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CROP GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CASTOR CULTIVARS UNDER OPTIMAL AND SUB-OPTIMAL WATER AND NITROGEN CONDITIONS IN TELANGANA

REGION.

C. SUDHA RANI
M . L . (Ag.)

THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE ACHARYA N.G. RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
IN THE FACULTY OF AGRlCULTURE

DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

. G . RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY ACHARYA N


RAIEMIRANACAR HYDERADAD - 500 030

OCTOBER, 2000

CERTIFICATE
Thls is to certify that the thesis entltled "CROP GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CASTOR CULTIVARS UNDER OPTIMAL AND SUBOPTIMAL WATER AND NITROGEN CONDITIONS IN TELANGANA REGION" submitted in partlal fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN AGRICULTURE of the Acharya N.G.Ranga Aaricultural Universltv. Hvderabad. is a record of the bonafide research w6rk carried out by MS:C.SUDHA RANI under my guldance and supervision The subject of the thesis has been approved by the student's Advisory committee. No part of the thesis has been submitted for any other degree or diploma or has been published. The published part has been fully acknowledged. All the assistance and help recelved durlng the course ol lnvestlgations have been duly acknowledged by the author of the thesis

(Dr.B.BUCHA R E D D ~ ~ Chalrman of the Advlsory Comm~ttee Thesis approved by the student's Advisory Committee Cha~rman (Dr.B.BUCHA REDDY) Assoc~ateProfessor Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30 (Dr.MYERS R.J.K.) P r ~ n c l ~Sclentlst al ICRISAT PATANCHERU Hyderabad

f-

,-

!,

Co-Chalrman

Member

(Dr.S.NARSA REDDY) Professor & Head Department of Agronomy College of Agrlculture Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30

Member

(Dr.P.CHANDRASEKHAR RAO) " Associate Professor Department of So11Sclence 8 Agricultural Chemistry College of Agrlculture Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30 (Dr.L.M.RA0) Associate Professor Department of Plant Physloiogy College of Agrlculture Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30

d~
, A

Member

&L%5k /

CG{L~&*

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fl

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CERTIFICATE

Ms.C.SUDHA RANI has satisfactorily prosecuted tlie courso of research a n d that the t h e s ~ sentitled "CROP GROWTH AND

DEVELOPMENT OF CASTOR CULTIVARS UNDER OPTIMAL AND SUBOPTIMAL WATER AND NITROGEN CONDITIONS I N TELANGANA REGION" submitted
IS

the result of original research work arid is ol

sufiic~entlyhigh standard to warrant ~ t s presentation to the cxam~naton.i also certify that the lhes~s or part thereof has not been prev~ously subniitted by him for a degree of any Un~versity.

Date Place iiyderabad

)." <A kk,, (Dr B BUCHA REBDY] Major Advisor


P < c

,A

l'\(;K NO,

EIIcct 111 utllcr regimes. tlllrirgcn leiel\ :III~ CLIIIII:!~\ :ihoie ground dr)rrl~Iicrproduut~c~n d l 105 I I A S l g m ' )

OII

lo1.1I

Intcrdcuon c l l u c ~ \o f ualcr I~~IIIIC\. 111trogc11 Ic\eI\ d11dCUIIIJI\ on toldl .thovc ground dr)rndlter producllon .I( 105 I)AS rg m 'I Intcrdcuon e l l c c l i u l wdlcr r c g ~ ~ n cl * i. ~lr~~g Icbcl\ e n and culll\':ll\
on 10131 above ground drymdttcr producl~i,nnl 105 !)AS ( g 1 1 1'1
I ,

Effect u f uatcr rcglmcs, nltrugcn levcls ~ n culllvur\ d on splke lenglll (ern)

III~III

Inlcrdc~~o cl'fcc~ n 111 \idler rcglillc\. liilrogcll Icvcl\ dnd LU~IIV,II\ on Seed yield ( k g ha ' I

Effect of antcr rcglrne\, 111tropc11 level\ and culil\dr\ y~eld ( k g hd I )

011

51.111,

Effect of I'lunt~ng Jcn\tty castor culttvar C;Cll-4

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and y ~ c l dc i ~ m p o t ~ c n ill l\

i'l11.1hc 111 IIII~II~CII ['pt.~Lc 01

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i'pt~he (11 p l ~ ~ t \ p I ~ h) oru C.I\~OI ~ CUIIIL,I~\ ~/I,I~I/ 1007 1'11tAc (11p l ~ c ~ ? p l ~ oh! r u ca\tot \ CUIII~.II\ L/III~I/ lllOH 1'pt.ik o i llota\l~ hy cd\tor CIIIII\,II\ L/tc~r~ lO / ~j7

l l ~ i t ~ tol'l'otash ic b! ca\tor CLIIII~ ~ r k/rur~/ \ 1908 I<ad~at~oti IIEC elrtclenc)


111

d ~ i l c r c nc l ulll~dr~

Kadlauon usc eiflclency rtl d~llcrcntcullliar\

I<~~IJIIOII uhe eii~clctlcy rll diiicrclit c u l t ~ \ a r \


Kadtatton u\c elilctcnc) ( ~ i d l i i c r c n t cultliars

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7.

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r n c t c e r o l t ~ ~ c dnta n l o f the entire c\pcrilnent;llion Soil m o i ~ t u r d;1l11 r

t~~KNO\~l,Kl~Khll~Y'l
It
I\

hy tile gr.rc ,ind ~IL'S(III~S(11 t11c t ~ l t i ~ ~ g111~11 l ~ t !1 lht\c IXL'II , ~ h l to ~ ' 1)r111g 11110

l1~11t 1111~ l i u ~ i ~ hpc;lcc lc (11 aorL lor \r Ii1cI1 I ,1111 c t c r t ~ , ~111dc0Ied. II~ I ,1111 ~iIc,t\cd111 PI.ICC
ill!

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: I ~ \ I \ ( I.ltld ~ C~I.I~II;II

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:\grtculrurc. K.tlclldr.111~gX1'.Hydcr.lh.td ~ ~ l c l ~ c u l~iL~ II~ o; IrI I C ~ I
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1'111 111.;

Ic;it.t~edcoun\cl.

IIII\IIIII~~~ :Inctllion

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IIIC \\OIL. t~~dehtcd :tnd 1h:111kl11l 1 0 Dr. hlyers H..l.K. I'~IIICIII:I~ I';II.IIIC~~~U
101

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[N~~>.I~,IIIOIIa11d~ r c \ a ~ t ~ of uo Illy t ~IC\C:IICII IIII~III~\.

I ,1111 greatl'ul
:\~KNI(IIII).

ILI

Dr. N U ~ SK U r t l t l j . I<ct~rcd I'rc~le\\~~r .il~dIlcad. I)C~,I~IIIICIII

111

('ollcgc 111 ,2gt1culturc. l < a l c n d t , ~ ~ ~ .1lydct;ihad ~pr lor Ihta .~hlcgu~d,ll~cc .III~

c o ~ ~ i t r u c t \ugfc\tt~111\ ~\c tn the prcpur,lllotl 01 rho15 I an1 th:~nhlul to Dr. P.C. Hao. A i \ ~ r c ~ a rI'tolcs\or, c I)epa~tlllct~l (11 Soil Sclc~lcc und A ~ r ~ c u l t u ('hcm~\lry, r~~l ('111lcgc 111 r\gr~cullurc. Kajelldrall.igar, llyderahad guldallcc
III course
1111

III~

u l rn) \tudy.
10 Dr.

I am ulsu thonklul

1,. M. Kau I)cpart~nc~~t (IS I'lalli I'l~yst~~l~rgy. ('~lllcpc111

Agnculturc. Kqendronngur. Hydcmhnd I l r ht\ kccrl tnterc\r and constant enc~~ur.igcnictil nnd talunblc suggcrtlons ofl'crcd ~hrc~uphoul my re\carch work.

&I! \yc.clal u o r d o l ' t l i ~ n k srn D r . I ) a \ i d Flower. \rho Ihclped nic 111 1111t1dt11ig tI1c
\iork hl) s p c c i ~ ltlianl\ to I'eter C a r h c r r y and .lo1111 I)in~eu\rho .~\rl\tcd 111c 111111y r c \ c . ~ r ~\rc~rk. ,l~

hl) rpcclal \t'ord ol thanks i111df r ~ t ~ t u d to e our dep,~rtnic~it.~I l l c i l ~I)r. l l.111cha1111u


41111 111c11ihcr\111 tlie cricour.!femcllt.
~C~.II.IIIICIII
(11

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101

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h l y thank* 10 N K h l l l unit. Fk:SI1 ~ t n ian(1 l Stulisli~ depar1111c11t ~ I('KISA'I'. I'atancheru f o r the help rendered to
rile

durint: the course o f ni! r e c e ~ l r c work. l~

I~iell.thlc

I\

111) gtilt~tudc

10 III~hclincd

~.II~III\ Sri.

C'. I'ul)unt~u ,111d

Sn~l.I'adnlilvathi u h r ~ pl;t)cd .in ~ ~ l \ t i u l i i e t ~tole t.rl

111 ~

~ i \ t t l l l~ i~ ~gilg li e ~ c111'dcd1~.111011 l to
CXCC~~CI~I

\+OIL. dcIerrilltirlt~oll 111 . I L C ~ I I ~ P ~ I \ ~ I I I I ~ l l i ~ c t i i ~ ~ h I,I\~ l c 011 l1,11id ,111d 1'01 tlictl fu~ddnccI'ro111 ttliic 1 1 1 Illlie
lid\

liclp~d IC

to 111ould lily ~CIIIIIIJIII)

\uttdhly.
III~ \I\IL.Y\

'rl) \pcc~dltll;~nk\ 10 111) hrothcr M r . C. Vinod K u l n n r ilod Xlalleswsari and H e n ~ v a l h lor i thelr cncou~ageliic~lt :111dticedlul

S~~nunda

\U~I~III.~

I1o111 11111e to

t1111c111 dl1 llie t~iattcr\'rly thaik\ to l'a>i and l'rdiju lor thclr c ~ i l c t t , i ~ n ~ i;11te1 i c ~ ~ It IY dall) u o r l . \ r l i ~ c ldlu'dy\ i rnakc nie hrc,~thcca\y A speclal u o r d o l thank5 to rn) heloved l r ~ c l l d r Sunti. S a i I a j ~ .Sunitha. hlanjula. llaritha, Jaya. Valli, Suchi and others. I dIs11 acknowlcdgc my ci~llcaguc\ Vani. Hemalatha. Sailasree dnd other\

M y specla1 thanks to D r . Shiva Shankar and 1 1 1 my c<~lleague\ at Nandyal.

L.i\t hut nut le.i>t. I ili.inh

II~!lo\e. I~I!

Iiushitid hlr. C. Sudliuliur

1 0 1 111,

I'.I~IIIIICS right Il.ollt

IIICC~?~I~III

ol'lhc rcse.t~t~Ii \\otk 10 COIII~ICIIOI~ (11 111esis

A Itcld csper~rtic~tt $ 4 ~ 5 c ~ ~ ~ d ~,tt~ l('l<lS~l'l', ctcd l ' ~ ~ ' l ' ~ ~ N ~ ~ dur~rtg lll~l< A/I<I~I/ ll, \cahut~ o f 1997-98 d i d 1998-9'). tu btudy llic cn,p growth illld ~~VCI~II~IIICI~I nl ci~\lui c u l t ~ \ a r rundcr opt~tiioland , u h ~ ~ ~ p t ~ m uatel a l a ~ i dIinrogcli cund)tlu~i\III I'CIAII~~II,~ rcpli>i<llte ~ ~ ~ \ ~ \ l ! f i ~ i t c&i\ )lt cdtllcd 0111 111 S l ) l ~ l - p l ~dc\lf!l ~t wttli 10 11c~1111ic1iI c<)lrthtn.it~utti c n n i p r ~ \ ~o ~li g l u o w.tlcr rcgtltic\ ll<.t~~ilcd , ~ t i c I ~rrlgdlcd .it If 75 IWi('l'1: rdllcz! c ~ ~ n \ t t l u t ~ tile n g tiuln pl<,t.;. t i w nttrugcti level\ 110 nil 61) kg N ti., I ! :t\s~g~tcd 10 \ u h plots ~ n b du r \artcllcc (Aruno. IX'S-9. < i A I ' ( ' I I - l and ( i ( ' l l - 4 ) III huh-suh p101\ and repl~cdtcd four time\

Ilturitctr~c ~~bscriat~o on n \g r i ~ u t l iatid plty\tr~logtc,L p,~rit~nctcr\, y~cld and y ~ c l d I'lont ~ . h c ~ n ~ c o l dtir~hulcs and I ~ g h tItitcrceptlon were rciordcd hy 'luhc Sol;lrt~nclc~. ~ I I ~ I > \ I&.I\ \ dune to deterntlne the nutrtcnt upt,tlic 011 and pn,tcjr, ~ o t l t c n iwar AISO e*tt~ti.ttod. K r \ u l t \ of tlte In\cstlgntrun ~ n d ~ c a t c11141 d ~ r r ~ g ~ t t JI o t i0.75 IWi('I'F5, rdtlo tncrcd\cd Ihs plant helght 111ca\tor culuvar\ when cotitpdrcd w ~ r h r;l~nlcd \~tu.it~oitI lhc L.AI atid dry maltcr product~onby ~ r r ~ g a t c cd\tor d wo\ s~gn~ltcantly htglier 1Iid11tlic ramled castor I-lower~ng was dclaycd hy 4-5 days under trr~gstcdc o n d ~ l ~ o than t ~ In ratnlcd condlt~on. Longer spikes, ap~kcs p.r plant. capsules per y k e and InaslmurnlfH) seed-wc~ghtuere obtalned from ~rngoted castor than rainfcd one\ ('ompared to rdlnlcd castor. maximum seed and stalk yield and harvest tndcx was ohta~nedundcr ~ r r ~ g d t t r ~ t i Irrigated castor conttnued 11s growth for longer perlod than rolnfed ca\tol. and hcnce lllc groulng crop accumulated more numher of growlng degrec-days undcr Irrigation The maxlmum amount of dry matter was pmt[ioned Into a ~ n k poruon i s p ~ k c ) undcr ~ r r ~ g a t e d

S ~ ~ l p ~ t c J I lcR' 0 l 60 l kg llJ I ~.c\~hL'd Ill IJllct 111;1111\ A1111 gI.C,IICV ICJ~. J1C.l. ;llld dr! III,IIIL'~ ~)~O~UL.II~III 'The I l ~ p l ~ cN \ l Ic\cl ib0 l g 11.1 ' I ~)r~iduccd 101lge1\1)1he\ 111i1rc\ ~ > l c rIwr p1.1111, c.~psulc\ pcr \ p ~ h c,111~1 I.1rgcr \ccd\ >I,I\IIII~IIII r ~ c d .IIIII rl;lIL !iclil\ \\r.tc o h l ~ l n c d 31 60 Lp K 11.1 I~lll>rincd IIIIIU~CII IIU~IIIIUII .I\ , I re*11l1 1)1 11111111,c1 J~~~IC.IIIOII pcr111111cd e\/endcd g ~ o ~ r and l l l l~cllcc11101~ .ICCIIIIIII~,IIIOII 111 &to\\ 1111: ~Icgrccd.~!s. (i('1I-l ~ J \ Cthe 111gI1crseed J I I ~hl3lL !~cld\ CI)III~;I~C~ 10 (i,ll~('ll~l, ll('S-'1 . I I I ~ :\~IIII.I lllgllcr partttlotllllg l e ~ d 10 111g11cr II;II\~SI I I I ~ C X III (i('I1~4 11scr i1111er CIIIII\,II.\ IIIC IIIIU~CIIOII ciic~t due 10 L\,IIL~I IC~IIIIC\~ ~ ~ l t r i l~,\cl\ i ~ c ~,111d ~ CII~II\,II\. \V LC N, ( ' Lv \V. S LC (' III I~IIIIS ol'?~ecd 11cld\VCW IIIIIII~ \I~III~IC.IIII.
IIIO~C

'

l'liu, tlle \ ~ u d )I I I ~ I L . I I ~ ~111c rupclliltn) or


r~111i o\cr ra1111cd cuIIt1~11to11 I'tidcr lllc C!I\IIII~

I~II~JIII 111e I ~ ca\~ot,II

,I~~~I.C/III~.IIIC

COII~III~III

0.75 IW/('l'li 01 I~~,III~,III;I

reg1011 111 :',lld/lrJ I'r;ldc~l~,I ~ I I ~ : I / I ~h;i\ed ~II 1111 lW/('l'l: r,ll~o I\ I C C ~ ~ I I I I I I ~ I I I ~ ~ ~ .\~~IICJIIOII 01. t11lrogcn (il, 01 60 hg N lht 'I' ~ ~ C O I I I I I I ~ I I ~ C/ ~ 112 II,I\'II dlld I ~ I I I J I I I I I ~1 1 ~ 1 1 111 INII c q u ~ \I)III\ l ;11 30 J I I ~ 60 I):4SI 1.01 Ih~plic~ C;I\IOI y~cldb.('III/I~:III~II 111 c;~\lilrWIII i.ull~\.~t\ IIJ~III~ lltfllcr ytcld IIIII~II~I.I/ IILC ( i l ' l l - 4 \\,I\ ICCOIIIIIICII~C~ 101 l~1.tt1g~t1.1 I.~~II)II 01 A11d11ral ' r ~ d c \ l ~ '1'11~ ~,II,I ~ I ~ I I c c I L ,111 ' ~ ~,1\1111 1111,tIly CIIIII~III~L~ \b111i 111cd , ~ ~ a ci~llcclcd h) ~i/licr\. could he tllc h a m 111 de\el111>111g : I c~1\1111\IIIIII~,IIII~II l i i o d ~ l

L I S T OF SYMBOLS A N D A H B H E V I A T I O N S IISEI)
JI

the r'ltc

ill.

degree c e l s ~ u a

critical cl~ffcrcncc
ccnlinletrc ( a ) C'o-cfliclcnt ol \.;lrlalliln d i ~ i~flcr p b0\\111g clcsi slcliien.; per nlctrc clccrr~c,ilcrin<lucl~\~l! ligure yr;iln pcr hectare potahslilin Kili,gr;irn per sqilarc illelre K~lcigr;im n ~ t n i g c nper licclarc Kiliig~ini p l l o s p l l ~ i r per ~ ~ ihccti~rc ~~ K~logr;~r potil\s~tlm n per heccarc Isol'iircu l n d e ~ IlIC'rrU per square rncrre mllllon hectarc rnilli metre nitrogen

P:O:
S.1.d..t ha"

phosph,~rous standard error of ~litfi.rct~cc to1111es per I~cct;~rc Il1e;lII


\Cil

!IS1

Ic\ C I

lit I
['.,\I< 11\11'
I' 0

r ; ~ J ~ a tu ~w o~ c fii i c ~ c ~ l c ) [~hot~)s)ntIicr~c : :~ ~c l lt~ ~r \ ic ~cl~.~tlo~l 'Irb Inattcr per cclit


~ ~ < ) ~ L I C I I ~ I I

X1J

'

g r ~ ~ t iper l s t ~ i c g l<ntlc ;~ \.~turatc<l \:lpour p r c a u r c clclic~t c~~rho~~ii~c~~~clc 1rrig;ltiotl \rater dcpth / c~t~n~tl:tlivc [Tan ev:!poratloll

S\'t'l)
('0:

lb' ' ('1'1.

INTRODUCTION

Ind~d currcittly produccs O X IIIIIIIII~ Irlnnc\ 111 c d w r \ccd dn11u.t11! c ~ ) ~ l t p ~III rcd ~osld C d \ t i ~ r\ccJ producuun (11 1274 rn1111011 tollncs ikAO. 1007). hlldlir;~ I'rddc\li thnld, the preirllcr poaltlon In the country In tc1111\~II drc:i 12.60 I ~ k lh l d ~ hut ,
111

I.III~* .~cct~lld

producuol~(0.9 Iahlt turllle! and tlie pcr heitarc ylcld,

arc I o u 1335 Lp ha ' 1

One

% . I )

111'

*I~n>ul~ltn c:lsror g producuon

I\

h) cxp:ln\lon 01' Ihc drca ~ I I I U ' ~

u h t c h can he ach~evedby ur1l17tngthe genellc d ~ v c r s ~ lw y~lh~ the n crop 1 1 1 111~1way

ca\Ior ~ u l l l \ d r \are hellcr adapted t11 llie rolls .111d CIIIII.IIC% 111 llie

IU~IOII.

It

IS

;11so

1t1ipur1.1111 l o o\crcollle coiiatr.lllltr l o p r o d u c ~ ~ o \\l11cl1 ~ ~ . arc ge1ier.11I) heI~e\ed10 he


\\

.itel d c l l c ~,111d l IIIIIO~~II ~ICI'I~IL'IIC!

II1c \pcclllc ,rlyccu\e\ .llC I '1'0 d e l c r ~ l l ~ l i e tile ICI~III~II\III~~ C I \ +l C ~ gC l l l III~CICCI)IIIIII. II J c \ e l o p ~ i ~ e;111d ~ l t rced ) ~ c l d . lei11
.IIC.I

Tu \ludy llic ellccl (11 \(I\+III~dale\


cultlvars.

1111

~IOUIII

~II LICVCIOI~I~ICIII I~

01 cilltc~r

To u n d e r w n d thc cllccl\ 01 water and 111lri1pc11011 growlh and


productl\lly ul castor ~.uluvarh.

T o quantlfy llic panlllolllrif (11 as\lrnllalc* l o c a W r *ccd\ ~n d ~ l l e ~ c l ~ l c u I t ~ar?. \

(irow~ng castor In suhlnarg~naland niarglnal lands under ralnlcd cond~tlons wllh

practically , I little or no Inputs, use of poor quality of seed etc.. arc \omc o f the r e a m s

IIIC\oII\

IS^

~nb,;ir~.ihlyIOU 111 nltropcrl 'llic c,i\lor rc\p1111d\ well


IIIII~UC~I~II

10

ier1111~cr

apl~l~cdl~o TI~IIICII~OU~ r~, \cope cxlst* lor Illcrcahlng lllc

tl1rot1g11 e l l ~ c i ~ r i l

l o . l ~ l l / c ru\e 01tlierc dryland crop\ I:crtlli/c~ ~ i i d ~ ~ a y c ~11% nc r:ilnlcd ~i\ o~I\ced\a\\ulrlcs spsc1;11 1111porla11i.c w t h 1111pn,vcd \drlctlc\
JII~ d r y i a r n ~ ~ pracllccr l~g

Il\c (11 i c ~ t l l ~ / c r111 s


15

tllcw crop5 under r:1111ied cult~rvat~on 15 very II>U t l ~ i ~ u p lllcrc l~

ar~~[~ rcopc lc lor

Incred,lng producrlon Ilin~uglitllclr use , I l ~ [ ~ l l c a t ~o1 o n~ n d j o r llulrlelits sucl~a\ nllmgctl


W ~ found F

to Incredse tlie riulnber ol cap$ulcs, hcan yield per pldl~l.100 heed-wc~ghtand

pnductiv~ty.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

KEVIE\V OF I.I'TEW,\TI:RF. The purpose of llils chapter


I\

l o leblcw the cx1\11ng L~io\\lcdgcon f n ~ \ r l l i.111d

de~clopinento i castor, and 11s ylcld :~ndyield co~nprincnts.uhh rpcci:ll e~iiph;~s~s ,111 ettcct, 1 1 1 uater and nltrugcn. The ava~lahlc I~tcraturc on "('roll prc~u'lli id dcvclol>~i~cnt o l c.lstor c u l l ~ \ ~ under r\ opt11i11I and suh ~ p t ~ t i~ i~ dll e LIII~ ~ 111troge11 ~OII~IIIOII* Tcl.~~~ga ric , ig ~ o ~arc i " prere~ilcd under the l i ~ l l ~ ~ \uh u~n heads g i II~ devcl<~~)~ 01 ~CJSII~I ~c~it cult~v.~rh 2.1 ( i ~ o \ \ l IJ
III

2.2 I:tlcct

SI~WIII~ ddle* ,111

ca\Iur e u l t ~ v ~ r h

2.3 l!ilcct (11 1lltrogen <III ylcld arid yield ~<IIII~<II~~III\ o i cd\tor c u I t ~ \ . i r ~
2.4 litiect (11 ~ r r ~ g a t 1 ~ 1 1 1 < ylcld i ~ i d~id ylcld COIII~OIICIII~
2.5 I ~ ~ t c r ~ ceffect t~ot1 ~ 1 1 IrrlgatIoI1 and
c~lll\dr\
I~II~II~L.II OII

III c a h t ~ r culuvar~

yield

JII~ yield

~ l l r l h u l c s111 castor

2 6 Nulrlcr~t uptake, 011 aiid p r ~ t c l n cotitc~it


2 7 Effect o f p l ~ n l ~ dcns~ty ng on castor ylelds

CAS'I'OR PRO0L;CrION I N INDIA ('drtor is uldely groun In Indla. [ i ~ n ~ c u l a rIn l y Andhra I'rddcsh, a\ a 111w Input dryldnd crop on poor so~l$. where 11% drought-hardy characters help 11to p r ~ r v ~ d accd\h crop for f m c r s . The major objecuve 1 s to cons~dercastor as 11
IS

grown ~n Andhra

Radesh, w ~ t h growth severely llmlted b y water and nltrogen \upply Its Impononce as an

irrigated. fenlllzed crop In Gujilral i s recognized, and the respons~vcness of ~rnproved and
hadlt~onal castor cult~vars to lmgatlon and added nitrogen IS also rev~ewed.

Based on past .tgrolioliiic, sltc-specllic rtudles, nitri~pcn lcqulleliicnts .ind responsl\,cness to s ~ ~ ~ p l e ~ n e water n t a l h i ~ v cheen estahl~alicd. :~ltllougli ~ i i o \ t 01 tlic p r d u c t l o n conies undcr dryland w~tliout f e l t l l ~ r c r input. ('.lhtor clop
IS

cult~\.itcd

between 4O"S to 52"N and from sea Ic\cl io ?(NU1 111~ h o v c ?e:l I c \ c l ( W ~ I \ \ .10831 It cannot toler.itc frost. ('ahtor rcqilIres

.I 1110der~Ie1y l l ~ g ltcIiIpcrdItIrc i (11?11'1-?6'(' ~1111 IOU


I 0 p~oduccI~I:IXIII~LIIII y ~ c l d \ .111 111d1.1. i t
15

hunlldlt) tlirouphilut tlie grilsvlng ?r.i\oll

I*

usu.~ll) r a ~ \ c d J r.i~lifcdcrop In area? i r l t l i O(XI-O(X) 1 1 1 1 1 1 r.i1111'alI,hut drought rc\lrtJlll a11d an thrlbe \\ell esen the r,l~lilcdca\Ior crop
15

ve~y Iiaidy illid

WII~

500

ii1111

r.~inl'i~ll 11111ld1.1 :III~ l'.~L,~\ta~i. 111llie r,r/,r

gri1\\11In Kl1ar11\c:i\on

.III~ il 1?,1r11:1lly 1r11gatcd crop

seaso~i11li1111ly In (iuj:~r:tt \lille 111Andlir:~I'r;~dc\li 011 red I o i i ~ ~ iJ * .ii11111i1ll o f 5(Xl-600 mnl u ~ l lproduce a good c l o l ~ M~XIIIIUIII lenipcralurc ilnd Castor
111

r,11nf,111 prior to p1.1111111g w ~ l lIOWCI ,011


5011

thebe c ~ r c u ~ i i \ l d ~\owlnf i ~ e \ \1110uld hC delayed ulilll tlie

\*drlilh up.

