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Graph Modeling

P. Kumar, R. Merzouki, B. Ould Bouamama, and H. Haffaf

AbstractModeling of trafc dynamic is important for the

good trafc management which leads to sustainable transport.

Trafc models are classied based on level of details they

provide as microscopic models and macroscopic models. A

microscopic model of trafc ow describes the behavior of

individual vehicle in response to motion of the vehicle preceding

it, while, a macroscopic model describes the behavior of the

trafc as a whole, but the behavior of individual vehicle is not

described.

In the present work, we develop a microscopic model of

car-following behavior of the vehicles and introduce the sub-

microscopic model of trafc, in which the dynamic model of

each vehicle is developed, which is not considered in most of

the existing microscopic models. Then, a model based control

strategy is proposed for the local control of the platoon of the

intelligent autonomous vehicles (IAVs). This model based con-

trol strategy analytically provides the calculation of necessary

effort for the follower IAV to maintain the safe inter-distance

with the leader IAV.

I. INTRODUCTION

Modeling of trafc dynamic is important for the good traf-

c management. A good trafc model helps in reducing the

congestion and the pollution. Also, it helps in infrastructure

optimization by providing cooperative driving (platooning).

When a transport system is equipped with information and

communication technology (ICT) tools, it becomes intelli-

gent transport system (ITS). Nowadays, IAVs can be used for

the platooning of vehicles in the conned space like container

terminal to improve the performance of the system. In this

paper, we model the microscopic trafc dynamic based on

the communication between vehicles.

Microscopic model describes both the space-time behavior

of the vehicles as well as their interactions at a high level

of detail (individually). These models are based on supposed

mechanisms describing the process of one vehicle following

another. The follower vehicles motion (position, speed and

acceleration) is determined according to the motion of the

leader vehicle.

Microscopic models are also called Car-following mod-

els, in which leader vehicle inuences the driving behavior of

P. Kumar, R. Merzouki and B. Ould-Bouamama

are with the LAGIS, UMR CNRS 8219,

Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de

Lille 1, Avenue Paul Langevin, 59655

Villeneuve dAscq, Lille, France

(e-mail: jahan.pushp@gmail.com;

rochdi.merzouki@polytech-lille.fr;

Belkacem.Ouldbouamama@polytech-lille.fr)

H. Haffaf is with the Faculty of Science,

Computer Science Department Oran University

El MNaouar, Oran, Algeria (e-mail:

Haffaf.hafid@univ-oran.dz)

the follower vehicle. Various car-following models have been

developed since early 1950s. In 1953, Pipes [1] developed

safe-distance car-following models describe the dynamics

of a vehicle in relation to its leading vehicle. Other safe-

distance models are also presented in the contributions:

Forbes (1959) [2] presented an improved safe-distance model

with taking into consideration the driver reaction time. A

similar approach was proposed by Kometani (1959) [3]

assuming that vehicle separation is proportional to both speed

of the subject vehicle and the leading vehicle. Gipps (1981)

[4] derived the model by setting the limits of performance

of the driver and vehicle.

In 1961, Gazis, Herman and Rothery [5] proposed a

generic stimulus-response model. The model is known as

GHR (Gazis-Herman-Rothery) model. GHR model is the

most well known model in trafc literature. The models

describe acceleration and deceleration response of a follower

vehicle due to driving action of the leader vehicle. Another

car-following model which is known as optimal velocity

model (OVM) was proposed by Bando (1995) [6]. In this

model, the legal velocity function is introduced, which is a

function of the distance headway between the leader and the

follower vehicles. Li (2008) [7] presented a modied OVM

by adding an acceleration-adjustment term.

For platooning of vehicles some recent contributions in-

clude; Yi (2005) [8] proposed an impedance control sys-

tem utilizing a spring-damper system for vehicle platoon.

Avanzini (2009) [9] proposed a global platoon control

strategy, supported by inter-vehicle communications. Contet

(2009) [10] proposed a local control approach to linear

platoons for the control of inter-vehicle distance and common

trajectory matching.

In the above literature, the dynamic model of the vehicle

is not considered in most of the model. We propose a model

which describes the dynamics of car-following behavior

including the dynamics of individual vehicle and propose

a model based local control of the platoon of vehicles. For

this, we use a energy based graphical approach named bond

graph (Mukherjee 2006) [11]. The characteristics of the bond

graph modeling approach are as following:

The Bond graph modeling is based on the power transfer

principle between the different elements of the studied

system. The system is modeled using inertia element I,

compliance element C, and dissipative element R.

