !&e conce+! o% a smar! ci!' an) !&e im+lica!ions D i% !&ere are an' D %or &i,&er e)"ca!ion@. 7&e selec!e) searc& !erms ?!&eir +l"rals, !oo@ (ereC >mar! / #earnin, Ci!'F Ci!' Lesi,nF Ci!' :lannin,F -rbanism. Hor !&e +"r+ose o% !&is +a+er (e &ave e;cl")e) !&e non 1n,lis& co"rses even !&o",& (e %o"n) some MJJCs in Hrenc&, >+anis& or M"ssian !&a! co"l) be relevan! ?b"! !&ese can be incl")e) in a %"r!&er researc&@. Hrom !&e res"l!s onl' si; co"rses (ere %o"n) !o be relevan!C 1. Desig i g Ci!ies " DC ?&!!+sC//(((.co"rsera.or,/co"rse/)esi,nin,ci!ies@ is a !en-(eek co"rse ?Jc!ober D Lecember 2013@. 7&is co"rse is abo"! 8!&e (a's ci!ies are )esi,ne), an) (a's +eo+le can )esi,n !&em !o be be!!er, !o im+rove !&eir comm"ni!ies9. LC %oc"se) ever' (eek on a )i%%eren! as+ec! o% )esi,nin, a ci!' incl")in,C o( 7o)a'*s Ci!' 1volve)F 7&e I)eas 7&a! >&a+e Ci!iesF 7ools %or Lesi,nin, Ci!iesF Makin, Ci!ies >"s!ainableF Ci!ies in !&e In%orma!ion 6,eF :reservin, Jl)er Ci!iesF Lesi,nin, .e( Ci!ies, Lis!ric!s an) .ei,&bor&oo)sF 7&e C&allen,es o% In%ormal Ci!ies an) Lisa)van!a,e) .ei,&bor&oo)sF an) Nisionar' Ci!ies. 7&e +ar!ici+an!s ran,e) %rom )esi,n +ro%essions ?arc&i!ec!s, lan)sca+e arc&i!ec!s, "rban +lanners, or s!")en!s in !&ese %iel)s@ !o economics, en,ineerin, or social sciences. >ome (ere ,overnmen! o%%icials or +eo+le ac!ive in )i%%eren! .GJs. 2. Te#$ iCi!% " TC ?&!!+sC//(((.co"rsera.or,/co"rse/!ec&ci!'@. 7&e co"rse o%%ere) b' J&io >!a!e -niversi!' on Co"rsera la"nc&es a,ain on Hebr"ar' 26 !& 2014 ?lessons learn! %rom !&e %irs! co"rse can be %o"n) &ere &!!+C//!omsanc&e3.%iles.(or)+ress.com/2013/10/!ec&nici!'-%inalre+or!.+)%@. 7&e co"rse a))resses !&e c&allen,es %ace) b' o"r ci!ies )"e !o !&e "bi<"i!o"s +resence o% in%orma!ion an) comm"nica!ion !ec&nolo,' ?sensors, ne!(orks, cro()-so"rcin, +la!%orms e!c.@. L"rin, an $ (eeks +erio) !&e +ar!ici+an!s ?!ec&nical or non-!ec&nical s!")en!s, ei!&er "++er "n)er,ra)"a!e or ,ra)"a!e level o% e)"ca!ion@ (ill "se a varie!' o% !ec&nolo,ies, a++lica!ions an) reso"rces, s"c& asC vi)eo lec!"res (i!& <"i3 <"es!ions, Goo,le &an,o"!s an) #inke)In %or )isc"ssions, !(ee!s %or live even!s ?O!ec&nici!'@, Men)ele' %or s&arin, reso"rces on ci!ies an) !ec&nolo,' e!c. 7&e' (ill also be enco"ra,e) !o "se a varie!' a social me)ia !o con!rib"!e or ,enera!e crea!ive i)eas, ,ive %ee)back !o im+rove !&eir o(n ci!ies e!c. 1ac& +ar!ici+an! co"l) ac<"ire a ba),e %or &is/&er accom+lis&men!s. 3. C& !e'(&)*)% A)#$i!e#!