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Reinforcement and Extension

Worksheets

Science, Geography and History

Contents
Page Reinforcement Worksheets 1 Animals and plants .................................. 2 Food........................................................ 3 Breathing................................................. 4 Men and women...................................... 5 Life cycles................................................ 6 The universe............................................ 7 Minerals .................................................. 8 Ecosystems.............................................. 9 Light ........................................................ 10 Materials.................................................. 11 Where do we live? .................................... 12 Oceans and continents ............................ 13 Government and society........................... 14 The Romans ............................................ Extension Worksheets 1 Animals and plants .................................. 2 Food........................................................ 3 Breathing................................................. 4 Men and women...................................... 5 Life cycles................................................ 6 The universe............................................ 7 Minerals .................................................. 8 Ecosystems.............................................. 9 Light ........................................................ 10 Materials.................................................. 11 Where do we live? .................................... 12 Oceans and continents ............................ 13 Government and society........................... 14 The Romans ............................................ 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

Answer Key ................................................... 46

1 Animals and plants


Name
1. Answer these questions. a. When do animals in hot places look for food?

REINFORCEMENT Date

b. How are animals in cold places protected from the cold?

2. Match the columns. a. All plants need b. Plants absorb water through c. The roots of the plant d. Plants make e. Most plants need fix it to the soil. their roots. water and sunlight. a warm temperature. their own food.

3. Where do these plants live? Decide and write. water lilies a b cactus c ferns moss d

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REINFORCEMENT
4. Complete the paragraph about dinosaurs. Dinosaurs disappeared millions of years ago. They were like (crocodiles and lizards). Their skin was covered with born from . . They were

5. Use these words to label the dinosaurs. Diplodocus carnivore 9 Triceratops herbivore 27 Tyrannosaurus herbivore 12

a. It was a It was . metres long.

b. It was a It was . metres long.

c. It was a It was . metres long.

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2 Food
Name Date

REINFORCEMENT

1. Find 14 words in the wordsearch and complete the two tables.

M E A I

T B

F R U I

G Q V R

C E A S T A P G P L A V E R L E S

L G C H E E S E P U K S W P A S F I S H D Q Z

Y O G H U R T V E G E T A B

Z Q O R A N G E S X

The origins of food Food which comes from animals Food which comes from plants

Name two other substances we need which do not come from plants or animals:

Food groups
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Milk,

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REINFORCEMENT
2. Why do we need food from all four groups?

3. Match the two columns. a. Our stomach b. The large intestine c. Food enters our body d. At the end of the large intestine e. Our oesophagus f. Our intestine g. The small intestine 1. through our mouth. 2. is a long tube. 3. is about seven metres long. 4. is like a bag. 5. is about a metre and a half. 6. is the anus. 7. is between our mouth and our stomach.

4. Complete the sentences and describe some of the stages of digestion. a. Digestion begins in the a Our Our . b b. In the mixed with , the food is . chew the food. mixes the food with .

c. In the the food is divided. The useful parts go into .

What happens to the parts of our food which we cannot use?

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3 Breathing
Name
1. Label the illustration. Then complete the sentences.

REINFORCEMENT Date
Air enters our body through the and mouth.

It goes down through the and the

and into the

What happens when we inhale? And when we exhale? 2. Tick () the true sentences. Correct the false sentences. a. The journey of our blood around our body is called respiration. b. Blood carries substances from digestion to different parts of our body. c. Blood also carries oxygen and collects waste products. d. The heart is below the two lungs. e. Blood circulates around our body inside bronchial tubes. f. Arteries carry the blood from the heart to the rest of our body. g. Arteries also carry the blood from our body back to the heart. h. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect veins and arteries.

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3. Add the kidneys to this illustration. Label it.

REINFORCEMENT

4. Answer these questions. a. What is excretion?

b. What organs make up the excretory system?

c. What do the kidneys do?

d. Where is urine stored?

5. Cross out the odd word. a. nose b. trachea c. heart d. blood vessels nostrils blood veins kidney capillaries inhale arteries urine lungs oxygen exhale bladder

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4 Men and women


Name
1. Use the words to label the illustrations. ovaries vulva prostate penis uterus

REINFORCEMENT Date

testicles

vagina

Male reproductive system

Female reproductive system

2. Answer the questions. a. What do mens bodies make? b. What do womens bodies make? c. When does fertilisation occur?

d. Where does a foetus grow? e. What is pregnancy?

f. How long does pregnancy last? g. When does birth occur?


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REINFORCEMENT
3. Complete the sentences. a. At the beginning, foetuses are b. At three months, foetuses measure c. At nine months, babies measure 4. Use these words to label the photographs. walk a get teeth speak b crawl

Many babies at about six months old. c

They learn to when they are a few months old. d

Many babies learn to when they are about 14 months old.

Some can when they are two years old.

5. Complete the table with the names of your family and friends. Childhood Youth Maturity Old age

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5 Life cycles
Name
1. Circle the correct words.

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a. The adult stage is the longest / the shortest life stage for vertebrates. b. Mammals are oviparous / viviparous animals. c. Birds are oviparous / viviparous animals. d. Herbivores eat plants and animals / plants. e. Omnivores eat plants and animals / plants. f. Carnivores eat other animals / plants. What is the difference between viviparous animals and oviparous animals?

2. Match the columns. a. Many animals, like horses, b. Other animals, like insects, c. Most aquatic animals, like fish, d. Some aquatic animals, like dolphins, Draw the gills on the fish. Draw the lungs on the horse. breathe through their gills. come to the surface for air. breathe through their lungs. breathe through a tracheal system.

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Answer the questions. a. What is germination? b. What are the three steps of germination? First, Then, Finally, c. What tubers do you eat? d. What roots do you eat? 4. Use the words to complete the text. Then label the illustration. first sunlight mineral salts Plants make their own food. the roots absorb stored finally next raw sap leaves water

elaborated sap , and

from the soil. This mixture is .

, the raw sap travels up the stem to the need . Plants also and carbon dioxide

to make their food. In the leaves, the raw sap is transformed into .

, the elaborated sap travels from the leaves to the other parts of the plant where it is used or .
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6 The universe
Name Date

REINFORCEMENT

1. Find the names of the planets in the wordsearch. Then answer the questions.

U R A N U S U L Q

Q V W E A R T H X

J L X P X K X Q S

U S A T U R N K T

P P L U T O Q M N

I V E N U S V A F

T Q M E R C U R Y

E X W Z L V Q S K

R V T S T U Z Q L

a. What is the order of the planets. (Begin with the one closest to the Sun.)

b. Which one is no longer considered to be a planet? c. Which are the four small, rocky planets? d. Which are the four biggest planets? 2. Tick () the correct columns. Astronomical bodies
Luminous astronomical bodies Give off light Non-luminous astronomical bodies Reflect light from the Sun Orbit the Sun Orbit planets

stars planets satellites comets

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Use the words to complete the sentences. night summer 365 days orbits seasons . completely. . . axis rotate day winter

a. The Earth rotates on its b. The Earth takes 24 hours to

c. On the part of the Earth facing the Sun, it is d. On the part of the Earth facing away from the Sun, it is e. The Earth f. The Earth takes the Sun. to complete its orbit.

g. The Earths movement around the Sun causes the h. It is i. It is

on the part of the Earth which receives more sunlight. on the part of the Earth which receives less sunlight.

