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45 YEARS FINAL.indd 1 4/7/09 5:47:33 PM

In This Issue T h e O N LY j o u r n a l i n A s i a d e d i c a t e d t o L a n d F o r c e s
The concept of a tri- “Future infantry soldiers Combining state-of-the-art
service batch training will be equipped with technology, F-INSAS would
together and passing out more lethal weapons, reduce logistic burden
as a batch has served better sensors for of the individual soldier
to foster course spirit increased battlefield almost by 50 per cent.
and deep ties. Under no transparency and There are also plans to
circumstances should it personal radio sets for develop ‘robotic mules’ to
be diluted. situational awareness.” carry additional loads of
—Lieutenant General soldiers on the battlefield.
MAJOR GENERAL Jasbir Singh, Director
12 (RETD) G.D. BAKSHI 4 General Infantry 8 SANJAY KUMAR

E di torial Excl u s i v e I n t e r v i ew
China’s challenge
to India’s security is
looming large on the
horizon and it would
be highly imprudent
on our part to ignore
it. Some of the indi-
cations are: China’s
self-image as a pre-
dominant power of
South Asia; its aspirations to be a super-
power by 2049 with a powerful and mod-
ernised military capability; its compulsive
use of Pakistan to keep India engaged on
her western front and off balance militarily
to pose any threat to Beijing; its dismis-
sive and derogatory approach to India’s
democratic experience; its strategy of
encircling India through her neighbours
and confining her within the subcontinent;
its totally critical approach to India’s
nuclear status; its negative disposition
in allowing India to become a permanent
member of the Security Council; its duplic-
ity in the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
negotiations; substantially improved infra-
structure in the form of upgradation of
its roads, railways and airfields in Tibet;
its unwillingness to resolve the border
dispute; its growing incursions across
the “Line of Actual Control”; and its oft
repeated claim over the entire Arunachal
Pradesh being Chinese territory. In
October, Prime Minister Dr Manmohan
Singh’s visit to Arunachal Pradesh to
address election rallies was objected
to by China, strangely 10 days after the
event. Are these indications along with
growing prowess of the PLA and their fast
paced modernisation not sufficient to per-
turb the Indian state?

‘Pace of capital procurement has

The Indian response to this growing
threat in most areas is even more star-
tling. Let us take the case of defence

procurement. In the last seven years, not
a single major contract has been signed
in an open competition. Almost all pro-
posals have met an untimely demise due
Photographs: Abhishek / SP Guide Pubns

to allegations of irregularities. In fact,

most vendors have got so fed up of the
vulnerability of the Indian system that
some of the bigger OEMs have opted out
of certain deals. Vendors find the system
intimidating and dissuasive. So the tar-
diness of our response to an assertive
China is evident. Are we going to awaken
from our slumber?
This issue carries the interviews of
the DCOAS (P&S) and the DG Infantry
apart from a host of other informative
In an exclusive Interview to the Editor of SP’s Land Forces,
Lieutenant General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor, and SP’s Senior Technical
Editor Lieutenant General (Retd) Naresh Chand, Deputy Chief
of Army Staff (Policy and Systems) Lieutenant General
Manbir Singh Dadwal, AVSM** and VSM, flags the
Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor modernisation efforts of the Indian Army
SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): In the recon- the Raksha Mantri (Defence Minister)
stitution of responsibilities within with the service chiefs, Secretaries in
the Army Headquarters in the past, the Ministry of Defence and Chief of
what are the responsibilities and roles Integrated Defence Staff as its members.
assigned to the DCOAS (P&S)? This involves preparation of the tri-
Deputy Chief of Army Staff (DCOAS): service 15-year Long-Term Integrated
As the DCOAS (P&S), my responsibility Perspective Plan and preparation of pri-
is principally related to coordinating the oritised tri-service five years plan, includ-
modernisation, equipping and capability ing coordinating the effort of the three
development of the Indian Army, both services. Therefore, the relevance of IDS
for immediate and future requirements, is irrefutable.
through respective directorates. This also So far as delays in procurement process
includes updating of short-term and long- are concerned, we have undertaken a host
term perspective plans in keeping with the of measures, including:
changing security perspective, equipment • Increased frequency of Services Capital
availability, fiscal parameters and formu- Acquisition Plan (SCAP) meetings.
lation of General Staff Policy Statements. • Identification of fault lines and talking
remedial measures.
SP’s: Despite the changes in the Defence • Structural changes like establishment
Procurement Policy (DPP) 2008, the of GSQR, RFP and monitoring cells.
procurement procedure of new weapon • Recommending amendments to DPP
and other defence systems takes inordi- 2008 with our experience to hasten
nately long which, apart from resulting processes.
in increased costs, may also result in • Streamlining and evolving fresh
procuring systems which are technologi- Standard Operating Procedures for
cally outdated. What are the measures GSQR formulation, issue of RFPs and
being taken to overcome this drawback? trial methodology.
DCOAS: The revised defence procure-
ment procedure lays down a clear “Procurement action in respect of variants of 155mm SP’s: How does the Acquisition Wing,
time frame for each and every activity
involved in procurement, right from the
(SP) guns is underway. Trials of wheeled gun are headed by the DG Acquisition, assist the
procurement process? What is its role in
stage of acceptance of necessity till the likely to commence by the end of this year.” the entire procedure?
contract is signed. The entire duration DCOAS: DG Acquisition is a member of
of the process now ranges from 20 to all SCAP committees and has a major
34 months. In order to achieve these howitzer for mountains. Procurement Battle Tank (MBT) Arjuns. What is the role in procurement post categorisation.
timelines, preventing increased costs/ of 39 calibre ultra light howitzer is in status of this tank currently and what The Acquisition Wing maintains a data-
cost overruns and achieving technol- progress as is the proposal to upgrade is the plan for further induction of 124 base of vendors, post acquisition propos-
ogy updated procurements the following 155mm/39 calibre Bofors guns. tanks which were contracted originally? als, such as Request for Information, on
measures have been instituted: Are there plans to induct beyond this the Internet. It also prepares and issues
• Structures have been put into place for SP’s: The army’s air defence (AD) artil- figure? RFP. DG Acquisition is also responsible
formulation of explicit and technically lery is in dire straits. No new equipment, DCOAS: One armoured regiment based in ‘make’ cases to follow the procure-
achievable General Staff Qualitative except for one regiment of Tunguska, has on MBT Arjun has been equipped with ment process post conduct of feasibil-
Requirement (GSQR). been inducted in the last three decades its full complement of 45 tanks. The sec- ity studies. The DG Acquisition and his
• Statement of Cases are prepared after or so. All equipment currently held is ond regiment is also being equipped with staff offer valuable advice to the services
necessary technology scan and formu- outdated and, in many cases, obsolescent. MBT Arjun. The first regiment is at pres- in capital procurement. A very healthy
lation of compliance matrix to achieve What are the measures being taken to ent undergoing conversion training. On interface exists between the offices of DG
cost efficiency. rectify this situation? successful completion of the conversion Acquisition and the service headquarters.
• A culture of cost consciousness has DCOAS: Modernisation plans for army training, the regiment will participate in
been promulgated to achieve informed air defence include the provisioning of a comparative trials. The aim of compara- SP’s: Long term strategic planning is
decisions, taking into account the life- judicious mix of surface-to-air missiles and tive trials is to evaluate the operational the domain of DCOAS (P&S) as well as
cycle costs of a system under procure- air defence guns to provide air defence to performance of Arjun vis-à-vis the T-90 the Vice Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS)?
ment. value assets, both at the national and the and accordingly assign an appropriate Functionally, how are the responsibili-
• Separate structure of Requests for field forces level. The sensor-to-shooter grid operational role to the former. A decision ties shared between the two?
Proposal (RFP) preparation and will be based on a secure, fast and reliable on further induction of MBT Arjun would DCOAS: In the army, we have a well struc-
layered vetting, has been set up to network to enable real time threat evalua- be taken post the comparative trials. ture and balanced process for long term
ensure multi-vendor and cost effective tion, weapon assignment and destruction strategic planning which is mandate of
selection at the Technical Evaluation of enemy aerial targets before these are SP’s: In the seminars on armoured fight- the Perspective Planning Directorate. A
Committee and Contracts Negotiation able to cause any damage. The modernisa- ing vehicles, the requirement of light part of this process is carried out under
Committee stages. tion plan envisages procurement of radars tanks for the mountains in the east as the VCOAS, especially those activities that
• Structures for evaluation of technical for surveillance and fire control, surface- well as in the western sector had emerged. need to be undertaken conjointly with the
proposals in a transparent, fair and to-air missiles and gun systems and the Is there any move in this direction con- MO and the MI Dtes, while the rest are
well-defined manner for objective in-ter requisite control and reporting systems. sidering the requirement of the army in through the DCOAS (P&S). Among these,
se comparison has ensured that tech- The plan also caters adequately to improve North Sikkim and Ladakh? the development of military strategic
nologically outdated systems are not the air defence equipment inventory with DCOAS: The Indian Army is considering options, evaluation of force levels, weap-
considered. current technology weapon systems. the option of inducting light tanks for ons mix, operational concepts and doc-
• Suggestions to further streamline the certain terrain specific requirements. The trines and defence cooperation are some of
procurement process have been made SP’s: L-70 guns have been with the army GSQR for the same is at present under the activities performed under the VCOAS.
for incorporation in the DPP 2008. for more than 40 years. The radars of formulation. On the other hand, the formulation of the
this system have been changed many army’s perspective plans and the capital
SP’s: Field artillery’s equipment profile times but the gun system has not been SP’s: The overhaul of the T-72 tank is acquisition are carried out under the
has been adversely affected by non-pro- changed. These constitute almost 50 per behind schedule by a few years. This will DCOAS (P&S).
curement of 155mm guns and howitzers, cent of the strength of AD systems in the adversely affect the fleet of tanks held by
both the self-propelled (SP) and towed army. What is being done in this regard? the army. How is the army planning to SP’s: Is the capital budget allotted to the
variety resulting, in a fire power deficit DCOAS: The L-70 gun systems, alongwith get over this issue? army adequate considering the voids in
in the Indian Army. This has been report- its radar, is at present providing air defence DCOAS: There have been some slippages the inventory and requirements of mod-
ed extensively in the media. Request an to certain specified value assets. The effec- in the planned schedule of overhaul of ernisation and induction of new tech-
update on the following: tiveness of this system has been enhanced the T-72 tanks. The MGO is addressing nologies?
• Status of procurement of 155mm (SP) by upgrading the existing radars and this aspect holistically through a multi- DCOAS: Adequate defence outlay has
guns to fill existing voids by procuring better technology radars. pronged approach, including continuous been earmarked by the government to
• Status of procurement of 155mm Moreover, the process of identifying suc- and uninterrupted supply of spares. The meet the envisaged defence requirements.
(towed) guns to replace older generation cessor for L-70 gun as well as the radar is aspect of outsourcing overhaul to the pri- Government has time and again assured
equipment in progress. Based on the threat evaluation vate sector is also being analysed. that enhanced defence outlay will be