+)e " CA ?&!!+sC//iversi!'.or,/co"rses/con!em+orar'-arc&i!ec!"reI rP254$)@. 7&e co"rse ?base) on iversi!' +la!%orm@ is o%%ere) b' !&e J+en Jnline 6ca)em' .e( Qork an) ran over 12 (eeks ?i! s!ar!e) on 15/10/2013@. In !&e co"rse )escri+!ion one can rea) i!s anal'sis 8ma/or con!em+orar' arc&i!ec!"ral i)eas, i)eolo,ies an) +ro/ec!s in !&e con!e;! o% ,lobali3a!ion an) s+eci%ic local con!e;!s9. 6l!&o",& !&e !o+ics are +re)ominan!l'

arc&i!ec!"ral, !&e +ar!ici+an!s can be ei!&er s!")en!s in arc&i!ec!"re or a +"blic (i!& ,eneral c"l!"ral c"riosi!' abo"! arc&i!ec!"re. Li%%eren! social me)ia ?like blo,s, Hacebook, 7(i!!er o% Goo,le R@ are "se) !o em+&asis comm"nica!ion )"rin, !&e co"rse. 7&e enrolle) s!")en!s (ill receive a cer!i%ica!e %or !&e co"rse a%!er all assi,nmen!s are com+le!e). 4. T$i ,T* , Ci!ies - TTC ?&!!+C//)i,i!al.le"+&ana.com/co"rses/!&ink!ank-i)eal-ci!'-o%-!&e21s!-cen!"r'/@. #e"+&ana Li,i!al >c&ool, a +"blic ins!i!"!ion in .or!&ern German', ran )"rin, San"ar'-6+ril 2013 an 8almos!9 MJJC on !&e visions o% an i)eal 21 s! Cen!"r' ci!'. 6l!&o",& !&e acron'm (as MJJC, !&e 8M9 s!an)s %or 8Men!ore)9 an) o%%ere) a "ni<"e an) innova!ive mo)el )e)"ce) %rom !&e (ell-kno(n Massive J+en Jnline Co"rses. 7&e German MJJC a!!rac!e) +ar!ici+an!s %rom 100 co"n!ries an) ran on a cos!-an)-barrier-%ree aca)emic +la!%orm calle) Can)ena >c&olar cons!r"c!e) (i!& 1"ro+ean %"n)s. 7&e novel!' consis!s in a collabora!ive learnin, in !eams o% %ive members (i!& )i%%eren! back,ro"n)s an) %rom all ,eo,ra+&ic loca!ions, base) on a %orma! more cMJJC !&an ;MJJC. 7&is co"rse 8a)o+!e)9 a %inancial s"++or! !&ro",& Xin,. 5. Ci!% Desig " CD ?&!!+sC//s!e+ic.or,/ci!'@ is !&e ne(es! co"rse, +lanne) !o s!ar! on Marc& 1s!, 2014. >!e+ic is a +riva!e M"ssian e)"ca!ional en!i!' (&ic& o%%ers a +la!%orm ac!in, as an 8en,ine (i!& !&eor' an) <"i33es9 )esi,ne) in s!e+s. >!e+s are combine) in!o lessons an) !&e la!es! are combine) in!o co"rses. Aasicall', !&e co"rse !"!or, Mill >&ik&anov, +ro+oses ne( a++roac&es !o )evelo+ a MJJC, closer !o vis"al s!or'!ellin,, (i!& %"nn' s&or! vi)eo lec!"res an) a varie!' o% )i%%eren! assi,nmen!s !&ro",& car!oons/comics, ,ames an) movies. In !&e Ci!'Lesi,n co"rse, )"rin, 4 mon!&s ?12 (eeks, Marc&-S"ne 2014@ !&ere (ill be 4 ma/or !&emes !o s!")'C is!or' o% Ci!ies, Game Ci!' Lesi,n, H"!"re o% Ci!ies ?em+&asis on smar! ci!ies an) i)eas %or im+rovemen!@ an) :ro,ram !&e Ci!'. B&a! (e like abo"! !