The mathematical equations (differential equations) can

be deduced systematically from the Bond graph model.

This modeling technique allows to strongly simplify

the analysis techniques and to calculate the formal

Proceedings of the 16th International IEEE Annual Conference on

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2013), The Hague, The

Netherlands, October 6-9, 2013

WeC6.5

978-1-4799-2914-613/$31.00 2013 IEEE

2349

expressions of the control laws, offering a physical

comprehension of the obtained properties.

The Bond graph is very powerful to model in a unied

way the physical systems of various natures and inde-

pendently of the considered eld (mechanical, electrical,

thermal etc.).

A. Paper Organization

In Section II, we develop the bond graph model of

the trafc system, starting from the sub-microscopic model

to microscopic model. In Section III, the platoon control

strategy is described and the simulation results are discussed

in Section IV. The conclusion and future work is described

in Section V.

II. BOND GRAPH MODELING

A. Sub-microscopic Model

At sub-microscopic level, we develop two dimensional

model of an IAV named RobuCar as shown in Fig. 1,

the RobuCar has four traction wheels actuated with four

independent DC motors. There are two steering systems, rst

for the two front wheels and second for the two rear wheels.

The vehicle is equipped with an inertial sensor to measure

its longitudinal, lateral and yaw speeds. Also, sensors are

mounted to measure the angular speed of the each wheel

and the current drawn by the each motor.

Fig. 1: IAV RobuCar at LAGIS

In Fig. 2, we can see the schematic top view of the IAV

in which x-y is body xed frame and X-Y is inertial frame.

The orientation of x axis with respect to X axis is given by

. The dimensions of the vehicle are denoted by a, b and c,

while G represents the centre of mass (CM) of the vehicle to

which x-y frame is xed. Angle denotes the steering angle

of the wheel. F

lj

and F

cj

(where j is wheel number =1, 2,

3 or 4) denote the longitudinal force and the cornering force

transmitted to the wheel respectively.

For the modeling of the IAV following modeling assump-

tions are made: (i) the vehicle moves in a plane surface

(ii) the road is uniform and the suspension, roll and pitch

dynamics are not considered (iii) each wheel is independently

driven by DC motor and (iv) all the four wheels are steerable.

Finally, we consider the following dynamics: (i) traction

actuator, slip and steering dynamics of the wheel and (ii)

longitudinal, lateral and yaw dynamics of the vehicle body

(CM). The word bond graph for the considered dynamics of

the vehicle is shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram of the IAV

In the wheel-j dynamics part, voltage source provides

voltage U

mj

and current i

j

to the electrical part of the motor,

which gives output (voltage U

j

) to the mechanical part of

the motor. The output of the motor (torque

j

and angular

speed

j

) and the effect of steering and slip dynamics (force

F

sj

and slip velocity v

sj

), generate wheel velocity v

wj

and

force F

j

, which is transmitted to the vehicle body. The

dynamics of the four wheels generate longitudinal, lateral

and yaw dynamics of the vehicle body. Pathak (2008) [12]

and Loureiro (2012) [13], developed the dynamic model of

an autonomous vehicle using the bong graph technique.

Fig. 4: Considered scheme of jth motor and wheel system

The vehicle is composed of four independent quarters of

vehicles (wheel-1, wheel-2, wheel-3 and wheel-4). Let us

start with the dynamics of wheel-j (j=1, 2, 3 and 4). Fig.

4 shows the considered scheme of the motor and wheel

system. The corresponding bond graph model of the wheel-

j dynamics is shown in Fig. 5. In electrical part of the

motor, U

mj

, I

mj

, R

mj

and k

j

represent voltage, inductance,

resistance and torque constant of the motor respectively. In

mechanical part of the motor, I

aj

and R

aj

represent polar

moment of inertia and friction of the wheel-axle respectively.

Angle is the steering angle and r is the radius of the

wheel. R

xj

and R

yj

represent the slip contribution in x and y

direction respectively. The full headed arrows corresponding

to current i

j

in motor and angular speed of the wheel

axle

j

represent the sensors to measure the value of the

corresponding parameter.

The dynamic equations of the system are systematically

deduced from the bond graph model in Fig. 5, where e

n

and f

n

are the effort and ow in the corresponding bond

978-1-4799-2914-613/$31.00 2013 IEEE

2350

Fig. 3: Word bond graph of the vehicle

Fig. 5: Bond graph model of the motor and wheel dynamics

number n (n=1, 2, 3...). The state-space equations of the

system are derived by applying junction law corresponding

to bonds 1,2,3,4 and bonds 5,6,7,8 as following:

p

..