4. Draw four trees to illustrate the seasons. Label your drawings.

In the northern hemisphere, which are the winter months?

In the southern hemisphere, which are the summer months?

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7 Minerals
Name Date
1. Tick () the true sentences. Correct the false sentences.

REINFORCEMENT

a. Minerals are not natural materials but they can be part of rocks. b. All minerals are regular. c. Each mineral has a typical colour or colours. d. Some minerals are shiny and others are dull. e. Minerals are materials made up of rocks. f. We obtain rocks from mines and quarries.

2. Identify each material and describe it. a b

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Answer the questions. a. Where can minerals be found?

b. What four characteristics are used to describe minerals?

c. How are minerals useful? d. How are rocks useful? 4. Match the columns. a. The ground is made up of b. Humus is c. Fertile ground has d. Poor ground has e. Very poor ground is f. There are three g. When water cannot filter h. In deserts, underground water little water, air and humus. rocks, sand, soil, air, water and humus. main layers of soil. any further it becomes underground water. creates an oasis. a lot of water, air and humus. the remains of living things. mainly made up of rocks.

5. Draw and label the three main layers of soil.

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8 Ecosystems
Name
1. Complete the sentences. a. An ecosystem is b. In an ecosystem, there are living things such as c. There are also non-living things such as d. Three examples of ecosystems are 2. Identify these two ecosystems and complete the sentences.

REINFORCEMENT Date

a. This is a

. Many animals can live here, for example, .

b. This is a

. Many animals can live here, for example, .

3. Describe a food chain and give an example. A food chain begins

Example:
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REINFORCEMENT
4. Cross out the odd word. a. tree b. trees c. spiders d. mice savannah bushes worms bushes pond grasses rabbits rabbits forest oasis beetles owls

5. Give examples to complete the table. Habitats


Forest Sea

trees bushes grass under the ground

birds

the coast the high sea the deep sea

6. Circle the correct option. a. Seaweed is the most common / least common plant in the sea. b. Fish are the biggest group of invertebrates / vertebrates. c. Seahorses eat seaweed / jelly fish. d. There are four / three main zones in the sea. e. Whales are carnivorous / omnivorous animals. 7. Draw and label animals and plants to complete the illustration.

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9 Light
Name
1. Circle the correct option. a. Light moves in a curved / straight line. b. Light moves very slowly / very fast.

REINFORCEMENT Date

c. When light cannot travel through an object, a shadow / prism is formed. d. The shadow of an object is always formed on the opposite / same side to the source of light. How does light move? 2. Colour the rainbow, putting the colours in the correct order.

a. How many colours make up white light? b. What are the primary colours? c. How do we get orange? d. How do we get purple? e. How do we get green? 3. Match and add an example. Example a. Transparent objects b. Translucent objects c. Opaque objects
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1. do not allow light to pass through. 2. allow light to pass through. 3. allow some light to pass through.

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REINFORCEMENT
4. Complete the sentences. a. Luminous bodies are b. c. d. e. Two non-luminous objects which reflect light are . , like stars, produce light. , like candles, are man-made. produce no light. .

5. Complete the text. When I touch a hot object, the heat passes from the hot object to . When I touch a cold object, the heat passes from my hand to . In other words, heat . Heat flows from an object with a higher temperature to an object with a lower temperature.

6. Label these objects conductors or insulators. a b c

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10
Name

Materials
Date

REINFORCEMENT

1. Find the names of 10 materials in the wordsearch and classify them.

Q A P T

U M

U M T W

X V W P J L Z L

L Q W S A S S I

L W O O D Q X P T A C T I T T X G L S O N P M X X P E A B L F R Q L F T I K T

T H E R M R O V L N W P Q X
Artificial materials

C O Q T W N S
Natural materials

Vegetable origin:

Animal origin:

Mineral origin:

2. Match the columns. Then match the photographs. Property a. elastic b. flexible c. fragile d. strong e. transparent Materials 1. paper 2. rubber 3. concrete 4. glass 5. pottery d e a b c

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Complete the sentences. Then label the photos. a. If we pull the rope of a pulley, the object at the other end b. If we push down one end of a lever, the object at the other end c. We can slide objects . . a ramp.

4. Name six complex machines which you use every day.

Which machine helps you the most? Which is your favourite?

5. Write a description of a machine and describe its functions.

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11 Where do we live?
Name
1. Match the columns. a. A settlement b. A municipality c. A region d. A province

REINFORCEMENT Date

is a settlement and the land around it. is a village, town or city. is bigger than a region. is made up of several municipalities.

2. Answer the questions. a. How many Autonomous Communities are there in Spain? b. How many Autonomous Cities are there? c. Is Spain one of the largest countries in Europe? d. Which European countries share frontiers with Spain? e. Where is Spain in relation to Africa?

3. Look at the map and write about Spain.

FRANCE

ANDORRA

SPAIN
The Balearic Islands

Ceuta
The Canary Islands

Melilla
MOROCCO ALGERIA

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REINFORCEMENT
4. Label the Autonomous Communities. Andalusia Aragon Cantabria Castile and Leon Castile-La Mancha Catalonia Extremadura Galicia The Basque Country The Balearic Islands The Canary Islands The Community of Madrid The Community of Navarra The Community of Valencia The Principality of Asturias The Region of Murcia The Rioja

Locate and add the cities of Mlaga, Seville, Madrid, Zaragoza, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia on the map. Colour your Autonomous Community red. Add the capital of your Autonomous Community.
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12 Oceans and continents


Name
1. Look at the map and answer the questions.

REINFORCEMENT Date

a. How many continents are there? b. Name them:

c. Which is the biggest continent? d. Which is the smallest continent? e. Which is the longest continent? f. How many oceans are there? g. Name them:

. . . . .

h. Which oceans are frozen? i. Which continent is frozen?


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. .

REINFORCEMENT
2. Label these European countries on the map. Bulgaria Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden The Russian Federation Ukraine United Kingdom

ATLANTIC OCEAN

ASIA

i
AFRICA

Which of these countries do not belong to the European Union?

3. Complete the sentences. a. Europe is connected to b. Between the Spanish coast and Africa, there are c. The landscape of most of Europe is made up of d. The population of Europe is e. The largest European country is . . . . .
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13 Government and society


Name
1. Use the words to complete the table. Head of State / King Houses of Parliament Assembly

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Mayor

Councillors

President and councillors


Municipal Government

President and Ministers

Autonomous Government

Spanish State

2. Answer the questions.

a. Do you watch television? How many hours per week? b. Do you use the Internet? How many hours per week? c. Which do you prefer television or the Internet? Why?
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.
. . . . .

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Find the names of 7 kinds of jobs in the service sector in the wordsearch.
E D U C A Q E H F P M Z T I O N H F I T L A L

F O P R G F D E A P

G E D M F N Q P N G E N S Z C L J R T L I

J C Q T

P Y E G H R K O Q A X R N R T E S M K

W E H C Q O Z W F C H Q E Z Q X K Q T

T O U R

Copy the words from the wordsearch and give examples.