&is co"rse is !&e %ac! !&a! i! a)o+!s a ,ame-base) +e)a,o,' ?6,e o% 1m+ires, Clas& o% Clans, 6n,r' Air)s e!c.@. 7&"s, b' )ra(in, car!oons an) +la'in, boar), vi)eo, real-!ime s!ra!e,' ,ames, !&e learnin, +rocess in )esi,nin, a ci!' ?+lannin,, b"il)in, an) e;+loi!a!ion@ becomes %"n. 7&e co"rse isn*! or,ani3e) b' an aca)emic ins!i!"!ion, so !&ere (ill be no cer!i%ica!e. 6. Ci!%MOOC - CM ?&!!+C//ci!'mooc.(eebl'.com/@ )eclare) i!sel% as a cMJJC abo"! Massive J+en Jr,ani3e) Comm"ni!ies on !&e na!"re o% ci!ies. I! is c"rren!l' r"nnin, ?San"ar' 11, 2014 !o Mi)-Marc& 2014@. 7&e )escri+!ion +a,e men!ions !&a! !&e co"rse "ses a lo! o% %ree an) o+en !ools ?!&e Goo,leR comm"ni!' is loca!e) a! &!!+sC//+l"s.,oo,le.com/"/0/comm"ni!ies/ 100675$15220700436631@. 7&e co"rse !"!or, Hre) Aar!els, a)voca!es !&a! an'one (i!& an in!eres! Tin "sin, !&e +o(er o% cMJJCs !o &el+ "n)ers!an) ci!ies9 can +ar!ici+a!e. 7. In an "+-!o-!&e-min"!e searc& (e %o"n) a MJJC calle) -Ne.! Ge e)*!i& I /)*s!)+#!+)es0 ?&!!+sC//(((.e);.or,/co"rse/)el%!;/)el%!;-n,i101;-ne;!-,enera!ion-123$@ (&ose aim is !o e;+lore &o( !o )esi,n in%ras!r"c!"re %or !&e smar! ci!ies o% !&e %"!"re. Aeca"se !&e co"rse is sc&e)"le) !o s!ar! on 6+ril 2014 b' 7- Lel%! on e)X +la!%orm, (e*ll incl")e i! in !&e sam+le co"rses o% a %ollo(-"+ s!")'. 6l!&o",& ever' co"rse is "ni<"e, !&e' also &ave common ,oals an) ob/ec!ives an) %ace !&e same c&allen,es. 7&e %irs! !&ree %ollo( !&e classical mo)els o% a MJJC (&ile !&e las! !&ree ?es+eciall' n"mber 5, 8Ci!' Lesi,n9@ &ack !&e kno(le),e abo"! MJJC. In a cer!ain (a', co"rse n"mber 5 can be consi)ere) 8a bor)erless MJJC9 405. 7&e co"rse n"mber 6 ?ci!'MJJC@ (i!& a +e)a,o,' mo)el base) on +eer-learnin, is s!ill in an inci+ien! s!a,e o% )evelo+men!. o(ever, beca"se o% !&e rela!ive novel!' o% !&ese !'+es o% co"rses an) !&e ins"%%icien! s!a!is!ical )a!a s"c& as enrollmen! n"mber, s"ccess ra!e or o!&er )emo,ra+&ics, co"rse anal'!ics e!c., (e canno! ass"me ?'e!@ i% !&e co"rse sam+le %ol) "+ o% !&e 12 MJJC )imensions o% Conole 4$5 b' )e,ree o% evi)ence ?&i,&, lo(, me)i"m@C o+enness, massi%ica!ion, !&e "se o% m"l!ime)ia, )e,ree o% comm"nica!ion an) collabora!ion, learnin, +a!&(a', <"ali!' ass"rance, amo"n! o% re%lec!ion, !&e level o% assessmen!, !&e e;!en! o% %ormali!', a"!onom' an) )iversi!' o% learnin,. 7akin, in!o consi)era!ion !&e si; >mar! Ci!' C&arac!eris!ics +ro+ose) b' 4125, (e ma+ !&e above co"rses over !&ese in)ica!ors 475.