_

p

mj

p

aj

_

=

A

..

_

Rmj

Imj

kj

Iaj

kj

Imj

Raj

Iaj

_

p

..

_

p

mj

p

aj

_

+

B

..

_

1 0

0 1

_

u

..

_

U

mj

rF

lj

_

q

..

_

i

j

j

_

=

C

..

_

1

Imj

0

0

1

Iaj

_

p

..

_

p

mj

p

aj

_

(1)

The longitudinal and lateral speeds of the wheel x

wj

and

y

wj

respectively in conjunction with wheels spinning speed

generate the longitudinal and lateral slip speeds x

sj

and

y

sj

respectively, and the dynamic relations can be derived

from the junction law corresponding to bonds 9,10,11,12 and

bonds 17,18,19 as given below:

x

sj

= r

j

x

wj

cos y

wj

sin (2)

y

sj

= x

wj

sin + y

wj

cos (3)

The longitudinal force F

lj

and cornering force F

cj

are

functions of the longitudinal and lateral slip speeds respec-

tively and the dynamic equations can be derived from the

junction law corresponding to bonds 10,13 and bonds 17,20

as given below:

F

lj

= R

xj

x

sj

(4)

F

cj

= R

yj

y

sj

(5)

For small value of slip and not considering wheel camber,

the values of R

xj

and R

yj

can be given as (Drozdz 1991)

[14]: R

xj

=

Cx

x

and R

yj

=

Cy

x

. The coefcients C

x

and C

y

are dependent on vertical wheel load and x is the velocity of

CM of the vehicle in x direction. F

xj

and F

yj

are the forces

generated by the wheel in x and y directions respectively,

and are transmitted to the body of the vehicle in x and y

directions respectively, the equations can be derived from

the junction law corresponding to bonds 14,15,16 and bonds

21,22,23 as given below:

F

xj

= F

lj

cos F

cj

sin (6)

F

yj

= F

lj

sin F

cj

cos (7)

The complete bond graph model of the IAV considering all

the dynamics is shown in Fig. 6. Symbols m and J represent

mass and polar moment of inertia of the IAV respectively.

The dimensions of the IAV are denoted by a, b and c in

modulous of transformer elements. The full headed arrows

corresponding to the speeds ( x, y,

X,

Y and

) of the

978-1-4799-2914-613/$31.00 2013 IEEE

2351

Fig. 6: Complete bond graph model of the IAV

vehicles CM, represent the sensors to measure the value

of the corresponding parameter.

In Fig. 6, the longitudinal and lateral motions of the four

wheels are transformed to longitudinal, lateral and angular

motion of the vehicle body. The dynamic relations can be

deduced from this bond graph. By applying junction law at

longitudinal, lateral and yaw dynamics junctions, we get the

following equations:

m x = F

x1

+ F

x2

+ F

x3

+ F

x4

+ m

y (8)

m y = F

y1

+ F

y2

+ F

y3

+ F

y4

m

x (9)

J

= (F

y1

+ F

y2

) a (F

y3

+ F

y4

) b

(F

x1

F

x2

F

x3

+ F

x4

) c (10)

The dynamic relations for longitudinal, lateral and yaw

motions of the IAV are given by equations (8), (9) and (10)

respectively. The velocity of the CM in inertial frame X-

Y is obtained by the transformation of x-y frame by angle

. In this way, now we have the complete two dimensional

dynamic model of an IAV.

B. Microscopic Model

At microscopic level of trafc ow, the interaction be-

tween the vehicles is observed. A microscopic model of

trafc is car-following model, in which leader vehicle

inuences the driving behavior of the follower vehicle. The

relative motion of the follower vehicle depends on the motion

of the leader vehicle and follower vehicle always tries to

maintain a minimum safe separation (inter-distance) with

leader vehicle.

In our approach of modeling at microscopic level, we

model car-following behavior between the leader and the

follower vehicles based on the stick-slip dynamic. This

stick-slip phenomenon is found mainly on the relative motion

issued from the contact between different rigid mechanisms.

This stick-slip motion generates a jerky phenomenon by the

presence of certain exibility in the contact and represents

a succession of jumps and stop. In this stick-slip dynamics,

when the inter-distance reaches to a very small value then

follower vehicle applies brakes and, when the inter-distance

increases then follower vehicle again accelerate.