Kind of job Examples

4. Look at the photograph. What people work in a place like this?

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14 The Romans
Name Date
1. Tick () the true sentences. Correct the false sentences. a. A small part of Europe was part of the Roman Empire. b. Rome was the capital of this empire. c. The Roman army was very big.

REINFORCEMENT

d. There were public baths, temples and warehouses in Roman cities. e. Roman roads were very poor. f. Aqueducts carried water to the mountains. g. In the countryside, farms produced oil, wheat and wine. h. The language of the Roman Empire was Egyptian.

2. Find these parts of the castle and write the words in the right place.

battlements

bridge

courtyard

tower

water

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Circle the correct alternative. a. After the end of the Greek Empire / Roman Empire there were wars in Spain. b. Muslims from North Africa / northern Europe entered Spain. c. These Muslims lived in cities surrounded by walls / castles. d. The Muslims / The Christians lived in the north of Spain. e. Little by little, the Muslims / the Christians conquered all Spain. f. They built cathedrals / monasteries in the cities and cathedrals / monasteries in the countryside. 4. Answer the questions. a. When was America discovered? b. What new plants did Europeans find in America? c. What valuable minerals did they find? d. Where did European kings and aristocrats live? e. At that time, what was life like in the European countryside? 5. Name four great inventions from the nineteenth or twentieth centuries.

Draw two of these inventions.

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EXTENSION

1 Animals and plants


Name Date

What happened to the dinosaurs? Dinosaurs lived on the Earth for about 100 million years. Nobody really knows why they became extinct, but some scientists investigating a crater in the Yucutn Peninsula in Mexico believe that a meteorite 10 kms wide crashed into the Earth, making conditions impossible for the dinosaurs to survive. The meteorite caused forest fires all over the world, tsunamis several kilometres high, and what scientists call an impact winter. This means that the effect of the meteorites impact created such a lot of dust that it blocked out the Sun for several months, or maybe even years. However, other scientists believe that the dinosaurs were already being affected by climate change and the effect of the meteorite was not so significant.

1. Tick () the true sentences. Correct the false sentences. a. All scientists believe a meteorite hit the Earth and killed off the dinosaurs. b. There is a very big crater in Mexico. c. The meteorite did not affect the Earth very much. d. The dust caused by the meteorite blocked out the Sun. e. Some scientists believe climate change affected the dinosaurs.

2. Match the two halves of each sentence. a. A meteorite b. Fires c. Tsunamis d. The meteorite e. Dust
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1. blocked out light and heat from the Sun. 2. crashed into the Earth in Mexico. 3. caused an impact winter. 4. started all over the world. 5. occurred in seas and oceans

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2 Food
Name Date

EXTENSION

The importance of fibre in our diet Fibre is needed to help the digestive process, and it also helps prevent heart disease and cancer. Fibre is found naturally in food such as fruit and vegetables, nuts, seeds and pulses. Cereals also contain fibre, but very often much of it is removed in the refining process. This is what happens, for example, in the case of breakfast cereals: the outer layer of the cereal grain, which contains many vitamins and minerals, is removed and consequently the product loses some of its nutritional value. Wholegrain bread and pasta and brown rice contain much more fibre than white bread or pasta or rice. Nowadays, food labels give us important information about the salt, sugar, fat and fibre content in the processed food we buy.

1. Answer the questions. a. Why is fibre good for us? b. Where is fibre found? c. What is there in the outer layer of a grain of cereal? d. When is this outer layer removed? e. Why are food labels important?

2. Circle the foods which have more fibre in them. white bread lentils wholegrain bread hamburgers brown rice apples almonds peanuts sweets cakes fish milk beans oranges pears peas yoghurt brown macaroni white rice white spaghetti
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3 Breathing
Name Date

EXTENSION

Blood groups Blood has many functions; one of them is to transport oxygen to the various parts of the body. Every adult has approximately 4 to 6 litres of blood. If a person loses a lot of blood in an accident or during a surgical operation, they may need a blood transfusion. It was not until 1901 that the Nobel Prize winner Karl Landsteiner made the very important discovery: human beings have different blood types. There are four basic blood groups: Group A, Group B, Group AB and Group O. If a patient needs a blood transfusion, they must receive blood from a donor who has a compatible blood group. If not, the patient has a toxic reaction and may die.

1. Circle the correct alternative. a. Blood carries oxygen / nitrogen to various parts of the body. b. Karl Landsteiner received the Nobel Prize for his discovery / invention. c. Human beings have similar / different blood types. d. There are four / three basic blood groups. e. Blood groups must be compatible / the same between the patients blood and the donors blood. 2. Match the parts of the body with their function. a. Blood b. Heart c. Arteries d. Kidneys e. Bladder clean the blood. stores urine. carries oxygen. pumps blood. carry blood from the heart.

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4 Men and women


Name
Alzheimers disease In the 21st century

EXTENSION Date

people are living longer than ever before. This is because of better medical attention and the fact that people now know how important it is to eat a healthy diet and do regular exercise if they want to live to an old age. However, as a result of living longer, more old people are being affected by Alzheimers disease. Alzheimers affects the brain, not the body. The symptoms of this illness are that old people begin to have difficulty communicating, learning, thinking and understanding. As the disease gets worse, they not only forget words or places, but they also do not recognise where they are or who is with them. Eventually, they forget how to do basic things like eating or walking. At the moment there is no cure for Alzheimers disease.

1. Tick () the true sentences. a. People live longer now than before. b. Alzheimers disease affects young people. c. Alzheimers disease affects the body, not the brain. d. Old people with Alzheimers disease forget how to do basic things. e. There is no cure for Alzheimers disease. 2. Circle the correct alternative. a. During pregnancy, the mother / baby gets food and oxygen through the umbilical chord. b. Babies learn how to walk / talk when they are about two years old. c. Human beings reach maturity when they are about 20 / 50 years old. d. In childhood / old age people have a lot of experience. e. During our youth we continue growing / crawling.
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5 Life cycles
Name Date

EXTENSION

Silkworms The adult female silkworm moth lays eggs. From each of these eggs comes a silkworm larva which at first is approximately 1 cm long. Silkworms only eat mulberry leaves, and they grow very quickly. After about 26 days, the next stage of the silkworms life cycle begins. The silkworm starts to produce a fine silk thread, which it uses to make a cocoon around itself. This process takes about three days. Once the cocoon is complete, the larva stays inside the cocoon. It emerges three weeks later as a moth. Adult moths reproduce, and the female lays more eggs, beginning the life cycle again. Silk production is important in many parts of the world. The farmers who produce silk kill the cocoons and use the silk thread which the silkworm produced. Some estimates say the length of the silk of one cocoon can be over a kilometre long.

1. Complete the sentences. a. At first, a silkworm b. Silkworms only eat mulberry c. It takes the silkworm three d. After three is about 1 cm long. . to make its cocoon. the adult moth emerges from the cocoon. .

e. Silkworms are kept on farms to produce 2. Match the two halves of each sentence. a. Silkworms are herbivores because b. Silkworms are oviparous because c. Silkworms are invertebrates because
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1. they do not have a backbone. 2. they eat mulberry leaves. 3. they come from eggs.