I\

a crup 111~1 call he c u l t ~ v a ~ e(111 d 111any MIII~ 111cIudiiigs.111dy 1oa11is.


11111.

latcr~tc\. 31lu\1aI. CIC. It u o u l d

howcvcr grow %ell 011 Iica\y clily *o11\ ~part~culdrly


111

whcn tlicy are poorl) dra~ncd.Sal111cboll, arc not \ultahlc for growth

ca\lcrr s111cco

majorlt) n f the cahtor varlctles arc hcllrltlvc to \dl1111ty. On 111051 \011s cil5tur crop respond5 u c l l to fcrtlll~ershccauce of tlic h ~ g i iriutrlcnt rcqulrcnlciit\ during ~ l i c cdrly stager of growth. Wlth producuon o f 1500 k g per hectare u f seed, nutrlcnt removal I\ 45

kg N. I 8 kg I':OJ and 15 k g K i o ha I. The cartr~ryleldr con be ~rnpruvcd con\~derahlyIS


supplcn~enlal ~rrigauon is glven along with the fen~llzcr appl~catlun. Thc j u d l c ~ i ~ u s

application o f fcrt~llrermay Increue yield under Ilmlted resource cond~tlonsM o r c ~ ~ i e r .


%ere we complementwy and supplementary relatlonsh~ps bctwcen lrrlgatlon and .*cntllzer appllcatlon that have a considerable Impact on Ihe y ~ c l dof a crop. ('ompared

~ n 0 ~ 0 8ssal l h pun Jauoqs L ~ ~ m s n l n q

'uu WEJO q ~ d a p cu

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daap

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lsoal

p a l u o l d pass p u n

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plnoqs 110s a q l ,

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I u a u l c a J l lrlsads

InrltluM SJICUIUU~~ paa\ PJISJJBI~

XI~FJJJ pun IUPUOP

IOU

~ J P s p ~ ~ q XLuapOLu q aql

pun \~IIIIPL~ I r m a \ 1 1 1 ~ I I I Jk ~ isuew~np r a n r y 6r1u \ x l a l J r . l auros j o p a x l o l s r . 1

.LIR~J~I ua J I

1481;)~ LII q l n o d

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QUI.(IPA

01 aIP[3l ~~11'isa.x~)ld [ n l u l l l l d o l a < ~ f l .FUP~IO

1!1133d$

10

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IIlOlJ I u P k ! ~~

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10

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IP 1 1 3 1 ~ 1 w~ 8urt[? 1 1 1Y ~ I J X

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ql,niu!)

.III~I~M 4.1p III a ~ n . i ~ x 1 111: 1 ,Lq pa1111xlu1113~r LIII!~\II ~ U \ I I I ~ ~ Ja O p q w >I> I I ~ ~ ,l[a3 ~II

I !1 1 1 a/IY all1 Ill 3~111!1~3 3[<]lFJ242J.ll pill' l l l 2 t l l ~ l l l I ~ !~ \Pi ~ pJtllJ2p \ I 1 ~ 1 ~ llIJ3l 0 1 ~ 3llJ,

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paas YIII~IF

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1 1 1 Jarno(\

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LIUO scq

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StlaJI! pill? Ul '1q8nOJpOl JJUl!lSlSaJ ~ u e l d aql Ul JUlJOJ JOftllu I! '3JnlslOlu [lor Jo a3r111rnpo

ulnmlwnul aqrl 1 1 1Sulln~lauadLldaap uarjo pup paqauclq qanm SI u ~ a l s i s I~KIJ ( ~ r p u o ~ a c

padolanap-llsm a g ~ , . ~ u a l r d d cssal SI ~ t x l ~ d aqi c l pur . p a 1 c 8 1 ~JO 1 p a j u l r l .J.I slualsis

II!JIll,I"

JU Li(l3lJlh 1Blnll11~d 3 1 1 1 15allJl 1{JlqM S I U J I S I ( S

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pllr

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mcrl .~UI.I~MIILI)I! 3lllltl~Jd1ll3l ~jil~ ~IIP q p;XIpaar 1 1 1. ~ ~ n l r ~ M l um la 1 1 l1j o 3 ~ 0 4 1 aJr \lanllJ%

1 1 1 3 J ~ I ! l J l l d ~1 l1 l ) FI?>JJ.' 3 l ~ l P ~ ~ l d 1 1 1lll'lll l 3 1 all,[,

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( l o \ Ml11 PllP 3~11~8131113 01 QUI,+\OS 1 1 1 1 l J J3 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 ISCaJJSP \ ~ l ~ l l ! ~ ~ d 1 1 IIO\ 131 l{fil\{ . a a u ~ d ~ a pin! u ~ auo1lcu1ilua8SIJJ~JI! ~IIV~UIIIOJ pzas 01

pral IIlh\

81113801.I.llI!h\

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iq

p3t10111lJ

\\~[1lfl'dklll1ll'ld J3lJl! ~ F l l lllI!l r i,\I!il~ 'Sllqll~UI 1 1 1 J JJ J ~ S

a,lqI!

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SJIP~~III 1 1 1 J J J.d ( 1

n o l q .~JIIII:J;~~UIJI IIII~I~II~~O I I ! ~IIIII~IIII~I~J~ pcu)J SJJI~SIIJ (ilcnsn luas

lxl [):-';I
LI

J OJ S U F I

aJnlvottl IIOF

.IIOIII!III~LU~~ ~ i u q l l o n JOJ ~ ~ : s s a J ai u l l s i u o u SI . )

JO "nlr~.ldhual

paqpaac

'((~(~1 '~13h\) ~ . I X L I ~ 8;7u1Im1 U s(ilo.mdiq

p a ~ n p ~ puc ~ dpa1cu1~ua8

p3as

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osc

1 1 ! pauqld u a q ~ ,daap tutu ( M I

urq,

pau~!ld asoql ucql

.odsna lo 8111uo111ur:d aql JO ~ucu~uuslap 1u1:uOdul

UP SEM

jvl

.(g%l './n IJ stwoo?): pur: s ~ n l e ~ a d w ~ 1

111rno18 10 1c111uos 111 1q81luns uoyl ~ueuodtut 3JOW x a m ssa~lsJJIEH IPql JlEJl~Ul CIUJOJI~l!,)
UI

P3UICI(IO S3AJn5 qlM0l8


J?lPn

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SI

pUl! q l ~ ( l J 8 IEqI dn lllnq U5X4 Sl?q1IJlJ3p sldulr:


FI

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1 1

U O I ~ E ~ ~ ~ S U JUI CJI

SJnISIOUI

%a111 p a p l n i ~ ~'1q81luns d pa8uolold l q payJaq:, y 01 l r d d r pur:


IIIMOJ!)

IOU

op c a i c y

Jol\r2 111 IIIIISIIC~XJ

\UII~~~AII~J 5111 J A ( ~ P ~ ~ ~ I P I ~ J Uapou I U I a41 IP \a,tcy

allsoddo om1 lo1 ldasra ,niruJallr: am sanrsl , s x p n s Ispun aql uo solan l u s u l ~ u o ~ d pur: s y o l I 1-5 ~ I I M 'alnitlrd ' ~ 2 5 ~ Ls\019 8 ~ l c Pllrnsn p aJr 5aneal a41rl (la\ aqj, plat( \a\canap Lllcnsn Inq . 3 ~ 1 q > l t r~ ~S qP ~ J ~ ~ I I I P 1q31aq m t ~ p aII!? ~ ut~u (H)CJ.(K)( 11: 8111ddii,l, LIIJIII~III ua~a J J O I p ~ t r~
O I J . J~ ~IJ(II~

r a?u~q

Plll! F3lIIJIC.I 10 Jaqlllnu 3111 J5M01 9111 \IllXll!Jq "1 JJM" I l l 1 WUl\ '81111~a,$fi'q ~l!2lll~l~?JUI
~IIP

~10113npo~d ~PI~J~IIILIIII> ~111 a l ~ \ ~ J a l a r J rrqqr~o,\r!~un l~a 111,

VI

YI~I~. 111rliIa11110 JIII

J ~ I

ia,w vnutluoa lcql a ~ ~ t m l i a I :s , d i ~ pa~~a~t1'1q-11111tu ~? r SI 101rr3 . a l r i ~ [ r ~ n ~$11 r t111 ~ LIIJIIIIVII p n h ~III,+\~ J I ~ I X )\I ~ 11 F a.ir11\ ~ ~~II\IJ~IJI*J~!I[~ ?IIII~II~I~W
~ J J I'pltn

I~~~'~JO 111: ~ ~\.I UI ~~t:>ddt: I ;)LII;)~PJ I ~ J I I 2111 qalqn IT! 5p11 54.1. ~ x l iayll l lqdlaq qqt*1alvs11i13 r
111

u!

PII~IF L~pnsri u inq '531% q l t n nolloq s a l u i r q illt:laus3 \>IIJEA ' ~ ~ u c ~ ~ y a s t ' ~ pS>I t :I~ I ~,))
IIIPISISN

IntHp 111 nnls aql, '(pi)(,[

alulu ~

J (1161 P '/I) I , ) JPq)

\sdd~sr,l1~110111q ',~IXJLWU",) s.~.xldoqlral J r l rptss~:l' 01 l u c ~ s ~ s ~JOILI a ~ arc l o c ~ ~ .l( q kern 'i.\t:sll


I , 1111" \JII~IJI',~

p ~ a a111 ! ~ III m u r ~ r a d d r qslnlq r sulsls u ~ a l 8 l o pal sa\tB Il?lqM


S I LlDIS

rIl1n1Iq ill:^

I :

qltn p a . l ~ \ o pur ~ sno~cl8 l 1 1 u ~ n h 'sllulqel8 ~~j 'punill

aql

suu18~1 a~c~xl~ilal aJot[l 111 1tr111slu>l.llnu q 1 1 pallddns ~ ~s1l.q uaqo st s c a r J p i o r ~ u ut q?~q+\ '[Iosqns

tracisp~rallon hetween evaporation and trJnsprrmion. (Rncl~lc ;rnd Horliett. 1071 lid Coopcr ,'I
ill

. I983 I.

TIie ~nllorescenccwh~eliI'or11ir a pr11110rdlalv i l ~ c ~ i l:II\o c k110\\1111s IIC rprkc or candle


15

k l r n tcnlllllull) on 111u111 arid I ~ t c r a hr~11Ch~s. l arid llle riodc


, I vurlctul

dl

UIIIC~ I

~ C l'rrsl

onc orlglllate is but *Incc there

ch.iructerist~c.The 11iI1~ircs~c11ce c.111 reach ; I IeiigIIi (11 IIXI CI I, \ilrr;itloli


111

I, ; I wrde

drsl~rlcc~ I U C C I I Ilower\. yrcld

I& 11111

IICCC\\IIIII~

conelated urlli lcngtli The Ioucr p0rt111n1 1 1 tlic mccrlle hears 111;rlc Ilouer\, the Ilpper fenlille. the riltn) hetwcel~t l i c ~ ~ kr i n g a v a r 1 ~ 1c ~h1a r a c ~ ~ r ~ shut t ~ c 11 , influenced h) cllr~iale l i ~ g ltc~nlx.riltu~c l hvour rnillcnc.;\. lengili ~ ~vicc.\ersu. i d I'ollen
IS
; I \
15

;11s0 str011gIy

dma p1uri1age ilnd \hart day

sllcd rcad~lyhct\rccr~20-20 'I' w1l11a rc1aI1veIIUIIII~I~~ 01


('

60 pcr cent. hul il IemperJture (11 15

delay\ \Iicddrr~gand lower Ic~iipcraturecurl Injure

pollcli gmrli\. I'rolongcd perrods ol Ihrgli Iiolnld~~! dvcr\cly ulloc~p11llc11 grarri\, r111s intcrlerencc ultli nor~iinlpollen productr<~l~ U,I\ yields The loucst fliiwer~ngnccrnc on [lie plilin other tollow~ng In scqucncc up the \tcrii 'There
19
, I

11iaj11rIilctor

I I I ~ ~ U C I I C I I ~ ~tlic

IIIWC~

17

u\u;~lly tlic hrrt to nature, and the

,I d~rllnct vilrratlon rn yreld ol sccd dnd

heir 011 corilcnl helwecn ~~illore\cence, prlrnury raceme\ gcncrally p r ~ d u c ~Ihc ~ig grcatcsl
nuniher arid largest r e e d The l r u ~ t la a glohulx capsule. splny to some degree, whrcli hecomer hard and bnttle *hen r l w . ('ult~vatcdvarlelles known ns thom less have k e n developed and tlic\c often have mdlmentary spines. The capsules contaln three seeds, a flattened oval In sllape with shlny br~ttletests enclosing a white, h ~ g h l yoleag~nouskcrnel. 'There
IS
31\11

difference In rate o f gerrnlnatlon between seed from dlfferenl racemes. the firvt to llower bavlng p a l e r vrabrlity than the t a t . The 100 seed we~ghtmay vary from 10 g to 100 g

but most o f the dwarf internodal vmety average some 30 p.

I I I

gc~lcr;~l, tlie ~ e ~ g lof it

~ n d t v ~ d u seeds al ~ncreasesas the total numher oC seeds produced pcr plant dcclc;lser. However, the increase i n 100 seed-weight does 1101 fully conipclla.itc for tlie decrease numher and total yield
IS
III

less. This applies partlcul~rl) to tlic y e l d oht.~l~led I'ro111


O~~IIIIIUIII

different times of planting. since yield nontlally decreascr ,~ftcr the penod. I f the temperature stays ahove 38C for lnolsture supply
IS 1 1 1 1

SONIII~

cxtc~idedpcr1cK1 or 11 C'ICL'~\ 51\11

ava~lahlc the seed may 1n11to set. 11 needs a hot dry cllnl,ltc lor propel.

development of l i u ~ t sfor harvcsr~tig.H ~ g h tcniperdture (ahovc 35 '('1 ~ 1 1 1lcducc 011


content and protell1 content. Tempcraturc helow IS"(' w ~ lreduce l 011 C O I I ~ ~ I I ~ id :liter tlic

oil chamcter~stic(Veda. 1975). The ~iiostImporlalit reed c~111511luc11t 1 5 tlic o ~ l . i~\ually


hetween 10 and 60 per cent In c o n ~ ~ ~ i e rvarletles. c~al The rad~atlon penetratlan w ~ t h l n tile crop conapy to a Imgcr cxtclit depclids (III tlic extlncuon co-el'flc~entof the crop (Montelth. 1973), A c c o r d ~ ~ to l g (ioudr~dn(10771 t11c fracuon o f r~dlatlonIntercepted by a layer w ~ t l certoln l lcal' area
15

proporln)llal

111

tlic

average projection and ~nversely proportlo~~al to [lie slne o l lltc ~ n c l ~ n a l111 ~o the ~ i~l~eldelll rad~at~on. B~omassaccumulation ol d~l'fcrentspccles growlng In d~l'lerentctivlrollrncnls can be analy~ed In terms o f the amount o f solar rad~at~on ~nterccptcd and 11sel'flc~ency ill use In biomass product~on,termed the rad~atlon-use efficiency (I<IJE) (Monte~th.19771. The RlJE is a measure of the photosy~ithet~c performances of f~cld-growncrop\. I j y comparison w ~ t h baseline values of RUE ohtamed under opr~malgrowth c o t ~ d ~ t ~ o the ~is. can be assessed and the polentlal for extent of envrronmcntal and management ltmitat~ons yield improvement can be determined. The baselme RUE
IS

a key parameter for crop

growth simulatton models. which are powerful 1001s for assesslnp crop perfortt~a~lcc. pan~cularly i n environment where cltmate
IS

varlahle atid r e l r n l ~ l yut~prcd~ctahle. Fur a

g~venspecies. RUE is wldely regarded as a slable quannly ~n the ahsetice of linl~tattons due to water defictts, inadequate nutrition and pests and dtscases (Motl~cltll :III~ lil~t~tt. 1983). I n the ftcld expcrlments Rawson rr (11. (1984) recorded LA1 values Ix.t\rccll 3 ;III~

4 for maxlmum light Interceptton.


On vertisols of pentnsular Indla. Slva Kumar 211dVlrliian~(1984) ohherbed III:II photosynthetically active radlatlon (PAR) interceplton
111

the sole p~pconpc:~ crop sl~owcd

low values up to shout 70 days alter plant~ng,where I r ~ arcit l ~ndcx(1.A1) was o111y abour 0.9. Intercept~on ~ncrcared up to 93 per cent with the \tc.ldy Incrc.i\e In l.Al uli about 130 days, after whtch lncreastnp leaf senescence contributed 11) d \!eddy dccrc,l\c Hughes rr u1 (1987) observed a Itnear reliltlonship hctwcct~the ~ i i a x t ~ na1itoullt u~i~
III

01' b~om,~ss ~ccumulatlunby p~geotipeaand the atliount of solar rodlattrln ~rltcrccplcdh)


the l'oliage during crop growth. Moisture strcsr adkcrrely al'kctcd radl~ttoti Interceptton. photusynthct~ceffictency and harvest tndex. In Northern Austral~a. Muchow dnd I)av~h (1988) studled the intluencc of nitrogen on rad~;~tlon Intcrceptton and htonlo~s accumulated (RUE) by sorghum and malze under ~rngntcd cond~t~ons. It was ohserved thdt RLiE was more responsive to nttrogen supply than radlatton tntcrcepllon. Rllh ~ncreased with htgher rate of applied nltrogen (0 to 50 g nl 'j, max~murn KlJE was grcalcr In matze than In sorghum and RUE dcclined morc durlng grun filling In mawc thao in the sorghum crop. It was concluded that RUE, may not be stahlc across cnvtronmcnlr as 11was prev~ouslythought, but
I I rather

depended on the balance o f leaf gowth, n~lrogcn

uptake awl allocation to leaves and nitrogen mob~l~zation from leaves to graln. Muchow

rr ai. (1990) reported that leaf area developlnent as ~ntluencrdhy anih~e~it teliipcrature

determines the L A 1 of the crop and also the proportion of the ~ ~ i c ~ d rddldllon elit tll;~t W;IS intercepted. The higher light interception represents the pool. i r : ~ ~ i s ~ n i ~ ~ ol'tlic ; ~ n c llglit r to the lower canopy i n turn dec~desthe efhc~ent utlliwtlon ol' llglit 1)r pl~o~osylithc*lr (Arjunan ei a/., 1992). Steer er
dl.

(1993) observed that the LA1 per ddy was lllc l u ~ i u t ~ o i i

of number of leaves produced and the rate and durat101101' eilch Ie;iI'. TIic 111gI1crl~glit interception represents the poor transniittsnce of I ~ g h to t the lower canopy and
I I

will i n

o f l ~ g h For t photosy~~tlies~s. I ) u r ~ t ~ ool l i s u t ~ s l i ~and ~lc turn decides the efficient ut~llzation l~~cldence o f solar radiation have dlrect bearing on the growtli and dcvclop~iic~it crpcclally on the photosyntlietlc actlvlty o f the pldnt. At. Hlsar, mustard grown durlng the post-ra111y croppl~ig scdsol~ploduccd dry mauer whlcli was I~nrarly related to the nmuullt of r111;lr r ~ d ~ a l l~~ltcrccptcd ol~ hy clop canopy (Raj Slngli 6.r ol.. 1993). Tlie arerage baluc of rad~iltlon use c l f ~ c ~ c ~ti~ cty ' h ~ rttll~ lc cultlv;~rswas 3.15 ? 0.30 gMJ of ahsorbed I'AK. C'umulot~vcdry ~ i i ~ t rproduct~on cr 01 crops supplied with adequate moisture and nutrlents has heell s l i o x ~111 l he ll~icarly relutcd to cumulat~ve intercepted PAR lGallagiier and Blscoe (1978). and (iossec
cl

'

oi..i 1986):

Hamdl rr ui. (1987)l. Varlabillty i n R[JE was explained i n terliis of both physlcal parameters ilke temperature (Hammer and Vandcrllp. 1989) satcr stress (Ong & Montelth. 1985) and b~ologlcal factors l ~ k e plant phcnology (Splltcrs 19W; (ilaul'frcl
al., 1991), C 0 2exchange rate and leaf nitrogen content (Slnclair & Horle. 1989).
c.1

The

RUE o f castor, worked out for different dates oC sow~ngIn d ~ l k r e n tycars

ranged from 0.77 to 1.0 (Vijaya Kumar et ul.,1997). It 1s lower than that of sorghum

(2.74 g M I " ) reponed by Slva Kumar and Huda (1985). Malze (3.8 g MJ I) reponcd hy

Siva K u m m and Virrnanl (19841. peml millet (1.5 l o 1.7 g M J '1 reported by M a r s l l ~ lolld l Wllley (1983). Squlre et ol. (1984) and Azam All er
111..

(1984) and Ii~glier tha11ch~ckpea

(0.55 to 0.67 g MJ") reported by Singh and Sn Rani2 ( 1989).


According to Vijaya Kumm el ol. (19971 RI'E ni;ly vary I'rolii )car
11,

ys:ir ;111d

also were ~ntluenced by the planting dotes. V a r ~ a t ~ ~I iII r i ROE s rongcd Ircnn 0.70 10 1.10 g

M J " . T \~ariabillry ~~ 111RLiE before and after Ilowcr 1n1112t1oli uerc q u ~ t e C1111t13StIllg. 'I.I~c.
\,ar~nh~lity In R U E was associated with saturntcd vapour prcssurc dcflclt iS\'lll)), drtn~plit indcx. temperature and wlnd veloc~ty.ROE was related positively w ~ t l SVI'I) i and w111d veloc~ty and negat~vely with drought ~lidex dnd telnpcraturc Weather parameters lnd~vldually ~nlluencc thc p11ys1c;ll ,111d p I i y \ ~ ~ l o g ~ c : ~ I processes o f the crups. With Increase 111teniperaturc, du~;~tiri~i of c,i~iopy dcc~co\c.aging of leaves is faster. senescence WIII be more and dry 1n;lttcr ; s c u ~ ~ i u l : ~w ~ ~ lohe l n Ic\s 'l'llc saturotlon vapour pressure dcflclt affects growth by ,ill'cct~ng tile rate ill Ic.11 cxpanrloli. leaf conductance and rate of p l n ~ t ~ s y n t h c s1)rtiugIit ~\. htresa c~ilio~icc\ scnc\ccncc :~nd reduces dry matter accumulat~on.Wlrid veloc~tylricrcascs hounddry layer cu~~ducloncc. transp~rat~on rate, fac~lltatesbetter supply of ('0: and Increases the ratc 01 photosy~ithc\~\ and decreases the canopy temperature and alters the encrgy hudgct of tlic Ieaf.IWe~\s. 1983) From t h ~ swe can conclude that in sole cropping system, w ~ t hIncrease
III

l.Al

there will be proporllonal Increase In PAR Inlerccptlon. With the increase In sencsccncc o f leaves there w11l be decrease In PAR Interception. Molsture stress adversely affected radiation interception, photosynthetic efficiency and harvcst indcx. KlJE Increases with nitrogen application. RUE Increases with crop growth and decreases w ~ t h gram fllllng

phase. The relntlve d~fference in

RLIE Increased wltll crop dcvalopn~cnth e t ~ c c 111tr0gct1 t~

applled plots and without tlltrogen applied plots. Furthe1 rlierc 1 s rcl;lti\cly little ~nforrnat~on available on LAI. dry molter productton, partitioning ;lnd IllIt;. o l ~ d t op11111.il r (~rngated) and sub-optimal (m1nI't.d) water a11d nltrogell coi~dltion.

1.2 EFFECT OFSOWING DATES ON CASTOK ClII~I'IVAKS

Yield potellrial of a crop call

he

explored hy tlic use (11

;~~~<III(I~IIIC

I~C~IIII~LIC\.

Among the ngrono~nictrclinique\. tiilie 01' sowiiig is

,111 II~I~O~I~IIIII~~~I-II~OIICIO~~ 1111>111.