• Procurement of 155mm light weight of the future air threats, a well considered made available, as and when required, to
how (45 calibre) for the mountains decision has been taken to convert some SP’s: With the introduction of Integrated achieve modernisation goals. With the for-
• Upgrading of existing 39 calibre L-70 regiments into surface-to-air missile Defence Staff (IDS), has the system mulation of DPP 2008 and reforms in pro-
155mm how (Bofors) regiments. Balance L-70 regiments would of procurement been facilitated? The curement procedures, the pace of capital
DCOAS: Procurement action in respect be equipped either with an upgraded L-70 impression among the strategic commu- procurement has increased, resulting in
of variants of 155mm (SP) guns is under- gun or with a new generation air defence nity is that unacceptable delays continue overall enhanced combat effectiveness and
way. Trials of wheeled gun are likely to gun system in due course. to occur in this respect. What measures utilisation of allocated financial outlay.
commence by the end of this year. As are planned to overcome this drawback? Requirement of additional defence budget
regards 155mm/52 calibre (SP) gun, the SP’s: On May 25, a Press Information DCOAS: Under the new acquisition sys- is contingent to our capability to procure
GSQR is being revised on account of poor Bureau release reported that after 35 tem, the Deputy Chief of IDS is the ex- equipment. We have been assured that, as
vendor response. There is, however, no years of research, the army equipped officio Member Secretary of the Defence and when required, additional funds will
proposal for procurement of 45 calibre itself with the first regiment of Main Acquisition Council, which is chaired by be made available. SP

2 SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09


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looks ahead
by 20 years’
Lieutenant General Jasbir Singh, Director

Photographs: SP Guide Pubns

General Infantry, in a candid conversation with
Editor of SP’s Land Forces Lieutenant General (Retd)
V.K. Kapoor, shared his thoughts on a host of
important issues affecting the infantry

SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): Outline your each soldier to function as an advanced • Improvement in fire power-both in quan- sive tasks against well armed and motivated
vision on the growth and employment of lethal platform that serves both as a sensor tum and accuracy. rebels. Since infantry units are fully trained
infantry in future conflicts. Do you foresee and a shooter and fits seamlessly into the • Sensors to provide day/night all weather and combat experienced in such operations
any change in roles, tasks, organisation overall all arms fighting hierarchy. capability. in India, they find it very easy to adapt to the
and equipment of the Infantry Battalion To begin with, we are looking to attract • Information sharing through networking prevailing environment in UN missions and
in the future? recruits with higher education standards and information management by auto- come out with flying colours in any task that
Lieutenant General Jasbir Singh (DG and IQ. The focus of training at the regimen- mation. is assigned to them. In addition, the Indian
INF): In any victory, the major contribution tal centres is to enhance the physical and My endeavour is to further enhance the Army equips all infantry units proceeding on
is of the infantry. Even in future conflicts, mental toughness of the recruits to sustain capability of our infantry soldier and equip UN missions to the best standards, suitably
the infantry will remain the decisive combat the pressures of modern day conflict in addi- him with adequate lethality, protection and augmented by mechanised infantry, engi-
arm, the role of which is to close in, capture tion to training on the tactical aspects and situational awareness to meet the challenges neers and signal elements, where required.
or destroy the enemy and hold ground. handling of hi-tech weapon and equipment of both conventional and the next genera-
Iraq, Afghanistan and Lebanon have shown that are being inducted into the infantry. tion of warfare. We are in the process of SP’s: Considering the severe shortage of
us that Revolution in Military Affairs with This is further reinforced in the Infantry adopting the above technologies towards young officers in the units and involve-
heavy reliance only on standoff weapons Battalions where training is a continuous meeting the operational objectives set out for ment of Commanding Officers in forma-
and technologies have failed to deliver its process of preparation for conflict as per the the infantry. tion tasks, especially in peacetime, is the
objectives. The infantry soldier, duly empow- role of the unit/formation. unit administration and man manage-
ered with adequate lethality, would be the As part of career progression, infantry SP’s: What is the progress on the Future ment suffering? How can this issue be tack-
greatest force multiplier and would continue soldiers are moulded and prepared to pro- Infantry Soldier as a System (F-INSAS) led at the level of the army?
as the decisive arm of combat even in future gressively assume greater responsibilities project? Among its various stages of devel- DG INF: There is no denying the fact
scenario. No change in the basic role of the as junior leaders. This aspect has gained opment, have any stage been completed as that there is a shortage of officers in the
infantry is thus likely, be it offensive, defen- greater importance in view of the emphasis yet? What are the highlights of each stage units, however, the army is alive to this
sive or asymmetric warfare, though the tasks of development? Have the requirements issue and is addressing it proactively so
would vary. I visualise the infantry’s contin- been outsourced or will the system be devel- that there is no fall in the standards of
ued commitment in counter-insurgency and “Future infantry soldiers oped ingeniously? either unit administration or man man-
counter-terrorism operations, border man- DG INF: The project proposal has been agement or training and operational
agement, maintaining the sanctity of the will be equipped with approved by the Chief of the Army Staff tasks. The junior leaders (Young Officers/
Line of Control (LC), Line of Actual Control, more lethal weapons, and sanction to commence initial phase of Junior Commissioned Officers) are being
Actual Ground Position Line, internal secu- the programme has been accorded. Being groomed to look after unit administration
rity duties, aid to civil authorities in provid- better sensors for a complex hi-tech system-of-systems, we and man management aspects with spe-
ing relief and maintaining law and order increased battlefield would like to explore all avenues to obtain cial emphasis to interpersonal relations.
and peace as outlined in the UN Charter. current, state-of-the-art technology. We Leave policy of a soldier has been made
Review of organisation and equipment transparency and are hoping to progress the programme as a liberal and adequate attention is given
profile of infantry is an ongoing process personal radio sets for partnership between the defence and private to rest and recoup of the soldier. The
necessitated by the changes in technol- industry with infusion of the best possible Commanding Officer, other officers and
ogy and keeping up with our neighbours. situational awareness.” technology available in the world and mate junior leaders are easily approachable and
Continuous efforts are undertaken to it to our unique operational requirements to domestic problem of soldiers are being
make it more vibrant and dynamic to create a solution that is of global standards looked into. Living standards of a soldier
meet the future challenges of asymmetric on small team operations, and today junior and fully addresses our needs. is constantly getting upgraded and it suf-
warfare. Future infantry soldiers will be leaders are consciously being groomed to fices to say that there has been a marked
equipped with more lethal weapons, better display greater mental toughness, initiative, SP’s: The infantry has been the bedrock improvement in the quality of life and the
sensors for increased battlefield transpar- presence of mind and self-reliance to meet of the Indian Army’s participation in UN soldier is comfortable and happy.
ency and personal radio sets for situational the current and future challenges. Peacekeeping operations. How can its per- At the army level, steps are being taken
awareness besides greater protection in formance be further improved? to enhance availability of officers at the cut-
keeping with the operational needs. SP’s: Technology is driving the change in DG INF: Indian contingents in UN ting edge, that is, at the Infantry Battalion
method of war-fighting. What technologies Peacekeeping operations have earned a level. A few of these steps include increasing
SP’s: Changed nature of warfare demands should the infantry units and formations reputation for professionalism that is per- intake of officers, making short service entry
a change in tactical employment of infan- adopt to ensure efficiency and effectiveness haps unrivalled by any other country. We more attractive and policies to ensure only
try; Fourth Generation Warfare advocates in future wars? are today considered by the UN as the most essential on essential duties are pulled out
operating in smaller groups. How will this DG INF: With rapid advancements in the versatile troop contributing country primar- of units on staff duties and extra regimental

impact upon the recruitment standards, field of science and technology, the nature ily because of our professionalism and the employment with due care not to dilute the
training and junior leadership? of warfare is also changing. Future wars are zeal for doing our duty with honour and fighting efficiency of the Infantry Battalion.
DG INF: The current and future operational likely to be short, intense and characterised pride. These UN operations are predomi-
scenarios are likely to be characterised by by greater transparency, increased accuracy nantly infantry-based with a multitude of SP’s: Is the modernisation of the infantry
high tempo of operations in an asymmetri- and lethality with much higher tempo of tasks encompassing both conventional and on track? What are the major voids in this
cal environment, possibly against a nuclear activities. In these times, while the army non-conventional missions. Just to name regard?
backdrop, and will demand a high level of needs to maintain conventional deterrence, a few, tasks vary from counter-insurgency DG INF: Modernisation of the infantry
initiative, decision making and tolerance for it should also be prepared to face the more related activities such as establishment of a is progressing as planned and there are
ambiguity on the part of the soldier. To sur- probable threat of asymmetric war. The grid based deployment, protection of con- no voids.
vive and operate in the changed paradigm of technological advancements that would voys, cordon and search, search and destroy
Fourth Generation Warfare, the infantry sol- impact future operations of infantry can be operations, to conventional operations such SP’s: How does the army cater for the high
dier needs to imbibe the qualities that enable categorised as under: as unit level and even formation level offen- mental stress and fatigue of the soldier in
Continued on page 6