76A#1 1. Ma++in, 7&e 6 Co"rses 6cross 7&e >i; >mar! Ci!ies C&arac!eris!ics Limensions in (&ic& MJJC learners co"l) be en,a,e)
C&arac!eris!ics o% a >mar! Ci!' >mar! 1conom' >mar! 1nvironmen! >mar! Governmen! >mar! #ivin, >mar! Mobili!' >mar! :eo+le -rbanism LC, 77C 7C, C6, LC, 77C, CL, CM 7C, LC, 77C, CL LC, 77C, CL, CM 7C, LC, 77C 7C, LC, 77C, CL, CM .e!(ork 7ec&nolo,ies LC 7C, LC, 77C 7C, LC, CM LC 7C, LC, CM 7C, LC 6rc&i!ec!"re LC C6, LC, 77C LC C6, LC, 77C LC, 77C C6, LC, 77C 6r! LC, CL C6, LC, CL LC, CL C6, LC, CL LC C6, LC, CL Lesi,n LC, CL C6, LC, 77C, CL LC C6, LC, 77C, CL LC C6, LC, CL, 77C 1n,ineerin, LC C6, LC 7C, LC C6, LC LC C6, LC

Me%oc"sin, !&e vie( o% massive o+en online co"rses as !ools &el+in, ci!i3ens reinven! !&eir ci!ies ?in or)er !o make a be!!er ci!'-li%e, !o make ci!ies smar!er@ is also closel' linke) !o )esi,nin, ver' "rban-cen!ere) ci!'-MJJCs, (i!& +ar!ici+an!s as kno(le),e crea!ors an) levera,e) b' a 8+e)a,o,' o% )iscover'9 41$5. IV. OUTLOOK

In a +revio"s +a+er 4145 (e "n)erline) !&e %ac! !&a! !&e MJJC movemen! is an emer,in, !&eme o% re%lec!ions, )eba!es an) s!ra!e,ies %or e)"ca!ional s's!ems (orl(i)e. Me,ar)in, !&e conce+! o% T>mar! Ci!'9, mos! MJJCs involve) in a (a' or ano!&er are rela!ivel' ne(, an) !&eir con!rib"!ions 8!o ,ive9 smar! ci!i3ens can be in)irec!. Be no!ice) a lack o% clari!' an) consens"s abo"! !&e )evelo+men! o% MJJCs )isc"ssin, !&e )e%ini!ion o% a smar! ci!'. 7&"s, man' <"es!ions an) as+ec!s remain o+en an) nee) !o be a))resse) b' %"!"re researc&C B&ic& %ea!"res o% smar! / learnin, ci!ies s&o"l) be o%%ere) b' MJJC +la!%orms an) &o( can s"c& co"rses be %acili!a!e)I o( can !&e a"!&ori!ies collabora!e (i!& "niversi!ies an) researc&ers !o )evelo+ s+eci%ic o+en e)"ca!ional reso"rces ?J1Ms@ %or smar! ci!ies an) !o or,ani3e s"c& co"rsesI B&a! lessons can be learne) %rom c"rren! +ro/ec!s !ar,e!in, !&ese iss"esI B&a! are !&e li!erac' an) com+e!ences +eo+le nee) in or)er !o learn an) live in a smar! ci!' environmen!I ?%or more <"es!ions !&a! 455 "r,es "s !o re%lec! on &!!+C//(((.ckb,.or,/ne(li!erac'-an)-com+e!ences-%or-smar!-ci!'-learnin,/@. 7&ere%oreC W at role s o"ld a ;<<0 (lay in s a(in# o"r cities@ Hirs! o% all, (e*re in %avor o% o%%erin, MJJCs no! %ollo(in, !&e 8s!an)ar) mo)el9. 6n' +la!%orm can (ork ?see !&e German one, !&e Goo,leR %or or,ani3e) comm"ni!ies e!c.@. 6l!erna!ives can be reci+es %or crea!ivi!', learnin, +a!&s a++licable !o real-ci!' li%e in an "nob!r"sive (a'. >econ)l', (e nee) more o+en co"rses "sin, J1Ms !o e;+lore ci!ies !o,e!&er, e)"ca!ional mo)"les base) on o+en-e)"ca!ion, o+en-access !o %acili!a!e o+en-learnin,. Hor e.,. co"rses s"c& as 8!&e Ci!' Lesi,n co"rse9 can +rovi)e no! onl' ne( skills b"! also a ne( (a' o% !&inkin,. In !&e !&ir) +lace, !