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6 The universe
Name Date

EXTENSION

Leap year The Earth is a planet in the Solar System. It orbits the Sun. The Earth rotates on its axis, and takes 24 hours to rotate completely. It takes approximately 365 days and 6 hours for the Earth to complete its orbit around the Sun. This means that every four years the calendar is adjusted to include another day (6 hours x 4 = 24 hours). So, every four years, the month of February has 29 days and the year has 366 days. When this occurs it is called a Leap Year. If you are born on February 29th you only have a birthday once every four years. Of course, many people choose to celebrate their birthday either the day before (February 28th) or the day after (March 1st). In the past, one of the traditions associated with Leap Year was that on February 29th women could ask men to marry them.

1. Read the definitions. What are they describing? a. The second month of the year: b. The day you are born: c. A year with 366 days: 2. Use the words to complete the sentences. autumn a. In the , the days begin to get and longer the weather gets warmer. b. In the grow, and it often rains. heat spring Earth trees summer flowers winter snows brown areas it .
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, the days are long and hot, because the receives more light and heat from the Sun.

c. In the

, the days get shorter and the leaves go and fall from the . It can be

windy, wet and cold. d. In the , it is cold and the days are shorter because . In some

the Earth receives less sunlight and

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7 Minerals
Name
Fossil fuels Fossil fuels are formed from the

EXTENSION Date

fossilized remains of plants and animals that lived up to 300 million years ago. For example, coal and petrol are fossil fuels. When we burn fossil fuels, they produce energy for heat and light. They are also used in industry and transport. When we burn fossil fuels, we contaminate the air with the gases they produce. These days, scientists are trying to find other ways of producing energy because there is only a limited amount of coal and petrol on the Earth. Energy generated by the Sun and the wind is now used in many parts of the world. These energy sources create less pollution than fossil fuels, but they are more expensive. However, this may change in the future.

1. Answer the questions. a. What are two examples of fossil fuels? b. What are fossil fuels used for? c. What is the problem with the gases they produce? d. What are scientists trying to do? e. What kinds of energy are being generated in the photo?

2. Circle the correct answer. a. Where are coal and petrol usually found? Underground. / On the Earths surface. b. What is used to extract underground water or petrol? A filter. / A well. c. What kind of energy is produced by the Sun? Solar. / Wind.
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8 Ecosystems
Name
The Amazon rainforest This ecosystem is in danger of disappearing. It is the worlds greatest natural resource and supports millions of plants, animal and insect species. Often called the lung of the world, this large area of green trees and vegetation recycles carbon dioxide and provides about 20% of the Earths oxygen. Many medicinal plants that grow here are used to make drugs to treat illnesses such as cancer. This rainforest is very valuable, and it is in danger. The Amazon rainforest is being cut down. The wood from the trees is used in industry. Also, some of the land is cleared of trees for the cultivation of crops, which make money for many multinational companies. The natives of this area have to leave to find other homes. If nothing is done to stop this destruction of the Amazon rainforest, it will affect the climate of the entire world.

EXTENSION Date

1. Match the two halves of each sentence. a. The lung of the world b. Medicinal plants c. Wood d. The cultivation e. The natives 1. is used to make expensive furniture. 2. provides 20% of the Earths oxygen. 3. have to find other homes. 4. are used to make medicines. 5. of crops makes money for big companies.

2. Read the definitions and write the name of the animal. a. W b. E c. Z d. C : the largest mammal that lives in the sea. : a large animal that lives in Africa and has a trunk. : an animal like a horse which has black and white stripes. : a large, dangerous animal that lives in rivers and has a big mouth and sharp teeth.
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9 Light
Name Date

EXTENSION

Eclipses An eclipse occurs when the Moon is directly in line with the Sun and the Earth. A total lunar eclipse happens when the full Moon passes through the shadow of the Earth. In this case, the Sun and Moon are on opposite sides of the Earth. The Moon goes dark for about an hour. This kind of eclipse is seen more frequently than a total solar eclipse, which occurs less than 70 times per century. During a total solar eclipse, the new Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, and for a few minutes it becomes dark during the day. The dark disk of the Moon totally obscures the bright Sun. You must never look directly at the Sun, even during an eclipse, because it can seriously damage your eyes. To see the full eclipse, you must be in a place that is in the path of the eclipse and you must wear special sunglasses that protect your eyes.

1. Tick () the true sentences. Correct the false sentences. a. During a total lunar eclipse, the Moon goes dark for about an hour. b. Total lunar eclipses are more frequent than total solar eclipses. c. Total solar eclipses occur every 70 days. d. During a total solar eclipse, it becomes dark during the day. e. A total solar eclipse can be seen by everybody all over the world.

2. Choose the correct alternative. a. The Earth is an opaque / transparent object. b. Planets are non-luminous / luminous bodies. c. Luminous bodies are a source of dark / light. d. The Sun is an artificial / natural luminous body.
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10 Materials
Name Date

EXTENSION

Paper Paper was first used about 3,500 years ago in Egypt. This paper was made from the papyrus plant. Paper is believed to have been used in China around the 2nd century AD. From there it spread through Islamic countries. Production was introduced into Europe in the 12th century. Paper is made from wood pulp, and by the 19th century the mechanical production of paper had begun. This made communication much easier as people were able to write letters and read newspapers and books. In modern times, technology saves a lot of paper because people can communicate and read news on the Internet, and save documents on their personal computers. Paper is still necessary for many things such as packaging and cleaning. Nowadays, paper can be recycled, which means fewer trees need to be cut down.

1. Complete the sentences. a. Egyptians used paper made from the papyrus b. The Chinese used paper in the 2nd c. Production was introduced into . in the 12th century. .

2. Choose one of the following words to complete the sentences. strong a. Paper is a b. Glass is a c. Rubber is an d. Concrete is a e. Pottery is a hard flexible fragile elastic

material because it can be folded. material because it is difficult to scratch. material because it can be squashed. material because it can carry heavy weights. material because it can break easily.
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11 Where do we live?
Name
Where is it? My city is the regional capital of an

EXTENSION Date

Autonomous Community. It was founded by the Romans in 25 BC. It has more Roman monuments than any other city in Spain. One of the most important is the Archaeological Ensemble of the city, which is a World Heritage Site. The Circus, the Amphitheatre and the Roman theatre are all used for the festival of classical theatre which takes place every summer and attracts a lot of visitors. There is also a famous Roman bridge over the river Guadiana in my city. To the west of my Autonomous Community there is the border between Spain and another country. If you continue travelling west, you reach the Atlantic Ocean. Can you guess where I live?

1. Answer the questions. a. When was the city founded? b. What is it famous for? c. What takes place there every summer? d. What river goes through this city? e. What is the name of the city? f. Which Autonomous Community is it in? 2. Match the words and their definitions. a. A place where you can borrow books. b. A religious building for Christians. c. An area of water. d. A place where people go to look at paintings or old objects. e. A place where people sell fruit, vegetables, fish, meat, etc.
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1. Museum. 2. Library. 3. Lake. 4. Church. 5. Market.

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12 Oceans and continents


Name Date

EXTENSION

The Arctic The Arctic Ocean is situated at the North Pole and the Antarctic Ocean at the South Pole. The Arctic is one of the wildest and coldest places on Earth, but it is also one of the most fragile. Over the last 30 years, there has been a change in the Arctic because of a rise in the Earths temperature. If the ice in the Arctic Ocean melts, the sea level will rise, and it will eventually affect those countries which have low lying coasts. Large pieces of ice called icebergs are often found floating in the Arctic regions. These icebergs have broken off from a glacier and float in open water. Only one tenth of an iceberg can be seen above water. Modern technology monitors the movement of icebergs as they can be a danger to ships. One historical accident with an iceberg occurred when the transatlantic steamship Titanic hit an iceberg and sank on 15 April 1912.