In this work, we develop the model of this stick-slip

motion based on inter-distance as the physical connection

between the vehicles. Actually, this physical connection is

virtual, and we emulate this connection by the spring-dashpot

system to represent the stick-slip motion as shown in Fig.

7. This virtual interconnection system represents in reality

the state information of the inter-distance variables collected

from the sensor and establishes the communication between

the IAVs.

978-1-4799-2914-613/$31.00 2013 IEEE

2352

Fig. 7: Platoon of IAVs virtually connected by spring-dashpot system

In Fig. 7, we can see the platoon of i-vehicles (i=1,2,3...),

which are virtually connected by the spring-dashpot. The

spring stiffness, damping coefcient and position of the

vehicles are denoted by k

i

, b

i

and x

i

respectively. Let us

consider the generic system of leader (n

th

) and follower

(n +1

th

) vehicles. We connect sub-microscopic bond graph

models of two vehicles by the bond graph model of the

spring-dashpot system. The microscopic bond graph model

is shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8: Microscopic bond graph model connects sub-

microscopic bond graphs of leader and follower vehicles with

a virtual bond graph model of spring-dashpot system

In Fig. 8, bonds 1 and 2 connect the spring-dashpot system

to the longitudinal dynamic 1 junctions of vehicle(n+1)

and vehicle(n) respectively. The ow f

2

from the leader

vehicle(n) is transmitted to the virtual spring-dashpot system

with a full headed arrow bond, which represents the ow

activated bond and transfer only ow to the system and

does not receive effort from the system; this restores the

anisotropic property (motion of the leader vehicle is not

affected by the motion of the follower vehicle) of the

trafc ow. The effort e

1

from the spring-dashpot system is

transmitted to the follower vehicle(n+1) to determine its ow

f

1

. The parameters k

n

and b

n

denote the spring stiffness and

damping coefcient respectively, which are used to calculate

the inter-distance. The dynamic relations for the microscopic

trafc model can be derived from the bond graph shown in

Fig. 8. By applying the junction law corresponding to bonds

3,4,5 we get the governing equation of the microscopic trafc

dynamic and is given by the equation (16), as following:

m

(n+1)

x

(n+1)

+ b

n

( x

(n+1)

x

(n)

) + k

n

(x

(n+1)

x

(n)

t)

= F

x1(n+1)

+ F

x2(n+1)

+ F

x3(n+1)

+ F

x4(n+1)

m

(n+1)

(n+1)

y

(n+1)

(11)

The speeds x

(n+1)

, x

(n)

, y

(n+1)

and

are measured by

the sensors mounted on the IAVs. The state value of inter-

distance d (here we consider inter-distance as the distance

between the CM of the two IAVs) between the leader and

follower vehicles with respect to inerial frame is given by

d = X

n

X

n+1

.

III. PLATOON CONTROL

In this section, we use the microscopic bond graph model

developed in previous section for the context of platoon

control. The virtual physical inter-connection between the

IAVs is the base of the local platoon control algorithm.

This virtual inter-connection system analytically describes

the necessary effort calculated by the follower vehicle in

order to maintain the safe inter-distance. From the bond

graph model shown in Fig 8, we can develop the control

strategy as shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9: Platoon Control Strategy

In Fig. 9, the rst summation junction represents the 0-

junction corresponding to bonds 1,2,3 and second summation

junction represents 1-junction corresponding to bonds 3,4,5

of bond graph model in Fig. 8. At rst summation junction

the difference of speeds of the leader and the follower IAVs

is taken as the error signal f

3

. A proportinal-integral (PI)

control strategy is applied to compensate this error and to

calculate the necessary effort e

3

to be applied on the follower

vehicle. The control equations are given below:

error in speed:

f

3

= f

2

f

1

= x

n

x

n+1

(12)

control effort applied on follower vehicle:

e

3

= e

4

+ e

5

= b

n

( x

n

x

n+1

) + k

n

_

( x

n

x

n+1

) (13)

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

For the simulation purpose, we use Symbols Shakti soft-

ware. SYMBOLS acronym stands for SYstem Modeling by

BOndgraph Language and Simulation. It is a modeling,

simulation and control systems software for a variety of

scientic and engineering applications. In Fig. 10, the screen

shot of the software plateform is shown.