Whet1 sowlng date vanatlons are used, effect\ ol' day Icl~gth :!lid ICIII~CI:IIU~L'~ ~nfluencegrowth. yleld and quality. ('a'itor
I I I

IIIIC~.ICI

to
; I [

dry liilld\ 01' At~dllrdI1r;ldcl;ll 1 s \o\cil


UIICCI~~~III

tlrnes early with the otlsc~of niotlboon or I,~tc due ro

r . l ~ i ~ I ~SOUIII~ lll. IIIIIC

e;111

play dn iinportant role In h~ilirting the yields. \rltli cl'liciclit Iu\e 01 d\.~il,~hlc rcrouiccs In North Edst Indla, Turkhede
(,I

rri., II'IX?) cir~iduclcd a 1 1 1 ~ 1 1 oil llic p c ~ l ~ ~ r i i i i ~ i ~ c c

of threc castor cult~vdr\(Aruna. (i('I1-3 and local) uridcl lour date\ ol'sowing at r~~ontlily interhals stortlng fro111 end July. Thc ddrej of \ceding Iiad
. I

prolliund

III~~UCIICC 011

the
(11.

seed yleld. The hest yieldr ucre recurded when the crop u a i \ow11 ill tlic el14 of July cnd of August. The yield dropped frorn 1900 kg ha in July or Auguht rtiwillg

'

10

700 kg

ha uhen sown at the end of September. End Octriher $own crop lallcd ti1 prtiducc any seed. This decrease In the ylcld~ngability of the plant was due to a reduction i n plant height. the length of panicle and a large proponion 1 1 1 unfilled capsules The cnip rown 10 end October flowered In late December and the flowers werc killed duc 1 1 1 III~ temperature in December and January. Though seedlng later than the end of Auguht. usuall) reduced seed y~eld,there are examples of dtffcrent reaction of the varlctleb 10

seedtng dates. The two varieties GCH-3 and Aruna were adversely at'fected hy delayed sowing beyond August. Ganga Swan and Gqendra Girt (1987) conducted a stud) at II~~LIII ~\gri~uIt~tr.tI Research ltistitute (IARI), New D e l h ~and reported ~ l i otie ~ t t~~utlt dclily li ill s o \ ~ ~ iof ig G A U C H - I (10' Apnl) resulted In 5 8 4 more leal' dry niattcr atid 67'X niorc \rllolc lplulht dry mntter to that of crop sown on ahillty o f the castor appeared to

loth arch. They

also \fated 1 1 1 . 1 1 grout11 :111dyicldiiig


$11

bc condittoned by tlic teiilpcrJturc\ ~ p r c \ . i t l ~not ~~g only


11111

the tlliie of suwing but also a1 various plienologtc~lstage\. 111su~ntiiersc.isoti

,111~1

desiccating wtnds adversely af'l'ected flower S~~~III/;IIIOII ~ i i d ~C~CIOI~IIICIII 01 \eed .~s


would bt. evtdent rrotii the reduced bced sire and capsule\ per \pthc. Sccd y~clds 01 cdstor were htgher 111 1 0 ' ~arch sow~ng (1066 kg ha
I)

wlielt c[~iiipdrcd w ~ t l ilo"' Apt11 VIIWIII~

(733 kg h a t ) . Increased dry molter per Ical or plat~tdoc!, tiot aceti1 to d ~ i c t ltlnlrc photosynthates for more production In tlic hot atid desicc~ttngc t ~ b ~ r o t ~ t ~01 icn *utlitiier t scdson with t ~ i a x i n ~temperature ui~~ rangltlg between 40 atld 45"(' 111the late sowti crops. Ankineedu el ul., (1975) observed that under ra~tit'ed condltlotts delay In sow111g of Aruna varlety from June to September In T e l a n g u i ~ regtoti of ,2ndhru I'radesh rcsultr 111 progressive reduction In yteld. The reduct~onIn seed ylcld ranged lrotn I I '/r (July plant~ng) to 74 % (September planting) cornpared w ~ t h Jutic plant~ng.C r l y planted crop (June planttng) was able to complete flowertng up to the tonh order sptke 1.e hefore the end of October and was able to elevate and stahtltu: yields, lnsptte of unccrlaln weather cond~tions and fluctuat~ngratns, delay in sowlng w ~ l laffect even the llowering r i l pnmanes and secondaries and will result i n drastic reductton In ylcld. The proporuon 01 female to male flowers (sen ratlo) 1 s tnfluenced by envlronmcnt. Temperature of 31-32C'

will promote Interspersed male flowers w h ~ l elower ordcr tctnlwrature resol[ ~n h l l y


female racemes. However studies on sowlng d u t o orid IU W I ! scanty. In Telangana reglon of Andhra I'radesh castor yleld stahll~t)o\er
I ~ ~ CC L I I \ C,I

rclc.~sed liyhrldS Jre vety

bc

judged from [he fact that the yleld of this crop uas tiot 1ilucl1 ;~llcctcdhy

V.I~I,I~ICII~~ 111

ralnfoll i n d~fferentyears. For the besl results the crop should he sou11not lotcr

i l i ~ t 1/15 i

end of August. B y delayed seed~ng the flouerllig or capsule dcvclopt~ic~~t pcrlod coinctdes with the relallvely low lemperaturo of Novclnbcr atid I ) e c e ~ i i k r1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 wlltcli adveraely affecr fertlltratlon (Juang. 1975). In Pulcm Telangana regloti ol Andhra prddcsh. 14.1h) ALula a~td14.11" Kcdlly

(1998) studled the efiect of dates o f so\wng on ylcld ol'ca\t~~t cult~ra~ (i('t1-4. \ K~,IIIIIII. DCS-9 and Aruna d u r ~ n gkliarll' aeasoli on mcdlu~iiicrtllc ha~id) \oII\ .itid ~ i h s c r ~ e d hlghest ylelds durtng 1 5 June ~ aowiiig. I t uas ohserved tliiit w ~ t l dcli~) i 111*LIYIII~. I11e p r r ~ o dof molsturc ovallah~llty will hc reduccd resull~ng ~n \Iiorlcti~ng 1 1 1 vcptallve perlod, ultimately reducing the yield. Moshk~ti(1986) lhas reported sltiillar Ilndlngc. Sowlng on 1 8 ' ~ August gave h~gheryteld over 3(fh July rowtlig. llcovy rollis occurred durtng the month of October (180.3 m m i coupled w ~ l l ihlgh rclatlvc liulntd~tywh~cli caused severe ~nc~dence o f Botrytls grey rot ~n 30Ih JUI)
sowing,

co~nc~d~ wlth n g thc

development of prtmary sptkes and also format~on of secondary sp~kcs, ullimately resulted i n lower y~elds.In 1 8 ' ~ August soulng, though prlmary sp~keswerc affected, of castor wlth I5lh June secondary splkes escaped Uotrytls ~nctdmce.The hlghcr y~elds 1 1 sowing can be attr~butedto more lengthy pnmary rplkes and also fuvnrahlc female 1 male flower ratlo ~npnmary sprke, probahly due to favornble sot1 molsture rcglme durlng

entlre growth penod caused by the mlnfall rucetvcd during the succeed~~lp 1111111tI1 (i('ll-4 gave sign~ficantly higher yteld (1600 Lg h a 1 ) cotilpared to other i.ultiv;~rs under lest.

IICS-9 and Aruna were at par. Priliiary spike lengtli. numher of capsules per spiLt ,111d
test weight o f GCH-4 cotitr~hutcd to perccpt~ble Increase In ) ~ c l d ' ~ h u s11 c.111 k ~nd~cated that sowlng castor dur~ngflrsr ti)rtnipht of June undct r n ~ n k d cond~tio~is. Increased the y ~ e l d since the crop had favorable r:~lnl':ill dur~ng cmlrc gro\\th p t ~ l i i d . V~jayn Kutnar (,r ol.. (1997)
I I I

Telangana refloll ol Andhrn I'roduali ~ c l i o ~ t e III:II d

high castor hean yield can he ach~cved hy planting thc crop 011 ,111 early d.ite 1.c In Jullc. and that delay In plaiit~ng hy three wccks FI~~II'IC~II~IY reduced the ylcld. 'l'lic ctid 111 July plant~ngresulted
III

a niucli reduced castor

y~cld due

111 h ~ a t ~ \Ire\\ c I

c Ilolryt~r

lnould and moisture stress. The entical fnctor appeared to he a r.~lnlcc\ p c l l ~ ~ hi!. d month durtng the acllvc Ilower~ngstdge. [)ale of srrw~nf :il\o ~lilluencc\ Ilie y ~ e l d components. The percentage contrlhution of d~fl'ercnt sp~hr order\ (prllli:lry splhc. secondary splhe and tertiary sp~ke) duffer\ w ~ l l dll'fcrci~t i dates o f plunt~ng.'l'llc niimturc ddequacy index
IS

the ratlo ol' the actual

111

potcril~alcvnpatran\plratl1rli. 'rlic \lud~c\

revealed that primary sptkea are n~ostly ~nllue~iced hy photopcnod 161 '%3rd to a lcsrcr extent by moisture adequacy index (39
Ok).

Secondary spikes were ~nalrlly~ ~ i l l u c ~ i c by ed


111

lnolsture adequacy Index (83 %#)whereas tenlary splkes were lnot found

hc ~nllucriccd

independently by any ~ e a t h e paramelcr r hut were lnverscly ~nflucnccdhy the Interacllon


of molsture adequacy lndex and degree days. The tilolsture adequacy Index l63'X 1 and degreedays ( 3 7 6 ) dunng the total reproduction period pos~t~vely ~nflucnccdtotal hcan yield ( ~ n ~ t i a t ~ oo f primary n sptke to matunty o f t e n q spikes).

Subba Reddy er

111.

(1996) reported that t ~ n l c l ysuwlllp 1 s a cr~t~cd factor l In

stepping up the seed yields o f castor i n ramfed e11\1m11111ent. Sow111g o f castor In f;lr111cri field I n second fontllght of June gave on on averdge hedn ylcld of 672 kg h : ~ ovcr the years. While castors sown I n first and secolld l o r l n ~ g lof ~~ July ;IIIJ II~SI fo11111gll1 01

'

August recorded 9, 30 and 40 per cent reduction 111hc;ln ylcld 111.111IIIC \CCLIII~ 111r1111g111 o f June. Thus. castor can k sown I n the lormer field up to I'lr\t k)rtn~ght 01 July. li.~rly sowlnf o f castor was found advantageous
III

the years 01 nur111.ll ~ I S ~ ~ I ~ U I I I I I01 I

1,11111.111

dnd also In case o f early w~thdrawl o f monsoon. From the obove Iltcraturc

wds learnt Illat June

SOWII

cr<~p ~ccordcdI11phcst

y~eldsfollowed by July 2nd then by Septelnhcr s o % l n p 111'I~~,III~,III~ reg1011 01 A11~lhi.1 Pradcsh. 111khorifseason, delay I n s o w l ~ l g reduces tile heall ylcld due to r c d u ~ c dw ; ~ l u ~ availah~llty For ra~nfedcastor Jurle
sowing? IS

Ihc k \ t lor 111ghcrylclds hcc.lu\c

111

Ih\'ourohie so11 molsture d u r ~ n g entlre crop growth. July plantl~lg rcportcd tl1;11 lcduccd yields due to Botrytls nlould and also r a ~ l ~ l cpcrlod \\ Jurlllg I l r ~ w e r ~ l i In g N l ~ r t I:.l\t l~ lnd~a March sowlngs are bctter than A p r ~ \owing!, l because Ihc hul and dcslccal~l~g wlndh adversely affected flower fcntllrat~un2nd develnprnent o f heed. 1,iltlc ~ n l u r ~ n a l lI* o~~

available on the p e r f o r n ~ a ~ ~ of ce d~fferentculuvors((i('ll-4. IX'S-0. Arund and ( i A l : ( ' I l ~


I)on very early sowlngs such as January. Aprll and very late ~ o w ~ n p juch s a\ N ~ r v e ~ i ~ h c r
sowlngs.

2.3 EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS


Response o f castor to nltrogen appllcat~on In the seedbed or as top-drcsr~ng, tend\ to be erratic, and y ~ e l d increases are frequently more due to the varlety \clcctcd and
$011

type rather than the f e n ~ l ~ z e Irt. was noted that the appl~cal~on o f nllrogen promoted the

development of male flowers without however causing a reduction In fetiiale llowers, slid that there was a great improvenlent In seed yields. Trnils 011 fort) c u l t i v ~ rplots
111

Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh, showed good responses to nltropsli 111 the preacilcc of phosphate and potash. The cornblnatlon N:a. PIO. KIII gave the higlicst ylclds. r~nglrig from 361 to 604 k g seed per hectare (Giroti. 196.1). Sarma (1985) conducted a study at Rqendrnliagar. Alldhrn I'radcali illld st;itcd tllt~t highest seed yleld of 1500 kg h i 1 was recorded wltll (;All(.tl-l h~gher than Aruria (13.69 S'r) and Dlingya (24.98 1,). wlilch was \I~III~ICJIII~~

According to Anlineedu er ul. (1975) the mean ylcld d ~ t tlcroas :~ loc~t~~ ,111d iis
seasons indicated that highest hat1 yleld ( I 4 0 0 Lg 1x1'I Juc
1 1 ,

(ii\ll('ll-l l i ~ l l o a e d hy

the variety Aruna with regard to nltrogea appl~cdt~on. 'The respoilfs a;hs ~ihtalt~ed up to XI1 kg N h i 1 and i t should he applled either as b a d or 40 Lg N as h;lsdl 411dequal ;ii~lou~it top dressed at 25 and 45 days after sowing depending on the a v a ~ l ~ h ~ o lf ~ + toy~niol\turc. I Appllcatron o f 40 kg N ha In s p l ~ dose t recorded slgn~flcantlyl ~ ~ g l l c yields r (25 10 75
'%) In Telangana reglon of Andhra Pradcsh (Sarnla 19XS).Spl1la p p l i c ~ t ~ o 01n 40 kg Nlia

in equal splits at Fowtng and 25 DAS proved c l l c t ~ v c iii Incre&siiig the yrcld ol'castor at the same level o f its appl~catlon as hasal dose. Top drcsslng of urea at 30 to 60 days after sowlng @ 20 kg N ha I alnr~gw1t11 basal (10-30-0-NPK kg ha ' ) as cntlcal Input recorded an add~t~onal average seed yleld of castor by, 170 K g h i ' compared to the normal practice adopted by the fdrmcrs (avcrage o f 5 years). Addltlonal application of 40 kg N ha I gave increased hean ylelds of castor hy I W kg In 1992 and 360 kg i n 1993. Castor w ~ t h 50-30-0 NPK kg ha gave hlgher seed

yields under rainfed cond~t~ons i n favornble cnvlronmenl


clusterbean (Venkateswmlu and Reddy, 1989).

111 sole

~11d ~nter crnppllig w11l1

Ganga Saran and Gajendra G l r ~ (1987) conducled a study on s;lndy Ion111 F~IIIS OI IARI. New Delhi and stated that applical~onot 50 kg N ha 111crc.lsed 5p1hc Iclig~ll.

capsules per spike and 100 seed we~phtover no nltropn applicatloll In ( i ~ \ l l ( ' H - l cult~var. Madhusudana Rao and Venkateswarlu (19x8) co~iducted J trlal ;it Kajc~idr:l~i:~g;~r. Andhra Pradesh and reported that the tolal beall yleld ~ricrcascd u l t h incrc.r~c III N lcvcl up to 60 kg N ha Lleyond this level tlie yield Ilicre:isc w;is ol I c s ~ ~ r i i ; ~ g ~ i ~ l Tlic u d c I:IA
111

of adequate response to N npplicatlon m ~ g l ihe l due lo ~iicdium level the soll.

tlrg.llilc 111;hlcrIII

The average castor hcan ylcld could hc ~ncrcnscd1ro1ii 100 to 700 Irg lia

hy

~dopting h~gh-level ma~iagcment auch as ~ p p l l c a t i o01 ~ i opllrnuni dme ol I c r t ~ l ~(50 ~cr kg N +30 kg P?Os ha '1 and lmproved wccd managc~iie~il (Iliur 1111icz hlddc I)n~r<iwlng and two tlmes hand wecdlng) and pcbl rnanagcmclit 111 Ilydcrah;~d. 1\11dIir:1 I'r;tdc.;h (Vlshnurnurthy. 1998). Patel ur 01. (1991) conducted a sludy and reponcd that appllcat~oli 01'7.5 kg N 113

'

In three splits (50% as hasal the rema~ning50%) In two equal splits at 40 and 70 I)ASJ gave the highest seed yleld of 2440 kg ha I, but was on par wlth trcatmcnts NIIX) (4 equal splits). N73 (4 equal splits) and N,$ (2 equal spl~ts).The Increase In aced yleld may k attributed to greater length of maln sp~ke and number of effective sp~kus per plant. 'Thrcc or four imgauon I n the post-ra~ny season durlng crop growlng per~od i\ requlred In welldrained soils of North Gujarat. Urea bang h~ghly soluble and rapldly leachahlc, hence 3

O ~ Z I) S

~ J P ~ pplalh ~ R

paas ~aq81q ~IIUBJIJIU~IS pamoqs ~ 4 3 '[ 9 OJIUOJ pazll!uajun


SCM

~IIM

padnduos u~llcsl[ddl:lJzqluaj hq pa,!lou .lualuo>


110

% i.1 dq pla!h paas JaqiIlq ~~IUE~~IU%IS

pu1!1q31am pms-001 aql lsqjl:

IOU

PIP Jaq!uaJ JO uo!~l:~l[dda'JanamoH


I?IPJOUIIJ~

.lulllav paas palclnwlls puc qlmold a n l l ~ n p ~ d S I !a ~JOJ

JO UOII~LUOJ

U!

padlaq a ~ c q 1 ~ 1 8 dllJ3 1 ~ J ~ (11 I JJ./II!~JJ JO UOIIEJ!~~~: dl~ca 'sn~oqdsoqd UI mnlpau pu: N


Ul

~ood srm IlOS

SV 'dlnf1O lq8lUl~0J ,Z 8UlJnp UMOS UaqM lOJlUOJ paZ!lllJaJU"IlM

pa~PdUl(l3 11133 lad Z I dq plalk psJS J5q81q b l ~ u c s ~ j l u S 3~ s~ I l~ !q Qc,I 8 87 Z Z P U T l!4 N l q LL 10 u o l l n ~ ~ l d d 1~111 r pa~c~ puc s ucqlscl~ UI~lnul c palsnpuos ( g j 6 1 ) 1" U~BOJII~I ou uoql
3JOlll

x,

5;

W M 11

P U M U 3~ 09 "1 dll L""JUIIU

Ul

5SPJJSlII 4llM PJSEaJJUI r ( ~ l ~ l ! J l j ! ~ 8 1 ~


JO S V : I S

lul!ld ~ a r sa~nsdc:, l JII Jaqtunu 241 11x11 p a ~ w s n y d a q '1~0s ~ aql alip


3q

N umpatu 01

1qi71u1 ~l~llt,~lld 113ii0lllll dr 01 J S U O ~ S J J J)Pnhapc JO q5CI aqJ 'IOJlUOs lano lol~sdns


J B UO ~

L~ILII'>~ILI~I\ aJ?M Cq N 8~ I)() PUP 09 ,h1~0PUP lJqlO 4505 q11M

01 pUn0j

a,"+\I'LI d y 00

'01)

'00v ~ a , q IK~~OJIIII lnq la4al N

UI

ascaJJu! ~II,+\pasasmu! sa!la!Jc,< puv ~ w n y Lcl~i\


I ~ I01

.lol*.ra j o p ~ a l ur?q i IWOI as1 pawls ( 3 6 1 I ~ q u c q '"4s ~

. ~ t n ~ l ~ l : l n d l ~IILIOU)J~I! r~ru 01 anp oslc pur JarswrLlqE1qJw J

anp q p p o 3

m s u ~ ~ j l "11.1 l p '~!i~n.~bj LII III!~I LI~IJ~!~, rL81*qc[ 111papJosaJ s i r p Z.P Lq SUIJ~,~OU Llmg (I](,OI '.~:y.""qt[
JI'LLII~

rirllh)

L I S J P C J ~ C J ~ P L U! I ~ LI~~OJIIU ou

iiq palsajjrun srm Inq

' ~ ~ J ~ o111 J I ~ ~ ~

121a11ssqW111 2~11 ~rsi1:p 6 01 i Lq paLrlap


UI

SCM saliamn J O I S C ~ JO 8uuamou

!;OF 01 s i r ( l .nln~ulldo aq 01 ps~caddr:slllds aaiql


'II'SI:~

I.rq N Sy SL JO uo!~:s![dd':

snql

\r asop IInJ ~ 3 4 0 snoa8rlu1:hpr punoj scm s111ds [cnbs aaJql u! uo!lss!lddt! ualolllu
o\lV(L'660 1:1pt~qp0fl p o w ~ y n q ~ a.losag w sc riN Jaho plalL 1aq81q
8%

ll:lll P"\J"w

tl't-Ipll" cl + '/I '!N Jaho p l a l i JXISI~ y , 91.1 anr8 (r/,+r/,t Iz l SLN) , c q N 87 SL JO s111ds

DAS) by 46 %, 100-seed we~ghthy 76 '7r and oll conte~ithy 3 ' X colnp.lrcd w l t l ~Arui~a
when sown dunng 2" fonnlght of July. Arunn d ~ not d respond a~gnlf~contl) to N fenllller appllcatlon. However. GCH-4 responded s ~ g n ~ f i c a ~to ~ t fertillrer ly oppllc~t~o lor ~ , seed

yield by 17 % and oil yield by 19 8 conipared \v~th unkrtlll~ed control. 1.t1i.L oI'respol~\c
of Aruna to fenllizer appllcat~onmay he attr~huted 111 11s yield potcl~ti:~l (2720 Lp 1 1 3 '1. heing well below the product~v~ty levcl of CiCH-4 13690 kg h~ ) su\t,~lncdhy the so11fertil~ty(high N and medium P). Asliok Kumur
<,I iil.
IIIIII~I~

(199.0 conducted a trial JI IAKI. New 1)clhi olldcr r;1111Icd

cond~t~ons and stated that appllcatlon 01 f:lr~iiy~rd iilonurc prc~vedsuperlor 111c11nt101 hut ~ n f e r ~ to o r that o f fert~llrerand h~o-l'crt~li~er, A Illic:lr lrcnd iv.~sohscrvcd 111e.1c11 c.lrc. w~th supcrlorlty o f NjoPx~~ to other fertll~tyt r e o l ~ ~ ~ c n In t \ I)ll.lru.td (li,~r~lt~t,ll.~) I<,II~I~I Bind and Patil (19971 conducted a ~ r l a O l I castor du1111g Lllarlf illld IOII~I~ III:I~ (i('ll.4. recorded h~ghcr seed yleid ns compnrcd to o~licrge~~rrtypcs I'MV-S and SII-41 'l'li~\ is nttnbuted to h~ghcrvalues of yleld ctimponcnts l ~ L cnullihcr 01 spiLc\ pcl plalil. \~ilLe length, n u n i k r of capsulcs per plant t ~ n d I o k c c d weight. Baby Akula and B a p ~ Rcddy (1998) conducted a I r ~ a In l S~~uthc Telang:111;1 r~i /o~ic and reported that spllt appllcat~on of 40 kg N, half as hajal and half at 10-35 1)AS. gaiSe more y ~ e l d than applicat~on of 40 kg f ii n a slngle dose. Spl~tappllcallon 01' n~trogen has ~ncreased the nltrogen use eflic~ency hy 64 % and produced 4.3 kg of more ca\tor jecd per kg o f nltrogeii applied lhnn applying entire 40 kg N In slnglc dose as hosal. The Incan castor yield over locations and scason revealed h~ghesty ~ c l d of CiAII('H-I i14fN) kg hn '1
was 17.7 70 per cent higher than the variety Aruna and 20.2 per cent over local ([)OR.

1983).

From the literature i t is concluded that GCH-4 hyhrld was found to

be ha\,lng

the

highest yrelding abil~ty than other vaneties. Some studles indlcatrd rliat tlicre a:ls response up to 80 kg N ha1. Split appllcatlon of nltrogcn had ~iiipro\,edthe castor )tclds to a greater extent than application of enrlre nitrogen 3s basal. So~ncoilicrs a13ted 111;11 response to nitrogen was up to 60 kg N ha l. Beyond Illat there was no roponsc, ulilcli was likely due to medium level o f organic matter. Sollie others stated that c;cslor yield cdn be improved ~f nitrogen is applied at the rate o f 60-80 kg N ha I In tlircc splits. Slncc tllc risk bexlng capacity o f farmers 1s very poor 11 IS hclter to go fol. .;pllt applic:~~loii lIi,~n entire dose as basal. 40-60 kg N h i ' 1 s found lo hc optimulii I c h;111. as h~s.ll and remallling half as top-dressing at 30-35 DAS. Appllcallon of N fcrtlli~ercunder ~rrlgnlcd cond~tionswill help to boost the yleid coniponents and f~nallythe bcnn ylcld. 1.ilcrnlurc penainlng to different cultivars like DCS-9. (;AIJ('H-I and (;('ti-4 was IacLll~g.

2.4 EFFECT O F IRRIGATION ON YIEI.1) AND Y1b:I.L) COMY0Nb:NTS

Improved varletles and hybr~dsrequlrc a total of 750 111 1250 111in 01 water. deperldlng on local coiiditlons. Cnstor uses huil molsturc more cffectlvcly wlicn N I' and

K fertillrers are glven (Singh and Rarnakr~shnn,1975) Time o f ~rrigationis importarit lor
there should be no water stress, once the primary raceme had tlowered. Adequate so11 moisture durlng flowering is essential, especially when lcmpcratures are llkely l o rlsc above 35'C for any period. Shortage o f ~nolstureduring thls pcrlod will result In hlgh proponlon o f lighter seed. Irngat~onis not requlred once rnajorlty of capsules had heen formed. or 21-28 days prior to harvest. Irrlgatlon can also lncrease absorplion o f I'AR of n Increase in total leaf area. This activ~ly h a been shown to be highest In leaves, due to a

the morning and evenlng, and lowest at midday. Adequate molsture suppiles promoted the development of both male and female flowers w~tlloutalterlug the sex rntlo. The castor crop quite often hces tluctua~lng runfall r c s u l l ~ ~ l111 g pcrladr moisture stress thus responsible for fluctuutlng ylelds. I)urlng the r;cln) sca\o~lIII ~CIIIIarid tropics, there can be periods o f decreased or nu rainfall, lltlder such colldltiollh tile degree o f reductron i n yield IS dependent on duratlon and lntelisity of Intol.mlttetlt drought of niolalurc strcs, and stage of the crop that experiences moisture stress, The 111cflec~s
111

dryland crops can he mitigated by select~on ol' sultahlc varletlcs and also evolv~ng sultahle agronomic techti~ques. Wali er ul. 1988 conducted a study dur~ngKharlf In Red ha111\[III~ 01 Kn~cliur and reported that irrigated castor produced r~gn~ficantly hlgl~er sccd yleld (21.30 kg Iin ' 1 than ra~nfed castor T h ~ s was attr~butcd due to lhigllcr vdlues of yield ;ntr~hut~ng cllaructcrs l~ke yleld per plant and 100 secd weight. Irrtgaled castor gave 57

'%h~glicrsecd yleld
IS

than ra~nfedtrealment. I n Gujarat, i t was reported that c~psulcspor plant

the only

character which is pos~tively correlated w ~ t l secd i yield. ~rrespecuvcof the rnanagc~llc~ll


practices (Patel and Jalmlnl. 1991)

Subba Keddy et ul.. 1996 conducted a pivotal t r ~ a In l Telangana rcglon 111 Alidhra Pradesh and stated that vegetative stage, formation of prlmary splkcs and secondary spikes were the most sensltlve stages for molsrure strcss In reducing the bcan ylcld 111 castor. Castor under stress-free environment I.c., protcctlve ~rrigatlon01' 50 rnm each during emly stress (0-45 DAS), mld stress (45-90 DAS) and terminal stress per~ods recorded 42 % addltlonal bean ylelds over the ralnfcd env~ronment. Supplemental imgation of 5cm either at early or mid stress period gave 26 X ' addit~onal k a n y~eld than

rainfed crop followed by extra nttrogen feniltzer application after reltef fro111early stress ~eriod.Increased bean yield of castor under vaned ina~~agemunl practices a1 dtlferciit moisture stress penods were attributed to enhancenlent of yield conipollcnts such aa apthe length, number o f capsules and test wetght of heatis. The favourable soil water baiatice o f 0.8 IW/('I'E ratto (Irr~gattoti wiltcr

drpth/cumulative pan evaporation) olded the crop plants to increase their h c t g l ~ tand ~ bunches per plant in castor grown i n Telnngona regloll of Andllra I'radcsli (Sudhah;ir :ilid Praveen Rao. 1998). lrr~gatton i n turn lhrlped to put forth trlore 1.A1. rliu\ contrthut~tig 111 more dry matter per plalit at 0.8 IWICPE rntio over 0.2. 0.3 :~nd0.6 IWI('l'1 r;ltlo. The Improved b ~ o w t lperformances i by castor undcr 0.8 IW/('l'E tiitgl~tIiavc heell respi~~~sthlc for significantly higher yield attributes, l n ~ g a t r d castor recorded liigl~cr y~cld and y ~ c l d atlr~but~n characters g than wlien compared wlth r:itnfed crop. Irrtg;~ttngthc c ~ s l i ~ crop r dunng flowering o f pntnarles gove li~ghery ~ e l d than [he ra111ll.d u s t o r crop. ( ' u t i f ~ r ~ i i ~ t i g studtes tndlcated that irr~gatingthe castor crop at 0.8 IWIC'I'E had recr~rdcdmarc dry matter per plant and thus contr~buting for slgnlficantly h~gher yield 2nd ylcld altr~hutc\. It helps us to increase the effic~encyof applled N P and K. Horh the N appllcat~uliand ~rngation are able to hasten the yteld and yield components. whlch will finally pronii~te the yteld. Literature on performance of various castor culuvars sulted to Ielangana

region under migated condit~onswas lacktng. Dry tnatter productton, p a r t t t t ~ ~ n ~ to ng various plant parts was also Iacklng.