1. Complete the sentences. a. The is one of the coldest places on Earth. .

b. The Arctic is changing because of a rise in c. If the sea level d. e. They can be a 2. Correct these sentences. a. Europe is the biggest continent. b. Oceania is connected to Asia. c. Africa is the longest continent. d. Asia is the hottest continent. e. Antarctica is the smallest continent. f. America is a frozen continent.

, many low lying coastal areas will be affected. are floating pieces of ice. to ships.

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13 Government and society


Name
The Magna Carta

EXTENSION Date

In the 11th century, England was

invaded by the Normans from France. The King of England was allowed unlimited power to do what he wanted, and the barons who were in power had no authority over him. However, the barons finally revolted against this system and demanded a new legislation. This was called the Magna Carta. It was written in Latin in 1215, during the reign of King John of England. The Magna Carta was a legal document which established the limits of the Kings power, and at the same time, it established the peoples rights. It is considered to be the first signed constitution. For many people, the Magna Carta is an important reference in the history of democratic systems of government. Because of the Magna Carta, England is considered to be the home of democracy.

1. Answer the questions. a. When was the Magna Carta written? b. Who was the King of England at that time? c. Who had organised the revolt? d. What did the Magna Carta establish? e. Why is it important? 2. Circle the correct alternative. a. Town halls are run by the mayor and presidents / councillors. b. The Government / Courts of Justice is made up of the President and the Ministers. c. The institution / Constitution establishes our rights and duties. d. The press, radio and television are all mass media / journalists. e. Doctors, office workers, and teachers work in commerce / the service sector.
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14 The Romans
Name Date

EXTENSION

Roman roads The Romans introduced a revolutionary system of road building which allowed them to move their armies all over their Empire. At the same time, these roads made it easier to transport goods and to send messengers to communicate news. The Romans built approximately 85,000 km of roads in various countries, and in many places these roads can still be seen. The roads were between 5 and 10 metres wide so it was possible for carriages or columns of soldiers to pass each other easily. Every 50 or 60 Roman miles, the distance which could be covered in a day, the Romans built rest areas where they had places to sleep and eat and to change their horses if necessary.

1. Tick () the true sentences. a. The Romans built a revolutionary system of roads. b. They only built roads in one country. c. The roads were not wide enough for travellers to pass each other. d. Services were provided for travellers at regular intervals. e. Roman roads have now disappeared. 2. Write the missing verb. carried lived was built entered Latin. water to the cities. Spain. in the north. great cathedrals and monasteries.
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a. The language of the Roman Empire b. In Roman times, aqueducts c. Muslims from North Africa d. Christian kings and nobles e. Christians

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REINFORCEMENT

Answer key
REINFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES
UNIT 1: ANIMALS AND PLANTS
1. Answer the questions. a. They look for food at night. b. They are protected from the cold by their thick fur or fat under their skins. 2. Match the columns. a. All plants need water and sunlight. b. Plants absorb water through their roots. c. The roots of the plant fix it to the soil. d. Plants make their own food. e. Most plants need water and sunlight. 3. Where do these plants live? Decide and write. Cactus; ferns; moss; water lilies. 4. Complete the paragraph about dinosaurs. Dinosaurs disappeared millions of years ago. They were like reptiles (crocodiles and lizards). Their skin was covered with scales. They were born from eggs. 5. Use these words to label the dinosaurs. a. Triceratops. It was a herbivore. It was 9 metres long. b. Diplodocus. It was a herbivore. It was 27 metres long. c. Tyrannosaurus. It was a carnivore. It was 12 metres long. 1. Label the illustration. Then complete the sentences. Illustration: clockwise, from bottom left; lung, trachea, bronchial tubes. Air enters our body through the nose and mouth. It goes down through the trachea and the bronchial tubes, and into the lungs. What happens when we inhale? When we inhale, our lungs fill with air. And when we exhale? When we exhale, the air leaves our lungs. 2. Tick the true sentences. Correct the false sentences. True sentences: b; c; f; h. Corrected false sentences: a. The journey of our blood around our body is called circulation. d. The heart is between the two lungs. e. Blood circulates around our body inside blood vessels. g. Veins carry the blood from our body back to the heart. 3. Add the kidneys to this illustration and label them. Illustration, clockwise, from left: renal vein, renal artery, bladder. Students add the kidneys. 4. Answer the questions. a. What is excretion? Excretion is the elimination of waste products from the blood. b. What organs make up the excretory system? The excretory system is made up of the kidneys and the bladder. 2. Why do we need food from all four groups? Model answer: We need food from all four groups to grow, stay healthy and have energy. 3. Match the two columns. a. 4; b. 5; c. 1; d. 6; e. 7; f. 2; g. 3. 4. Complete the sentences to describe some of the stages of digestion. a. Digestion begins in the mouth. Our teeth chew the food. Our tongue mixes the food with saliva. b. In the stomach, the food is mixed with a liquid / gastric juice. c. In the small intestine the food is divided. The useful parts go into the blood. What happens to the parts of our food which we cannot use? They go into the large intestine. They are transformed into faeces and expelled through the anus.

UNIT 3: BREATHING

UNIT 2: FOOD
1. Find 14 words in the wordsearch and complete the two tables. Across: meat, fruit, rice, cheese, pasta, fish, yoghurt, oranges, vegetables. Down: milk, eggs, bread, apples, sugar. Food which comes from animals: meat, cheese, fish, yoghurt, milk, eggs. Food which comes from plants: fruit, rice, pasta, oranges, vegetables, bread, apples, sugar. Name two other substances we need which do not come from plants or animals: water and salt. Food groups Group 1: cheese, yoghurt, milk. Group 2: meat, fish, eggs. Group 3: rice, pasta, bread, sugar. Group 4: fruit, oranges, vegetables, apples.

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REINFORCEMENT
c. What do the kidneys do? The kidneys filter the blood and make urine. d. Where is urine stored? Urine is stored in the bladder. 5. Cross out the odd word. a. nose b. trachea c. heart nostrils blood veins capillaries inhale arteries lungs oxygen exhale urine bladder b. Mammals are viviparous animals. c. Birds are oviparous animals. d. Herbivores eat plants. e. Omnivores eat plants and animals. f. Carnivores eat other animals. What is the difference between viviparous animals and oviparous animals? Viviparous animals are born from their mothers womb. Oviparous animals are born from eggs. 2. Match the columns. a. Many animals, like horses, breathe through their lungs. b. Other animals, like insects, breathe through a tracheal system. c. Most aquatic animals, like fish, breathe through their gills. d. Some aquatic animals, like dolphins, come to the surface for air. Draw the gills on the fish. Draw the lungs on the horse. Students draw. 3. Answer the questions. a. What is germination? When a seed begins to grow. b. What are the three steps of germination? First, the seed absorbs water from the soil. Then, the seed opens. A root grows down into the soil. Finally, a small stem grows. c. What tubers do you eat? Model answer: potatoes. d. What roots do you eat? Model answer: carrots. 4. Use the words to complete the text. Then label the illustration. Plants make their own food. First, the roots absorb water and mineral salts from the soil. This mixture is raw sap. Next, the raw sap travels up the stem to the leaves. Plants also need sunlight and carbon dioxide to make their food. In the leaves, the raw sap is transformed into elaborated sap. Finally, the elaborated sap travels from the leaves to the other parts of the plant where it is used or stored. Illustration, from top to bottom: elaborated sap, raw sap.