4 SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09




DG Infantry Interview Continued from page 4

counter insurgency areas? Are they taught protection will be provided. The web equip- ponent of infantry units and sub-units is Northeast is providing a good setting to
to handle the stress factor? ment of a soldier will need improvement and contemplated; however, their employment keep the units operationally worthy. What
DG INF: The army is addressing the issue of will be in consonance with the modernisa- would be based on tactical requirements. has been the experience of the infantry
stress with the seriousness and concern that tion of infantry. In the future battle field scenario, the role units in this regard?
it deserves. Managing stress is a command of infantry is likely to remain unchanged DG INF: The LC environment definitely
function and is done at all levels. There are SP’s: Terrorists infiltrating Jammu and though the nature of war is likely to be provides a good setting to keep our units
well laid out and formalised standard operat- Kashmir (J&K) are now far better trained significantly different. The future infantry operationally worthy as there is no sub-
ing procedures on the subject existing in the and better equipped. What are we doing to soldier will be equipped with a good personal stitute for experience. The experience
units and all ranks are being regularly sen- offset these advantages? weapon system and smart surveillance of coming under effective fire cannot
sitised on the gravity of the situation. Senior DG INF: Such terrorists have been well- devices with dedicated data links to pro- be substituted by any amount of train-
officers in the chain are carrying out neces- trained all along. The infrastructure has vide situational awareness and to achieve ing. Evading effective fire, closing in on
sary checks during their interaction, visits been in place and operational long enough. synergy with other arms and services in a the adversary and neutralising him by
and inspection of units and formations. So far as equipment is concerned, the network centric warfare scenario. The new own fire calls for a high degree of field
The causative factors for increased only change has been the usage of Global generation weapons planned to be procured craft, weapon handling and raw courage.
stress are basically socio-economic, envi- Positioning System and the proliferation of for the infantry are lighter and have more However, training for different operations
ronmental and psychological. The army mobile phones. We are continually upgrad- lethality due to changing technology. Hence, of war is also required since all operations
is taking numerous remedial measures ing and refining our tactics in order to have it is visualised that future infantry soldiers are different in their nature and experi-
to arrest this condition. Enforcement of the upper hand. will be more lethal in execution and lighter ence in only one operation does not guar-
a liberalised leave policy, focus on leader- on foot for better mobility. antee success in other operations.
ship and man management, frequent visits SP’s: In future wars, smaller, lighter, more
by senior officers to units and formations mobile forces will dominate the battlefield. SP’s: Today, a large amount of infantry is SP’s: Modern armies, like the US Army,
to assess conditions of employment and This will demand a very high standard of organised to hold ground and be employed have adopted a variety of new weapon
living, increasing contact between the junior leadership and a change in attitudes defensively. Considering the changed systems to fight in Afghanistan which
leaders and the led, sensitising Junior of the officer cadre in the army. How is the nature of war, how is the army plan- are worth examining and emulating.
Commissioned Officers (JCOs) and Non- transformation being achieved? ning to overcome this mental block and These include unmanned aerial and
Commissioned Officers (NCOs) to be alive DG INF: The 21st century environment is transform the infantry to become a more ground systems, robotics and radio com-
to the sensitivity of the troops and accord- one of unprecedented complexity, ambiguity, dynamic force in the future? munications with over-the-horizon tech-

ing high priority to officer-man relation- speed and organisational change. The future DG INF: While defending our borders nology. Their Future Combat Systems
ship are among the measures initiated. leaders must, therefore, be versatile, flexible, has traditionally been perceived as the will comprise a new family of eight vehi-
In addition, regular exercise and games adaptive and innovative to remain effective primary aim of the armed forces, that cles, the non-line-of-sight launch system
including Yoga is also being encouraged as in this changed environment. role has evolved over time to include and advanced tactical and urban sensors,
an effective ‘stress buster’. There is a need for the leader to be able task based formations specialising in all connected to a state-of-art network of
Units are also being encouraged to to operate in a network centric environ- offensive operations, special opera- computers, software and radios that will
use the services of ‘Psychological Health ment. To this end, the Indian Army is tions, counter-insurgency/terrorism, allow full connectivity between soldiers
Mentors’, who are trained in psychiatric training its officers to be network enabled. and so on. The current organisation of at any level from brigade to squad. Is
centres. These mentors include the religious A number of high technology systems are a standard Infantry Battalion has been the Indian Army alive to these develop-
teachers, army education corps JCOs and being fielded in the infantry, which calls prepared based on the operational role ments and what are its aspirations in
NCOs and regimental medical officers. In for a high level of technical expertise and and functions of the infantry in various this regard?
addition, suitable setup have been estab- mental ability on the part of the junior types of terrain and, accordingly, in addi- DG INF: Modernisation of the infantry is a
lished at Army Headquarters, Command leaders. However, the next generation of tion to a standard Infantry Battalion, continuous and ongoing process. We have
Headquarters and Formation Headquarters warfare also means that the leaders have we have modifications for mountains, launched major modernisation plans with
to monitor and periodically review measures to strike the right balance of effective man deserts, Andaman and Nicobar Islands particular emphasis on improvement in
to be adopted to arrest stress related cases. management, tactical requirements and and counter terrorist operations. Various firepower, mobility, surveillance and night
technical skills. specialised weapons and equipment are fighting capability. Some of these weapons
SP’s: Some time ago it was reported by the We are grooming our junior leaders to authorised for operating under these and equipment, such as Multiple Grenade
media that uniform and equipment of all raise their technical threshold in addition modifications. Launchers, Automatic Grenade Launchers
ranks is being improved and standardised. to their basic training on greater mental The infantry is, as such, a dynamic and simulators, have already been inducted

How will this impact upon the Infantry toughness, initiative, presence of mind force characterised by its ability to adapt. and state-of-the-art rifle, carbine, protective
soldier? Please elucidate on the planned and self-reliance to meet the current and The training of all ranks is so structured, gear, communication and over the hill sur-
improvements. future challenges. that each and every officer and soldier veillance by unmanned aerial vehicles are in
DG INF: Good quality of uniform and equip- is able to take part in all operations of the pipeline.
ment has a direct bearing on the fighting SP’s: How can the infantry units be made war with equal dexterity. In addition, The F-INSAS project is also looking for-
efficiency, morale and confidence of the lighter in manpower and yet capable of the various wargames and exercises also ward 20 years ahead. The project aims to
soldier. In our effort to meet the needs of the generating greater firepower and lethal- condition and train the soldier in various empower the infantry soldier with state-of-
soldier and ensure standardised equipment ity to cater for the requirements of net- operations of war. the-art digital technology, connecting the
profile, a new combat uniform has been trial work centric environment and Fourth soldier to his commanders, increasing his
evaluated. It is likely to be issued to all ranks Generation Warfare? SP’s: One of the biggest problems in peace- situational awareness and achieving seam-
shortly. In addition to this, a lighter ballistic DG INF: Infantry is manpower intensive, time is to keep combat units honed for less connectivity in order to fight in a net-
helmet and bullet proof jacket for individual thus no reduction in the manpower com- battle. The LC environment in J&K and the work centric environment. SP

6 SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09

Technolog y

DRS Tablets
for the
US Army

Photograph: DRS Technologies

DRS Technologies receives order from
Elbit Systems for military rugged tablet
computers for US Army’s Firecon programme

RS Technologies, Inc., has digital battlefield. cessing speed via dual-core technology, a Brigade and Below programme, the US
received a $3.4 million (Rs “We are pleased that our MRT has been removable Hard Disk Drive, a Night Vision Army’s Common Hardware/Software
16 crore) contract to provide selected by Elbit Fort-Worth for this mis- Imaging System capable 10.4” display II and III programme, and the UK’s
Military Rugged Tablet (MRT) sion-critical army application. This award and embedded MIL-STD-1275 power con- BOWMAN integrated battlefield commu-
systems for the US Army Mortar’s Firecon reinforces our commitment to the design ditioning. The DRS MRT establishes new nications system programme.
programme at Picatinny Arsenal in New and production of the MRT, the premiere standards in performance for highly rug- DRS Technologies, headquartered in
Jersey. The contract was awarded to DRS mission-critical ultra-rugged tablet in ged military computers meeting MIL-STD- Parsippany, New Jersey, is a leading sup-
by Elbit Systems of America in Fort Worth, use today by the US Army, Marine Corps 810F, and MIL-STD-461E specifications. plier of integrated products, services and
Texas. The systems are designed and man- and Air Force,” said Mike Sarrica, Vice DRS Tactical Systems is a global leader support to military forces, intelligence
ufactured at the DRS Tactical Systems busi- President and General Manager of DRS in ultra-rugged, commercial-off-the-shelf- agencies and prime contractors world-
ness unit in Melbourne, Florida. Deliveries Tactical Systems, Inc. based computers, displays and embed- wide. The company is a wholly owned
will begin this year and continue through The MRT was designed with a sunlight ded workstations, handheld devices, subsidiary of Finmeccanica S.p.A. which
2014. The US Army will utilise the MRT readable display and dual core processing tablet computers, and integrated periph- employs more than 73,000 people world-
as the centralised controller device and to perform in the most extreme condi- eral products. The products of this DRS wide. For more information about DRS
computer for the Mortars FireCon system tions, including on the move operations. group have been incorporated into the Technologies, please visit the company’s
which links mortar fires capability with the MRT capabilities include increased pro- US Army’s Force XXI Battle Command, website at SP


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45 YEARS FINAL.indd 1 4/7/09 5:47:33 PM ������������������������������������������������

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SP's LandForces 05-09.indd 1 10/31/09 12:33:40 PM

In an exclusive Interview to the Editor of SP’s Land Forces, Lieutenant

General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor, and SP’s Senior Technical Editor Lieutenant Interview of
Follow us on Twitter
General (Retd) Naresh Chand, Deputy Chief of Army Staff (Policy and Deputy Chief of Army Staff
Systems) Lieutenant General Manbir Singh Dadwal, AVSM** and VSM,
flags the modernisation efforts of the Indian Army Lt General Manbir Singh Dadwal
News Hotline

Lieutenant General Jasbir

on AR ON

The concept of a tri-service

o ?
• D LA) TR

batch training together and Singh, Director General


passing out as a batch has Infantry, in a candid

o E (P Y

served to foster course conversation with Editor of


spirit and deep ties. Under


SP’s Land Forces Lieutenant

es H AN

no circumstances should it

General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor,


be diluted.