2.5 INTERACTION EFFECT OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN ON Y1EI.D AND YIE1.I)


COhlPONENTS OF CASTOR CULTlVARS

According to Kittock Will~ams.(1967) nitrogel1 ~ p p l ~ c a t ~ to on ~rr~gated castors In Nebraska reduced the incidence of leaf spot, and increased the y ~ t l d . l3u1 ;It hlgll Iu\eIs of n~trogenapplication i.e. 180 kg per hectare adversely nfkcred oil colltcnt. Howe\,er oil fonat~on i n thc seed is most active hctween 20-70 d q s after I l o w c r ~ n atld ~ III~I~U~IIIIUI t h ~ speriod nutnent supply must he adequnte. loforniat~onon tlic pcrlort~l;~~icc 111' l l ~ g l l y~eldlng varletles and hybrids o f castor at dtffcrent levels of nltrogcn 1s l l ~ l l ~ t c IIII~CI. d agroclimatic conditions In the castor growllig belt or Telangani~ regton Pradesh. H~ghest seed yield of 2130 kg ha and stalk ylcld ot 2470 kg h : ~ wa.i rccordcd hy of 100 kg N ha but thcse wcrc GCH-4 w ~ t happl~cat~on p.lr wnli 75 kg N h.1
111'

tl~e

,21idlir;1

'

(Thadoda er.ul., 1996). However, both these levels wcrc I ~ u n d s ~ g ~ i ~ l i c a lSIII~CIIO~ itly tlii111

application o f 50 kg N h i ' . The highest sccd and stalk y~elds ohta~ncd utidcr lh~glicr Ic!cl
o f nitrogen was probably due to Improvement and devclopn~cnt c)f growth and yluld

attributes vlz, plant hc~ght.number of sp~hespcr plut~t,nuniher of cuphulcs per sp~hc.


length o f mum splke and I 0 0 sccd weight. Assured irr~gauon~ncreased the y ~ c l dhy 18.9 pcr cent over ra~nledcaalor in Telangana reglon. T ~ m i n g of ~ r n g a t ~ oIS o Imponant, lrrlgatlon on 85Ih day iflowcr~ng of pnmary spikes) had helped In Ihe format~onof more sp~kes( V ~ j a yKumar and Sh~va Shankar. 1992). The number of capsules per plant s~gnif~cantly ~ncrcascdw ~ t h an lncrcne
I I I

the level o f N up to 60 kg h i 1 and It was nearly 25 9, more than without N. The lack

o f adequate response to N application m ~ g h t be due to i n ~ t i a med~um l N levcl (VIJPYP Kumar Bhosekar, 19921,

2.6

NUTRIENT UPTAKE, OIL AND PROTEIN CONTENT It is important to soy about rnpesred as It hulps us to c o ~ i ~ l u d r e g ~ r d ~ l iOII p

content 011 N appllcation. Applied nitrogen increased the I'orrnatloli o f N cu~ita~nllig prolein precursors so that protcln formot1011conipctes 111orc strongly f'or 1pl10to~y11111atcs As a result, less of the photosynthates are availohle for fat syntlicsla. 1 1 1 r,q)c-heed. OII content decreased w ~ t h increase i n the nitrogen lebcl. Tlie 011eol~tc~l: ~ircrcuacd up to Nllxi and later showed a decllnlng trend. At Rajcndranagm, Hydcrabud. Madhusudana Roo and Vc~lhatesw.~rlu(1988) conducted a trail and reported that 011 content of castor beall ~ n c r e ~ s c w dl ~ l 11ic1erlae i 111 l'ertil~tylevel up to 30 kg N h a 1 and further ~ncreasc In dose ol N reduced tllc
1111 c o ~ ~ t c ~ i t

progressively. In general oil yield ~ncreasaddue to Irrlgatlon :111d nitroget1 Icvcls. Aswrcd irrlgatlon and appl~cationof 30 kg N ha rug~stercdhigher "11 yleld ovcr ru111lodand 1 1 1 1 nltrogen respect~vely. Same authors reportcd that N and P uptalc hy castor was sign~ficontlyhlgher under assured Irrtgatlon than llie ramfed colid~llons.'7'111s n ~ a y hc duc to the higher dry matter production wlth 11~1gdllon. The uptake of polaaalum was

'

significantly vaned due to irrigation and plan: density hut not due to nltrugcn Icvcls
Higher N content at harvest i n seed samples than that o f plant samples was not~ccd In Amna castor sown during first week of Augusl In Telangana reglon o f Andhra l'radcsh I t was due to higher demand o f nutrients by seeds and translocation of nutrlenta into reproductive parts from vegetative pans (Uma D c v ~ el n1..1991). Nltrogen content In bolh plant and seed sample
IS

not slgn~ficantly influenced by either nitrogen levels or t~llage.

Nitrogen appllcation at the rate of 80 kg ha'' recorded hlgher mean P content (0.38 'lo) In seed samples but lower mean P content In plant samples (0.15 Yo). Among N levels Nxo

recorded lower mean K content (1.87

%I

In plant san~plcs1 1 1 uorltrast to phospllorus

content. Lower K content In seed saniples (0.66

%I were recorded ~nuo~ltrol (No) Ilpt:~Le

by the whole plants at harvest bas II to 48 kg N ha h i 1 . Among the N levels,


successive

'. 1.0 to 6 i g I' hd ' and I?to 43 Lg K

lncrsrnel~ts of N levels up ti, 80 lip N I~;I I

slgn~ficantlyIncreased N. P and K uptake progresslvcly over control. Mathuk~a and Modhwadia (1995) reported hlgher N P K colltcnta and uptake due to N fertilization I n castor crop and stated that I' cmltcnt was Iiiaxlliiuln w~tllout N application by NIO and Nx,,. The contents of N. P and uptake of N I' K ~llcrc:~scd ultli Increase in level o f N dppl~catlon. Castor producing an overage seed yield ol 17(XI kg li,~ h;ld ~cnlokcdahi~ut50 lig N. 20 kg P201 and 16 k g Kro (Jacoh and Vcxkull, 1958) and 80 lig N. 18 Lg I':O<. 32 K:O kg
%ere

'

removed at seed yleld of 2000 kg h i ' . Excess nltrogen appllcat~on to ollsced crops reduces the oil pcrce1ll:lgc 111ca\c 01'

castor there was no Increase ~n o ~ perccritage l up to 100 kg N lho

I;urtllcr w ~ t l itlic

Increase i n nltrogen dose there was decrease 111oll pcrcetit. Irrlgal~on slid InIIrogcrI ap1111cd castor crop recorded hlgher percentage of 011content than when compared w ~ t h ralnlbd crop without nltrogen application. However, therc
IS

pauclty of ~nl'ormation on N I ' and K

uptake at d~fferentcrop growth stages by various plant parts

2.7 EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY ON CASTOR YIELDS

Spacing between plants adapted for plantlng castor plays an Irnpurtdlll nllc In boosting the yields. Closer spacing can result In considerable damage to branches and Closer spacing also tends to reduce the height and shallow lateral roots during cult~vatlon. promote more even growth. Branching may also be suppressed and rlpenlng becomes

more even. The optimum populat~on denslty 1s largely deternilned hy tlie amount of ralnfall received in a given area. Purshotam Rao el al.. (1989) conducted a trial at Harydl1.1 under raiilkd condltlons and found that the average yield of castor was lhlghcst wlluil h war plnntcd ;I[ J row spaclng of 100 x 30 cni (33.000 plants ha.') with two rows oi grccll gra111 Siiiiil:~~ly Singh and Slngh (1988) reported that lnter cropplng of castor with grccli grani produced higher total seed yield compared to sole castor. Under condltlolls of drought thc Inter crop of green grani falled In all the truatments Juc to Fcwro niolrturc \ ~ r c \ s .Houuvcr. castor seed yleld h a s lilghest (1630 kg ha ' 1 whcn
II

was plai~tcdat a ~paclllg 11(. I00 x SO

cm (20.000 plantslha). It is because of lack ol' competltlon hctwcc~ip1:111tsand hetwccn rows for moisture, nutrients and spoce for root gnluth and su~il~glit. Vllay;~Ku111ar Bhosekar (1992) stated that the illcrease ~n splkcs hy 27 0 , cnpaulc\ hy $9 '% illid Iesl we~ght by 3.3 9) at wider spaclng (60 x 45 cm) coliipdrcd wltli clozcr spaclrlg (60x30 clnJ may he due to lcss co~npetltlonfor nutrients, light and niolsturc amolig tlic plants at wldcr spaclng. Ashok Kumar rr ul., (1995) conducted a trlal at lARl Ncw I)clhl, on randy Iodnl

soils under rninfed cond~tions and stated that castor as a ~ o l crop c (100 cm hetween rowrJ
proved superlor to the pearl rnlllet and castor lntcr crop in growth and dcvelop~iicnt. Castor as a sole crop sown at wlder spaclng and without any Inter crop proved
(11

hc the

best. Subba Reddy rr ul. (1996) conducted a tna1 in rainfed allisols ol' Central I<ocarcli institute for dryland Agriculture (CRIDA) farm. Hyderabad wlth castor ((iA(:('H-4) dunng kharif seasons and stated that castor with 7 S . W plants per hectare recorded the hlghest bean yield of 1153 kg ha.' In 1990 and 1350 kg h a 1 In 1991. There was no

variation In bean yields o f castor between plant denslt~csof 75 l o 38 ~ l i o ~ per s ~ ~ ~ d ~ per Ihcctnrc 1111091 hectare In 1990 and also within plant densities of 75 to 50 ~liousn~ids The highest bean yreld o f castor at 75 to 50 thousands plants per Iheclurc over olliur rdllge of populat~ons was due to increased production of p n ~ corripolrellt.\ h sucl~ . I , dry tilirltcr and leaf area index, conseque~irlyresult~ng111 higher rillrogctr up tnkc ,111d1d1111d11 L I ~ C

efficiency of seed and total h~ornoss dur~ng differel11 crop growth stagu\, 'I'l~oscn\tor
50 to 75 thousands plants per hcctare under rnlnfed cand~tions.
IS

UII~

liru~id o p t ~ r i i ufor ~ ~~ i C ~ I I I I ht:ih!lr/~trg ~ he311 yrcld,

Thadoda er ul., (1996) co~iducted a z~udy on rehponx n l unrtor (;('I!--I to plillrt~l~g geornetry under rainfed co~lditionon cldycy soils sow11durrng Augo\l 'I'hcy \tnicd tlint the spacing 9 0 x 60 cm g w e the highest seed yleld of 2380 Lg 1 1 3 illid \13Ih y c l d 2790 kg h i hut rernaincd sratist~callysln~llarw ~ t l 60 i r 611 c111 iarrd 00 x 45
CII
111

'1'11~

lowest seed and stalk yields were ohtdned at 120 x 60 cm spdclng. 'I'l~capprcc~i~hlc Increase In seed 2nd stalk ylelds 111 Invor ol' 90 n 60 cni spnc111gw:~s prohi~hl) due
10

adequate Interception of sunl~ghthy the crop canopy even at low Ievcl ol ~llurlr~~iatlon. consequently hlgher rates of photosynthesis and uluniately Increaac III yrcld. Narkheda rr ul.. (1983) stated that the hrgher value\ 01 yleld .ittrlhu~cc urldcr wldely spaced plants, could not Increase the yleld as agarnst the narrow \paced plalit\. The reason for rrductron In seed and stalk y~eldsunder clober spacing 01' 60 x 45 crn would be the narrow planted crop ~nvar~ahly had loser values of g r o ~ t hand ylcld

contributing characters under study.


It was concluded that 60 x 45 cm spaclng recorded h~ghcrylcld and yrcld attributes than 60 x 30 cm, whrch was due to less co~npetitionfor nutrients. Irght and

moisture among the plants at w ~ d e r spnctng. It is very dtft'tcult to col~fllntllic resulls due to confounding between densily and row spaclng. Ho\reve~~ ~ I C I 15 C ltltle ~ I I I ' O ~ I I I ~ I I ~ I I available regnrd~ng the performance of castor at varlous
S P O C I I I ~ under

blress 1i.x

moisture conditions (trrigated conditions). Partttloning of dry tltatter jtudles on c;tstol 1s also scanty.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

hlATERlALS AND hlETIIO1)S

The field experiments on "Crop growtll 2nd de\'elopilient ol c a w r c u l t ~ \ a ~ uliiler s opt~mal and sub-optimal waler :lnd n i t r o g n cond~tlons In '~r.l.111g.111.i regloll"
%.I\

carried out at ICRISAT center Patancllcru. Ilyder;~h~d to sludy tlic l u l l o ~ ~ ~ i g aspects.

I. "Effect of water reginies dnd ~ i i l r o g ele\cl\ ~l on caslor cull~i.:~r>" du~lng !,her!/


season of 1997 and 1998.

In~rially the project was plalitied u ~ t l J i \icw to develop

castor ~ i n ~ d:1 c11d l cxtr,~


111

cxperlrnents on sowlng dates and piant111gdensity were c w r ~ c dout. So the d:itsh

vuwlng and plant~ngdenslly experllnents welr c ~ r r ~ cout d fur one y c ; ~ ~ IOI da1;1 generatton and to develop model. Extr:~data w ~ l he l u x d I11r til<~dcl dc\~cl~~pliicnt In Iic.lr future. Due to lack o f special progratnmc on c;lstor the t ~ t l col. [lie prolcct w:~scl~allgcd dnd model developmel~t part wds deleted from the project work.

2. "Effect o f dates of sowlng on caslor cult~vars"lrom later part ol. rcrbr \cclalln 1906 to
later part o f rubl 1997. 3. "Effect of planting dcnsity on castor y~clds"dur~ng rohi scason of 1997. The farm
IS

located at an alt~tudeol. 545 In above mean sea lebel. 17" 1 9 ' ~

latitude and 78'23' East long~tude.

WEATHER DURING THE CROP PERIOD


The meteorologtcal data from November 1996 to January 1999 was recorded i n a class 'A' meteorolog~cal observatory situated at I('KISAT.

Patancheru. 1.5 km from the erpenment:~lsltc Wcchl! tllcana I\ISthe psr~od .IIW presented In F~gure1-2 illid Appendix-I 8; 1 1 Rainfall Thcre was 598.8 nim of rainfall during 946.2
111 Ilrat

ycol (iilr,ri/ 1907-OSI ~ 1 1 1 11 l e~

i 1 5

mm

during the subscque~ityear ( i l i < r v ! l 1998-991.'The tilc.ni In.lxltlluln


'I('

;III~

rnlnlmum temperatures recordcd durlllg t l ~ clirat yc:lr's study ucri. < . 7

311d

12.5 ' C and were 33.4 'C and 8 "(.r c ~ p c c l ~ v cdur~ng ly 111csccot~d )c.lr. '1.11~ 111e.111 relat~ve h u m ~ d ~ranged ty from 58 to 8.7 pcrcclit dur111g I~rat yc.lr. wlic~c.~r 1 1 v.lrlcd from 59 to 87 pcrcellt durllig sccond year.

3.2

E X P E R l h l E N T A I . DETAI1,S 1,ayout o f the E x p e r i m e ~ i l The dates of sowlng expc~~~ii'nt. u l ~ l c lW;I\ i rtnrtcd durlllg I.llc nrhr \cdv)n Ii)0(> was laid-out In completely randorn~sod h l o c l dcalgn \rlth lwctlly loul Ircdtllsnl comb~nnt~ons, replicated lbur t ~ r t i c (l;lg. ~ I ) Tlic trcdtriicnt\ ~ncludc ~ sowlng and four cultivars 3s glveti heluw
I data* X I I ~

3.2.1

'TREATMENT D E T A I L S EITect of sowing dates o n castor cultivars SIX dates o f sowlng:

Four cultlvars :

C1 C2 C3 C4

. .
: :

Aruna DCS-9 (IAUCH-I CjCH-4

1
Rainfed Irrigated

Fig : 3.4 LAY OUT PLAN OF KHARIF 1997

Main plot treatments : Water regimcs (2)


Sub Plot
:

Nitrogen level (2)

Cultivars in factorial set up

(i) W1: Rainfed (11) W2 : Irrigated at 0 75 IWICPE ratio ( i ) NI=lO kg Nlha (ii) N2=60 kg Nlha C I . Aruna C2 : DCS-9 C3 : GAUCH-I C4 : GCH-4

Gross Plot Size : 9 x 10 = 90 m2

Irrigated

Rainfcd

N2

NZ

Nl

N1

N1

N1

N2

NZ

Fig: 3.5 L A Y OUT PLAN OF KHARlF 1998

Des~gn Replications Plot Size

:
:

CRBD
4

Gross plot Net plot

9.0 x 10.0 ni 7.5 x 5.0 ni

Spacing

7 5 x 25 cm

Effect of water regimes and nitrogen levels on castor cultivnrs Kharif 1997 and Kharif- 1998

Main Plot

Water Reg~rnes

Sub-Plot
:

W I - Ra~nfcd W2 - Irrlgntcd at IWIC'PE r o t l o 0.75

Nitrogen Levels

N I - 10 kg N ha N r - 60 kg N h a '

'

Sub-Sub-Plot

Cult~vars

Design Rrpl~cations Plot size

Split plot 4 Gross plot Net plot 75 x 25 cni 26-6- 1997 & 26-6-98
: :

9.0 x 10 rn 7.5 x 5.0 171

Spacing Sowing date

Effect of planting densities on castor yields


Cultivar
:
GCH-4

PD-I

PD-2

PD-3

I Ill I'ath

Fig3.6 LAYOUT PLAN OF PLANTING DENSITY EXPERIMENT

PD-1 PD-2 PD-3


Variety

=
=

75 x 25 cm Spacing = 55,000 plantsiha 75 x 10 cm Spacing = 1,30,000 pla~ltslha 75 x 75 cm Spacing = 17.000 plantsiha


:

GCH-4

Replications Plot size Sow~ng date 3.2.2 SOIL

Gross plot Net plot 17-7-1897

9.0 x 10.0 111 4.5 x 8 n~

The soil was an aifisol (Clay loam) with good dra~nage.The conipos~te saniplcs

of soil collected at random from the experlmentdl field prlor to the layout were analyzed for the physico-chemical propertles. The chemical an;llys~sIndicated that the so11 was slightly acidic In reaction. low in available N and medium ~n I' and K. Thc soil physical propertles of the exper~mentalslte arc as follows 1. Bulk density
: 1.673 d c c

2. Field capaclty
3. Permanent wlltlng point

:O.lSdg : 0.14 g/g (Monlurc cootmr b&\ed on oven dry uetghl I

Table 3.1 Soil chemical properties of experimental site

3.4 CULTIVATION DETAILS 3.4.1 Previous c r o p history


Prior to the dates of sowtng experiment, the field was fallow for two years. For the planting density experiment, the field had previously grown wtth a pigcull pea crop. Pigeon pea was grown before sowtng kl~orif-97 and sorgliu~llwas grown before klrurif-98 sowing.

3.4.2 Preparatory cultivation


The experimentnl ficld was prepared for s o w ~ n gby working once wtrli a tractor- drawn disc plough, followed by disc harrow twice. Then thc tractor-drawn cultivator was run along and across the ficld. The lalid was levcled w ~ t h o tractordrawn leveler after removing the dried stubble a ~ l dweed,. Fitlally r i d f ~ barid

furrows were made at o spacing of 75 cni. The plots were l a d as per thc layout plan.

3.4.3 Seeds a n d sowing


Seeds of selected castor cultivars Aruna, DCS-9. GAIICII-I, and GCH-4 were hand drbbled at a dcpth of 4-5 cm and 25 cm apart within thc row and covered with soil, ~naintainingan inter-row spacing of 75 cm. The niurphologrcal characters of cultivars used in the field expertment are given in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Morphological characters of castor cultivars used in the field experiment

I
Chatter

I
Stem colour

Sal~ent features of castor cult~vars DCS-9 GAIJCH-I GCH-4

( Duratlon (days)
Seed oil content (%) Yield (kg h i ' )

120-150 51 960

90-150 49 1020

180-240 50 1700

210-240
48

2200

3.4.4. Fertilizer application


The experimental site was applied with the recommended dose of fertilizers (60 kg N ha.' & 40 kg PlOr h a ' ) Nitrogen was applied In three splits (50
% N as basal, 25 Z N at 30 days after sowlng (DAS) snd 25 B at 60 DAS) by

spot application. In N~level(10 kg N ha.') durlng kliorif-97 ilnd kliarif-98, the entire nitrogen was applied as basal.

3.4.5 Irrigation
All the experiments were uniformly irrigated immediately after sowing to ~ ~ ~ in 1 seed s t germination. Subsequent irrigations were given based on the
requirement

in case of dates of sowing and planting density expenments. In case

of kharif-97 and kharif-98 experiments, migations were given only to irrigated blocks based on irrigation water depth I cumulative pan evaporation (IW 1 CPE) ratio of 0.75. The crop received a total of two irrigations during kharif-1997 ilnd one irrigation during the entire crop growing season of kharif-1998.

3.4.6 Interculture operations


The weeds present between and within the plant rows were removed manually at 20, 55 and 80 DAS. 3.4.6 Plant protection The crop was well protected when semi-loopers became a problem due to heavy rainfall during October by spraying Monocrotophos @ 0.05% and from Botrytis disease by spraying Carbendazim @ 0.05%.

3.4.7 Harvesting
The crop was harvested in 2-3 pickings based on the maturity of the main sp~kes and spikes that we formed on secondaries, tert~aries and quaternaries The

harvested splkes were sun-dried and threshed by manual beating with sticks. The threshed produce was winnowed and seeds cleaned. The seed and stalk yields for each plot were recorded sepmately after drying.

3.5 OBSERVATIONS RECOREDED

3.5.1

Meteorological Observations
Weather data (maximum & minimum temperatures, rainfall, solar radiat~on)

were recorded at the meteorological observatory, ICRISAT center Patancheru which is 1.5 Km to the experimental site.

3.5.1.1

Heat units (Growing degree days) Heat unlts expressed as growing degree-days (GDD) were calculated by the formula given below: GDD = Xni (Tmax + T m ~ n )
L

Tb

Where

E nt

=
= =

Number of days taken for a phenophase Daily maximum and minimum temperature Min~mumthreshold temperature (loOc) for castor (Vijaya Kumar er ol, 1997) Growing degree days

Tmax and Tmin

GDD

Tb is also called as "Base temperature" and this is defined as the temperature


below wh~ch, the physiological activity of the crop ceases.

3.5.1

Light observation Radiation: The canopy l~ghtinterception was measured by tube-solarimeter placed across the rows coverlng half canopy of one plant from one rov. and half canopy of another plant from another row. These solar~meters are used to record the radiation (0.35-2.5 bm) transmitted through the crop canopy at 2 minutes ~ntervals,using the data collection system. Radiation read~ngsare recorded and stored at hourly intervals by automatic mill~voltmeter. Pyranometer was placed just above the crop level to measure the total incoming radiation (lo) and tube solarimeters are placed 5 cm just above the ground to measure the rad~ationtransm~tredto ground (1). Deild leaves are removed at weekly intervals from plants around the tube-solarimeters, so that

the radiation transmitted from green leaf area only was recorded. Daily totals and individual tube calibration factors were used to calculate the proportion of incident radiation intercepted in each plot. The light interception (LI) was calcutated using followtng equation

L1(%) = 100 - % transmitted


%Transmitted = I / I o Where I = Total incoming rediation la = Radiation transmitted to ground

3.5.2

Soil moisture Soil moisture at 0-15 cm depth was recorded gravimetrically and beyond 15 cni by neutron probe. For taklng neutron-probe readtngs accession tubcs were inserted at the centre of each plot. These tubes were inserted before sowing the crop. Probe readings were taken before and after irrigation and also after each rainy day.

3.5.3

Growth Parameters Plant samples were collected at fifteen days interval until harvest for recording follow~ng growth parameters.

3.5.3.1 Plant height (em)


Five plants were randomly selected w~thin the net plot area and were tagged to record the plant height. This was recorded in the field (non-destructive sampling) and was measured on the main stem from the base of the plant (ground surface) to the tips of the apical bud.

3.5.3.2

Leaf area, leaf a r e a index, leaf, stem a n d spike biomass Three plants were sampled at random from every plot at 15 days interval starting from 15 DAS upto harvest. These plants were separated Into

components of leaf, stem and pod mass. The leaf area was measured w ~ t h LI 3100, area meter (Li - COR Inc. Nebraska,USA). The leaf mass. stem mass

and pod mass were recorded separately after oven drying at 8 0 " ~ or 48 hours and computed for a square meter area. calculated by ustng the following formula: The leaf arca ~ n d r x(LAI) was

Leaf area
LA1

=
U n ~ ground t area

3.5.4

Days t o 50 % flowering a n d n ~ a t u r i t y

50 %flowering

Day on which 50 percent of plants in one metre row length flowered.

Physiological maturity

Day on which capsules show characterist~c browning.

3.5.5

Yield a n d yield components

3.5.5.1 Number of capsules per Spike

The total number of capsules from five tagged plants in each plot were counted and average number of capsules per plant was recorded.
3.5.5.2 Main spike length

The length of the spike was measured from the main spikes.
3.5.5.3 Number of spikes p e r Plant

Number of spikes present on the entire plant were counted before havesting.