d. blood vessels kidney

UNIT 4: MEN AND WOMEN


1. Use the words to label the illustrations. Illustration of male reproductive system, clockwise from bottom left: testicles, prostate, penis. Illustration of female reproductive system, clockwise from bottom left: vagina, uterus, ovaries, vulva. 2. Answer the questions. a. What do mens bodies make? They make sperm. b. What do womens bodies make? They make eggs. c. When does fertilisation occur? When a sperm from a man joins an egg from a woman. d. Where does a foetus grow? It grows in the womans uterus. e. What is pregnancy? It is the time a foetus spends in its mothers womb / uterus. f. How long does pregnancy last? It lasts for about nine months. g. When does birth occur? When the baby is completely formed and ready to be born. / Nine months after conception. 3. Complete the sentences. a. At the beginning, foetuses are as small as a grain of sand. b. At three months, foetuses measure about ten centimetres. c. At nine months, babies measure about fifty centimetres. 4. Use these words to label the photographs. a. Many babies get teeth at about six months old. b. They learn to crawl when they are a few months old. c. Many babies learn to walk when they are about 14 months old. d. Some can talk when they are two years old. 5. Complete the table with the names of your family and friends. Open answers.

UNIT 6: THE UNIVERSE


1. Find the names of the planets in the wordsearch. Across: Jupiter, Neptune, Mars Down: Uranus, Earth, Saturn, (Pluto), Venus, Mercury a. What is the order of the planets? Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, (Pluto). b. Which one is no longer considered to be a planet? Pluto.

UNIT 5: LIFE CYCLES


1. Circle the correct option. a. The adult stage is the longest life stage for vertebrates.

c. Which are the four small, rocky planets? Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars. d. Which are the four biggest planets? Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.

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REINFORCEMENT
2. Tick the correct columns. Astronomical bodies
Luminous astronomical bodies stars planets satellites comets Reflect light from the Sun stars planets satellites comets Orbit the Sun Give off light Non-luminous astronomical bodies

2. Identify each material and describe it. Model answers: a. Pyrite is a mineral. It has a regular shape. It is grey and shiny. b. Granite is a rock. It is made up of three different minerals: quartz, feldspar and mica. It is used for building because it is hard and resistant. 3. Answer the questions.

Orbit planets

a. Where can minerals be found? They can be found on their own or they can be part of rocks, animal bones and shells. b. What four characteristics are used to describe minerals? Shape, colour, shiny / dull, hard / soft c. How are minerals useful? Minerals are used to build buildings and to make jewellery. d. How are rocks useful? Rocks are used to build buildings and for fuel. 4. Match the columns. a. The ground is made up of rocks, sand, soil, air, water and humus. b. Humus is the remains of living things. c. Fertile ground has a lot of water, air and humus. d. Poor ground has little water, air and humus. e. Very poor ground is mainly made up of rocks. f. There are three main layers of soil. g. When water cannot filter any further it becomes underground water. h. In deserts, underground water creates an oasis. 5. Draw and label the three main layers of soil. Students draw and label, from top to bottom: top layer, middle layer, bottom layer.

3. Use the words to complete the sentences. a. The Earth rotates on its axis. b. The Earth takes 24 hours to rotate completely. c. On the part of the Earth facing the Sun, it is day. d. On the part of the Earth facing away from the Sun, it is night. e. The Earth orbits the Sun. f. The Earth takes 365 days to complete its orbit. g. The Earths movement around the Sun causes the seasons. h. It is summer on the part of the Earth which receives more sunlight. i. It is winter on the part of the Earth which receives less sunlight. 4. Draw four trees to illustrate the seasons. Label your drawings. Students draw and label their drawings: spring, summer, autumn, winter. In the northern hemisphere, which are the winter months? Part of December, January, February and part of March In the southern hemisphere, which are the summer months? Part of December, January, February and part of March

UNIT 8: ECOSYSTEMS
1. Complete the sentences. a. An ecosystem is a place and the living things that live there. b. In an ecosystem there are living things such as plants and animals. c. There are also non-living things such as soil, rocks and wind. d. Three examples of ecosystems are a forest, a pond and the savannah (model answer). 2. Identify these two ecosystems and complete the sentences. a. Model answer: This is a forest. Many animals can live here, for example, bears, rabbits and squirrels. b. Model answer: This is a savannah. Many animals can live here, for example, zebras, hyenas and lions.

UNIT 7: MINERALS
1. Tick the true sentences. Correct the three false sentences. True sentences: c; d; f. Corrected false sentences: a. Minerals are natural materials and they can be part of rocks. b. Some minerals are regular. e. Rocks are materials made up of minerals.

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REINFORCEMENT
3. Describe a food chain and give an example. A food chain starts with a plant. Next, a herbivore eats the plant. Finally, a carnivore eats the herbivore. Example: grass rabbit eagle; grass / leaves deer wolf. 4. Cross out the odd word. a. tree b. trees c. spiders d. mice savannah bushes worms bushes pond grasses rabbits rabbits forest oasis beetles owls d. Non-luminous bodies produce no light. e. Two non-luminous objects which reflect light are mirrors and the Moon. 5. Complete the text. When I touch a hot object, the heat passes from the hot object to my hand. When I touch a cold object, the heat passes from my hand to the (cold) object. In other words, heat goes from one body to another. Heat flows from an object with a higher temperature to an object with a lower temperature. 6. Label these objects conductors or insulators. a. insulator. b. conductor. c. conductor. d. conductor (but not the handle!). e. insulator. f. insulator.

5. Give examples to complete the table. Open answers. 6. Circle the correct option. a. Seaweed is the most common plant in the sea. b. Fish are the biggest group of invertebrates. c. Seahorses eat seaweed. d. There are three main zones in the sea. e. Whales are omnivorous animals. 7. Draw and label animals and plants to complete the illustration. Open answer. 1. Find the names of 10 materials in the wordsearch and classify them. Across: aluminium, wood, glass, leather, silk Down: plastic, cotton, marble, paper, iron Natural materials: Vegetable origin: wood, cotton

UNIT 10: MATERIALS

UNIT 9: LIGHT
1. Circle the correct option. a. Light moves in a straight line. b. Light moves very fast. c. When light cannot travel through an object, a shadow is formed. d. The shadow of an object is always formed on the opposite side to the source of light. How does light move? Light moves in a straight line and very fast. 2. Colour the rainbow, putting the colours in the correct order. Students colour. Order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. a. How many colours make up white light? Seven. b. What are the primary colours? Red, yellow and blue. c. How do we get orange? We mix red and yellow. d. How do we get purple? We mix red and blue. e. How do we get green? We mix blue and yellow. 3. Match and add an example. a. 2; b. 3; c. 1. Model answers: a card, clear plastic, some windows. 4. Complete the sentences. a. Luminous bodies are sources of light. b. Natural luminous bodies, like stars, produce light. c. Artificial luminous bodies, like candles, are man-made.