Launch of SP’s Special Supplement shared his thoughts on a

Yudh Abhyas 2009


at the C4I2 Summit held in Delhi


Pictures & videos of the host of important issues


first Indo-US joint exercise on August 10 and 11 (Report Forging Interview


affecting the infantry



of mechanised forces on p9). Video is also available Tri-service Bonds (RETD) G.D. BAKSHI


I n fantr y

as a System
F-INSAS, a big ticket project of the IA with
estimated cost of $2 billion (Rs 9,300 crore),
is expected to be completed by 2020

onjoined upon the broader concept on-line health monitoring system, protec-
of Revolution of Military Affairs, tive clothing and other such accessories, Core System
Future Infantry Soldier as a System would look like characters straight out of
(F-INSAS) is a revolutionary Hollywood thriller movies—think Arnold Warning Sensors
soldier modernisation programme of the Schwarzenegger from Terminator. (A-, B-, C-, Radar-, Health-, Laser-, GPS
Indian Army (IA). Essentially based on the Combining state-of-the-art technology, IFF Device, Landmine Detection Sensor)
concept of modular force, it encapsulates at present available in composite material
the army’s vision of a future battlefield sciences, nanotechnology, information tech-
Operator Unit
scenario wherein the individual infantry nology, biotechnology and robotics, F-INSAS Group Radio
soldier forms an important node in a wider would reduce logistic burden of the indi-
communication network and in real-time vidual soldier almost by 50 per cent. As part
shares with his buddy soldier, sub-units of the drive to modernise the Indian infan-
and the overall C4I2 (Command, Control, try further, there are also plans to develop
Communications, Computers, Information ‘robotic mules’ to carry additional loads of
and Intelligence) network a common situ- soldiers on the battlefield. These remotely-
ational awareness of the battlefield. controlled robotic mules will also carry
Increasingly popular with a number of automated-weapons to launch concentrated
modern armies in the world, the concept fire power on the enemy. Truly, a new dawn
has grown with the need to provide the foot of high-tech warfare in a fully digitised envi-
soldiers of the IA with significant lethal- ronment awaits the Indian infantry soldiers. Inertial Navigation Core Computer
ity, survivability, mobility, battle command, System
awareness, sustainability and combat A Worldwide Phenomenon
effectiveness in future. The growing threat The IA, however, is not alone in seeking
of urban insurgency in India, intermingled to modernise its infantry soldiers in such
with high-tech nature of modern terror- a revolutionary way. At present, there are Battery Pack Cabling
ism, has put additional onus on the IA to about 20 such heavily funded and futur-
equip and train its special operation forces istic programmes underway by different
in a digitised environment so as to enable armies around the world. The US, naturally,
it’s commanders to correctly assess ground is at the forefront of soldier modernisa-
situations in counter-insurgency opera- tion programme globally. However, France,
tions, take split-second decisions, coordinate Germany, and UK have also made significant
movement of troops in action and counter advances towards modernisation of their
enemy’s fire power with increased fire power, foot soldiers. China and Russia, though Clothing, Protection and Carrying System
precision and lethality—all in real time. relatively new to this growing worldwide
military phenomenon, are making serious
Fills the Critical Digital Gap inroads in the promising world market of Proposal also included night-vision devices,
F-INSAS, in fact, is at the heart of infan- soldier modernisation equipment. laser designators and detachable under- Combining
try modernisation drive of the IA which A recent industry report has estimated barrel grenade launchers. In order to meet state-of-the-art
has been on for the past few years. The that soldier modernisation applications future army small arms requirements, the
2007-08 Annual Report of the Ministry of generated a total of $440 million (Rs state-owned Ordnance Factories Board, technology,
Defence mentions, “In pursuit for moderni- 2,045 crore) in sales worldwide last year. is reportedly working jointly with Israel F-INSAS would reduce
sation, the Infantry Battalions are being The report concludes that this revenue will Military Industries on the prototype of a
provided state-of-the-art weapon systems of steadily rise over the next decade. The Indian small weapon that will feature an improved logistic burden of the
greater lethality, range and precision, ther- military, with a major thrust towards mod- sighting system and a miniaturized com- soldier almost by 50
mal imaging devices, bullet and mine proof ernization, is expected to import military puter to improve accuracy.
vehicles and secure radio communications.” hardware worth $30 billion (Rs 1,39,530 Essentially a combined project of per cent. There are
In May 2006, while elaborating upon crore) over the next five years. A significant the Defence Research and Development also plans to develop
the need for soldier modernisation pro- part of this import bill is likely to be chan- Organisation (DRDO) and the military, F-
gramme, the Parliament’s Standing neled towards buying of soldier modernisa- INSAS has generated huge interests among
‘robotic mules’ to carry
Committee on Defence in its eleventh report tion equipments for the special operation global defence industry players, like Rolta excess loads of soldiers
(on page 83) to the 14th Lok Sabha stated, forces and the infantry soldiers of the IA. Thales Limited, EADS and Israel’s Elbit
“The programme has been visualised as a Systems. With Israel in an advisory role, the
on the battlefield.
next-generation infantry small arms system Programme Implementation state-owned DRDO is the lead developer of F-
that will give the Indian soldier unprec- F-INSAS, a big ticket project of the IA with INSAS programme, even as indigenous com-
edented capability in the 21st century estimated cost of $2 billion (Rs 9,300 crore), panies like Tata, Godrej, Alpha Technologies, tegic autonomy will remain a big challenge
digitised battlefield.” F-INSAS aims to fill a is expected to be completed by 2020. The and L&T are eagerly waiting for their share before the DRDO. Integration of various
critical digital gap in the Infantry Division army hopes to equip initially up to 10 infan- of the F-INSAS cake. However, with DRDO as systems and sub-systems within the stipu-
of the IA. Implemented completely, it would try battalions for F-INSAS user trials by the main driver of F-INSAS project, one can lated time-frame, cost effectiveness, weight
turn the Infantry soldiers into self-con- 2015. The project has indeed moved beyond never be sure whether the infantry’s most and size, power, data connectivity, man and
tained killing machines by 2020. the conceptualisation phase and stands at a ambitious soldier modernisation project will machine interface, and so on are issues that
Termed as ‘soldier as a system’, the on- point where procurement of major systems meet the cut-off year of 2020. will have to be successfully dealt with.

going soldier modernisation programme and sub-systems are underway. With the Such pessimism ensues from the fact that The DRDO has, however, with foreign
visualises the future infantry soldier as first F-INSAS equipment likely to be handed many of DRDO’s vital projects in the past collaboration, produced some cutting edge
someone who is equipped with lightweight over to the army by 2012, about 5,000 have been inordinately delayed, resulting weapon technology for the armed forces.
dual-caliber weapons which has integrated members of India’s special operations forces in cost overruns. Besides, procedural lapses F-INSAS is not a project that involves high
thermal sight and fire control system. The have already been equipped with Israeli- and civil-military hiccups which are normal technology. With collaboration from foreign
future infantry soldier of the IA wears made Tavor assault rifles. for India could also take the F-INSAS project companies, including technology made
a helmet which has in-built sensors to A global tender valued at around $1.1 well beyond its scheduled time frame. The available from indigenous sources, it should
help improve his situational awareness billion (Rs 5,117 crore) was issued by army’s insistence on DRDO meeting specific not be difficult for the DRDO to help the IA
on the battlefield and communicate with India’s Ministry of Defence towards April- standards, particularly those relating to size meet the emerging challenges of the 21st
other nodes in the network. The future end last year for procurement of 43,318 and weight, can force the F-INSAS project century digitised warfare. SP
soldiers, equipped with latest gizmos, such close quarter battle carbines to bolster take the eventual import route at the cost
as wearable computers, anti-mine shoes, F-INSAS programme. The Request for of indigenisation. Hence, maintaining stra- The author is a Military Analyst.