978-1-4799-2914-613/$31.00 2013 IEEE

2353

Fig. 10: Software Plateform Symbols

The simulation parameters for the RobuCar are as fol-

lowing: m = 390Kg, J = 160Kgm

2

, a = 0.96m, b =

0.88m, c = 0.65m, and the values for spring stiffness and

damping coefcient are taken as k

n

= 100N/m and b

n

=

0.1Ns/m. The position and speed of follower vehicle (n+1)

are shown in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 respectively, in response of

uniform motion of the leader vehicle (n). We can notice that

the follower vehicle (n+1) decreases its speed, when it comes

closer (decrease of inter-distance) to the leader vehicle (n)

and again increases its speed when the separation is more

(increase of inter-distance). In this way, this model based

control of platoon performs well.

Fig. 11: Space-time behavior of a platoon of two IAVs

Fig. 12: Speed-time behavior of a platoon of two IAVs

V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

In the present work, we proposed a microscopic model

of trafc dynamic based on graphical approach bond graph

modeling. The model describes the dynamic of car-following

behavior including the dynamics of individual vehicle. Then,

we propose a model based local control of the platoon of

IAVs, which analytically provides the calculation of neces-

sary effort for the follower IAV to maintain the safe inter-

distance with the leader IAV. The simulation results show

that this model based controller performs well and regulates

the speed of follower IAV to maintain safe inter-distance

with the leader IAV. In the future work, we are interested to

extend the model for macroscopic trafc dynamic using this

energy based graphical modeling technique bond graph.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work is supported and funded by European project

Weastows (196G), Interreg IVB north-west Europe, [15].

REFERENCES

[1] Pipes, L.A., An Operational Analysis of Trafc Dynamics, Journal of

Applied Physics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 274-281, 1953.

[2] Forbes, T.W., Zagorski, M.J., Holshouser, E.L., Deterline W.A., Mea-

surement of Driver Reaction to Tunnel Conditions, Proceedings of the

Highway Research Board, vol. 37, pp. 345-357, 1959.

[3] Kometani, E., Sasaki, T., Dynamic Behaviour of Trafc with a

Nonlinear Spacing-Speed Relationship, Proceedings of the Symposium

on Theory of Trafc Flow, Research Laboratories, General Motors

corp., pp. 105-119, 1959.

[4] Gipps, P.G., A Behavioural Car Following Model for Computer

Simulation, Transportation Research B, vol. 15, pp. 105-111, 1981.

[5] Gazis, D.C., Herman, R., Rothery, R.W., Nonlinear Follow-The-Leader

Models of Trafc Flow, Operations Research, vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 545-

567, 1961.

[6] Bando, M., Hasebe, K., Nakayama, A., Shibata, A., Sugiyama, Y.,

Dynamical Model of Trafc Congestion and Numerical Simulation,

Physical Review E, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 1035-1042, 1995.

[7] Li, L., Xu, L., Linear Stability Analysis of a Multi-vehicle Car-

following Trafc Flow Model, 15th International Conference on Man-

agement Science and Engineering, Long Beach, USA, pp. 1642-1647,

2008.

[8] Yi, S., Chong, K., Impedance control for a vehicle platoon system,

Mechatronics, vol. 15, Issue 5, pp. 627-638, ISSN 0957-4158, June

2005.

[9] Avanzini, P., Thuilot, B., Dallej, T., Martinet, P., Derutin, J.-P., On-

line reference trajectory generation for manually convoying a platoon

of automatic urban vehicles, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on

Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp.1867-1872, 2009.

[10] Contet, J., Gechter, F., Gruer, P., Koukam, A., Reactive multi-agent

approach to local platoon control: stability analysis and experimen-

tations, Int. J. of Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications,

vol.10, No.3, pp.231 - 249, 2011.

[11] Mukherjee, A., Karmakar, R., Samantaray, A. K., Bond graph in

Modeling, Simulation and Fault Identication. CRC Press, FL, USA,

2006.

[12] Pathak, P. M., Samantaray, A. K., Merzouki, R., Ould-Bouamama, B.,

Reconguration of Directional Handling of an Autonomous Vehicle,

IEEE Region 10 Colloquium and the Third ICIIS, Kharagpur, India,

December 2008.

[13] Loureiro, R., Merzouki, R., Bouamama, B.O., Bond Graph Model

Based on Structural Diagnosability and Recoverability Analysis: Ap-

plication to Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles, Vehicular Technology,

IEEE Transactions on, vol.61, no.3, pp.986-997, March 2012.

[14] Drozdz, W., Pacejka, H.B., Development and validation of a bond

graph handling model of an automobile, Journal of the Franklin

Institute, vol. 328, Issues 5-6, pp. 941-957, 1991.

[15] www.weastows.eu, ofcial website of Weastows project, 2012.

978-1-4799-2914-613/$31.00 2013 IEEE

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