3.5.5.4 100 seed weight (g)


A random sample of 100 seeds from each net plot was taken and weighed In

grams.
3.5.6 Seed yield (kg ha")

It was calculated from net plot area and computed on a per hectare basis and expressed as kg ha".
3.5.7 Harvest index (HI)

This was calculated by using the following formula: Seed yield ha.'

H.I.

x I00 Total biomass h i 1

3.5.8

Chemical analysis

3.5.8.1 Plant analysis


Five randomly selected plants of destructive samples were collected, dried and ground and Ig of plant sample was used for N analysis using micro kjeldhal method after digesting the organic matter by H2SO4 and H202 (Piper. 1950) Phosphorus and potassium contents were determined in the cxtracts after digesting the plant matcr~al with the triacid mixture HN03; H~SOJ;HCIO? (9:2: 1) (Piper. 1950) P-content: The phosphorus content in the plant digest was determ~nedby

vanado-molybdo-phosphoric

colorimetr~c method

on

Klettsummerson

photoelectric colorimeter (Piper. 1950)

K-content: The potassium content was determined on Elico Rame photometer (Piper, 1950). The N, P and K content were expressed in percentage. The uptake of N. P and

K by Castor crop were computed as follows:

Uptake of Nutrient (kg ha'')

Nutrient content x Total dry matter (kg h i 1 )

100

3.5.9 3.5.9.1

Quality characters of castor seed Protein estimation The quantitative determination of proteln by Techn~conAuto Analyser (TAA) involve the conversion of organic nitrogen into ammonia by digesting the sample with sulphuric acid using the block digestor (BD 40). Ammonical nitrogen reacts with sodium phenate in presence of sodlum hypochlorite to form indo-phenol blue complex. This color complex is measured at 660 nm.

3.5.9.2

Oil estimation (Soxhlet method) Oil content in the seed was estimated by Soxhlet apparatus, using a suitable solvent. The extracted oil was separated by evaporating the solvent.

3.5.10

Statistical analysis

The observations from the experiment were subjected to statist~cul analysis i.e. RBD (ftdctorial concept) for dates of sowing experiment, Split-plot design for "Effect of water regimes and nitrogen levels on castor cultivars"(kl1nrif-1997 & khnr~f1998), and RCBD for planting density experiment using GENSTAT package (Gomez and Gornez. 1984).

RESULTS

RESULTS

The field experiments of the project "Crop growth and development of castor cult~vars under optimal and sub-optimal water and nitrogen cond~tions ~n Telangana region" were carried out at ICRlSAT center Petancheru, Hyderabad. 1. "Effect of dates of sowing on castor cultivars" from later part of rubi season 1996 to later part of rabi 1997

2. "Effect of water regimes and nitrogen levels on castor cultivxs" during kliarij
scason of 1997 and 1998 and

3. "Effect of planLing density on castor yields" during rubi season of 1997.

EFFECT O F DATES OF SOWING ON CASTOR CULTIVARS


4.1

GROWTH PARAMETERS

4.1.1 Plant height at final harvest

The data on mean plant height at final harvest is presented in Table 4.1 Plant height increased progressively from sowing to harvest of castor. Intcractlon effect of sowing and cultivars was also significant at all crop growth stages. The plant he~ghtof castor cult~vus ranged from 48.9 cm (DCS-9) to 63.1 cm (GCH-4). GCH-4 recorded 29
% taller plant he~ght than DCS-9. Among different sowings the plant height ranged from

46.8 cm (November sowing) to 69.2 cm (June sowing)


Among the various interactions GCH-4 sown during the first week of June recorded the talleer plant height of 77.2 cm. Least plant height of 43.3 cm was recorded by DCS-9 sown dunng November.

Table 4.1 Interaction effect of sowing date on plant height (cm) of four Castor cultivars at final harvest

Sowing Date Cultivars Nov Jan April June July Sep Mean

Aruna

46.7 43.3 43.8 53.2 46.8

50.5 42.2 45.0 53.3 47.7

59.6 48.8 53.9 62.8 56.3

74.1 59.5 65.8 77.2 69.2

67.8 52.8 58.8 71.7 62.8

57.0 46.9 60.2 60.2 56.1

59.3 48.9 54.6 63.1

DCS-9 GAUCH-1
GCH-4 Mean

Cultivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

Table 4.2 Interaction effect of sowing date on LA1 at 45 DAS of four Castor cultivars

Sowing Date Cultivars Nov Aruna


DCS-9 0.220 0.200

Jan
0.182 0.217

April
0.270 0.547

June
0.320 0.716

July
0.318 0.693

Sep
0.228 0.379

Mean
0.256 0.459

Cultivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

Table 4.3 Interaction effect of sowing date on LA1 at 105 DAS of four Castor cultivars

Sowing Date
LUIIIVHTS

Nov Arunu DCS-9


GAUCH-1 0.270 0.370 0.361 0.285 0.322

Jan
0.679 0.984 1.250 1.521 1.109

April

Jun
1.163 1.522 2.050 2.476 1.803

July
0.892 1.346 1.978 2.259 1.169

Sep
0.773 1.072 1.289 1.867 1.250

Mean
0.772 1.097 1.375 1.763

0.855 1.290 1.320 2.171 1.409

GCH-4 Mean

Cultivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

Table 4.4 Interaction effect of sowing date on Total drymatter production (!grn") of four Castor cultivars at 45 DAS

Sowing Date Cultivars Nov Arunn DCS-9 GAUCII-I GCH-4 Mean 19.8 18.5 19.1 27.8 21.3 Jan 30.5 29.1 35.4 44.4 34.0 April 39.1 40.0 49.7 66.8 48.9 June 45.4 49.0 53.4 71.6 54.9 July 44.2 46.3 49.5 68.3 52.1 Sep 35.4 35.8 38.6 55.1 Mean 35.7 36.5 41.0 55.7 41.2

Cultivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

Table 4.5 Interaction effect of sowing date on Total drymatter production (gm") of four Castor cultivars at harvest

Sowing Date Cultivars Nov Jan April June July Sep Mean

DCS-9

183.7 273.6

200.0 297.1

231.0 318.6

237.9 380.8

252.3 337.2

220.9 306.2

221.0 318.9

GAUCH-I

Mean

224.7

248.5

278.6

319.1

297.3

264.7

Cultivars SED

Sowing Dates
3.12 6.24

Cultivar x Sowing date

2.36 5.08

CD (0.05)

4.1.2 Leaf area index at 45 and 105 DAS

LA1 differed significantly due to cultivars, sowing dates and thelr


interaction (Table 4.2). The LA1 ranged from 0.256 (Aruna) to0.549 (GCH-4). Out of six

sowing dates June sowings recorded the higher LA1 of 0.646 and lower by the November sowings. June sown GCH-4 recorded the h~ghestLA1 of ,810, which recorded 153 % more than that of Aruna. LA1 differed significantly at 105 DAS due to cultivars, sowing date^ and their ~nteraction(Table 4.3). LA1 of castor cultivars ranged from 0.772 (Aruna) to 1.763 (GCH-4). Among the different sowings, June sowlngs recorded the hlgher LA1 of 1.803 and the lowest LA1 by November sowlngs. Interaction effect indicated that GCH-4 recording the highest LA1 of 2.476, whlch was 112 B higher than Aruna in June sowings.

4.1.3. Total above ground drymatter production (gm.2)a t 45 DAS and harvest

The TDMP differed significantly due to cultivars, sowing dates and their interaction at 45 DAS (Table 4.4). The TDMP among cultivars ranged from 55.7 g ~ 2 (GCH-4) to 35.7 gn.> (Aruna). Among different sowings June sowlng recorded the highest TDMP of 54.9 grn.'. Significant interaction effect lndlcated that June sown GCH4 recorded 7 1 . 6 ~ r n . ' of TDMP, which was 57 % higher than the Aruna. The TDMP at harvest (Table 4.5) also differed significantly due to cultivars, sowing dates and interaction. The TDMP of cult~varsranged from 214.4 g m-' (Aruna) to 335.2 gm.' (GCH-4). GCH-4 castor cultivar recorded 56 % more TDMP than Aruna. Regarding sowing dates, June sowings recorded the highest TDMP of 319.1gm.',

which was 4 2 % higher than November sowings. Significant interaction between cultivars and sowings dates indicated that June sown GCH-4 recorded maximum TDMP of 413.4 g m-* which was 69 D higher than Aruna. Lowest total drymatter was recorded by Aruna sown during the month of first week of November (158.1gm'z).

4.2

YIELD ATTRIBUTES

4.2.1 Main spike length (cm)


The main spike length of castor differed significantly due to cult~vars and sowing dates. The main spike length ranged from 22 cm (GCH-4) to 17.1 cm (Aruna). GCH-4 recorded 28 % taller main spike length than Aruna. June sowings recorded 72 %. more spike length than November sowings. Among the various interactions GCH-4 sown during the first week of June recorded 26.8 cm of spike length, which was 23.5 % taller than Aruna. Aruna castor sown during the first week of November was recorded the spike length of 12.7 cm.

4.2.2 Spikes per plant


Out of the four cultivars, GCH-4 recorded the highest number of spikes per plant (4.7). GCH-4 recorded 11 % more number of spikes than Aruna. Among the sowing dates the sp~kes per plant ranged from 3.9 to 5.3. Significant interaction between cultivars and sowing dates indicated that June sown GCH-4 recorded the highest number of spikes per plant (5.5) which was 5 % more than the Aruna.

Table 4.6 Interaction effect of sowing date on main spike length of four Castor cultivars

Sowing Date Cultivars Nov Aruna DCS-9


GAUCH-1 GCH-4 12.7 13.0 14.6 15.9 14.1

Jan
13.5 13.9 17.1 19.0

April
19.0 21.3 23.5 24.4 22.0

June
21.7 23.9 24.6 26.8 24.3

July
20.5 22.2 24.2 25.2 23.0

Sep
15.3 16.6 20.1 21.0 18.3

Mean
17.1 18.5 20.7 22.0

Mean

15.9

Culiivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

Table 4.7 Interaction effect of sowing date on number of spikes per plant of four Castor cultivars

Sowing Date Cultivars Nov Jan April June July Sep Mean

Cultivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

4.2.3 Capsules per spike


The number of Capsules per spike differed s~gn~ficantly due to cult~vars and sowing dates. The number of capsules per spike ranged froml6.9 (Aruna) to 20.4 recorded the (GCH-4). GCH-4 recorded 20 %more capsules per spike. June sow~ngs maximum number of capsules per spike (24.7) Interaction effect between cultivars and sowing dates revealed that June sown GCH-4 recorded 27 '7a more number of capsules per spike than Aruna. November sown GCH-4 recorded the lowest number of capsules per spike (12.4).

4.2.4 100 seed-weight (g)


The 100 seed welght ranged from 23.63 g (Cv.GCH-4) to 16.44 g (Aruna). Among the various sowing dates June sown cult~vars recorded 13 '7, h~gher100 seed we~ght than November sowings. The s~gnificant internction among cultivars and sowing date indicated that June sown GCH-4 recorded 25.45 g of 100 seed weight, whlch was 14
% higher than November sowings. GCH-4 sown during June recorded 31 % more 100

seed weight than Aruna.

4.3 Seed yield (kg ha.')


The seed yield of Castor differed significantly due to cultivars and sowing dates. Among the different cultivars GCH-4 recorded seed y~eldof 2280 kg ha.', which was 66
'lo higher than the lowest yielder Aruna (1370 kg ha.'). June sown cultivars recorded 46
'7a more seed yield than November sowlngs.

The cultivars and sowing dates interaction was also significantly. June sown GCH-4 recorded 2749 kg ha'lof seed y~eld.which was 57 '7a higher than Aruna.

Table 4.8 Interaction effect of sowing date on number of Capsules per spike of four Castor cultivars

Sowing Date Cultivnrs Nov Aruna DCS-9 GAUCH-I Jan April June July Sep Mean

13.8 14.4

15.5 16.4 14.8 15.1 15.5

16.3 17.1 8.9 23.1 18.8

21.6 23.9 25.5 27.5 24.7

18.3 21.2 22.1 24.9 21.6

15.9 16.8 18.0 19.6 17.6

16.9 18.3 18.7 20.4

12.9
12.4 13.4

GCH-4
Mean

Cultivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

Table 4.9 Interaction effect of sowing date on 100 Seed-Weight of four Castor cultivars

Sowing Date Cultivars Nov Aruna DCS-9 GAUCH-I CCH-4 Mean 15.14 20.55 22.05 22.28 20.00 Jan 15.41 21.02 21.27 23.42 20.28 April 16.35 20.72 22.85 23.99 20.98 June 19.29 22.85 22.94 25.45 22.63 July 16.74 22.23 22.27 23.68 21.23 Sep 15.69 22.79 22.21 22.96 20.91 Mean 16.44 21.69 22.27 23.63

Cultivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

Table 4.10 Interaction effect of sowing date on Seed Yield (kg ha.') of four Castor cultivars

Sowing Date Cultivars Nov Aruna DCS-9 GAUCH-1 GCH-4 Mean 1087 1220 1760 1954 1505 Jan 1182 1359 1861 2051 1613 April 1400 1581 2073 2313 1842 June 1750 1899 2464 2749 2204 July 1530 1817 2160 2445 1988 Sep 1310 1485 1957 2189 1735 Mean 1370 1560 2040 2280

Cultivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

GCH-4 sown during first week of June recorded 40 % higher seed yield than the November sowing. Of all the interactions Aruna variety sown during in the first week of November recorded the lowest seed yield of 1087 kg ha.'.

4.4 Harvest Index due to cultivars, sowing dates and The harvest index vaned sign~ficantly ~nteraction. The harvest index ranged from 37.5 (GCH-4) to 33.6 (Aruna). There was 11 %increase in harvest index of GCH-4 than Aruna. June sowings recorded the highest index of 36.5, which was 4 % higher than November sowings. June sown GCH-4 recorded 38.2 per cent harvest index, wh~ch was 9 % h~gherthan thut of Aruna (35.0).

4.5 Heat units (GDD) accumulated at 50 % flowering and maturity The data presented in table 4.12 ind~catedthat the heat unlts accumulated by various castor cultivars under different sowings to reach 50 % flowering and maturity. Among the six dates, [November Is' week (Dl), January 1" week (D2), April 1" week

(D3), June Is' week (D4), July I" week (D5) and September 1" week (D6)]almost all the
castor cultivars required more heat units to attain 50 % tlowering and maturlty durlng June I*' week of sowing. Both the cultivar GALICH-I and GCH-4 accumulated same number of heat unlts (2978) to attain maturity in June I" week sowings. Least number of heat units was accumulated by November I" week sowings.

Table 4.11 Interaction effect of sowing date on Harvest index of four Castor cultivars

Sowing Date Cultivars Nov Aruna Jan Anril June July Sep Mean

32.28

32.88

34.05

35.03

34.10

33.55

33.64

Mean

35.00

35.20

35.89

36.45

36.02

35.72

Cultivars

Sowing Dates

Cultivar x Sowing date

4.12 Accumulated Heat units (GDD) of four castor cultivars at 50 % flowering and

At SO % Flowering

Note: Flgures in parenthesis indicate the number of days.

EFFECT OF WATER AND NITROGEN ON CASTOR CULTIVARS

4.1 Growth parameters


4.1.1 Plant height at maturity
The plant height d~fferencesdue to cultivars, nltrogen levels and water regimes were significant in the two years of study. Plant height ranged from 68 cm (DCS-9) 1081.8 cm (GCH-4). GCH-4 was 20 % taller than DCS-9 cult~var.The plant herght Increased by about 4 W due to nitrogen fertillzatlon, whlle irrlgatlon had increased the plant height by about 7 W. The two-way and the three-way interactions were found to be significant in two years of study (Table No 4.13 - 4.15 & Fig 4.1 - 4.2). As conlpared to DCS-9. GCH-4 recorded a mean plant helght of 85.3 cm under ~rrlgatedcond~tronsand 78.4 cm In rainfed conditions Plants were 5 % taller when they received 60 kg N ha-' than when they rece~ved 10 kg N ha". At 60 kg N ha

'. inigated castor recorded a mean plant height of 78.3 cm.

which was 6 70taller than the ralnfed castor. Two years mean data indicated that the plant height of GCH-4 at 10 kg N ha-' (84.1) was 19 % taller than DCS-9. GCH-4 at 60 kg N h i 1 was 22 % taller than DCS-9. GCH-4 at 60 kg N ha-' was 6 % taller than 10 kg N ha.'. From the three-way interaction, irrigated GCH-4 was 25 W taller with 60 kg N h i ' than DCS-9, while ~twas 20 % taller at 10 kg N ha". Under rainfed condrt~onsthe mean plant height of GCH-4 was 19 % greater than DCS-9 at 60 kg N h i 1 .

4.1.2 LA1

The table no 4.16 - 4.18 & Fig 4.3 - 4.4 will represent the mean values of LAI. There were significant differences in LA1 at 45 DAS due to cultivars, nrtrogen levels and

Table 4.13 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Plant height at maturity (cm) Cultivars Year

C1
1997-98 1998-99 77.5 79.2 78.4

C2
67.2 68.8 68.0

C3
68.5 69.1 68.8

C4

S.Ed.k

CD (0.05)

80.9 82.7 81.8

0.84 0.82

1.71 1.66

Mean

Nitrogen Levels Year

1997-98 1998-99

71.5 73.2 72.4

75.1 76.7 75.9

0.63 0.80

1.53 1.96

Mean

Water regimes Year

1997-98 1998-99
Mean

70.4 72.3
71 4

76.2 77.5
76 9

1.29 0.13

4.13

0.40

Table 4.14 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Plant Height at maturity (cm)
-

NxW
Year

CxW C1 C2 C3 C4

N1

N2

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC) Year 1997-98 C1 1998-99

C2

C3

C4

C1

C2

C3

C4

Table 4.15 Interaction effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Plant Height at maturity (cm)

Table 4.16 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on LA1 at 45 DAS Cultivars Year
C1
1997-98 1998-99 0.752 0.749 0.751
C2

C3
0.992 0.992 0.992

C4
1.016 1.017 1.017

%Ed.*
0.007 0.007

CD (0.05)
0.013 0.013

0.803 0.802 0.803

Mem

Nitrogen Levels Year

1997-98 1998-99

0.872 0.873 0.873

0.909 0.906 0.908

0.004 0.004

0.009 0.009

Mean

Water regimes Year

1997-98 1998-99

0.853 0.877 0.873

0.928 0.903 0.908

0.03 0.02

0.009 0.006

Mean

Table 4.17 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on LA1 at 45 DAS

NxW
Year N1

CxW C1 C2 C3 C4

N2

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC) Year

1997-98 C1
N1

1998-99 C4 C1
C2

C2
0.792 0.814

C3
0.983 1.001

C3
0.985 0.998

C4
1.01 1 1.023

0.704 0.799

1.008 0.704 1.025 0.794

0.734 0.810

N2

S.Ed.i NxC
0.008

C1) (0.05)

S.Ed.+
0.009

CD (0.05) 0.018

0.017

Table 4.18 Interaction effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on 1,AI at 45 DAS

Fig 4.4 LA1 as influenced by water regimes and nitrogen levels Kharif-1998

Rainfed castor at 10 Kg N /ha


C M t
2-

Rainfed castor at 60 kg N I ha
+Amma 25.x

--h--GAXH

1 *GCH4

+DCS+

+WUCH

1 -GCH

lrr~gated castor at 10 Kg N I ha
-Arum
2 5 a

lrr~gated castor at 60 Kg N 1 ha
-1-z
x 5 .

+OCE9

--CCrlUC%I

W ( 1

-CLICS$

--CGAUCH

water regime in two years of study. The mean LA1 at 45 DAS ranged from 1.017 (GCH4) to 0.751 (Aruna). LA1 increased by 4 % by nitrogen (60 Kg N h a ' ) application. Irrigation increased the LA1 by -5 % over rainfed and recorded a mean LA1 of 0.916 in two years of study. The interaction effect between cultivars and water reglme was found significant in both years of study. Rainfed GCH-4 recorded a mean LA1 of 0.978. which was 36 O/o higher than Aruna. Under imgated conditions GCH-4 registered a mean LA1 of 1.054. which was 34 'iZ higher than Aruna. Significant nitrogen and water reglme interaction revealed that 60 kg N h i ' has increased the mean LA1 of cultivars from 0.840 (10 kg N ha I ) by 3 C/o under rainfed conditions and it is by 5 % under irrig~ted condit~ons. Nitrogen and cultivars ~nteract~on was also significant. GCH-4 registered 43 'iZ increase In mean LA1 than Aruna at 10 kg N ha'' while it was 27 % ~ncreaseat 60 kg N ha
I.

Interaction effect of water reglme,

n~trogenlevels and cultivars were also found to be significant. Under irrigated conditions GCH-4 at 60 kg N ha.' recorded mean LA1 of 1 053, which was 27 % hlgher than Aruna. ahile it was 42 % higher under rainfed conditions. The table 4.19 - 4.21 will represent the LA1 at 105 DAS. There were significant d~fferencesin LA1 at 105 DAS due to cultivars, nitrogen levels and water regimes in the two years. Mean for two years ranged from1.726 (Aruna) to 2.080 (GCH-4). There was 18 % increase in LA1 by nltrogen application. Irrigation Increased the LA1 from 1.888 (rainfed) to 1.953. The signlflcant interaction between cultlvars and water reglmes Indicated that irrigated GCH-4 LA1 was 20 % higher mean LA1 than Aruna. Irrigated cultlvars at 60 kg N ha.' recorded 18.5 % more mean LA1 than at 10 kg N ha"

~ h Interaction e effect between cultlvars and nrtrogen levels was also s l g n ~ l i c a ~At ~t. 60 kg
$ ha

GCH-4 recorded 19

C/c niore medn L A 1 than at 10 l g

N h;~ Tlic three-way

lnrcractlon u,as also s~gn~ticant. Irngdted GCH-4 at 60 kg N Iia rccorded 2.292 1 1 1 e ; 1 1 1 LA!, w l ~ ~ c bas h 18

a, hlgher

than at 10 kg N ha I. KOIIIIC~ (i(.H-4 i ~ t 60 kg N li,~

recorded 22 '7r h~gher mean LA1 than 31 10 kg N 113 I.

4.1.3

Total above ground drymatter pruduction


Table 4.22 - 4.24 rndrcatcs the dat;~for to 1ota1d1.y ~iiatterproduct~o~i dt 45 I)i\S.

(i('H-4 recorded mean drymaner of 78.4 g111'. which Silnrgen nppl~cnt~on lncrcased the dry~iiatrerkorn 70.0 g

%;IS

17 (X liiglicr tho11 Aruria.

I"

' II 0 kg N 113 '1 10 75.1 g 111'

160 kg N ha ' ) lrrlgdtlon had ~ncreased the meall drymatter hy 6 '8 over rarlilcd.
Slgnif~cantcultlvar and water reglme lntcractron ~ndlcalcdth;lt rnlnfcd (;('H-4 hdd 15.5 '2 111gherdry niattcr than Aruna. Wlth irrrgat~ori(;('I!-4 Ihad 16 %)
IIIOI~

dry

nhdttcr than Aruna At 60 kg N ha irrigated cultlvar.; recorded 7 1 morc dry riiallcr Illan ralnfed. At 60 kg N ha <iCll-4 recorded 111e,111 dry matter of 84 gnl highcr thali at 10 kg N lia
I.

'

'

',wlrlcli wah XS '#

Cultlvars, nltrogen levels and watcr reglme Intcractlon was alho r ~ g n ~ f ~ c a ~ i l . lrrlgnted GCH-4 at 60 kg N ha recorded h~ghest drymatter of'X2.50 g ni

'. wlhlch was 14

1 hlgher than Aruna Ralnfed GCH-4 at 60 kg N ha recorded I 3 'i: hlgllcr dry matter

'

than Aruna the lowest ylelder. Table 4.25

4.27 Indicates the dry matter data at 105 DAS. The differences

GCH-4 rccorded between cultivars, nltrogen levels and water reglmes were s~gmficant.
the highest (2 years) dry matter of 324 g m.', whlch was 32 Q hlgher than the lowes~

Table 4.19 Effect of Water reginies, nitrogel1 levels alld culli\urs 011 I,Al at IUS I).\S

Nitrogen 1.c.vc.l~ Year

\Vater reginies Year

Tuble 4.20 interaction effects of water reginles, l~itrogenl e ~ e l s and cultivurs OII 1..\1 at 105 DAS
-

N x lV
l ear

C \ \V

Nitrogen levelr x Cullivurs (NxCI Year 1997-98 C1 CZ C3 1998-06)

C ' l

CI

CZ

C3

C'l

Table 4.21 Isteraction effect of snter regimes, ~ ~ i t r o g e levels n and c~lltivurs011 1,Al at I 0 5 DAS

Table 4.22 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on total above ground drymatter production at 45 D A S (-gm")

Cultivars Year C1 C2 C3 C4 S.Ed.i CD (0.05)

Nitrogen 1,evels Year

Water regimes Year

Table 4.23 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on total above ground drymatter production at 45 DAS (gm")

NxW Year

CxW

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC)


K ear

1997-98

1998-99

N1

64.6
70.7

70.0 72.4

74.6
77.8

77.6

62.9 68.0

68.4 69.3

72.8 76.0

75.5 79.4

N2
NxC

80.5

S.Ed.i

CD (0.05)
4.57

S.Ed.i
2.12

CD (0.05)
4.35

2.22

Table 2.24 Interaction effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on total above ground drymatter production at 45 [)AS (gm")

Table 4.25 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on total above ground drymatter production at 105 DAS (gm.2)

Cultivars Year
C1

C2

C3

C4

%Ed.*

CD (0.05)

Nitrogen 1,evels Year

Water regimes Year

Table 4.26 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitro en levels and cultivars on total !) above ground drymatter productio~~ at 105 DAS (gm.

NxW

CxW

Year

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC) Year 1997-98 C1 C2


274.0 307.0

1998-99
C4 C1

C3
291.0 336.0

C2
257.0 286.0

C3

C4

Nl
N2

233.0 274.0

315.0 216.0 353.0 255.0

272.0 295.0 315.0 332.0

S.Ed.i
NxC
2.94

CD (0.05)
5.94

S.Ed.i
2.85

CD (0.05)
5.75

Table 4.27 Interaction effect of water regimes, nitro en levels and cultivars on total above ground drymatter production at 105 DAS (gm' )

y~elderAruna (244 gm.2). Nitrogen increased the mean dry matter from 269.0 g m.' ( N I ) to 307 g m.' rainfed. Cultivar and water reg~meinteraction showed that, irrigated GCH-4 recorded 10
% higher than rainfed. Irrigated castor with 60 kg N ha-' recorded 11 % more In dry
(N1).