8 SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09

Skyranger E 260x191.qxd 12.03.2009 17:05 Uhr Seite 1

New tasks, new solutions

The Skyranger gun system is a self-propelled multi-mission system for protecting mobile units and stationary
assets. Thanks to modular armour, the unmanned turret can be optimally outfitted for the mission at hand.
Using the high performance Ahead ammunition, the Oerlikon 35 mm revolver gun of the Skyranger system
is the ideal weapon for engaging air and ground targets. An electro-optic tracking sensor or tracking radar
controls the weapon and automatically tracks the assigned target.
More information at:

Rheinmetall Marketing Office India · The Taj Mahal Hotel · Office Suite 422 · Number One
Mansingh Road · New Delhi · 110011 India · Phone +91 11 23 02 60 60 · Fax +91 11 23 02 60 50

C ommunications

DECISION Support Architecture

The army needs a seamless digitised communication network capable of picking up
information from sensors deployed in the battlespace and passing it on a need-to-know
basis to all concerned commanders in the field

t present, the Indian Army ful OOA capability—in other words, a ably enhance the IA’s capabilities.
(IA) is organised, equipped and The IA wants to create tri-service expeditionary capability, in
trained for Third Generation, a seamless link from addition to a nuanced capability for LICO. A New Battlefield
industrial age conflicts engag- Excessive obsession with conven- Environment
ing low and medium level technology. the top to the bottom tional defensive operations has skewed A new battlefield environment has
The threat from traditional adversar- as an integrated the army’s organisations, operational emerged due to the advent of stand-
ies has been paramount in motivating doctrines, concepts, equipment pattern off, multi-spectral sensors with real
the prevailing concepts and doctrines command and control and deployment. Even the training of its time communications that give situ-
of war and organisational structures. enterprise. The forces needs a change in orientation. The ational awareness so that targets can
This has manifested in the preparation traditional methods of war fighting have be acquired, prioritised and destroyed,
and readiness for limited conventional Command Information favoured deliberate set piece offensive and by day or by night, in all weather condi-
conflicts apart from the Low Intensity and Decision Support defensive military operations against fixed tions, throughout the battlefield, with
Conflict Operations (LICO) which is being defences and, hence, the operational phi- stand off weapon systems firing preci-
fought within India’s borders and in
System will be the hub losophy favours ‘force-on-force’ attrition sion attack munitions. It is being pointed
which the army has been embroiled since of this enterprise. oriented operations which are tactically out by many analysts that indirect and
the 1950s. The latter involvement has biased and in short wars, especially in stand-off engagements from aircraft,
become far more acute and critical since the mountains, the gains are going to be unmanned combat aerial vehicles and
the onset of the ‘Proxy War’ in Jammu states and China’s continuing belliger- limited unless the army changes its opera- long range artillery can relieve ground
and Kashmir, assisted, encouraged, and ence, India cannot afford to lower its mili- tional doctrine and the method of waging elements including armour from the role
funded by Pakistan, since 1989. tary preparedness because it may well be wars and acquire new capabilities. of destroying enemy combat elements at
The future challenges mainly lie in forced to fight wars whose origin or root Strategic and tactical air mobility, close quarters.
the domain of LICO, including counter- cause may be beyond its control. Hence, together with the development of network However, this is fallacious argument
insurgency and counter-terrorist opera- the army has to be prepared to fight lim- enabled warfare capability and the ability because it stands disproved in both Iraq
tions. However, considering the unstable ited conventional wars of high intensity to launch effects based operations against and Afghanistan. While such technolo-
conditions in most of our neighbouring and acquire a relatively small but power- state and non-state actors, will consider- gies are lethal and do provide an over-
Continued on page 10


Decision Support Architecture continued from page 9

ments together have to be handled by yet

TAC C3I Architecture another agency. Theoretically, this can be
The architecture depicted diagrammatically comprises of the
done by the Deputy Chief of Army Staff
following elements:
����������������������������������������������� (Information Systems and Training), or
the DCOAS (IS&T), to whom both the
• ACCCS: Artillery Combat Command and Control System for
automation of all artillery tasks in the field which includes prepa-
DGs report. However, in reality, this is not
ration and execution of fire plans, direction, control and correc- possible as the DCOAS does not have the
tion of fire, and functions at the artillery command post and at staff or the technical expertise to handle
the gun end. This system has already been fielded in the combat the subjects concerned.
formations of the army. Different armies have evolved differ-
• EWS: Electronic Warfare System is based on the electronic ent models. The most favoured model
warfare units operated by the Corps of Signals of the army is where one DG (from the command
whose linkage in the system has finalised. Their integration in stream, General Cadre) controls both
the CIDSS of the army will now be progressed in Phase II of the information and communications. In
Project for which sanction of the government has been sought. IA’s case, it could be the DGIS accorded
• ELINT: Electronic Intelligence units are operated by the the status of a Principle Staff Officer
Intelligence staff of the formation and their linkage in the CIDSS (PSO) similar to that of the DCOAS. This
is also being progressed. They will also get integrated in Phase II would ensure integration and cohesion.
of the project. However, the IA being very large and
• BMS: Battle Management System, which is being designed the Corps of Signals being a major arm,
to operate at the unit level and below, will synthesise the may have felt the necessity of letting
battle picture for the unit commander whether it be an infan- the Signals have its own identity, thus
try unit or an armoured regiment. Tanks and selected infan-
it seems that the army, has now decided
trymen will become situational awareness platforms. This
project which was started only about two years ago is now
to put both the DGs under the Director
being pushed at a faster rate as this constitutes the cutting General Military Operations (DGMO)
edge of the army’s CIDSS programme. Future Infantry Soldier who in the restructuring of the Army
as a System (F-INSAS), which is a part of this project is being Headquarters is likely to be made a PSO.
progressed by the Infantry directorate but will be a part of But this model alone will not solve the
the overall BMS of the IA. problem because, at present, the DGMO’s
• AD C&R: Air Defence Control and Reporting System will organisation does not have any section
automate the detection, identification, designation and destruction tasks of the Army Air Defence Artillery. It would, therefore, have to be head with any expertise or knowledge of
integrated with the Indian Air Force’s air defence network. The project is at present is in the test bed stage. information systems under development
• BSS: Battlefield Surveillance System will integrate all surveillance resources of the army, including, radars, UAVs, electro optical systems, and is staffed, in the concerned sections,
photographic and visual systems to provide a coherent picture to the commander. This is also at the test bed stage. with officers from the Corps of Signals
whose bias is evident from the delays

four functions—operations, intelligence,

Organisation of DGIS logistics and terrain. At the core of this Complete integration
enterprise are three vital links.
DGIS (Director General Information Systems) At the apex is the Army Strategic of information and
Operational Information Dissemination communications
System which will connect Army
DDG MISO Headquarters to the Command seems to be the major
Headquarters and forward to the Corps weakness of the army
Headquarters while rearwards it will
PMO ACCCS DDG IT CAMS (Centre of Automated Mil Svy) connect to the national command post,
PMO BSS the other Services and other national
ADMC (Army Digital Mapping Centre)
PMO CIDSS AS DC level entities. The latter portion dealing that are taking place in clearing the proj-
501 FSEG (Field Svy Eng. GP) with the national strategic level will be ect files. The DGMO will have to have a
enabled through the C4I2SR (Command, section solely responsible for information
AIC DIGIT (Def Institute for Geo Spatial Info & Eng) Control, Computers, Communications, systems with qualified officers from the
Intelligence, Information, Surveillance General Cadre stream to be able to render
and Reconnaissance) System when it gets operationally useful advice and to come
Index for Abbreviations
established. to logical conclusions in respect of the
• ADGIS - Additional Director General Information Systems The second vital link will connect problems facing the DGIS.
• ADG MIL SVY - Additional Director General Military Survey. the Corps Headquarters forward to the
• DDG MISO - Deputy Director General, Management Information Systems Organisation. Battalion Headquarters. This will be Time is of the Essence
the Tactical C3I (Command, Control, The work on IA’s CIDSS and many of its
• ASTROIDS - Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System.
Communications and Intelligence) sys- various projects had started few decades
• CIDSS - COMMANDERS INFORMATION AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM. WILL RIDE ON tem which will be based on the tactical ago. However, a fresh impetus was inject-
TACTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM. communication system which in turn ed into this project with fresh inputs from
• BMS WILL RIDE ON REGIMENTAL/BATTALION COMBAT NET RADIO. will currently rely on satellite communi- the US military operations in Iraq and
• AD C&R - AIR DEFENCE CONTROL & REPORTING SYSTEM. cations, radio relay equipment and other Afghanistan, and the combined effects
modes of communications which will of digitisation of the battlefield with the
allow for static and mobile operations. stand-off, multi-spectral sensors that give
• ACCCS - ARTILLERY COMMAND, CONTROL AND COMPUTER SYSTEM. The third link, the Battle Management situational awareness about enemy and
• EWS - ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEM. System (BMS), will be at the Battalion own troops. This led to the amalgama-
• BMS - BATTLE MANGEMENT SYSTEM. (unit) level and below and will be based tion of existing structures and the cre-
on combat net radio. ation of the DGIS organisation in 2004.
The army’s TAC C3I system is Despite the dynamism of the present
• TAC C3I - TACTICAL COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS & INTELLIGENCE. designed to assist in planning, directing DGIS, the overall progress in the army is
• Ops - Operations and controlling field forces. Its function slow considering the vital necessity of
• Int - Intelligence is to provide: establishing a seamless digitised commu-
• Commanders at all echelons with nication network within the army which
• PMO - Project management office
accurate, timely and credible informa- is capable of picking up information from
• Lgs - Logistics tion, the sensors deployed in the battlespace and
• Means to process, display and evalu- passing it on a need-to-know basis to all
ate data for situational awareness as concerned commanders in the field. This
an aid for decision support, and requires complete integration of informa-
whelming advantage over the adversary and military strategic levels which is cur- • Capabilities to transmit order and tion and communications which seems to
if he does not possess them, they do not rently lacking. Further, while the Indian decisions to own forces and weapon be the major weakness of the army. Out of
preclude the use of infantry and armour armed forces do possess a few technolo- systems both during war and peace. the projects undertaken by the DGIS, BMS

on the ground. No gains can be consoli- gies in the standalone mode they are is the least developed due to a late start.
dated without occupation of ground and neither integrated nor networked even Current Weaknesses This being at the cutting edge of our com-
establishment of a peaceful order. In fact, though they are progressively moving Currently, communications and infor- bat capability requires close and constant
asymmetric and Fourth Generation wars towards this direction. mation, which cannot be segregated in monitoring at all levels.
in the modern era will demand a greater operational usage, are being dealt by two Moreover, due to the fast changing
focus on all arms combat but with selec- Command & Control director generals (DGs), both Lieutenant and evolving technologies in the two
tive employment of ground troops. The The IA wants to create a seamless link Generals, who are handling their respec- fields of communications and informa-
tactics and the manner of employment from the top to the bottom as an inte- tive departments, namely DG Signals and tion, and the time required for absorption
will differ considerably. grated command and control enterprise. DG Information Systems (DGIS). Their and development, delays in decision mak-
Such wars will also mandate a far Command Information and Decision cohesion and integration are proving ing and acquiring new technologies can
greater integration within the army and Support System (CIDSS) will be the hub difficult due to differing perceptions and adversely impact our combat capability
tri-service integration at the operational of this enterprise which will integrate turf wars and, hence, these two depart- in the long run. SP

10 SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09

I ndo-US Joint Ex er ci se


s part of the ongoing Indo-US Defence Cooperation, Indo-US
joint exercise Yudh Abhyas 2009 was conducted at Babina, an
Indian Army base located 25 km from Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh,
from October 12 to 29. Around 1,000 military personnel from
the Indian and US Army participated in the exercise under the aegis of HQ
Southern Command.
The Indian Army’s 7th Mechanised Infantry Battalion of 94 Armored
Brigade, 31 Armored Division took part along with the US Army’s 2nd
Squadron, 14th Cavalry Regiment, “Strykehorse”, 2nd Stryker Brigade
Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, from Schofield Barracks, Hawaii.
Troops and equipment of 7th Mechanised Infantry comprising more
than 50 BMP-2 Infantry combat vehicles participated along with 26
Strykers and five Humvees of the US Army.