Animal origin: leather, silk Mineral origin: marble, iron Artificial materials: aluminium, glass, plastic, paper 2. Match the columns. Then match the photographs. a. 2 e; b. 1 a; c. 5 b; d. 3 d; e. 4 c. 3. Complete the sentences. Then label the photos. If we pull the end of a pulley, the object at the other end goes up. If we push down one end of a lever, the object at the other end goes up. We can slide objects up and down a ramp. Pulley; lever; ramp. 4. Name six complex machines which you use every day. Open answers. 5. Write a description of a machine and describe its functions. Open answer.

UNIT 11: WHERE DO WE LIVE?


1. Match the columns. a. A settlement is a village, town or city. b. A municipality is a settlement and the land around it. c. A region is made up of several municipalities. d. A province is bigger than a region.

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REINFORCEMENT
2. Answer the questions. a. How many Autonomous Communities are there in Spain? There are seventeen. b. How many Autonomous Cities are there? There are two. c. Is Spain one of the largest countries in Europe? Yes, it is. d. Which European countries share frontiers with Spain? France and Portugal share frontiers with Spain. e. Where is Spain situated with respect to Africa? Spain is north of Africa. 3. Look at the map and write about Spain. Model answer: Spain is made up of most of the Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands / Spain is south of France 4. Label the 17 Autonomous Communities. Students label the map.

UNIT 13: GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY


1. Use the words to complete the table.
Municipal Government Mayor Councillors Autonomous Government President and councillors Assembly Spanish State Head of State / King Houses of Parliament President and Ministers

2. Answer the questions. Model answers: a. Do you watch television? Yes, I do. How many hours per week? I watch around ten hours per week. b. Do you use the Internet? Yes, I do. How many hours per week? I use the Internet about fifteen hours per week. c. Which do you prefer television or the Internet? I prefer the Internet. Why? Because there is a lot of variety and I can use it at any time. 3. Find the names of 7 kinds of jobs in the service sector in the wordsearch. Across: education, tourism. Down: defence, commerce, transport, office work, health care. Copy the words from the wordsearch and give examples. Model answers: commerce producers, salespeople, consumers defence education office work tourism transport the army teachers, professors people who work in banks and town halls, secretaries travel agents, people who work in hotels and restaurants taxi drivers, bus drivers, truck drivers

UNIT 12: OCEANS AND CONTINENTS


1. Look at the map and answer the questions. a. How many continents are there? There are six continents. b. Name them: Africa, America, Antarctica, Asia, Europe and Oceania. c. Which is the biggest continent? Asia is the biggest continent. d. Which is the smallest continent? Oceania is the smallest continent. e. Which is the longest continent? America is the longest continent. f. How many oceans are there? There are five oceans. g. Name them: The Antarctic, the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific. h. Which oceans are frozen? The Arctic and the Antarctic are frozen. i. Which continent is frozen? Antarctica is frozen. 2. Label these European countries on the map. Students label the map. Which four of these countries do not belong to the European Union? Iceland, Norway, The Russian Federation and Ukraine. 3. Complete the sentences. a. Europe is connected to Asia. b. Between the Spanish coast and Africa, there are 14 kilometres. c. The landscape of most of Europe is made up of plains. d. The population of Europe is around 730 million people. e. The largest European country is The Russian Federation.

health care doctors, nurses

4. Look at the photograph. What people work in a place like this? Open answer.

UNIT 14: THE ROMANS


1. Tick the true sentences. Correct the false sentences. True sentences: b; c; d; g. Corrected false sentences: a. Much of Europe was part of the Roman Empire. e. Roman roads were very good. f. Aqueducts carried water to the cities. h. The language of the Roman Empire was Latin.

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EXTENSION
2. Find these parts of the castle and write the words in the right place. Students label the castle. 3. Circle the correct alternative. a. After the end of the Roman Empire there were wars in Spain. b. Muslims from North Africa entered Spain. c. These Muslims lived in cities surrounded by walls. d. The Christians lived in the north of Spain. e. Little by little, the Christians conquered all Spain. f. They built cathedrals in the cities and monasteries in the countryside. 4. Answer the questions. a. When was America discovered? More than 500 years ago. b. What new plants did Europeans find in America? They found maize, tomatoes and potatoes. c. What valuable minerals did they find? They found silver and gold. d. Where did European kings and aristocrats live? They lived in palaces. e. At that time, what was life like in the European countryside? It was hard. 5. Name four great inventions from the nineteenth or twentieth centuries. Model answer: Electricity, penicillin, the telephone, the petrol engine. Draw two of these inventions. Students draw two inventions. 2. Circle the foods which have more fibre in them. Food with more fibre: brown rice, beans, lentils, apples, oranges, brown macaroni, wholegrain bread, almonds, pears, peanuts, peas.

UNIT 2: FOOD
1. Answer the questions. a. Why is fibre good for us? It helps the digestive process and prevents heart disease and cancer. b. Where is fibre found? It is found in fruit and vegetables, nuts, seeds and pulses. c. What does the outer layer of a cereal grain contain? It contains fibre, vitamins and minerals. d. When is this outer layer removed? It is removed in the refining process. e. Why are food labels important? They give us important information about the salt, sugar, fat and fibre content in processed food.

UNIT 3: BREATHING
1. Circle the correct alternative. a. Blood carries oxygen to various parts of the body. b. Karl Landsteiner received the Nobel Prize for his discovery. c. Human beings have different blood types. d. There are four basic blood groups. e. Blood groups must be compatible between the patients blood and the donors blood. 2. Match the parts of the body with their function. a. Blood: carries oxygen. b. Heart: pumps blood. c. Arteries: carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. d. Kidneys: clean the blood. e. Bladder: stores urine.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
UNIT 1: ANIMALS AND PLANTS
1. Tick () the true sentences. True sentences: b, d, e. Corrected false sentences: a. Some scientists believe a meteorite hit the Earth and killed off the dinosaurs. c. The meteorite affected the Earth a lot. 2. Match the two halves of each sentence. a. A meteorite (2) crashed into the Earth in Mexico. b. Fires (4) started all over the world. c. Tsunamis (5) occurred in seas and oceans around the world. d. The meteorite (3) caused an impact winter. e. Dust (1) blocked out light and heat from the Sun.

UNIT 4: MEN AND WOMEN


1. Tick () the true sentences. True sentences: a, d, e. Corrected false sentences: b. Alzheimers disease affects old people. c. Alzheimers disease affects the brain, not the body. 2. Circle the correct alternative. a. During pregnancy, the baby gets food and oxygen through the umbilical chord. b. Babies learn how to talk when they are about two years old. c. Human beings reach maturity when they are about 20 years old.

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EXTENSION
d. In old age people have a lot of experience. e. During our youth we continue growing. 2. Circle the correct answer. a. Where are coal and petrol usually found? Underground. b. What is used to extract underground water or petrol? A well.