Irrigation significantly increased the dry matter hy I I 9,more than

matter than the rainfed castor. Significant interaction effect of n~trogen levels and cult~vars ind~catedthat GCH-4 w ~ t h60 Kg

ha-' registered

highest mean dry matter (343 Interaction effect of

gm') which was 12 % higher than GCH-4 with 10 kg

r ha-'. The

cultivars, n~trogenlevels and water reg~meind~catedthat irrigated GCH-4 with 60 kg N h i ' recorded mean dry matter of 359 g m-", which was 11 % higher than 10 kg N h i 1 . Under rainfed conditions GCH-4 with 60 kg N ha.' recorded 12 9 htgher dry matter than at 10 kg N h a ' .

4.2 YIELD COMPONENTS

4.2.1

Main spike length


The data on the mean maln spike length is presented in table 4.28

4.30. The main spike length differed s~gnificantlydue to cultivars, n~trogen and water levels. Two yems mean s p ~ k e length ranged from 29.7 cm (GCH-4) to 24.3 cm (Arunaj. GCH-4 recorded 22 % increase in s p ~ k e length than Aruna. 60 kg

ha" recorded 30.0 cm

of main spike length, which was 26 % higher than 10 kg N ha?. Irrigation significantly increased spike length by about 7 % over the rainfed castor. Cultivars and water regimes ~nteractionwas found to be sign~ficant. Two years mean main spike length of GCH-4 was 25 % higher than Aruna under ra~nfed conditions, but it was only 20 B higher under irrigated conditions. Irrigated GCH-4

Table 4.28 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Main spike length (cm) Cultivars Year CI

c:

C3

C4

S.Ed.i

CD (0.05)

Mean

24.3

26.3

27.1

29.7

Nitrogen Levels Year NI N: S.Ed.i

CD (0.05)

Water regimes Year

Table 4.29 Interaction effects of rater regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Main Spike Length (cni)

NxW
Year

CxW

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC) Year 1997-98 1998-99

C,

C2

C3

C4

C,

C2

C3

C4

Table 4.30 lnleraction effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Main Spike Length (cm)

recorded mean main spike length of 30.5 cm, which was 4.5 % h~gherthan Aruna. N~trogen levels and water regime interaction were also significant. At 60 kg N ha.' irrigated castor recorded mean spike length of 31.2 cm, which was 7.5 7~higher than rainfed castor. Significant interaction was observed between nitrogen levels and cultivars. At 10 kg N ha", there was 20 % increase in mean spike length of GCH-4 than length of 31.7 cm Aruna, while at 60 g N ha" it was 23 %. GCH-4 recorded mean s p ~ k e higher than 10 kg N ha.'. Interaction effect of cultivars, at 60 kg N ha.', which was 27 8) nltrogen levels and water reglme was also significant. Two years mean maln spike length
of irrigated GCH-4 at 60 kg N ha.', was 34 cm. which was 25 W higher than Aruna.

4.2.2

Spikes per plant


The data regarding the number of spikes per plant is presented in the table 4.31 -

4.33. The number of spikes per plant differed s~gnificantlydue to cultivars, nitrogen
levels and water levels. Two years mean number of spikes per plant ranged from 6.0 (Aruna) to 6.3 (GCH-4). With 60 kg N ha" there was mean spikes of 6.4, compared with only 5.9 at 10 kg N ha.'. Nitrogen application increased the spikes by about 8 % compared 10 kg N ha.'. Irrigation resulted in 6.6 spikes per plant compared with rainfed condition. Irrigated castor recorded 15 7% more number of sp~kes per plant than ramfed conditions. Irrigated GCH-4 resulted in 6.8 mean spikes per plant, but only 5.7 under rainfed conditions. GCH-4 had 6.4 mean spikes at 60 kg N ha" and 5.8 spikes at I0 kg N ha".

Table 4.31 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Spikes per plant Cultivars Year
C1

C2

C3

C4

S.Ed.f

CD (0.05)

Nitrogen Levels Year

Water regimes Year

Mean

5.7

6.6

Table 4.32 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on spikes per plant NxW Year
N1

CxW C1 C2 C3 C4

N2

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC) Year


1997-98 1998-99

N1 N2 NxC

5.7 6.5

6.3 6.7

5.8 6.4

6.1
6.8

5.5
6.0

5.9 6.3

5.6 6.1

5.8 6.4

S.Ed.lt 0.14

CD (0.05)
NS

S.Ed.* 0.14

CD (0.05)
NS

Table 4.33 Interaction effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on spikes per plant

The interaction of water regimes and nitrogen levels was significant in two years of experimentation. Irrigated cultivars at 60 kg N ha" had 7.0 spikes per plant which was 19 70 higher than 10 kg N ha" There was 12 8 increase in spikes per plant under irrigated conditions at 60 kg N h i ' compared with 10 kg N ha.', while the increase was only 4 O h under rainfed conditions. Two years mean data indicated that under irrigated cond~tionsthe spikes per plant while under ramfed conditions it ranged from 5.2 ranged from 6.1 (NICI)to 7.3 (NzC~), ( N I C I )to 5.9 (N2C4),The number of spikes on a plant was s~milar in both years of study, regardless of whether it was rainfed or irrigated crop.

4.2.3 Capsules per Spike


The data on the mean capsules per spike are presented in table 4.34 4.36. The differences in the capsules per spike due to water, nltrogen and cultivars were significant. Significantly h~ghernumber of capsules per spike was produced by C4 over the other cultivars. Max~mumnumber of capsules per spike 1.e. 24.4 (1997) and 22.6 (1998) was registered at 60 kg N ha.', and were found to be significantly higher than 10 kg N ha".

Table 4.34 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Capsules per Spike Cultivars Year

CI

cz

C3

C4

S.Ed.?

CD (0.05)

Nitrogen Levels Year

Mcan

20.9

23.5

Year

Water regimes

Mean

20.0

23.3

Table 4.35 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Capsules per Spike NxW Year CxW

NxW 1998-99
\V

\V2

NxW

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC) Year 1997-98 1998-99 C4 Cl


C2

C,

C2

C3

C3

C4

NxC

0.40

0.81

0.38

0.77

Table 4.36 Interaction effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivnrs on Capsules per Spike

The interaction effect between cultivars and water regimes was found sign~ficantin two years of study. Maximum number of capsules per spike i.e.. 23.9 (1997) and 25.0 (1998) was recorded by treatment combination WzC4. Water regimes and nitrogen levels Interaction was also found significant in both years. W2N2treatment con~b~nalion recorded the h~ghestnumber of capsules per spike i.e.. 25.1 (1997) and 23.2 (1998). The interaction effect of cultivars and nitrogen levels was significant In both years. NzC? recorded the max!mum number of capsules per spike of 26.1 dur~ng 1997 and 24.5 during 1998 study.The interaction effect of water regimes. nitrogen levels and cultlvars were significant in the both years of study, but the treatment GCH-4 at 60
kg N ha-' under irrlgoted cond~tion gave the highest number of capsules per spike.

4.2.4 100 Seed Weight (g)


Data on 100 seed-weight are presented in table 4.37

- 4.39. Differences in

100 seed

we~ghtdue to cultivars, nitrogen levels were s~gnificantin both years of study except due
100 seed to water regime. Among the different cultivars, GCH-4 recorded max~~nutn

weight over the other cultivars. Maximum 100 seed weight of 23.9 g (1997) and 23.1 g (1998) was recorded at 60 kg N ha.' and were found significantly higher than 10 g N ha '. The interact~oneffect, between cultivars and water regimes was found significant in both years. Maximum 100 seed weight of 26.8 g (1997) and 25.4 g (1998) was recorded by WzC4.The interaction effect of nitrogen levels and water regimes was in both years of study. Max~mum100 seed weight of 24.7 g (1997) and also s~gnificant 23.7 g (1998) was recorded by W2N2.

Table 4.37 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivurs on 100 Seed Weight (grams) Cultivars Year CI Cz C3 C4 S.Ed.t CD (0.05)

Nitrogen Levels Year

Year 1997-98

WI 22.8

Water regimes
M'z
24.2

S.Ed.+ 28.51

CD (0.05)
IVS

Table 4.38 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on 100 Seed-weight (grams)
Nx IV

CxW
CI

Year

NI
1997-98

Nz

Cz

C3

C4

WI W2

22.5 23.8

23.2 24.7

20.1 21.3

23.2 24.3

23.3

24.6
26.8

24.5

S.Ed.t
0.07 1998-99
IV,

CD (0.05)
0.17

S.1ld.k
0.41

CD (0.05) 0.84

21.7 22.7

22.4 23.7

19.5 20.4

22.5 23.5

22.5 23.6

23.6 25.4

\V>

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC) Year


1997-98 1998-99

C1

C2

C3

C4

C,

C2

C3

C4

Table 4.39 Interaction effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on 100 Seed-weight (grams)

'Tahle 4.40 Effect of water regimes, l~itrogr~l levels and cultivars 011Seed Yield (kg 11a.9 Cultivars Year C1 C2

C3

C4

S.Ed.t

CD (0.05)

Nitrugen Levels Year

1997-98 1998-99

1370 l I00 1230

1510 1300 1400

7.00 2.90

17.10 7.20

Mean

Water regimes Year

Table 4.41 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitrogen levels slid cultivars on Seed yield (kg ha")

NxW

CxW

Year

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC) Year 1997.98 1998-99

Table 4.42 l~lteractioneffect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Seed Yield (kg ha.')

The interaction effect of cultivars and nitrogen levels was also significant in both years of study (table). C2 and C i were on par with each other at bolh levels of nitrogen. NZCI recorded maxlmum 100 seed weight of 26.0 g durlng flrst year recorded n mean 100 seed weight of and 25.1 g during second year of study. WZN~CI 27.0 g (1997) and 25.9 g (1998).

4.3 Seed Yield


Data on seed yield was presented In table 4.40 - 4.42. Significant d~fference was observed due to cultivars, nitrogen levels m d water regimes on seed yield. The mean seed y~eld ranged from 1055 kg he'' (Aruna) to1660 kg h i 1(OCH-4). Nitrogen (60 kg N ha.') application increased the seed yield by 14 %compared to that with 10 kg N ha.'. Irr~gationincreased castor seed yield by 32 W co~nparcd with rainfed crop. Inleract~oneffect of cul~ivarsand water reglmes was s~gnificant.llnder ramled cond~tions highest yielder GCH-4 recorded 58 W more mean seed yield than Aruna, while ~twas 68 W under migated cond~tions. Seed y~eld of irr~gated GCH-4 was 1930 kg ha.', which was 38 9c higher than ramfed GCH-4. Significant interaction between nitrogen and water regimes ind~cated that, seed yield of irrigated castor cultivars was increased by 16 W with 60 kg N ha" than at 10 kg N ha.', while it was only 10 W under rainfed cond~tions. GCH-4 yielded 72 %, higher than Aruna at 10 kg N ha-I. At 60 kg N ha-' GCH-4 had 56 % more yield than Aruna. The cultivar, nitrogen level and water regime interaction was also significant. Under irrigated

Table 4.43 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Stalk yield (kg ha") Cultivars Year CI

C2

C3

C4

S.Ed.+

CU (0.05)

Nitrogel1 Levels Year

- -

Water reginies Yrar

1997-98 1998-99

1650
1630

2080 1880 1980

7.10

22.60

4.30

13.70

Mean

1640

Table 4.44 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cullivars on Stalk yield (kg ha")

NxW
Year

CxW

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC) Year

1997-98
C1

1998-99 C4
2030 2080

CZ
1670 1820

C3
1850 2070

C1
1440 1620

C2
1590 1710

C3
1800 1940

C4
1940

N1

1590 1790

N2
NxC

2020

S.Ed._t
15.20

C D (0.05) 30.90

S.Ed.f
12.80

CD (0.05)
25.90

Table 4.45 Interaction effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivnrs on Stalk Yield (kg ha")

conditions GCH-4 recorded a mean seed yield of 2050 kg ha.', w h ~ c h was 6 0 Phhlgher than Aruna. Irrigated GCH-4 at 6 0 kg N h a 1 had 14 70higher seed yleld than
I I (

i0 kg N

h i 1 . The two years mean seed yleld of rainfed GCH-4 at 6 0 kg N ha-' was 6 % higher than 10 kg N ha".

4.4 Slalk Yield

The dale pertaining to stalk yield is presented in table 4.43 - 4.45. The differences due to cultivar, nitrogen levels and water regi~newere all significant. Stalk yield ranged froni 1610 kg ha-' (Aruna) to 2020 kg ha" (GCH-4). Nitrogen fert~lizerincreased the stalk yield by 8 % in the two ycars of the study, lrr~gationincreased stalk yleld by about 20 %, over rainfcd condltlon and recorded mean stalk yield of 1985 kg h i 1 . The interect~onbetween cultivars and water regime was significant in both years of study. Under ramfed cond~tions.GCH-4recorded a mean stalk yleld of 1810 kg ha
I,

w h ~ c hwas 24 % higher than Aruna, Irrigated GCH-4 recorded 26 rh more meal1 stalk y~eld than Aruna. Irrigated GCH-4 recorded 24 % Increase in stalk yield over the rainfed ones. Nltrogen and water levels interaction revealed that 60 kg N h i 1 had greater stalk yleld than w ~ t h10 kg N h a 1 under ruinfed condit~ons,and the difference was I I %' under irrigated conditions. The interaction between nitrogen levels and cultivars interaction was also significant. GCH-4 had 30 % greater mean stalk yield than Aruna when I 0 kg N h i ' was applied, while it was 20 % greater at 60 kg N ha.'. The interaction effect of water regime, nitrogen levels and cultivars were also stgnificant. Under irrigeted conditions GCH-4 at

Table 4.46 Effect of water regin~es,nitrogen levels and cultivnrs on Harvest Index

(%I
Cultivars Year

1997-98 1998-99

39.7 37.1 38.4

40.7 38.1 39.4

44.9 42.0 43.5

46.6 43.1 44.9

0.20 0.18

0.41 0.38

Mean

Nitroge~~ Levels Year

1997-98 1998-99 Mean

42.7 38.8 40.8

43.3 41.1 42.2

0.11 0.03

0.27 0.08

Water regimes Year

1997-98 1998-99

42.0 39.0 40.5

44.0 41.1 42.6

0.08 0.07

0.27 2.21

Mean

Table 4.47 Interaction effects of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Harvest Index (%)

NxW
Year

CxW

Nitrogen levels x Cultivars (NxC)


I

ear

1997-98

1998-99

NI N2

39.0 40.6

40.5 40.8

45.1 44.8
CD (0.05) 0.54

46.1

35.9 38.2

37.2 39.0

41.2 42.9

41.8 44.4

47.1

S.Ed.i:
NxC

S.Ed.?:
C xW 0.23

C D (0.05)

0.27

0.46

Table 4.48 Interaction effect of water regin~es, nitrogen levels and cultivars Harvest Index (%)

OII

60 kg N ha-' recorded the highest mean stalk yield of 2300 kg h i 1 . which was 22 Cir lhlgher than Aruna, while it was 17 % higher than under ralnfed conditions.

4.5 Harvest Index


D~fferencesin harvest index occurred between cultivars, nitrogen levels and water regime. Within the cultivars, the maximum harvest index of 44.9 was in GCH-4. The harvest index ~ncreasedsignificantly with lncreas~ngnitrogen. The rnnxlrnum harvest ~ndex of 42.2 with 60 kg N ha? was slgnificwtly superior lo harvest indcx w ~ l hI0 kg N
ha.'. All the two way and three way interactions were significant in two years of

experimentation. The interact~oneffect of cultivars, nltrogen levels and water reglmes were also s~gtiificant (tahle 4.46 -4.48). Maximum harvest index of 48 4 (1997) md 45.9 (1998) was recorded by migated GCH-4 at 60 kg N h i 1 .

4.6 Quality parameters 4.6.1 Oil content (%)


Data penainlng to oil content of castor seed was presented In tablc 4.49. There was no s~gnificantd~fferencein oil content due to cultivars, nitrogen levels and water regimes. Mean oil content for cultlvars ranged from 48.3 5% (GCH-4) to 45.7 % (DCS-9) In the two years of the study. 60 kg N ha.'recorded the mean oil content of 47.7 '70, while ~t was only 47.0 % at 10 kg N ha.'. Irrigated castor recorded the mean per cent.
011content

of 47.8

4.6.2 Protein content (%)

Table 4.49 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Oil content (%) Cultivars Year C1

C2

C3

C4

S.Ed.f

CD (0.05)

Nitrogen Levels Year

1997-98 1998-99

47 9 46.2 47.0

48.7

0.29 0.24

NS h'S

46.8 47.7

Mcsn

Water regimes Year

Table 4.50 Effect of water regimes, nitrogen levels and cultivars on Protein contellt
(70)

Cultivars Year
C1

C2

C3

C4

S.Ed.t

CD (0.05)

Nitrogen Levels Year

1997-98 1998-99

31.5 30.1 30.8

31.2 30.7 31.0

1.18 1.80

5.07
7.76

Mean

Water regimes Year W1


1997-98 1998-99 31.2 28.7 30.0

W2
31.6 32.1 31.8

S.Ed.t
0.03 0.55

CD (0.05)
0.33 7.05

Mean

Data regarding the protein content of castor seeds was presented in table 4.50. In both years, differences due to cultivms, nitrogen levels and water regimes were nonsignificant. Mean (2 years) protein content of the cultivars ranged frotn 32.0 (GAIJCH-I) to 30.0 (DCS-9). The mean protein content of cultivars ranged from 31.0 (60 kg N ha") to 30.8 (10 kg N ha") Irrigated castor recorded a mean protein content of 31.8. wll~le11 was only 29.9 under rainfed conditions.

4 7 Nutrient uptake
Uptake of nutrients by Leaf The differences in nutricnt uptake by leaf due to water regimes, nllrogen levels and cultivars were non-significant. The nutrtent uptake by leaf at 30, 60,90. 120 DAS and at harvest are presented In the figure .As the crop grows the uplake of nutrients increased up to 90 DAS, thereafter the nutrient content of leaf decreased.

1997-98 Kharif
Under irngared cond~tions, at harvest nutrient uptake by leaf was only 7.0 kg N ha'', 0.71 kg P ha-' and 3.14 kg K ha". At 60 kg N level the uptake was 6.78 kg N ha ', P was 0.63 kg ha.'and 2.89 kg K ha-'of polash. GCH-4 recorded only 6.97 kg N h i 1 .0.66 kg P ha" and 3.48 kg K ha".
1998-99 Kharif

Fig 4.5 Uptake of nitrogen by castor cultivars Kharif-1997

[ i i l stem - - - - --~ - -

Nitrogen-upJake by Aruna
tears sl ,

...............
0
I 1

l,"l"o.l

OA3
~~

. . . . .

- -~

p;-iyern : : :1

Nitrogen uptake by DCS-9

--~ai& stom

TO!^!,

-~

. . . . . . . . . . . .

E-

Nitrogen uptake by GCH-4-

--

~erls stem

....

Talrl] . .

......... ._..
e m - - - - -

r
a "

Fig 4.6 Uptake of nitrogen by castor cultivars Kharif-1998

Nitrogen uptake by Aruna


+ s t . " .

&Leal

s stern

-To,.,

Nitrogen uptake b y DCS-9

Nitrogen uptake by GAUCH-I


t . t . m -La.,
(L

s t e m +TOl.l

Nitrogen uptake by GCH-4


t . , . m
.-.--Lea,&

s t a m +Total

Fig 4.7 Uptake of phosphorus by castor cultivars Kharif-1997


Phosphorus uptake by Aruna
-C.l.rn

+L..l&SI.rn

+TO,.,

Phosphorus uptake by DCS-9


+ . I " ,

--CL..,bSI.rn

+To,.,

Phosphorus uptake by GAUCH-1


+arm
--CL.alL

S I r n +TOIS#

Phosphorus uptake by GCH-4


*stern

+~sdd

stern +Total

Fig 4.8 Uptake of phosphorus by castor cultivars Kharif-1998


Phosphorus uptake by Aruna

Phosphorus uptake by DCS-9


+$$em
+Loel8 S1em 4 T o f a l

Phosphorus uptake by GAUCH-1


-$Ism
-Leal&
Ssm 4 T a l a l

Phosphorus uptake by GCH-4


-C.,.m
+Led
lSlam +To!sl

Fig 4.10 Uptake of potash by castor cultivars Kharif-1998


Potash uptake by Aruna
+*cam -a-~eaf&
stem -A-~otal

Potash uptake by DCS-9


+.,em

+Lo.,&

s 1 . m

&Tola,

Potash uptake by GAUCH-1


+,lorn

+Leaf&

Stom +Total

Potash uptake by GCH-4


+stem

+~sa!d.

Stem &Total

The irrigated castor recorded an uptake of 4.87 kg N h i ' . 0.45 kg P ha" and 1.81 kg K ha.', while 60 kg N level recorded 5.0 kg N ha.', 0.45 kg P h i ' and 1.81 kg K ha '. Out of all the cultivars, GCH-4 recorded the maximum amount of nutrient uptake is., 5.29 kg N ha", 0.59 kg P ha.' and 1.97 kg K ha-'. Uptake of nutrients by Stem The nutnent uptake by stem is presented in the Fig 4.5 - 4.10 .The nutrlent uptake by stem at various stages of crop growth was non-significant due to water regimes, nltrogen levels and cultivars. Similar to that of uptake of nutrients by leaf, the nutrient uptake by stem also increased with growth up to 90 DAS. Later, as the crop reaches maturlty the uptake decreased.

1997 Kharif
At harvest the irrigated castor recorded uptke of 8.35 kg N ha-', 1.90 kg P ha.'

and 12.96 kg K ha.'. As compared to 10 kg N ha.'level, 60 kg N ha-'level recorded maximum uptake i.e., 7.98 kg N ha.', 1.61 kg P ha-'and 11.94 kg K ha". Out of four cultivars tested GCH-4 recorded the highest amount of uptake of 9.65 kg N ha.', 1.67 kg

P ha-'and 15.87 kg K ha.' at harvest.


1998Kharif
In Kharif1998 experimentation, an uptake of about 5.15 kg N ha". 1.57 kg P ha-' and 8.9 kg K ha'' was recorded by irrigated castor. The 60 kg N ha" level recorded the highest amount of nutrient uptake than 10 kg N ha"level. Highest yielder GCH-4 recorded 7.05 kg N ha.', 1.59 kg P ha.' and 10.42 kg K h i ' .

Uptake of nutrients by the Spike

The N, P and K uptake by the spike at 90. 120 DAS and at harvest were presented in the Fig4.5 - 4 . 1 0 . As the crop approached maturity the uptake of nutrients increased in the regard to the uptake of nutrients by sp~ke, only the cult~vars differed spike. W~th significantly.

1997kharif
Irrigated castor recorded 45.6 kg of nitrogen uptake per hectare, 9.33 kg of 'P' per hectareand 15.7 kg K per hectare at harvest. With increase in nitrogen appltcat~onthcre was improvement i n the uptake of nutrients. At harvest N60 level recorded 46.4 kg of nitrogen uptake, 9.4 kg of P and 15.7 kg of K uptake. GCH-4 recorded the highest nitrogen uptake of 47.5 kg ha-' than the other cultivars and 9.74 kg of P and 19.2 kg of K. 1998-99 Kharij At harvest irrigated castor recorded 48 kg of nitrogen uptake, 8.16 kg of phosphorus uptake and 16.8 kg potash uptake per hectare. N60 recorded the nitrogen uptake of 29.45 kg, 6.63 kg P and 17.41 kg of potash. At harvest GCH-4 recorded highest nitrogen uptake of 48.lkg ha', which was 20 % htgher than Aruna, the lowest yielder.7.31 kg of P uptake was registered by GCH-4 at harvest and was 28 % higher than Aruna. The highest yielder GCH-4 recorded 18.29 kg ha-' uptake of potash at harvest. while Aruna recorded 15.47 kg of uptake only.

4.7 Heat units (GDD) accumulated by various treatments a t 50 % flowering and


maturity of khorif experiment The data presented in table 4.51

- 4.52 reveals the growing degree days required

for 50 % flowering and maturity by various treatments. Overall data indicated that

Table 4.51 Heat units (GDD) accumulated by various treatments at 50 % flowering and maturity of khnrifexperiment.1997

50 70 Flowering

Treatments W I N ,

WIN2

1 WzNl

1 W2N2

Maturity

/Treatments W I N l

/ WIN2

1 WzNl

I WIN?

Table 4.52 Heat units (GDD) accumulated by various treatments at 50 Q flowering and maturity of kharifexperiment-1998

Flowering

Treatments W I N l

WINz 1179 (63) 1058 (64) 1255 (78) 1223 (76)

WZNI 1149 (64) 1043 (64) 1194 (74) 1179 (73)

WzN: 1074 (66) 1149 (70) 1254 (78) 1223 (76)

CI
cz
c 3

1121 (69)

1029 (63) 1208 (75) 1179 (73)

Maturity

I Treatments 1 WIN1

( W,N2

i W:N,

W?N?

Note: F~gures In paretlthesls itid~cate the number ut days.

irrigated treatments accumulated more number of heat units than rainfed one. Out of the two levels of nitrogen 60 kg N ha.' accumulated higher GDD to attam 50 % flowering or maturity. Best yielder GCH-4, under irrigated conditions with 60 kg N ha.' accumulated 1262 GDD to attain 50 % flowering and 3023 GDD to reach maturity in 1997 kharif'and 1223 (50 % flowering) and 2664 (maturity) In 1998 kharfexpenments.

4.9 Peak Radiation use efficiency of castor cultivars recorded by different treatments during its crop growth

The data in table 4.53 reveels that the maximum RUE recorded by 1997 kharifwas more than that of 1998 kharif'trial. Maximum dose of nitrogen (60 Kg N ha?) recorded higher values of RUE in almost all cultivars both in rainfed and irrigated treatments in two years of experimentation. When compared to rainfed ones, irrigated castor recorded the highest recorded the highest RlJE of RUE in both years of study. In 1997 the GAUCH-I cult~var 1.130, while it was 0.499 in 1998 indicating the most favorable conditions in kl1arf1997 season. The slope of the relationship between biomass accumulation and intercepted radiat~on gives the RUE, which was represented graphically from Fig4.11 -4.18.