The scope of the exercise was to conduct Indo-US joint training exercise
with the focus on counter-insurgency/terrorism in a semi-urban scenario
under UN Peacekeeping Operations Chapter VII. The following aspects were
• Peace keeping operations, including military coordination, military deci-
sion making process and rules of engagement (ROE).
• Stability Operations, including mounting and ROE, mine/counter-
Improvised Explosive Devices operations and patrolling.
• Human rights aspects.
• Civil-military operations, including road opening, convoy protection and
humanitarian assistance issues.
• Community operations.
• Logistics support operations, including equipment issues and humani-
tarian assistance issues.
• Share and learn from each others experience through combined military
decision making and planning process, and employment of forces.
• Promote mutual trust and understanding through exchange of tactics,
techniques and procedures and associated logistics support.
• Exposure to high technology based weapons, equipment and systems.
• Exercise was conducted under UN mandate.


The exercise had the following firsts associated with it:
• First Indo-US joint mechanised forces exercise.
• First time that the Strykers were deployed in India.
• First time that an Indian mechanised battalion participated along with
the Stryker squadron in a joint exercise under overall command of an
Indian brigade headquarters.

• Both sides achieved interoperability and the capability to function along-
side for operations under a UN Mandate.
• The US troops were exposed to the rich culture and traditions of India.
They appreciated the warm hospitality.
• The Indian troops gained exposure to contemporary weapon systems
and technology being used by the US troops.
• The mission statement set out for the exercise was fully met. SP
Photographs: Indian Army

For videos, visit

5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES 11

Tr aining

Forging Tri-Service Bonds

The concept of a tri-service batch training together and passing out as a batch has served to foster
course spirit and deep ties. Under no circumstances should it be diluted.

he prime lesson to emerge from Result is: vacancies go unsubscribed and each service going its own way. The
the Second World War was the over 60 per cent of the civilian teaching If the navy insists that army is already severely short of officers.
critical need for synergy and staff in the NDA is employed on an ad-hoc all its officers must be Infantry and fighting arm officers have
jointness in operations. The basis. This has had a disastrous effect on done well in combat without B.Tech
dominant trend in that war was the teaching standards at this premiere insti- B.Tech graduates, the degrees. Imposing B.Tech curricula will
thrust towards inter-services synergy tution. The armed forces must correct this NDA can run a B.Tech further restrict the number of applicants.
and integration. Thus, the German drift and, if required (as an emergency Good outdoor oriented students from the
Blitzkrieg synthesised the action of the measure), augment salaries from Service course arts or commerce streams would be lost.
Panzer Tank formations with the Stuka Welfare funds (in terms of an NDA allow- We need to tap this pool to get our fair
Dive Bombers (which virtually served ance) to attract and retain the best talent share of the higher ability levels at the
as flying artillery). It was this air-land in the country. The most deleterious effect of the deci- intake stage. There was a time when the
synergy that restored manoeuvre to Another severe jolt to jointness has sion lies in the implementation wherein NDA attracted the cream of the country’s
pre-eminence on the battlefields. On the come in the form of the navy’s recent naval graduates will complete only two elite public schools. That sadly is no lon-
high seas, the aircraft carriers replaced decision to switch to a four-year B.Tech years at the NDA and the balance two at ger the case.
the battleships as the decisive element in degree for all its entrants. Though the the Naval Academy. The core concept of
naval warfare. In the jungles of Burma, Sustaining jointness
to counter the Japanese tactics of deep Some concrete suggestions to sustain
infiltration and encirclement, the Allies jointness at this premier institution and
resorted to creating admin boxes that improve curricula:
were maintained entirely by the air • Four-year BA/B.Sc (Honours)
when cut off. Amphibious operations Courses: All services could shift to
reflected the ultimate in inter-services a four-year BA/B.Sc (Honours) and
synergy that went far beyond mere coop- B.Tech courses (for selected naval/
eration and entailed a very high level of air force/army cadets who aspire to
joint planning and execution. these). It is noteworthy that many
At the end of World War II, the British civilian universities are opting for
military leadership was acutely conscious such honours courses. Three years
of the need for inter-services synergy in could be done at the NDA and the
modern warfare. So much so that Lord final year at the finishing academies
Louis Mountbatten and Field Marshal of the three services.
Auchinlek, when laying the foundations • BA (Honours) courses in Military
for the armed forces of free India, over- History, Military Geography &
whelmingly emphasised on jointness. The International Relations: The NDA
National Defence Academy (NDA) and the must introduce BA (Hons) Courses
Defence Services Staff College, therefore, in Military History and Military
were mooted as inter-services institu- Geography (with emphasis on India).
tions and have done tremendous service There are no institutes in the country
in fostering jointness in the Indian armed exclusively catering to these vital sub-
forces. The NDA, in particular, was a jects. The NDA must become a centre
unique and pioneering concept for it ush- for excellence in the study of Indian
ered in jointness at the very grass roots Military History and Geography in
or the entry level itself. It thereby laid the the country. International Relations
foundations for Inter-services synergy. is also a vital subject for the study of
This was renewed at the Staff College at strategy per se. The American armed
the mid-career level and reinforced at the forces send their officers on study
National Defence College at the one star leave to gain degrees in this field. This
level. The peak of inter-services synergy needs to be introduced as an honours
was witnessed in the 1971 War for the course at the NDA for the non-techni-
liberation of Bangladesh. By 1991, a cal stream.
significant milestone was reached when • B.Tech Stream: If the navy insists
all three service chiefs were from the first that all its officers must be B.Tech
Illustration: Ratan Sonal

course NDA (then JSW). In the Kargil graduates, the NDA can run a B.Tech
War, again all three chiefs were from the course. The first three years must be
NDA, rendering a significant boost to done at the NDA and only the final
inter-services synergy. year at the Naval Academy. The con-
However, services the world over have cept of a tri-service batch training
a tendency to revert to turf wars and dis- together and passing out as a batch
sonance. The NDA was designed as an There was a time when the National Defence has served to foster course spirit and
institution of excellence. To attract the deep bonding, besides serving as a
brightest and best teaching staff in India,
Academy attracted the cream of the country’s elite strong adhesive to achieve coherence.
its first British Principal J.T.M. Gibson public schools. That sadly is no longer the case. Under no circumstances should this
had raised the salaries of civilian instruc- overwhelming advantage over all
tors to virtually three times of what regional armed forces be diluted.
was then being paid in the best public Inter-services synergy has become a
schools. That is why the NDA attracted proposal has considerable merit, there jointness—wherein army, navy and air crucial and overriding need for victory

the cream of the best civilian teaching is room for discussion and debate. IIT force cadets join the academy together, in war. India had inherited an excellent
talent in the country in the 1950s and graduates and geeks may not always train together for three years and then structure for promoting jointness at the
1960s. Unfortunately, thereafter (at the make the best combat leaders and war pass out as a course—stands broken. It grass roots/entry level itself. It remains a
stage of making them permanent) a Joint fighters. Generalists are needed to avoid has taken six decades to build the struc- pioneering concept. The three wings of the
Secretary in the Ministry took the inexpli- tunnel vision and give the overviews and tures of jointness. Today, the need for Indian armed forces cannot lose the tre-
cable decision to reduce the remuneration strategic direction. Physical fitness and jointness and synergy has become cru- mendous benefits of synergy. The services
of civilian instructors to below that being a yen for combat may not always be the cial and overriding. At its initiation, the cannot afford to go our separate ways. In
earned by their peers in academic insti- strong point of IIT/B.Tech graduates. In NDA was an exciting concept, far ahead fact, the need of the hour is to sustain and
tutions, on the plea that they were only any case, the army and the air force are of its time. It was emulated by Australia further jointness to even greater levels.
teaching undergraduates. This was a body not on board on the decision to switch and many developing countries. Today, The NDA is a national asset for jointness. It
blow to the NDA. Today, the NDA cannot from BA/B.Sc courses entirely to the we cannot afford to dilute the basic must be strengthened and its unique char-
attract decent staff at these meager pays. B.Tech stream. structures of jointness on the plea of acter preserved. SP

12 SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09

Te chnolog y

Some of the latest and the best in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles vie for attention with a Main Battle Tank
from China. Here’s a glimpse at the most modern technology on offer.