UNIT 5: LIFE CYCLES


1. Complete the sentences. a. At first, a silkworm larva is about 1cm long. b. Silkworms only eat mulberry leaves. c. It takes the silkworm three days to make its cocoon. d. After three weeks the adult moth emerges from the cocoon. e. Silkworms are kept on farms to produce silk. 2. Match the two halves of each sentence. a. Silkworms are herbivores because (2) they eat mulberry leaves. b. Silkworms are oviparous because (3) they come from eggs. c. Silkworms are invertebrates because (1) they do not have a backbone.

c. What kind of energy is produced by the Sun? Solar.

UNIT 8: ECOSYSTEMS
1. Match the two halves of each sentence. a. The lung of the world (2) provides 20% of the Earths oxygen. b. Medicinal plants (4) are used to make medicines. c. Wood (1) is used to make expensive furniture. d. The cultivation (5) of crops makes money for big companies. e. The natives (3) have to find other homes. 2. Read the definitions and write the name of the animal. a. Whale: the largest mammal that lives in the sea. b. Elephant: a large animal that lives in Africa and has a trunk. c. Zebra: an animal like a horse which has black and white stripes. d. Crocodile: a large, dangerous animal that lives in rivers and has a big mouth and sharp teeth.

UNIT 6: THE UNIVERSE


1. Read the definitions. What are they describing? a. The second month of the year: February. b. The day you are born: your birthday. c. A year with 366 days: a Leap Year.

UNIT 9: LIGHT
1. Tick () the true sentences. Correct the false sentences.

2. Complete the sentences with the following words. a. In the spring, the days begin to get longer and the weather gets warmer. Flowers grow, and it often rains. b. In the summer, the days are long and hot, because the Earth receives more light and heat from the Sun. c. In the autumn, the days get shorter and the leaves go brown and fall from the trees. It can be windy, wet and cold. d. In the winter, it is cold and the days are shorter because the Earth receives less sunlight and heat. In some areas it snows.

True sentences: a, b, d. Corrected false sentence: c. Total solar eclipses occur less than 70 times per century. e. A total solar eclipse is seen by people who are in its path. 2. Circle the correct alternative. a. The Earth is an opaque object. b. Planets are non-luminous bodies. c. Luminous bodies are a source of light. d. The Sun is a natural luminous body.

UNIT 7: MINERALS
1. Answer the questions. a. What are two examples of fossil fuels? Coal and petrol. b. What are fossil fuels used for? They area used for heat, light, industry and transport. c. What is the problem with the gases that they produce? They contaminate the air. d. What are scientists trying to do? They are trying to find other ways of producing energy. e. What kinds of energy are being generated in the photo? Solar energy and wind energy.

UNIT 10: MATERIALS


1. Complete the sentences. a. Egyptians used paper made from the papyrus plant. b. The Chinese used paper in the 2nd century AD. c. Production was introduced into Europe in the 12th century. 2. Choose one of the following words to complete the sentences. a. Paper is a flexible material because it can be folded.

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ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 4 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

EXTENSION
b. Glass is a hard material because it is difficult to scratch. c. Rubber is an elastic material because it can be squashed. d. Concrete is a strong material because it can carry heavy weights. e. Pottery is a fragile material because it can break easily. d. Africa is the hottest continent. e. Oceania is the smallest continent. f. Antarctica is a frozen continent.

UNIT 13: GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY


1. Answer the questions.

UNIT 11: WHERE DO WE LIVE?


1. Answer the questions. a. When was the city founded? It was founded in 25 BC. b. What is it famous for? It is famous for its Roman monuments. c. What takes place there every summer? There is a festival of classical theatre. d. What river goes through this city? The River Guadiana. e. What is the name of the city? Mrida. f. Which Autonomous Community is it in? Extremadura. 2. Match the words and their definitions. a. A place where you can borrow books: (2) library. b. A religious building for Christians: (4) church. c. An area of water: (3) lake. d. A place where people go to look at paintings or old objects: (1) museum. e. A place where people sell fruit, vegetables, fish, meat, etc.: (5) market.

a. When was the Magna Carta written? It was written in 1215. b. Who was the King of England at that time? King John. c. Who had organised the revolt? The barons. d. What did the Magna Carta establish? It established the limits of the Kings power, and it established the peoples rights. e. Why is it important? Because it is considered to be the first signed constitution. Also, it is an important reference in the history of democratic systems of government. 2. Circle the correct alternative. a. Town halls are run by the mayor and councillors. b. The Government is made up of the President and the Ministers. c. The Constitution establishes our rights and duties. d. The press, radio and television are all mass media. e. Doctors, office workers, and teachers work in the service sector.

UNIT 14: THE ROMANS UNIT 12: OCEANS AND CONTINENTS


1. Complete the sentences. a. The Arctic is one of the coldest places on Earth. b. The Arctic is changing because of a rise in the Earths temperature. c. If the sea level rises, many low lying coastal areas will be affected d. Icebergs are floating pieces of ice. e. They can be a danger to ships. 2. Correct these sentences. a. Asia is the biggest continent. b. Europe is connected to Asia. c. America is the longest continent. 1. Tick () the true sentences. True sentences: a, d. Corrected false sentences: b. They built roads all over their Empire. c. The roads were wide enough for travellers to pass each other. e. Roman roads have not disappeared. 2. Write the missing verb. a. The language of the Roman Empire was Latin. b. In Roman times, aqueducts carried water to the cities. c. Muslims from North Africa entered Spain. d. Christian kings and nobles lived in the north. e. Christians built great cathedrals and monasteries.

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 4 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S. L.

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The Reinforcement and Extension Worksheets for Essential Science, Science,Geography and History for Year 4 of Primary Education are a collective work, conceived, designed and created by the Primary Education department at Santillana, under the supervision of Jos Tomas Henao and Javier Prez rubalcaba Contributing author: Jane Kilner Editors: Martin Minchom, Sheila Klaiber Illustrations: Jorge Salas Art Director: Jos Crespo Design coordinator: Rosa Marn Cover design: Martn Len Barreto Artwork coordinator: Carlos Aguilera Coordinator design development: Javier Tejeda Design development: Jos Luis Garca and Ral de Andrs Technical director: Angel Garca Encinar Technical coordinators: Fernando Carmona, Marisa Valbuena Layout: Montytexto, Pedro Valencia Research and photographic selection: Amparo Rodriguez Photographs: A. Guerra; A. Rodrguez; A. Toril; C. Dez Polanco; GARCA-PELAYO/Juancho; J. C. Martnez; J. C. Muoz; J. Jaime; J. V. Resino; L. M. Iglesias; Michele di Piccione; P . Esgueva; S. Caunedo; S. Enrquez; S. Padura; A. G. E. FOTOSTOCK; COMSTOCK; DIGITALVISION; EFE; EFE/AP PHOTO/THE FAYETTEVILLE OBSERVER-TIMES Johnny Horne; HIGHRES PRESS STOCK/ AbleStock.com; I. Preysler; ISTOCKPHOTO; LOBO PRODUCCIONES / C. Sanz; MELBA AGENCY; NASA; PHOTOALTO; PHOTODISC; SEIS X SEIS; STOCK PHOTOS; STOCKBYTE; MATTON-BILD; Samsung; SERIDEC PHOTOIMAGENES CD; THE BRITISH MUSEUM, LONDON; ARCHIVO SANTILLANA

2009 by Santillana Educacin, S. L. / Richmond Publishing Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educacin, S. L. PRINTED IN SPAIN

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