Table 4.53 Peak radiation use efficiency of castor cultivars recorded by different treatments during its crop growth

FIG 4.41 RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS


RUE of WIN,Ci-97 1 QMJ.' )

1 2 5 8 5 5 0 6 1 1 9 8 2237 3397 4 7 2 6 5 1 1 4 6 3 1 8 6 9 0 2 8 0 5 5
Intercepted redletion 1 MJm-2 )

RUE o f W I N I C 2 97 ( gMJ

'1

-E

350 00

300 00

250 00 200 00
15000

2
m

100 00 50 00 0 00

17 7 2 77 57

/
172 5

319 5 466 4

564 4 676 7 798 6 899 9

1040

Intercepted radlallon ( MJm 2 )

RUE of WlNlC3-97 1 (IMJ' 1


3 5 0 00

300 00
250 00 200 00 15000
10000

50 DO

0 00

166 725

/ , " 160 311


484

633

738

797

848

926

1013 1127

Intercopled rsdlaflon ( MJm 2

RUE of WlNIC4-87 (0MJ' )

h~C&eh%h22

'

Intercepted redlaflon 1 MJm-2)

F I G 4.12 RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

RUE of W l N l C l - 9 8 ( gMJ' )
303 00

RUE ofWlN1CZ-98 ( gMJ' )

RUE of W l N I C 3-98 ( ~ M J " )

100 00

,, DO ,,
IW W 150

; ;
SOW

RUE of W1N1C 4-98 ( ~ M J ) '

0W

Intercepted rMlatlm I MJm-2 )

FIG 4.13

RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

RUE Of WZN(C1-97 (9M-I'


350

l 8 S l 81 6 3 1 7 9 1 3334 1 2 2 6 670 8 2 2 8 8686 lnlarcepled radlstlon MJm 2 1

<

1095

,282

RUE of WZNIC4-07 (gM.).' 1

. q ep.'%*%G'%9&*

( ~ 0 * , ~ ~ ~ , ~ $o,~z*,+ee ~ ~ & ~
Internepled radmtlon ( MJm 2 )

.eeb

FIG 4.34

RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

RUE Of WtN2CT-97 (aMd


350 00

')

15000

5i
700

50 00

0 00

2 0 8 4 91 88 1 9 5 8 - 2 2

/
533 1 6 8 7 1 8173 9391
1016

1222

Intorsepfed radmelion ( MJm 2 1

RUE ol W1N2C2-II7 ( OM,' I

4W 00

g !

gE/
,WOO

R U E I I W ( N Z C 3 91 ( .MJ'

50 W

0W
40
439 103
241
384

518

817

692 100 IlOe 1031 1ZOB

Intercepted radiallon ( MJm 2 1

FIG 4.15 RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS RUE of W2NlCl-98 ( gMJ' )

-50 00

5 76

7 5 2 s 1 5 6 3 281 6 438 3 5 8 0 2 7 4 6 5 898 7 lnterccplad radlallon ( MJm.2 I

1034

1296

2708 1392

187

3 0 8 5 4 4 5 6 593 3 7 6 2 8 8 9 5 9 9986 1 1 4 2

Intercepted redlallon ( MJm 2

4WW 350 00

3 0 0 , 250 W

: 2 :
TWO0
50 W

OW , b * 4 4 e * , ( \ 2 "

r
RUE of W2NlC4-98 ( 9MJ

'I

28"'Pdp~b29~9DeeeeDDeo,PD~~D.~hh.8
~nlsrcspfed rsdlnlia IMJm 2

FIG 4.16 RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

R U E of WZN2C1-98 ( S M ~ )'
350 00

R U E of W2N2C2-98 ( gMJ'' )
4WOO

400 00

"

350 00
30000 ,5000
2WOO 75000

10000 50 00
0 00

21 4

r
RUE of W2NZC3-98 ( gMJ

')

109

216

358

548

134

905 1051 1198 1343 1504 $ 7 3 0

Inl*rsspted rrdlatlon t MJm 2

>

R U E of WZN2C4-98 ( gMJ
450 00

')

FIG 4.17 RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

RUE olW2N1C1-97 (OM,'

RUE O f WIN2C1.97 ( gM2


4W 00

')

1172 8442

131 9 2 - 4 1

322

4386

571 7 B e 0 5

708

1488

lnlersspfsd radiation 1 MJm-2

RUE of W2NIC1-91( OMJ'


150 00

FlG4.18 RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

RUE of WIN2Cl-98 ( g M J 1 )
350 W

RUE of W1N2CZ-98 ( gMJ' )


350 W

room
50

00

O W

RUE of WlNZC3-98 ( gMJ

')

250 W

too 00
50 00

0 00
8 5 6 6 8 2 1 1 4 7 9 1 0 5 9 1 9 8 4 6 8 9 7 894 1088 l l O B 1485 1652 1889 ~nterscpted radsatbon ( MJm.2 I

RUE of WlN2C4-98 ( ~ M J ')


1W 00

Fig 4.20 Partitioning of above ground drymatter Kharif-1998


- -

Rainfed Aruna at 10 kg N ha
-stern
DM t
L ~ . l

'
OM

Ramfed DCS-9 at 10 kg N h a '


t S I ~ r n 0 U CLes1&SlanDH

Srtm b DM -7-

+Tow#

DU

Ramfed GAUCH-1 at 10 kg N ha
-5W
t l e P l

'
DM

Ralnfed GCH4atlO kg N h a '


t S 1 E r n D U -Lea,

l Stem DY -To?*

& St-

OM &Tola#

DM

5 i
S

ZYIM

znm

Ll m

wm
om

mm

Rainfed Apna at 10 kg N ha
DY - - C L e * L S t n
OU -ToW

Fig 4.20 Partitioning of above ground drymatter Kharif-I998

'

Rainfed DCS-9at 10 kg N ha'


-5wm

-tSmrn

DY

W t i . d t ElrmOU

+TOW

Ou

Ralnfed GAUCH-1 at 10 kg N ha +sariar

'

Rainfed GCH-4 at10 kg N ha


-51.m OU &Lmal&

'

c . r s

5,n.n

ar

rn

Stern DY - C T * * D U

2YIM

'"m

3Ylm

Ylm

Fig 4.22 Partitioning of above ground drymatter Kharif-1998


Rainfed Aruna at 6 0 kg N ha"
--Csc.mm
--CLesl(lScem
Dhl d--7omlDM

-stemDM 3% m

Rainfed DCS-9 at 60 kg N ha --CLefllSlrmDU +TWIG

'

Rainfed GAUCH-1 at 6 0 kg N ha"


-stGou - c c ~ s s c a m w r -&-roiaroar

Rainfed G C H 4 at 60 kg N ha"
-+-stsm 3M - L l d l m [ l . +Tom! D O U

am oo

4.10 Partitioning
Partitioning of the above ground drymatter was depicted from tigures In whlch the amount of drymatter partitioned to stem, together stem and leaf and total above ground drymatter (stem, leaf and spike) is presented in Fig 4.19 - 4.26. Irrespective of the effect of different treatments. the amount of drymatter partitioned to the stem portion was comparatively higher than the amount pivtitioned to other parts of the plant. As the growth advanced, the partitlonlng of assimilates was more towards leaf area development. With the initiation of reproductive phase assimilates were transported to sink as well as vegetative parts. After attaming the peak reproductive phase (after the initiation of primary and secondary spikes) the transportation of assimilates to stem and leaf started deciinlng. As compared to ra~nfed treatments ir~lgated castor recorded maximum amount of total above ground drymatter production, as such more is the amount partit~oned to sink portion for the production of economically useful portion i.e, bean yield. Irrigated castor cultivars with 60 kg N ha" recorded comparatively higher drymatter production than the castor cultivars cultivated with 10 kgN ha.'. Out of the four cultivars tested, GCH-4 recorded the maximum amount of photosynthates partitioned In the production of seed y~eld followed by GAUCH- I.

4.11 Correlation

Table 4.54 Correlation between cumulative Light interception,

LA1 and Seed yield

(kharif-1997)

Trealn~enls Seed Yield (kgha-I) WlNlCl 872 WlNlC2 994 WINIC3 1309 WlNlCl 1455 WlS2CI 1042 WIN2C2 1079 WIN2C3 1423 WIN2C4 1503 W2NlCl 1166 W2NIC2 1305 W2NIC3 1809 W2NIC4 2055 W2N2C1 1412 W2N2C2 1437 W?N2C3 1946 W2N2C4 2230 Seed yeld x .0.18675 CIK Seed y~cldx LA1 ClR x LrU

ClR at QODAS
223.7 319.5 311.0 352.1 342.2 310.4 240.9 345.1 187.6 333.4 270.7 305.9 283.9 214.1 145.6 266.6

LA1 at60 DAS


0.766 1.066 1.177 1.211 0.815 1.087 1.192 1.334 0.873 1175 1.284 1.321 0.968 1.204 1.309 1451

CIR at 90 DAS
472.6 564.4 632.9 6700 687.6 604.4 518.3 597.4 351.99 670.0 543.6 601.3 616.1 438.6 370.9 5797 .0.07226

LA1 at YO DAS 1305 1.416 1.498 1651 1.418 1.454 1.630 1723 1522 1.633 1.715 1.868 1.635 1.671 1.847 1.940

CIR at IIarvesl
803.7 1039.7 1127.2 1699.6 1221.6 12652 1205.6 18205 800.2 1281.8 1402.4 1498.6 1180.1 748.9 977.7 1005.1 0 ?2785

LA1 at Harvest ,333 ,368 ,347 327 ,284 322 ,370 ,260 ,400 ,435 ,441 ,421 351 ,389 464

0 835291 0.078592

0.9669 -0.0733

0.4344 -0 3326

Table4.55

Correlation between cumulative Light interceptio~i,LA1 and Seed yield

(kharif-1998)

Treatnienh WINICI WINIC? WINIC3 WlNlC4 WlN2Cl W1N2C2 WIN2C3 WlN2C4 W2NlCl W2NlC2 WZNIC3 W2NIC4 W?N?CI W?N2C? W2N2C3 W2N2C4 Sced y~rld x

Seed Yield (kaha.') 732 867 1131 1243 881 970 1273 I371 883 1017 1385 IS55 1136 1221 1658 1880 0.0948

ClR at 6ODAS 365.0 351.3 348.4 404.6 323.5 315.3 305.9 311.6 291.6 3088 314.3 289 5 333.8 301.5 367.9 351.8

LA1 at 60 DAS 0.877 1.181 1.294 1.333 0.965 1.201 1.310 1.453 0.879 1.184 1.29'1 1.330 0.967 1.203 1.311 1.455

CIR at Y O DAS 7362 681.1 708.6 757.2 689.2 638.7 689.7 697.9 580.2 591 2 614.4 529.2 689.4 608.6 734.4 686.6 -0 0179

LA1 at 90 DAS 1.289 1.402 1.495 1947 1401 I439 1.616 1 71 1 1406 1.518 1.605 1.756 1.518 1.555 1.732 1826

ClR at Hnrvest 1443.4 1293.6 61625.6 1655.6 1465.1 131 1.4 1888.9 1638.9 1295.5 1141.9 15048 1364.9 I4921 1147.7 1730.1 1648.5 0.4810

LA1 at llarvest 0.321 0.361 0342 0.318 0.279 0.318 0.363 0.219 0362 0.398 0.391 0 370 0315 0.354 0414 0.301

CIR Seed y~eldx


LA1 CIR x LA1

0.7821 0.1785

0.9656 0.1042 .0.1868

Castor seed yield and cumulative intercepted radiation are negatively correlated at different stages of the crop growth except during harvest. There was 14.6 % average variation in seed yield by the change in the cumulative intercepted rad~ationat harvest.
LA1 and seed yields were positively correlated during the entire crop growth.

Maximum amount of about 90 per cent variation was observed at 90 DAS and 12 % variation was noticed at harvest between seed yield and LAI.
LA1and cumulative intercepted radiation was positively correlated at init~al

stages of the crop growth and at later stages both are negatively correlated.

1.6 EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY ON CASTOR YIELIIS

4.6.1 Plant height

When the plant height was measured from the base of the stem to the tip of the main spike there was gradual increase in plant height from emergence to 105120 DAS. Later on the plant height remained steady. Out of the three planting densities I'D.2 (1,30,000 ple~ltsba") recorded the talle~tplant hc~glltlbllowcd by PD-I (55,000 plants ha'') and PD-3 (17,000 plants ha").

4.6.2 LA1 As tllc growth ildvanccs tllc LA1 il~crcasedot an ~ncrcasing order. Up to 45 DAS, the LA1 of all plant densities were almost equal. Later on there was drastic improvement in LA1 especially in PD-I (55,000 plants ha.') and PD-2 (1,30,000 plants ha.'). Peak LA1 of 4.0 was recorded by PD-2 followed by PD-I.

The data regarding yield and yield components of plant~ng density experllrlerlt was ~~rcsc~~ inl c table d 4.56. l'hc yield and yiclil colnpollcnts d~llkrcds i g ~ ~ ~ l i o t ldue ~ ~ l to ly densities. PD-3 (17,000 plants ha") rccordctl signilic;~ntlyhigt~estsccd yield of 2220 kg ha.' followed by PD-1 (55,000 plants ha.'). The seed yield of PD-I (1890 kg ha") was on par with PD-2 (1670 kg ha"). PD-1 mcordcd signilicently bigllcs[ lharvcst index 01'47.7 and the lowcst by PD-2 (40.8). PD-3 recorded significantly 111ghostmain spike length of 40.1 cm. PD-3 recorded significantly highest spikes per plant (15.2) and capsules per

Table 4.56 Effect of planting density on yield and yield components of castor cultivnr GCH-4

Treatment

Seed Yield (kdha)

Harvest Index (%)

Maill Spikcs Capsule per Spike per Le11gt11 I'ln~~t Spikc

100

(cm)

seed Weight (g)

FIG 4.27 EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY ON PLANT HEIGHT OF GCH.4 CASTOR

1 40,

)
L

o:--7----,-,--

7 7

"

"

$
DAS

- -,--)
2 - - -

FIG 4.28 EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY ON PLANT HEIGHT OF GCH-4 CASTOR

- - - -- - - -

. Effect of Planting density on LA1 of GCH-4 castor cultivar

: x 2 s r s p g y p s g i
DAS
1

spike (38.9) followed by PD-I. PD-2 recorded lowcst nul~lberof spikes per plant and
cnpsulcs per spikc. PD-3rccordcd 23.7 g of 100 soctl wcigl~l, wllicli was sigrlificalitly highcr \bin u\Iicr dc~ailics,21.3 g was rccordcd by I'D-l ~ullowcdby I'D-2 (19.1 y) rcgsrding 100 secd.wcigbt.

DISCUSSION

DISCUSSION Crop growth and subsequent yields are the results of interaction between genetic structure of the plant and external environment, which in turn are varied in nature. These external factors influence the agronomic practices, hence constitute a major problem In crop production. As castor is grown as rainfed crop, studies on effect of imgation on castor yields were meager. In additlon to irrigation, dates of sowing, planting density, growth and yield of castor are Influenced to a greater extent by nitrogen. The response of cultivars to applled fertilizers depends on the genetic potentlal of different genotypes. Keeping the above polnts in view, the present investigation was conducted to study the "crop growth and development of castor culllvars under optimal and sub-opt~mal water and nitrogen conditions in Telangana region". The results of two years investigations presented in the preceeding chapter were discussed under growth parameters, yield components and nutrient uptake. The life history of castor plant can be divided into two periods 1. Vegetative period and

2. Reproductive penod. The vegetative growth penod is the period during which the
castor plant grows itself after germination. Increase in the number of nodes and leaf size is the most salient features of this period. The reproductive growth period is divided lnto four monthly periods broadly coinciding wlth the physiological stages of the crop.

bY2
1-30

Staee of the croe


vegetative flowenng of primaries flowenng of secondaries and maturlty of primaries

3 1-60
6 1-90

91-120 121-150

flowering of tertianes and maturity of secondaries maturity of tertiaries and higher order sp~kes

The reproductive phase was charactenzed by the sp~ke formallon and 11s growth. The two growth periods are demarcated by the initiation of the primaries. In the present investigation, plant height at harvest was significant.

5.1

EFFECT OF SOWING DATE ON GROWTH O F FOUR CASTOR CULTIVARS

Lowest plant height was recorded by castor cultivars in November and January sowings, which was mainly due to low temperatures prevailed durlng germination and the subsequent growth was also poor, finally affecting the plant height. Maximum plant height of GCH-4 sown dunng the first week of June was due to the expression of the genetic potential under the most favorable cond~t~ons. LA1 mainly depends on in~tial growth of the plant i.e. the leaf number and leaf size it1 terms of area. The differences In LA1 at 45 DAS among the cult~vars were least due slow initial gowth. As the growth advanced, at 105 DAS all most all the cultivars recorded the peak LAI. Increase in LA1 by 112 8 of GCH-4 in June sowlngs over Aruna was due to maxlmurn growth expression by a cultivar under favorable environmental conditions. The differences between cultivars in total drymatter production at early stages of growth (45 DAS) were mlnimum, because the crop has less difference in leaf area. The leaf area had a positive effect on the drymatter production, as is the case with photosynthetic activity. In June sowlng, GCH-4 recorded 57 % higher TDMP than Aruna at 45 DAS, while it was 69 8 at harvest. As the growth advances, the differences in total drymatter production also increased

Optimum temperature and solar radiation were the most important factors for increased drymatter product~onin June sowings of all the castor cultivars. Lowest total drymatter production in November sowings was due to low temperatures preva~led during germinat~onand the initial vegetative gowth, which might have affected the plant height, leaf area index and finally the total drymatter production.

5.1.1 Yield attributes

Main spike length may not be a hue representat~vefor higher seed yield because sometimes even though the spike length is more the capsule per spike will be less. The number of capsules on main spike length depends on the Initial growth and development of crop. Main spike length of GCH-4 I S 28 %taller than Aruna over sowing which is a varietal characteristic. 23.5 % Increase in main spike length of GCH-4 than Aruna in June sowings was due to more LAI, total drymatter production and part~tioningof more
assimilates to the spike.

Spikes per plant depend on the gowth and development of the crop during the crop period. The more the branches and leaf area development, the more w~llbe the number of sp~kes.Increase in number of spikes by 5 % in GCH-4 than Aruna In June sowings was again a varietal characterist~c,which is expressed to ~ t s maximum under more favorable conditions. The number of capsules per spike depends on the drymatter produced by the plant and partitioning of photosynthates to the reproductive pan spike. When compared to Aruna, GCH-4 recorded 27 % more number of capsules per spike in june sowings. This was due to more TDMP and partitioning to spike for the production of

capsules. 100 seed- weight is a genetic characterist~c,which depends on the overall growth, development of the plant. There was 14 % increase in 100 seed-weight of GCH-4 in June sowings than November, which was due to more favourable temperature and moisture available for the dry matter production, partitioning and seed development. Low temperatures and hlgh relative humidity prevailed during crop per~odhad affected the growth, DMP and partitioning of photosynthates, which had finally affected the 100 seedweight. June sown GCH-4 recorded 3 1 % increase in test weight that of Aruna due to the presence of high temperatures at flowenng and matunty.

5.1.2 Seed and stalk yield


Almost all the cultivars recorded h~ghest seed yield in June sowing followed by July sowing. Crops sown later than July recorded the lowest seed yleld due to the coinc~dence of flowering or capsule development with relatively low temperatures of November and December, which adversely affected fertilizat~on. This is in agreement with Thomas (1960) and Juang (1975). Also heevy rains coupled with hlgh relative humidlty during this period cause severe damage of Botrytis mould. Seed y~eld of GCH-4 when sown in the first week of June were 40 % hlgher than with the November sowjlngs. T h ~ can s be attributed to longer primary splkes and the favorable female to male flower ratio In the primary spike. Maln spike length, number of capsules per spike and test welght of GCH-4 all contributed to perceptible increased seed yield. Increased yield of the June sown crop was mainly due to more favourable rainfall during the entila crop growth per~od.This was also observed by Baby Akula and Bopi Reddy (1998).

5.1.3 Harvest Index


Harvest Index indicates the amount of dry matter partitioned to the spike (sink) in the production of economic yield (seed yield). GCH-4 recorded 11 % higher increase in harvest index than Aruna, indicating the highest partitioning efficiency of GCH-4. The more the partitioning, the more will be the harvest index and seed yield. June sown GCH-4 recorded the highest harvest index of 38.2, which was due to higher

LAI, TDMP and partitioning of dry matter to reproductive parts i.e. spike.

5.1.4 Growing degree days


Highest seed yields were recorded by GCH-4 sown in early June when there was maximum accumulation of heat unlts. This indicates the importance of sowing time. which has a direct bearing on yield indicating the importance of temperature (both maximum and minimum temperature) on plant growth. Lowest seed yields were with November sowing castor cultlvars due to very low temperatures during this crop period, which had a direct affect on growth, development and finally on seed yield.

5.2 EFFECT OF WATER AND NITROGEN


In the present study plant height at maturity was increased by irrigat~onand
nitrogen in all the cultivars in both years. The cultivar GCH-4 was the tallest particularly under irrigated conditions with added nitrogen. The combined effects of nitrogen and adequate soil moisture influence many components of crop growth and yield includ~ng

cell multiplication, growth enhancement, and in the manufacture of food matenals, and better development of roots wh~ch help in better uptake of nutrients. LA1 was significantly Increased by water and nitrogen, pmticularly in higher yielding cultivars. Early in growth that is at 45 DAS the increase was small. Only
4 % increase in LA1 due to nitrogen application, and 5 % increase due to m~gation.At 45

DAS irrigated GCH-4 with 60 kg N h a ' recorded 27 % h~gherLA1 than rainfed Aruna with 60 kg N ha'' while it was 42 % under irrigated Aruna with 60 kg N

ha^'.

At 105

days after sowing irrigated GCH-4 with addit~onof 60 kg N ha.' recorded 2.29 LAI, which was 18 %higher than with only 10 kg N ha" added. Thus in the presence of adequate moisture and nitrogen, the d~fferences in LA1 between the cultivars were small. Differences between the cultivars were higher when they were grown under moisture deficit conditions. Adequate moisture and nutrients might have met the uptake needs of the crop. This helped for proper growth and development of canopy wh~chhad a positwe effect on the photosynthetic act~vityand finally on LAI. The optimum leaf area helps in better absorption of rad~ationthus higher dry matter production and yield. Total dry matter production increased with application of nitrogen and water with higher yielding cultivars. The highest yielder GCH-4 recorded 32 7c high total

% increase in total dry matter due dry matter than the lowest yielder Aruna. There was 14 9
to nitrogen application and I I % increase in total dry matter due to migation. The irrigated GCH-4 with 60 kg N ha.' recorded 11 % h~ghertotal dry matter than GCH-4 with 10 kg N ha.'. Thus the response of cultivars to applied fertilizer depends on the genetic makeup of different genotypes. Vigorous shoot growth helps in the manufacture

of photosynthates in large quantities. Increase in growth parameters such as plant height, and LA1 might have helped the plant to synthesize more photosynthates. Rainfed GCH-4 with 60 kg N ha" recorded I2 % higher total dry matter than rainfed GCH-4 with 10 kg

N h a 1 . Molsture deficit caused lower photosynthesis due to low photosynthet~crate, and


also adversely affected the translocation of photosynthates to growing pans.

5.2.1

Yield attributes
Main spike length differed between cult~vars and nitrogen and water

regimes. There was 26 % increase in spike length by nitrogen application, and 7 5% increase due to imgation. Among the various ~nteractionsIrrigated GCH-4 w~th 60 kg N ha recorded 18 % longer spikes than irrigated Aruna with 60 kg N ha?. Thus if there is no limitation for moisture and nitrogen growth and development was at its peak, and spike length was maximized thus having a direct bearing on seed yield. Spikes per plant were also influenced by water, nitrogen and h~gher yielding cultivars. Flowering (primaries, secondary spike stage) was the most sensit~ve stage for moisture and nutrients. Lack of moisture in these stages adversely affected the spike production and the y~eld.Similar findings were reported by Subba Reddy el (11. 1996,Increasing the nitrogen input from 10 kg N ha.' to 60 kg N ha" gave 12 % increase in spikes per plant under irrigated conditions whereas it was only 4 % under ramfed cond~tions.Two years mean data indicated that irrigated GCH-4 with 60 kg N ha' recorded the highest number of spikes per plant. Cultivars, nihogen levels and water regimes significantly influenced the number of capsules per spike. GCH-4 recorded the highest number of capsules per spike under

'

Irrigated conditions. GCH-4 under Irrigated conditions with 60 kg N ha" had registered the maximum number of capsules per spike. This might be due to the availability of nitrogen under irrigated conditions for uptake that helped in the production of more number of male flowers, without affecting the production of female flowers and further there was a great improvement in seed yield. Vijaya Kumar and Shiva Shankar (1992) also reported the same findings. Nitrogen and cultivars significantly influenced the 100 seed weight. Irrigated GCH-4 with 60 kg N ha.' had a mean 100 seed weight of 26.58. The 100 seedweight is a stable vanetal character because the bean size IS rigidly controlled by the size of the capsule coat. Hence seed cannot grow to a size greater than that permitted by the capsule coat, no matter how favorable weather conditions and nutrient supply are.

5.2.2

Seed and stalk yield


Seed yield differed significantly due to cultivars, nltrogen levels and water

regimes in both years. GCH-4 had the highest yield of 1930 kg N ha.' under irrigated condition, which was 38 % higher than rainfed ones. Irrigatron improved the growth and development of the crop. There was significant Increase in LAI, which In turn increased the dry matter accumulation and yield.

GCH-4 was the highest yielding cultivar and the highest seed yield at was at 60
kg N ha.' under irrigated conditions. This is confirms the findings of Bind and Patil (1991). Lack of response of Aruna to fertilizer application may be attributed to its yield potential being well below the productivity level of GCH-4.

Nitrogen application with irrigation enhanced the production of male and female flowers without affecting the sex ratio. Thus there was increased number of capsules per plant, which increased seed yield. The higher levels of nitrogen might have provided nitrogen in adequate quantities under favourable soil moisture conditions influencing the yield attributes namely the number of spikes per plant, capsules per spike and 100 seed weight. This facilitated overall increase in the seed production at higher nitrogen levels compared to the low level of nitrogen application. Stalk yield of castor cultivars was significantly influenced by nitrogen and irrigation in both years of study. At 60 kg N h i ' significant interaction effect ~ndicated that there was 4 % Increase in stalk yield of cultivar under rainfed condition, while it was 11 % under irrigated conditions. This is because of the availability of nutr~entsfor uptake by the plants under imgated conditions. This facilitated for the sign~f~cant growth, development and accumulat~on of dry matter by the plant. Irrigated GCH-4 with 60 kg N ha.' had stalk yield of 2,300 kg ha" which, was 22
% higher than irrigated Aruna wlth 60 kg N ha-'and 17 %higher than rainfed Aruna w~th

60 kg N ha". This clemly states that a cultivar will accumulate the dry matter to a maximum extent expressing its genetic potentiality under adequate moisture and nutrlent conditions, due to the improvement in the plant height, high LA1 and dry matter production.