&ere is an increasin, nee) !o re)e%ine / re)esi,n MJJCs in or)er !o combine !&e local +ossibili!ies bo!& %or comm"ni!' lea)ers an) "niversi!ies 435. B&a! s&o"l) local s!ake&ol)ers ,e! %rom a ci!'MJJCI 6re MJJCs &el+%"l !o )i%%eren! ci!' s!ake&ol)ers ?ci!' +lanners, arc&i!ec!s, "rbanis!s e!c.@I 6re !&e' learnin, some!&in, %rom !&e +ar!ici+an!s / !&e conversa!ion s!reamsI 6re !&e' ins+ire) b' !&e crea!ive s!")en!s* insi,&!sI 6re !&e' connec!e) (i!& s!")en!s be'on) !&e aca)em'I 6s !&e 7ec&niCi!' co"rse !"!or, +ro%essor 7&omas >anc&e3 4175 sai)C 8Man' s!")en! +ro/ec!s (ere s"bmi!!e) 4..5 an) !&e' re+resen! a (i)e ran,e o% %an!as!ic i)eas abo"! "sin, !ec&nolo,' in ci!ies %rom aro"n) !&e (orl).9

7&e ans(ers an) sol"!ions %or !&e above <"es!ions an) iss"es (ill make MJJCs become real e-bricks in b"il)in, smar! ci!ies, &avin, a! !&eir &ear! li%elon, learnin, smar! an) ac!ive ci!i3ens. Re/e)e #e Te.! * 1 Ci!*!i& s

415
425 435 445 455 465 475 4$5 405 4105 4115 4125 4135 4145

4155 4165 4175

41$5
4105 4205 Beb 4215 4225

A"c&em, I., :Ure3->ana,"s!Vn, M., 2013. Personal 6earnin# >nvironments in !mart 0ities) 0"rrent A((roac es and 1"t"re !cenarios. 1learnin, :a+ers no. 35. &!!+C//o+ene)"ca!ione"ro+a.e"/si!es/)e%a"l!/%iles/asse!/In)e+!&W35W1.+)%. A"))e, :., 2014. >mar! Ci!ies o% 7omorro(. In 0ities for !mart >nvironmental and >ner#y 1"t"res. :a,es. 0-20. >+rin,er Aerlin ei)elber,. A"rro(, #., 2013. B&a! can MJJCs )o %or 'o"IC #ocal Im+lica!ions o% a Global :&enomenon. In M. McAri)e, M. >earson ?1)s.@, Proceedin#s of !ociety for Bnformation Tec nolo#y C Teac er >d"cation Bnternational 0onference 20=3. :a,es 2$0-2$2. C&esa+eake, N6C 66C1. Me!rieve) Hebr"ar' 2$, 2014 %rom &!!+C//(((.e)i!lib.or,/+/4$113. Cara,li", 6., Lel Ao, C., .i/kam+, :., 2011. >mar! Ci!ies in 1"ro+e. In Do"rnal of Urban Tec nolo#y, .o 1$ ?2@. :a,es 65-$2. Car!elli, 6., 2012. Hrom >mar! Ci!ies !o >mar! 1nvironmen!C in!s an) >",,es!ions %or an 1colo,' o% !&e In!erne!. In Bnternational Do"rnal of Ei#ital 6iteracy and Ei#ital 0om(etence ?ISL#LC@, 3?4@, :a,es 65-71. )oiC10.401$//)l)c.2012100105. C&o"rabi, . e! al., 2012. -n)ers!an)in, >mar! Ci!iesC 6n In!e,ra!ive Hrame(ork. In 4Ft Ga+aii Bnternational 0onference on !ystem !ciences. Me!rieve) %rom &!!+C//(((.c!,.alban'.e)"/+"blica!ions//o"rnals/ &icssW2012Wsmar!ci!ies/&icssW2012Wsmar!ci!ies.+)%. Co&en, A., 2012. B&a! 1;ac!l' is a >mar! Ci!'I In 0o.>Hist, 6vailable a! &!!+C//(((.%as!coe;is!.com/ 16$053$/(&a!-e;ac!l'-is-a-smar!-ci!' ?visi!e) 27 Hebr"ar' 2014@. Conole, G., S"ne 4, 2013. A ne+ classification for ;<<0s . Me!rieve) %rom &!!+C//mooc.e%<"el.or,/a-ne(classi%ica!ion-%or-moocs-,rainne-conole/. 6ccesse) 26 San"ar' 2014. )e Baar), I. e! al., 2014. C&allen,es %or conce+!"alisin, 1- MJJC %or v"lnerable learner ,ro"+s. In Cress, -., Kloss, C. L. ?e)s.