he Indian Military has been weighs 400 g and is capable of carrying a radius of about 10 km. Raven has a flying military areas are currently equipped
aware of the significance of 100 g payload. speed of 45 km/h to 95 km/h at typical with this MBT. Type 99 is similar, in many
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Odin is fitted with a Wankel Rotary inter- operating altitude between 100 ft to 1,000 aspects to the M1A1 tank and the Western
their “force multiplier” ever since nal combustion engine fueled by JP-8 jet ft. RQ-11A Raven provides flexibility, with Leopard 2. Western influences have been
they became conscious of their weak- fuel. It weighs 10 kg and can carry a 10 remote control or control through ground noticed in the angular welded turret
nesses in the field of intelligence, surveil- kg payload for up to an hour. Fitted with station. It allows completely autonomous design. The MBT carries 9M119 Refleks,
lance and reconnaissance, especially an autonomous flight control system and missions using GPS waypoint navigation. anti-tank guided missile of Russian origin
during “Operation Parakram” in 2001- managed through a simple to operate CCD colour video and an infrared camera which is produced in China under a local
2002. However indigenous efforts failed ground control system, it can be adapted constitute the standard mission payloads. licence. Its NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
to a range of tasks, The Raven B system is an enhanced ver- Organisation) codename is AT-11 Sniper. It
including intelligence, sion of the battle-proven Raven A. It is has a diesel engine which is turbo charged
surveillance, target a lightweight system designed for rapid and uses German technology, and the tank
acquisition and recon- deployment and high mobility for both is liquid cooled. Explosive reaction armour
naissance, communica- military and commercial applications. (ERA) units were added to the turret and
tions relay and electronic The Raven B is the most advanced SUAV hull’s front portion. This contains approxi-
warfare, asset protection, deployed with the US armed forces. RQ- mately 1,000 mm to 1,200 mm of steel
Improvised Explosive 11B has a wingspan of 4.5 ft and a weight armour. The Type 99 has a 1,500HP diesel
Device detection and can of 4.2 lb. Launched by hand, Raven pro- engine while the ZTZ98 uses a 1,200HP
be used as a weapon or vides aerial observation, day or night, at diesel engine.
loitering munition. line-of-sight ranges of 10 km or more. It The hull and turret are built of welded
Hoder is a heavy lift can deliver real-time colour or infrared steel armour. The modular design allows
craft that weighs 1.5 imagery to ground control
tonne and is capable and remote viewing sta-
of carrying a 1 tonne tions, as well as IR laser
payload for up to eight illumination of ground
hours. It is primarily targets.
to produce satisfactory results compelling intended for cargo transport and re-sup- The Raven allows mili-
the Indian armed forces to seek UAVs from ply vehicle for front line forces, but can be tary units to conduct intel-
abroad. The concept of this combat tool adapted to become a long endurance craft ligence, surveillance, and
in the hands of field commanders has by reducing the payload and increasing reconnaissance over danger
now, not only gathered great momentum the fuel. Hoder is in the early stages of zones without committing
but has matured significantly thanks to development but AESIR expect that it will soldiers. It allows the task
new technologies. Two Modern UAVs and be multi-engined. force to monitor an area
Chinas latest MBT are described in the Given that the VTOL UAVs have appli- with a less obtrusive pres-
ensuing paragraphs. cations beyond the military, it may not be ence and live video capabili-
long before there’s an explosion in UFO ties during day and night.
VTOL UAV sightings that can be attributed to the Launched in just minutes,
UK-based AESIR has developed a VTOL UAV AESIR craft. by hand, into the air like a
that has no external rotating parts, instead model airplane, the Raven
it relies on a phenomenon known as the RQ-11 Raven UAS, USA lands itself by auto-piloting
Coanda effect to generate lift. The effect can The RQ-11 Raven is a lightweight to a near hover. It does not
be seen by placing a can in front of a lit can- unmanned aircraft system (UAS). It is require carefully prepared
dle. If you blow directly at the candle, the designed for rapid deployment and high landing strips. Requiring no elaborate damaged sections to be easily replaced.
air will bend around it and extinguish the mobility for military and commercial oper- support facilities, the Raven ideally suits New upgrades can be placed giving it
candle—that’s the Coanda effect. In AESIR ations. The Raven meets army require- forward-deployed units. Automated fea- increased service life. The turret’s inside
UAV, air velocity is created in the centre of ments for low-altitude reconnaissance, tures and GPS technology make it simple to design layout is modelled on Russian style.
the craft using a fan and then directing the surveillance and target acquisition. It can operate, requiring no specialised skills or in- The MBT closely resembles the Russian
air flow through an outlet so it follows over be operated manually or programmed depth flight training. 2A46M autoloader’s design. There is provi-
the curved surface. The amount of lift gen- for autonomous operation, utilising the sion for extra ammunition in the fighting
erated is dependent upon the velocity, mass system’s advanced avionics and GPS navi- PLA’s Main Battle Tank compartment. This makes the MBT highly
and density of the air. To help reduce the gation. RQ-11 UAVs are manufactured ZTZ99 main battle tank (MBT) is also susceptible to fire once penetrated. The
weight of the craft and maximise durability in two variants—the RQ-11A and the called the Type 99. It entered service MBT requires a bustle autoloader, on which
the craft are made from carbon fiber. Since RQ-11B—designed and manufactured by in 2001. It is a successor to Type 98 G, production has not been started yet.
the rotation of the fan causes the body of AeroVironment. More than 3,000 RQ- which in turn was a successor to Type 98. Type 99A2, the most advanced variant,
the UAV to rotate in the opposite direction, 11As were produced before 2006. Manufactured for the People’s Liberation is undergoing trials and will enter service
AESIR placed a series of vanes in the air- The RQ-11A Raven UAV weighs about Army (PLA) by China Northern Industries after 2009. Significant improvements of
flow around the outside of the body to neu- 1.9 kg. It has a flight endurance of 80 Corporation (CNGC) or Norinco, the ZTZ99 Type 99A2 make it a new tank altogether.
tralise this effect. Moveable flaps on sections minutes and an effective operational MBT is considered one of the 12 best tanks Some of the upgrades include an informa-
of the lifting surface provide yaw control in the world. It is a tion terminal and aiming system. It also
to allow the UAV to turn left or right. And third-generation battle includes bigger turret with a bigger tail
flaps on the outside of the craft use the lift tank and, but due to chamber and arrow-shaped armour. It has
airflow to provide directional control, caus- its high cost (unit cost a periscope for the commander and an inte-
ing the craft to tilt and move in the direc- approximately $2.5 mil- grated propulsion system with an active pro-
tion of the tilt. lion; Rs 11 crore), it was tection system which is set on the turret .
The AESIR family comprises a 300 mm built in small numbers. The tank is powered by a 1,500HP
diameter craft called Vidar, Odin which In comparison to older diesel engine, derived from the German
is a 1m diameter craft with a payload Chinese-made tanks, MB871ka501 diesel technology. The
capability of 10 kg, and Hoder which is a the MBT has improved power-to-weight ratio stands at approxi-
multi-engine craft with the capability to capabilities in terms of mately 27.78, and the tank’s battle
lift a payload of 1 tonne. protection, power and weight is 54 tonnes. The engine pro-
Vidar is a highly portable craft designed mobility. It has a crew pels the tank with an on road speed of
to provide surveillance and situational of three. It was made 80km/h and cross country speed of 65
awareness inside buildings, and in close to compete with west- km/h. It takes only 12 seconds to climb
confined spaces. It has an electric engine ern tanks. Armoured acceleration speeds from 0 to 32 km/h.
powered by Lithium Polymer batteries to regiments in China’s One reverse gear and seven forward gears
provide up to 15 minutes of flight time. It Shenyang and Beijing assist the transmission. SP

5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES 13

S how Repor t

DSEi garners
good response

Photographs:, Northrop Grumman

Four packed business days drew visitors from across
UK and all over world to the event held in London Microcam


