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Scuderi Split Cycle Engine

Mechanica !e"a#$%en$


The first four stro!e piston "as de#eloped in $%&'( The four stro!e piston arrangement is still the primary design of engines )uilt today( Today*s engines operate at only ++, efficiency( This means that only $-+ of the energy in each gallon of fuel is used the rest is lost through friction and heat( .ith o#er a )illion engines "orld"ide/ e#en small gains in efficiency "ill ha#e impacts on the economy/ dependency on foreign oil and the en#ironment( A $0, efficiency impro#ement in #ehicle performance "ould sa#e o#er 1$0 )illion and reduce emissions of car)on dio2ide )y $30 million tons per year( A 40, efficiency impro#ement could reduce foreign oil used today )y $-+( 5lo)al .arming( 6esides NO2/ the e2tra CO4 leads to #iolent "eather patterns and the melting of the polar icecaps( The only "ay to reduce CO4 emissions is to )urn less fuel )y using more efficient engines(


Split engines appeared as early as $;$3( Split cycle engines separate the four stro!es of inta!e/ compression po"er/ and e2haust into t"o separate )ut paired cylinders( The first cylinder is used for the inta!e and compression( The compressed air is transferred through a connecting passage or tu)e from the compression cylinder into the second cylinder "here com)ustion and e2haust occur( 5as is compressed in the compression cylinder and transferred to the po"er cylinder through a gas passage(

The Scuderi Engine "as originally in#ented )y Carmelo >( Scuderi ?April $+/ $;4@ A Octo)er $'/ 4004B( Scuderi 5roup/ an engineering and licensing company )ased in .est Springfield/ Cassachusetts and founded )y Carmelo ScuderiDs children/ is testing a "or!ing prototype of the engine that "as officially un#eiled to the pu)lic on April 40/ 400;(

6y firing after top dead center/ it produces highly efficient/ cleaner com)ustion "ith one cylinder and compressed air in the other( A con#entional cam actuated #al#e admits air to the com)ustion cham)er/ )ut a pressure acti#ated dis! type #al#e admits air into the passage"ay from the compression cham)er and pre#ents it from lea!ing )ac! onto the inta!e cylinder( Euel is inFected directly into the cylinder Fust as the #al#e opens( The highly compressed air "hooshes in so Guic!ly and atomiHes the inFected fuel so thoroughly that the spar! is fired to ignite it $$ to $@ degrees after TDC/ e#en "hen running lean mi2tures for increased efficiency( The po"er cylinder fires Fust after the piston has )egun its do"n"ard motion ?Iafter top dead centerI/ or ATDCB( The Scuderi 5roup says ATDC eliminates a thermal efficiency shortcoming seen in pre#ious split cycle engine designs( Eiring ATDC in a split cycle arrangement is claimed to eliminate the losses resulting from recompressing the gas(


A Scuderi cycle is a thermodynamic cycle is constructed out of the follo"ing series of thermodynamic processesJ A 6 and C D ?TO7 and 6OTTOC of the loopBJ a pair of Guasi parallel adia)atic processes D A ?8EET side of the loopBJ a positi#ely sloped/ increasing pressure/ increasing #olume process 6 C ?=I5HT side of the loopBJ an isochoric process The adia)atic processes are impermea)le to heatJ heat flo"s rapidly into the loop through the left e2panding process resulting in increasing pressure "hile #olume is increasingK some of it flo"s )ac! out through the right depressuriHing processK the heat that remains does the "or!(

ST=OLES In$a*e S$#o*e+ The inta!e stro!e in a Scuderi split cycle engine is similar to a con#entional 3
stro!e engine(

EigureJ Inta!e Stro!e

Co%"#e,,ion S$#o*e+ During the compression stro!e/ the charge is pressuriHed as the piston
mo#es from 6DC to TDC in the compression cylinder(

EigureJ Compression Stro!e

ST=OLES )o-e# S$#o*e+ During po"er stro!e/ the charge flo"s to the po"er cylinder through the
crosso#er passage as the crosso#er #al#e on the po"er cylinder opens( The charge is ignited in the po"er cylinder(

EigureJ 7o"er Stro!e


EigureJ Charge transfer initiation(

EigureJ Ignition of charge(


E.ha/,$ S$#o*e+ During e2haust stro!e/ the e2haust gasses in po"er cylinder escape through
the e2haust #al#e( At the same time/ the inta!e of charge ta!es place in the Compression cylinder and the cycle is completed(

EigureJ E2haust Stro!e

Although considered )ad practice in con#entional engine design/ firing after TDC in a split cycle arrangement eliminates the losses created )y recompressing the gas( The )ig issue "as not ho" to sol#e the thermal efficiency pro)lems of the split cycle engine/ )ut rather ho" to fire after TDC( In the Scuderi Engine/ firing after top dead center is accomplished )y using a com)ination of high pressure air in the transfer passage and high tur)ulence in the po"er cylinder( This high pressure air entering the po"er cylinder creates massi#e tur)ulence( The tur)ulence is further enhanced )y !eeping the #al#es open as long as possi)le during com)ustion( The result is #ery rapid atomiHation of the fuel-air mi2ture creating a fast flame speed or com)ustion rate faster than any pre#iously o)tained(


Also/ the maFor difference is the efficiency that a Scuderi engine deli#ers( A "hopping 420'1MM


Easter 6urn =ate( Eiring After Top Dead Center Is Counter Intuiti#e to Engine Design( 8o"er NO2 Emissions Ceans It Can =un 8eaner and 5ain Efficiency( 6uilt In Supercharging Special 6enefits for Aircraft Applications( Design Ele2i)ility Cany features that reGuire additional eGuipment or are Fust too difficult to implement in a con#entional engine design are easily accomplished "ith a Scuderi Split Cycle configuration( E(g( Supercharging can )e added )y simply increasing the diameter of the compression cylinder(

7iston friction can )e reduced )y offsetting the compression and po"er cylinders( Compati)ility "ith e2isting engine in terms of manufacturing processes and tool reGuirements(

High torGue at lo" =7C means higher po"er at lo"er engine speeds( Same total engine siHe ?num)er of cylinders and displacementB as compara)le con#entional internal com)ustion engines(

Impro#ed performance and reduced comple2ity and cost( =educed cost of diesel systems )y dramatically reducing three of the most e2pensi#e and comple2 parts of a diesel systemJ tur)ocharging/ inFectors/ and e2haust treatment(


Cool air ne#er enters the po"er cylinder so heat "ould Guic!ly )uild up causing lu)rication oils to )rea! do"n and components to fail( .ater cooled cylinder "alls "ould )e reGuired to resol#e this(

The crosso#er #al#e "ould e2perience high accelerations so #al#e train dura)ility could )e an issue( This #ery "ell might limit the rpm of the engine( Auto ignition and -or flame propagation could occur in the crosso#er passage(


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