@. Proceedin#s of >"ro(ean ;<<0 !ta$e older !"mmit 20=4. :.6.-. 1)"ca!ion. :a,es 33-43. Le+ar!men! %or A"siness, Innova!ion an) >kills, #on)on, 2013. T e ;at"rin# of t e ;<<0. Me!rieve) %rom &!!+sC//(((.,ov."k/,overnmen!/"+loa)s/s's!em/"+loa)s/a!!ac&men!W)a!a/%ile/240103/13-1173-ma!"rin,-o%-!&emooc.+)%. 6ccesse) on 10 San"ar' 2014. 1- Lirec!ora!e General Hor In!ernal :olicies. ;a((in# t e smart cities in t e U>, 2014. &!!+C//(((.e"ro+arl.e"ro+a.e"/Me,La!a/e!")es/e!")es//oin/2014/5074$0/I:J#-I7M1W17?2014@5074$0W1..+)%. Gi%%in,er, M. e! al., 2007. !mart cities. Ran$in# of >"ro(ean medi"m&si9ed cities . Me!rieve) %rom &!!+C//(((.smar!-ci!ies.e"/)o(nloa)/smar!Wci!iesW%inalWre+or!.+)%. 6ccesse) on 10 San"ar' 2014. ill, L., 2013. >ssay) <n t e smart city: <r, a ImanifestoI for smart citi9ens instead . 6ccesse) on 27 Hebr"ar' 2014. Me!rieve) %rom &!!+C//(((.ci!'o%so"n).com/blo,/2013/02/on-!&e-smar!-ci!'-a-call-%or-smar!-ci!i3ensins!ea).&!ml. 6ccesse) on 24 San"ar' 2014. olo!esc", C., Grosseck, G., Cre!", N., 2013. MJJC*s 6na!om'. Microblo,,in, as !&e MJJC*s Con!rol Cen!er. In Mocean", I. ?e).@. J"ality and efficiency in e&learnin# . :rocee)in,s o% !&e 0!& In!erna!ional >cien!i%ic Con%erence Xe#earnin, an) >o%!(are %or 1)"ca!ionX A"c&ares!, 6+ril 25 - 26, 2013, Nol"me 2, 1)i!"ra -niversi!a!ii .a!ionale )e 6+arare 8Carol I9. &!!+C//+rocee)in,s.elsecon%erence.com/in)e;.+&+IrPsi!e/in)e;E'earP2013Ein)e;P +a+ersEvolP4E+a+erP26b04bb635ba%c%6ec0%e0)%c$3044%a. .am, 7., :ar)o., 6., 2011. Conce+!"ali3in, >mar! Ci!' (i!& Limensions o% 7ec&nolo,', :eo+le, an) Ins!i!"!ions. In T e Proceedin#s of t e =2t Ann"al Bnternational 0onference on Ei#ital ?overnment Researc . 6CM. &!!+C//(((.c!,.alban'.e)"/+"blica!ions//o"rnals/),oW2011Wsmar!ci!'/),oW2011Wsmar!ci!'.+)%. Mo/o, N. 2013. >&bric$s of t e smart cities. Me!rieve) %rom &!!+C//(((.aicane!.i!/even!icon!es!"ali/alle,a!i-even!i2013/Nicen!e220Mo/o.+)%. 6ccesse) on 2 Hebr"ar' 2014. >anc&e3, 7., S"ne 0, 2013. Tec ni0ity) T e +or$ isn,t finis edK. Me!rieve) %rom &!!+C//blo,s.l!.v!.e)"/!ec&nici!'s!or'/2013/06/00/!ec&nici!'-!&e-(ork-isn!-%inis&e)/. 7a'lor, S., 2013. T e Peda#o#y of Eiscovery) >nablin# 1ree Ran#e 6earnin# . :resen!a!ion available a!C &!!+C//vimeo.com/445004$2. 7o+e!!a, L., 2010. T e !mart 0ity Vision) Go+ innovation and B0T can b"ild smart, 5liveable7, s"stainable cities. 6 7 I.K Me+or!. Me!rieve) %rom &!!+C//(((.in!a-aivn.or,/ima,es/cc/-rbanism/back,ro"n)220)oc"men!s/ 7o++e!aWMe+or!W005W2010.+)%. -ni!e) .a!ions, Le+ar!men! o% 1conomic an) >ocial 6%%airs. :o+"la!ion Livision, 2012. World Urbani9ation Pros(ects, t e 20== Revision, .e( Qork. Gori9on 2020) 5!mart 0ities 6earnin#7. &!!+C//(((.mi%av."niroma2.i!/ineven!/even!s/scl13/in)e;.+&+IsP156. !mart 0ities, Ran$in# of >"ro(ean ;edi"m&!i9ed 0ities, &!!+C//(((.smar!-ci!ies.e"/.