5.2.3

Harvest index The harvest index of castor differed significantly between cultlvars, nitrogen

levels and water regimes. GCH-4recorded highest maximum harvest index of 44.9. This was due the efficiency of that cult~var to accumulate dry matter and to partition accumulated dry matter to the useful sink. Maximum harvest index was recorded by migated GCH-4 with 60 kg N ha-' in both years. This indicates that this plant can synthesize, accumulate and partit~onmore dry matter when there is no limitation for moisture and nutrients.

5.2.4 Oil and protein content

Even though the oil content was not significantly influenced by water, nitrogen and cultivars imgated castors recorded the highest oil percent. Excess appl~cationof nitrogen beyond the optimum (60 kg N ha-') increase the formation of protein precursors, so that protein formation competes more strongly for photosynthesis. As such the fat synthesis was very much affected finally affecting the oil yield. Effect of water, nitrogen and cultivars on protein content of castor bean were non-significant. M~nutedifferences in protein (lo) content either among nitrogen treatments or among the water reglmes indicates that nitrogen and imgation are having less effect on seed protein.

5.2.5 Nutrient uptake


The growth pattern of castor as well as the nutrient uptake differs greatly under different ago-climatic conditions. This is due to variation in the climatic factors, soil

factors and management, which include variety and amount of nutrient applied. Nutrient uptake by plant parts was mainly influenced by the yield of respectwe plant parts. increasing levels Higher uptake of all the nutrients measured was observed w ~ t h of nitrogen. This may be due to the favorable effect of nitrogen on all the growth and yield attnbutes, particularly root and shoot growth, which might have facilitated for the absorption of nutrients.

Leaf: As the growth advances after germination, the nitrogen, phosphorus and
potash uptake by the leaf increased until peak flowering and thereafter it declined in both years of study. It was due to higher demand of nutrients by seeds and translocation of nutrients into reproductive parts from vegetative parts. Uma Devi er ul., 1991 also reported the same findings. With 60 kg N ha-' and irrigated treatments recorded comparatively higher amounts of nutrient uptake than the lower levels of nitrogen (10 kg N hd') and rainfed treatment. This was due to the availability of more nutrients in the root zone at 60 kg N ha-'and so11 moisture present In the soil. Under adequate moisture conditions, the availability of nutrients was increased, and this was responsible for increased uptake by the plants. Shoot: Concentrat~onof nltrogen, phosphorus and potash In plant shoots decreased steadlly from the commencement of the reproductive phase. Due to the h~gh mobility of nitrogen, nutrients were translocated to the capsules and the conce~itration in the castor beans increased. This shows that much of the castor beans nitrogen is derived from other plallt parts. However, the amount of nltrogen removed to the capsules
IS

proponjonately lower than the quantity of nitrogen available in the foliage. Possibly some

quantlty of nitrogen

IS

being utilized in the increase in dry weight of vegetative parts.

Williams (1979) also observed a decline in the amount of nitrogen in leaves and stems shortly after the reproductive growth. Phosphorus and potash in the shoot of castor increased up to peak flowering and thereafter decreased due to the part~t~oning to the reproductive parts as well as increase in dry matter production. Nitrogen application hod increased the nutrient uptake by the vegetative plant parts. Irrigation increased the stalk yields, which ultimately increased the removal of nutrients from the soil.

Spike: Accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash in floral pans started


from flowering. As the spike grew and reached to full miturity, the nutrient uptake also ~ncreased. The nutrients are translocated from the vegetative parts (both leaf and shoot) to of 60 kg N h i ' had increased the uptake by leaf and the reproductive parts. Applicat~on to spike more than at lower nitrogen level (10 kg shoot, and moreover it was part~tioned N ha.'). Similar findings also reported by Venkateswarulu (1988). Irngat~on had increased the availability of nutrients at the root zone level, as such increased the uptake by vegetative parts. There was overall increase in dry matter production. Seed yields and which recorded the nutrient uptake by seed was increased due to irrigation. GCH-4, highest seed yield had recorded the maximum nutrient uptake.
5.2.6

Radiatlou use efficiency Differences between the two years of experimentation was mainly due to the

weather conditions prevailing during those seasons. Temperatures prevailed dur~ngthe vegetative growth had a direct bearing on the crop growth, infrastructure development and also on ovrrall growth of the crop. With increase in application of nitrogen there was increase in RUE also. This was mainly because of the availability of nitrogen for the

plant needs in adequate amounts for crop growth and development. 60 kg N ha.' under il~igatedconditions had recorded greater RUE values because the nutrient nltrogen wlll be available for the uptake by plant roots only when moisture is sufficient. lnsufficient moisture in soil will reduce the amount of plant nutnent made. Even though GAUCH-3 recorded the greater RUE values, the seed yields are lower than the GCH-4 cultivar both under rainfed and Irrigated condition. This was mainly due to the differences in partitioning of assimilates from source (leaf) to sink (spike) portion. Differences in RUE of kharif 1998 experiment between ralnfed and irrigated treatments were low. This is because of the ramfall pattern of the season. The due 1997 irrigated treatments received one imgation, 1997 kharifrece~vedtwo ~rrtgations to dry weather and less number of rainy days. The resulting plants were tall and lanky with fewer branches in 1998 due to low temperatures and high humidity prevailed during crop growth. The plants were stronger enough with more branches due to higher temperatures and low humldity occurred during the crop period of 1997 kltnrif. The slope of the relationship between net biomass accumulation and cumulattve intercepted radiation was linear throughout most of the growth except dunng the capsule development phase. The decrease in RUE just prior to maturity was associated with loss of biomass due to leaf shedding.

5.2.7

Partitioning
The amount of photosynthates partitioned to the stem ranged from 60 to 80 LTn out

of the total dry matter produced at initial stages of the crop growth. It is mainly for the

growth and development of the plant infrastructure. As the crop growth advances, the amount of assimilates partitioned to stem attained a steady state (75-1 10 DAS). Once the crop entered the reproductive phase, the amount of dry matter partitioned to stem strarted declining reaching to a minimum of 8-10 % of the total above ground dry matter produced. Out of the total above gound dry matter produced, the amount of dry matter transported to leaf ranged from 25-40 % at the initial stages of crop gowth. As the crop growth increases, the amount of dry matter partitioned also increased which depends mainly on the activtty of the crop in the production of new leaves, leaf expansion and light interception. Maximum dry matter partitioning to leaf portion was recorded during

90-120 DAS (peak LAI). Later the percentage of assimilates partitioned to leaf portion
started declining due to mobilization of assimilates from leaf to sink.
Mobilization of photosynthates to sink starts wtth the initiat~on of reproductive

phase. Spike Initiation itself ~nd~cates the partitioning of assimilates to sink portion. The percentage of dry matter partitioned to spike Increased with the advancement of reproductive phase to maturity.

5.2.8

Correlation

Negative correlation between seed yield and cumulattve intercepted radiation up to 60 D A S was due to the utilization of intercepted radiation for the growth and development of the plant infrastructure rather than for the production of seed. As the crop growth advances, the amount of radiatton intercepted increases and most of the accumulated radiation is used in the production and development of the seed.

As the growth advances amount of radiation intercepted increases and it has a positive effect on LA1 because of maximum l~ght interception between 90 to 105 DAS. After that assim~lates produced by the plant were utilized for the production of seed. The correlat~on between LA1 and seed yield decreased and reached to minimum when once the panitioning of assim~lates to seed started. Senescence of leaves at harvest was also one of the reason for the decrease in the correlat~on between seed yield and LAI. Unless and until there is no shading of leaves by another one the LA1 and cumulative intercepted radiation are pos~tivelycorrelated. Once shading starts with increase In LAI, there was decrease in cumulative Intercepted radid~on.

5.3 EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY ON CASTOR YIELDS

Maximum plant height of PD-2 (130000 plants ha.') was due to high co~npetit~on between plants within a row and among rows. As such the inter-nodel length increased very much than the plants in other densities. H~ghestLA1 was recorded at 105 DAS (active growth period). Highest LA1 recorded by PD-2 was mainly due to the presence of more number of plants per square metre. Lack of competition had helped to put-forth more number of secondaries, tertixy branches with large leaf area, which might have contributed for higher LA1 of PD-1.

5.2.9 Yield and yield components

PD-3 recorded more spikes per plant, capsules per spike, higher 100 seed we~ght and seed yield than PD-I. This is because of higher harvest index i.e, partitioning of more dry matter to the reproductive sink from the source.

The more number of plants per unit area in PD-I compensated the lower per plant yield and yield components to some extent. As such the yields of PD-I are comparatively higher than PD-2. Optimum plant spacing had reduced the competition between plants for moisture, nutrients, light and space. The same findings have been reported by Singh and Singh (1988) & Vijay kumar Bhosekar (1992). The reduction in seed and stalk yield under high density planting in PD-2 (1,30,000 plants ha") was mainly due to lower values of growth and yield attributing characters. Thadoda et al. (1996) had also reported the same research findings. Initially the experiment was planned for the development of castor model. Extra data was recorded which will be used in the castor model development in near future.

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

Castor is an important non-ed~ble oilseed crop grown In India. Today castor 011 finds its application in the manufacture of an ever expanding range of ~ndustrialproducts such as nylon fibres, jet engine luhricants. hydraul~csurfactants, coatings, greases. fungistats, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, polyesters and polymers. Suitable agronomic practices need to be developed to ~mprove the productivity of new promis~ng castor var~etiesfor increasing castor productiot~to meet the increasing future demands. An cxperiment on "Crop growth and development of castor culttvars under optimal and suhoptimal water atid nitrogen conditions ohjectivcs namely
111 Telangana

region" was conducted with threc

I.

To determine the r e l a t ~ o ~ ~ s hbetween ip light Interceptton, leaf area development and seed yteld.

2.

T o understand the effects of water and nitrogen on g o w t h and productivtty of castor cultivars.

3.

T o quant~fy the partitioning of assimilates to castor seeds In diffcrcnt cultivars.

lntttally the project was planned with a view to develop a castor model and extra experiments on sowing dates and planting density were carried out. So the dates of sowing and planting density expenments were carned out for one year for data generation and to develop model. Extra data will be used for model development

in near future. Due lack of special programme on castor the title of the project was changed and model development part was deleted from the project work.

4.

To study the effect of sowing dates on growth and development of castor cultivars.

5.

To study the effect of planting densities on castor yields.

The dates of sowing experiment was laid in CRBD with six dates and four cultivars replicated four tlmes. The experlnient was laid out in a split plot design with water regimes as main plots, nitrogen levels as sub-plots and castor cult~varsas sub-subplots w~thfour replications. The planting density experiment was laid in KBD design w~th four replications. Biometrics on growth and physiological parameters, yield and yield attributes were recorded and chemical analysis was done to determine nutrient uptake, oil and proteln content. The salient findings of the investigat~onare sum~narised here below. Favourable day length and temperatures prevailed during June first week sowings were responsible for the expression of taller plant height by GCH-4 to the fullest extent.

GCH-4 recorded 112 % ~ncreasein LA1 at 105 DAS and 69 7 0higher total above ground
dry matter production than Aruna at harvest due to the prevalence of favourable day length, temperature and solar radiation during June sowings. Higher yield components like main spike length, number of spikes, capsules per plant and 100 seed -weight of

GCH-4 in iune sowings contributed to significant increase in seed yield. The crop sown
beyond July recorded the lowest seed yield, which was due to the coincidence of

flowering and capsule development with relatively low temperatures finally affecting the fertilization and sometimes due to Botrytis mould disease. The same treatment recorded
11 % increase in harvest index than Aruna indicating the highest partitioning efficiency

of GCH-4. The more the partitioning the more will be the seed yield and harvest index. Highest seed yields recorded by GCH-4 in June sowings than the remaining dales were due to the accumulation of maximum heat units. This indicates the importance of sowrng time, which has a direct beating on yield indicating the importance of daylength and temperature. In the experiment where water regimes and nitrogen tested against each other, ~rrigatedGCH-4 castor cultivar at 6 0 kg N ha" recorded the tallest plant herght. This was due to the increased availability of nutrients under irrigated conditions than the rainfed, which has a pos~tiveeffect on cell multiplication growth and development. Irrigated

GCH-4 with 60 kg N ha.' recorded 2.29 mean LA1 and I I % higher total above ground
drymatter than at I 0 kg N ha". There was 26 B ~ncreasein main spike length by nitrogen application and 7 % increase due to irrigation. Nitrogen appl~catronunder ~rrigatedconditrons had enhanced the production of male and female flowers without affecting the sex ratio. As such there was improvement in the production of capsules per plant, which had a positive effect on seed yield. Out of the four cultivars tested, GCH-4 recorded the higher seed yield of 1920
kg ha.' under ~rrigatedconditions, which was 38 % higher than the rainfed ones. The

higher levels of nitrogen might have provided nitrogen in adequate quantities under favourable soil moisture conditions influenced the yield and yield attributes namely main spike length, spikes per plant, capsules per spike and 100 seed weight. This might have

facilitated the overall increase in seed production at higher levels of nitrogen. At 60 kg N ha-' stalk yield increased by I 1 % under ~rr~gated condition, while it was only 4 C under rainfed situation. This is because of the availability of nutrients for the uptake by the plant under irrigated conditions. This facilitated the significant growth, development and accumulation of drymatter by the plant. Irrigated GCH-4 with 60 kg N ha-' recorded the higher mean harvest index of

44.9, which indicates that a plant can synthesize, accumulate and partition more
drymatter when there is no limitation for the moisture and nutrients. The plants have a temperature requirement for their growth, development and maturity. Temperature ~nfluences the plant through root growth, nutrient uptake, water absorption, photosynthesis, respiration and translocation of photosynthates. The highest seed y~eld recorded by GCH-4 at 60 kg N ha.' under irrigated conditions was mainly due to the accumulation of higher growlng degreedays. Peak RUE recorded by ~rrigatedGCH-4 at higher level of nitrogen was due to the availability of nutrients in adequate amounts for the plant growth and development. Slight changes in RUE was due to the disease ~ncidence,leaf shedding. Same treatment comb~nationalso recorded maximum drymatter part~tioning to leaf portion during 90-120 DAS (peak LAI). Later the percentage of assimilates partitioned to leaf portion started declining due to the mobilization of assimilates from leaf to sink portton. The percentage of drymatter partitioned to spike portion ~ncreasedwith the advancement of reproductive phase to maturity. Unless and until there is no shading of leaves by the above leaves the LA1 and cumulative intercepted radiation are positively correlated. Once shading starts with increase in LAI, there was decrease in the amount of radiation intercepted. The uptake of

the major nutrients by the leaf increased from germination until peak flowering and there after it starts declining due to higher demand for the nutrients by seed and translocation of nutrients into the reproductive parts from vegetative portton. The amount of nitrogen in leaves and stem started declining after the reproductive growth. Phosphorus and potash in the shoot of the castor cultivars increased up to the peak flowering and thereafter decreased due to the partitioning to the reproductive parts as well as wtth the advancement in the growth. Out of the four cultivars, GCH-4 recorded the highest seed yield, nutrient uptake. oil and protetn content. Out of the three planting densit~es,PD-2 (75x 10 c m j recorded the maximum plant height and LAI. Less competition in PD-I (75x 25 c m j helped it to put forth more branches that contributed for higher LA1 than PD-3 (75 x 75 cm). PD-3 recorded more number of spikes per plant, capsules per spike, and higher100 seed-we~ght and seed yield than PD-I. This is due to less compet~tion between plants within a row and betwccn rows and also due to the partitioning of more drymatter to the reproductive parts. Opt~mum plant spacing had reduced the competition hetween plants for motsture, nutrients, light and space.

The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of the present study

1. Sow~ng of castor during first week of June was found to be the best. S o w ~ n g beyond
of June-July was found to reduce the castor yield drasttcally due to the co~ncidence flowering with high relative humidity, low temperatures, incidence of Botrytis mould and semi-looper attack.

2. Wherever there is irr~gationfac~lity,castor can be grown under irrigated cond~tions


by scheduling the irrigat~on at 1W / CPE ratio of 0.75.

3. When compared to 10 kg N ha" application of 60 kg N h i 1 was found to be better.


Application of 60 kg N h i 1 under irr~gatedconditions w~llhelp to boost tile castor seed yield. Under irrigated conditions top dressing with nitrogen at vegetative phase will help in achieving higher yields. and spike in~tiation

4. Among the cultivars investigated, GCH-4 was found to perform hetter under irr~gated conditions with recommended dose of nitrogen (60 kg ha-'), owing to its efficiency in partitioning of the assimilates from source to sink.

5 . Out of three planting dens~t~es 17,000 plants h a 1 was found to yield better than
1,30,000 plants hiland 55.000 plants ha.'.

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APPENDICES

Appendix I. Weekly Meteorological data during the Crop period. (kharif, 1998)

SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT RECORDED AT DIFFERENT PROFILES (mm of moisture Imm depth of soil)

1997 Treatment Sampllng 0 1 5 15-22.5 22.5-37.5 37.5-52.5 52.5-67.5 67.5-82.5 82.5-97.5 97.5-112.5 WlNZCl 18-7-97 0059 0022 0016 0 126 0 128 0 104 0 118 0209 WlN2C1 7\8/97 0081 0005 0071 0093 0 12 0 133 0084 0 183 WlN2C1 13-897 0066 0009 0083 0088 0 108 0 113 0072 0064 W l N Z C l 16-8-97 0 159 0042 0075 0079 0 101 0109 008 0 181 WlN2Cl29-8-97 0207 0137 0066 0122 0139 0115 008 0175 WlNZCl 9/9/97 0201 0092 0.017 0127 0 113 0 071 0 108 0 18 WlN2C1 15-9-97 016 0068 0024 0096 0107 0109 0076 0175 WINZCl19-9-97 0172 0064 0044 0129 0107 0063 0114 0186 W l N 2 C l 23-9-97 0 184 0073 0038 0 119 0 113 0 069 0 108 0 184 W l N 2 C l 30-9 97 0 127 0 045 0038 0086 0 099 0 097 0 065 0 168 W l N 2 C l 27-10-97 005 0022 0093 0 105 0082 0047 0075 0181 W l N 2 C l 28-10-97 0 191 0 050 0 091 0 102 0 084 0 04 0 067 0 195 WlNZC1 29-10-97 0 191 0065 0062 0 109 0074 0 061 0067 0 175 W2N2C1 18 7-97 0073 0 083 0 093 0 165 0 087 0 064 0 116 0 09 W2N2C1 7/8/97 0 108 0084 0059 0 158 0 109 0058 0 102 0 121 W2N2C1 13-8-97 01 0078 0055 0134 0081 0167 0158 0153 W2N2C1 16-8-97 0223 0 157 009 0 158 0 106 006 0 105 0 132 W2N2C1 29-8-97 0259 0217 0 175 0 188 0 124 0084 0 133 0 159 W2N2C1 9/9/97 022 0 154 0087 0 137 0068 0 127 0 167 0 148 W2NZC115-997 0154 0120 0086 0164 009 0045 0083 0112 W2N2C119-9-97 0158 0117 0075 015 0049 0043 0103 0102 W2NZCl 23-9-97 0 135 0 104 0 072 0 146 0 042 0 04 0 099 0089 W2N2C1 30-9-97 0175 0 115 0054 0 139 0066 002 0056 0083 W2N2C1 27-10 97 0 079 0 056 0032 0 115 0005 0009 0 064 0 05 W2N2C1 28-10-97 008 0052 0023 0 118 0002 0047 005 0041 W2N2C1 29-10-97 0 239 0 189 0 138 0 15 0 039 0 037 0 074 0 059

SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT RECORDED AT DIFFERENT PROFILES (mmof moisture Imm depth of soil)

1997 015 Treatment Sampling date WlNlCl W l NlCl WlNlCl WINlC1 WlNlCl WlNlCl WINICI WlNlCl WlNlCl WlNlCl WlNlCl WlNlCl WlNlCl W2NIC2 W2NIC2 W2NIC2 W2NIC2 W2NIC2 VVLNICZ WNIC2 WNlC2 WNIC2 WNIC2 W2NlC2 W2NIC2 W2NlC2 18-7-97 7/8/97 13-8-97 16-8-97 29-8-97 9/9/97 15-9-97 19-9-97 23-9-97 30-9-97 27-10-97 28-10-97 29-10-97 18-7-97 7 1 8 1 9 7 13-8-97 16-8-97 29-8-97 9/9/97 15-9-97 19-9-97 23-9-97 30-9-97 27-10-97 28-10-97 29-10-97

15-22.5

22.5-37.5 37.5-52.5 52.567.5 67.5-82.5 82.5-97.5 97.5-112.5

0058 0.073 0 062 0.168 0212 0208 0138 0149 0 158 0 128 0054 0.185 0185 0.077 0092 0092 0.163 0253 0207 01 7 1 0178 0 184 0.133 0074 0061 022

0 049 0.017 0 002 0.062 0.166 0143 0.091 0098 0108 0082 0015 0080 0107 0.102 0071 0067 0.121 0216 0186 0 153 0174 0162 0 117 0.077 0063 0.190

0.039 0.039 0 058 0 044 0 . 1 1 9 0.078 0.044 0.046 0.057 0.035 0.024 0.025 0028 0.127 005 0.041 0079 0 178 0164 0.134 0169 0.139 01 0 1 0.08 0065 0159

0.119 0 108 0.093 0 089 0153 0.102 0.118 0104 0 102 0 109 0080 0.076 0081 0 175 0 166 0.163 0.154 021 0146 0.179 0.124 0131 0 167 , , 0.1 0097 0121

0 090 0.043 0.045 0.032 0092 0.085 0054 0.088 0083 0045 0052 0059 0052 0075 0 105 0107 0056 01 3 1 0079 0054 0065 0053 0041 0033 002 0037

0200 0 . 1 5 1 0.150 0.145 0.172 0.220 0.160 0220 0.219 0.146 0208 0196 0193 0.124 0 162 0.098 0102 0.152 0.145 01 0 1 0118 0118 0.069 0071 0.073 0075

0.203 0 249 0246 0.240 0.241 0.200 0237 0.183 0 186 0.234 0.175 0.175 0174 0 182 0.133 0134 0183 0 206 0.2 0.168 0179 0172 0136 0 136 0 126 0138

0 146 0 189 0 184 0.181 0172 0.128 0.157 0.127 0.125 0.157 0.107 0108 0112 0 133 0.097 0142 0177 0 177 0156 0164 0139 0124 0139 0091 0088 0089

SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT RECORDED A T DIFFERENT PROFILES (mm of moisture Imm depth of soil)

1997
Treatment Sampllng

WlNIC4 WlNlC4 WlNlC4 WlNlC4 WlNlC4 W1 N1C4 WlNlC4 WlNlW WlNlW WlNlC4 WlNlC4 WlNIC4 WlNlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4 WZNlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4 W2NlC4

18-7-97 7/8/97 13-8-97 16-8-97 29-8-97 9/9/97 15-9-97 19-9-97 23-9-97 30-9-97 27-10-97 28-10-97 29-10-97 18-7-97 7/8/97 13-8-97 16-8-97 29-8-97 9/9/97 15-9-97 19-9-97 23-9-97 30-9-97 27-10-97 28-10-97 29-10-97

SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT RECORDED AT DIFFERENT PROFILES (mm of moisture Imm depth ofsoil)

1997 Treatment Sampling WlN2C2 18-7-97 WlN2C2 7/8/97 W1 N2C2 13-8-97 W l N2C2 16-8-97 W1N2C2 29-8-97 W1N2C2 9/9/97 W1N2C2 15-9-97 W1N2C2 19-9-97 W1N2C2 23-9-97 WlN2C2 30-9-97 WlN2C2 27-10-97 WlN2C2 28-10-97 WlN2C2 29-10-97 W2N2CZ 18-7-97 W2N2C2 7/8/97 W2N2C2 13-8-97 W2N2C2 16-8-97 W2N2C2 29-8-97 W2N2C2 9\9/97 W2N2C2 15-9-97 WN2C2 19-9-97 W2N2C2 23-9-97 W2N2C2 30-9-97 W2N2C2 27-10-97 W2N2C2 28-10-97 W2N2C2 29-10-97

SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT RECORDED AT DIFFERENT PROFILES (mm of moisture Imm depth of soil)

1997 15-22 5 22 5-37 5 37.5-52 5 52 5-67 5 67 5-82 5 82 5-97 5 97 5-112 5 Treatment Sampllng 0-15 WlN2C4 18 7-97 0047 0043 0038 0 135 0 151 0 165 0 17 0 187 WlN2C4 718197 0076 0035 006 0124 0122 0181 0181 019 W1N2C4 13-8-97 0064 0027 001 0112 0095 0191 0189 0188 WlN2C4 16 8-97 0 162 0083 0003 0 104 0082 0 17 0 179 0206 WlN2C429-897 0196 0163 013 0165 0127 0174 0191 0206 WlN2C4 919197 0189 0125 006 0122 0132 0157 0163 0184 WlN2C4 15-9-97 0144 0103 0062 0119 0088 0154 0161 0175 WlN2C4 19-9-97 0174 0093 0012 0119 0 131 0 154 0162 0186 WlN2C4 23-9-97 0 192 0 103 0014 0 114 0131 0 154 0151 0178 WlN2C4 30 9-97 0 146 0084 0021 0 11 0075 0 145 0 152 0 158 WlN2C4 27 10-97 0 053 0 004 0 046 0 086 0089 0 115 0 127 0 142 WlN2C4 28-1097 0 173 0064 004 0089 0081 0114 0 118 0 145 WlN2C429-1097 0173 0098 0022 0098 0095 0119 0122 0143 W2N2C4 18-7 97 0084 0066 0047 0 16 0 121 0 147 0201 0 195 W2N2C4 718197 0 117 0 074 003 0 166 0 12 0 165 0 211 0 237 W2N2C4 13-8-97 0 155 0084 0013 0 158 0 129 0 168 0222 0 186 W2N2C4 16-8-97 0236 0 152 0067 0 164 0 127 0 165 0226 0247 W2N2C4 29-8-97 0 198 0 179 0 159 0202 0 168 0 197 0237 0256 W2N2C4 9/9/97 0251 0 180 0 108 0 153 0 143 0 183 0231 0241 W2N2C4 1 5 9 9 7 0175 0109 0042 0 165 012 0152 0213 0242 W2N2C419-997 0202 0150 0097 0153 013 0179 0233 0262 W2N2C4 23-9-97 0 169 0 125 0 08 0 149 0 123 0 166 0222 0235 W2N2C4 30-9-97 0 143 0089 0034 0 15 0 106 0 137 0 191 0223 W2N2C4 27-10-97 0 089 0 064 0 038 0 128 01 0 129 0 175 0 18 W2N2C4 28-10-97 0092 0063 0033 0 124 0095 0 126 0 167 0 185 W2N2C4 29-10 97 0225 0 193 0 161 0 167 0148 0 165 0214 0224