he world’s largest fully integrated complement the already accredited Web tional and asymmetric threats. advantages for operations in total darkness
defence and security exhibition, Mapping Service, and full motion video inte- The UK Ministry of Defence has placed and in even the most difficult environmen-
Defence Systems and Equipment gration along with many minor additions to the first order for a new generation of hel- tal conditions.
International (DSEi) 2009 served the already rich feature set. met-mounted displays developed by BAE MARS is an uncooled, hand-held
as an ideal platform for senior internation- Designed to give soldiers the most ver- Systems. The Royal Navy will purchase thermal imager with target acquisition
al trade and military experts from across satile hands-free tactical light possible, the 12 remote sighting systems incorporating capabilities, is extremely lightweight (1.7
the supply chain to interact in an optimal new Sidewinder from Streamlight has 20 BAE Systems’ Q-Sight display, for its Lynx kg, including a rechargeable battery)
business environment. It provided one-on- functions, four selectable Light Emitting Mk8 helicopters. and compact. Combined with low power
one opportunities to share ideas, discuss Diode (LED) colours and intensity levels, GigaCom AB has developed a new consumption and an operating dura-
industry developments, conduct business plus strobe, together with an innovative product to expand the use of fibre optics tion of over eight hours before recharge,
and network for future growth. articulating light head—all in one com- in harsh environments. D-sub EBOSA is MARS is an optimal solution for a wide
Visitors came from UK and all over the pact, lightweight and waterproof package. an expanded beam insert for the compa- range of applications including, security
world to experience first-hand the lat- The Truck-Lite display includes the new 7” ny’s D-sub connector, which it converts and perimeter defence, infantry, scouts,
est land, air and sea capabilities of more LED headlamp. As the first LED headlamps into a robust fibre optical connector. special units and target acquisition for
than 1,350 companies from 40 countries in commercial production, the headlamps Expanded beam technology makes this infantry commanders.
over four packed business days. This are entering service on a wide variety of connector ideal in rough environments CORAL 3-5 μm FPA Thermal Imaging
year, SP Guide Publications was repre- military vehicles. and less sensitive to dust, vibrations and Camera is a high resolution hand-held dual
sented at the event held in London from Thermoteknix has just launched temperature changes. FOV personal thermal imaging camera
September 8 to 11 by Editor-in-Chief the shutterless 384x288 25μ pitch AIS delivered its 1,000th IMU02 unit. with integral GPS receiver. It is lightweight,
Jayant Baranwal and Director Sales and MICROCAM module—a featherweight This unit was part of the first high rate easy to operate and provides excellent
Marketing Neetu Dhulia. 30g (1oz), miniature 4x4cm (1.57x1.57 production batch (200 per month) for picture quality. The system’s applications
inch) thermal imager with a power con- Raytheon Missile Systems Excalibur preci- include infantry, scout and perimeter
Declarations & Debuts sumption of <0.6 Watt. MICROCAM uses sion guided missile system. The SiIMU02R defence missions.
At the event, TruePosition, Inc., a leading a full third less than its nearest competi- is in service on a range of programmes Portal Laser Designator Range-Finder
provider of wireless location technologies tor and can be easily integrated into any including the A Darter, Boundary scan weighs 5.5 kg and is designated to ranges
and solutions and a subsidiary of Liberty handheld, portable, UAV, night vision or enhanced. of 10 km. Ruggedised to meet and even
Media Corporation announced that it was sighting systems product. GOEPEL Electronics presented new inno- exceed harsh environmental conditions in
awarded a multimillion dollar contract for AR Modular RF will be launching vations for its extended JTAG/boundary accordance with IAW MIL-STD-810, it can
its TruePosition Location Platform to be KMW1031, a 20 watt output tactical scan solutions and also in automated opti- be carried by an individual soldier and used
used for national security purposes. booster amplifier for man pack, or man por- cal inspection. These include the VarioTAP, for stand-off designation for maximum
Oldbury UK used its DSEi debut atten- table applications; KMW1035, the “AR-50 the first real fusion of JTAG emulation protection.
dance to announce and launch a number Mini-vehicle booster”, a 50 watt output tac- and boundary scan that has changed the A Micro Multi-Purpose Advanced
of new developments and products, and tical booster amplifier for base and vehicle boundary scan world decisively. Stabilized System, the Micro-CoMPASSTM is
demonstrate the developing scope and applications; and KMW1040HP, the “AR-75 SELEX Communications, a an 8” lightweight and compact payload sys-
diversity of its defence, homeland secu- vehicle booster”, a 75 watt output tactical Finmeccanica company, introduced the tem for small UAVs, airborne, marine and
rity and specialist applications business. booster amplifier with remote control sys- Fixed Base Force Protection (FBFP) System, ground applications.
Oldbury UK Managing Director Richard tem for base and vehicle applications. building on the key design features of the Protel Solutions launched Omnitron
Skan said, “Our debut appearance at DSEi Plextek announced a number of impor- Enhanced Personal Role Radio (EZPRR) Systems’ iConverter 4xT1/E1 MUX at DSEi.
should be read as a very strong affirma- tant performance enhancements to its range to provide enhanced Force Protection in The 4xT1/E1 MUX is a four-port multiplex-
tion that we intend to grow our defence of Blighter ground surveillance radars, and around base camps and command er that aggregates up to four independent
sector business at a world market level, including significantly extended detection posts. The FBFP provides a cohesive com- T1/E1 channels from copper links onto a
both organically and via alliances or simi- ranges and support for wider scan angles as munications infrastructure, providing an fibre optic link, and is the newest member
lar arrangements.” well as introducing all-informed, all-secure, all on one network of the popular iConverter fibre access plat-
Cobham demonstrated its new Eagle its new Vortex Fast- system of communication. It enhances form. The Radiall LxC-R is a multi-purpose,
Close Combat Radio at DSEi. Eagle is Scan technology. the effectiveness of individuals commit- single channel fibre optic connector for
a third generation, full duplex, ad-hoc These new features ted to fundamental roles, such as Force harsh environments.
networked radio specifically designed as further enhance Protection, by giving them the flexibility to Steatite demonstrated its extensive
a short range Infantry Section/Squad the radar’s capabil- utilise vehicles, static guard posts, vehicle knowledge and experience of supporting
radio. It allows up to five talkers to speak ity to deliver class- check points and foot patrols. the defence and aerospace industries at
simultaneously in a conference mode, leading ‘Persistent GigaCom launched the 38999 EBOSA this year’s DSEi exhibition. Each of the
and provides a simultaneous encrypted Surveillance’, offering a cost effective expanded beam termini, company’s four divisions—Steatite Rugged,
voice and data capability, allowing com- unrivalled protection which will expand the use of fibre optics in Steatite Batteries, Wordsworth Technology
plete flexibility of use. Eagle incorporates against both conven- harsh environments. and ICP—presented compelling new prod-
an automatic rebroadcast facility which ucts, systems, and technology tailored
both extends its range and provides excel- A robot from Northrop On Display for demanding military communications
lent coverage in urban areas. Grumman A full array of Elbit Systems’ solutions was applications. Among the technologies on
Envitia launched the next generation on view at DSEi. The exhibition display were standard and customised rug-
of MapLink Pro at DSEi. This new release provided an excellent opportu- ged computer systems with high reliability

included exciting new functionality, offer- nity for visitors to view Elbit user-friendly equipment interfaces.
ing customers enhanced capabilities while Systems. LILY is a new fam- ProTel Solutions demonstrated
maintaining the high performance and ily of lightweight Thermal the Winlink 1000, RadWin’s Video
unrivalled disparate data integration Imaging Weapon Surveillance Solution. Radwin’s wireless,
of all previous releases. The Sights (TWS) field proven, Point-to-Point broadband
new MapLink Pro includes designed for solution leverages sub 6GHz licence free
full integration with Google use by indi- bands to provide instantly deployable, high
maps, comprehensive spatial vidual infan- quality video surveillance in any environ-
database integration, a fully try soldiers, ment. By providing a robust, dedicated link
Open Geospatial Consortium which per camera or per cluster of cameras, the
compliant Web Feature provide solution offers high reliability, is simpler to
Services client interface to significant install and easily scalable. SP

14 SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09

Publisher and Editor-in-Chief
News i n B r i e f Jayant Baranwal
Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor
Husky Tactical Support including the new Panhard PVP (petit vehi- Two questionnaires giving specific Assistant Editor
Vehicle, United Kingdom cule protégé). The vehicle-mounted informa- inputs for the light tank (wheeled and Arundhati Das
tion system is interoperable with the army’s tracked) along with the RFI have been sent Senior Technical Group Editor
Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand
other information systems, including FELIN to the vendors who have been requested to
integrated equipment suite (soldier moderni- respond to the RFI by October 30. Contributing Editor
Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia
sation programme). Sagem, in cooperation
with information technology company Cap ■ Chief Special Correspondent
Sangeeta Saxena
Gemini, has delivered around 1,200 SITEL Assistant Photo Editor
systems out of a planned 4,500 terminals. AgustaWestland to boost Abhishek Singh
availability of British Apaches Sub-Editor
■ Bipasha Roy

GD to develop innovative India

tank solutions for US Army General (Retd) V.P. Malik, Lt General (Retd)
The US Army has awarded a $430 mil- Vijay Oberoi, Lt General (Retd) R.S. Nagra,
Lt General (Retd) S.R.R. Aiyengar, Air Marshal
The Husky manufactured by Navistar lion (Rs 2020 crore) contract to General (Retd) Vinod Patney, Major General (Retd)
Defence, is a medium-armoured high-mobil- Dynamics to provide engineering and Ashok Mehta, Major General (Retd) G.K.
ity tactical support vehicle (TSV) based on manufacturing services for the army’s Nischol, Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal,
the international MXT model. The vehicle Tank Automotive Research, Development Brigadier (Retd) S. Mishra, Rohit Sharma
has been designed specifically for the British and Engineering Center (TARDEC). Under Andrew Brookes (UK)
Army under a $180 million (Rs 845 crore) the five-year contract, General Dynamics
USA & Canada
contract. The British Army’s fleet of tacti- Land Systems will use its expertise to Lon Nordeen (USA)
cal support vehicles includes Wolfhound, help TARDEC with its core focus areas, The British Army has awarded a £439 Anil R. Pustam (West Indies)
Coyote and Husky. The vehicles are also including system engineering, power and million (Rs 3,405 crore) contract to heli- South Africa
used for transporting supplies. Husky will mobility, survivability, intelligent ground copter manufacturer AgustaWestland, a Helmoed R. Heitman
support light armoured vehicles, while systems, vehicle electronics and archi- Finmeccanica company, to increase the Chairman & Managing Director
Wolfhound and Coyote will support heavy tecture, force projection and software. availability of the army’s fleet of Apache Jayant Baranwal
and light armoured vehicles, respectively. General Dynamics Land Systems President attack helicopters. Under the initial five-year Admin & Coordination
Under the contract with the British Mark Roualet said the company would contract, the company will improve the levels Bharti Sharma, Survi Massey
Army, Navistar will supply 262 Husky work in cooperation with suppliers, other of the helicopters’ operational output while Design
vehicles to the TSV fleet for deployment General Dynamics business units and reducing maintenance costs to generate Associate Art Director: Ratan Sonal
Layout Designs: Rajkumar Sharma,
in Afghanistan. The first Husky made its Michigan-based technological universities cost savings. The support deal also includes Vimlesh Kumar Yadav
debut on June 24 at the UK MoD vehicle to develop innovative and advanced solu- incentivised arrangements to increase the Sales & Marketing
show known as DVD. The Husky is part tions for the army. For this contract, General availability of aircraft. The initial contract Director Sales & Marketing: Neetu Dhulia
of the operational utility vehicle systems Dynamics has teamed up with small and to meet the Apache attack helicopter future Head Vertical Sales: Rajeev Chugh
(OUVS) programme launched in 2003. disadvantaged subcontractors, including support arrangements requirement runs Sales Manager: Rajiv Ranjan
Under the OUVS programme, the UK Adaptive Materials Incorporated, Borisch through March 2014. The British Army SP’s Website
ministry of defence procures armoured Manufacturing Corporation, Pyramid operates 67 Apaches, of which, the first eight Sr. Web Developer: Shailendra P. Ashish
Web Developer: Ugrashen Vishwakarma
vehicles to replace the RB44, Pinzgauer Systems, VI Engineering, Vetronics Research were built by Boeing and the remaining 59
and Land Rover capabilities. Corporation and many others. assembled by AgustaWestland. The Apaches, Published bimonthly by Jayant Baranwal
on behalf of SP Guide Publications Pvt
Husky is produced in three variants— many of which are deployed in Afghanistan, Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this
utility vehicle, ambulance and command ■ are used for precision attack, air escort, publication may be reproduced, stored in a
post vehicle. The utility variant is equipped reconnaissance, anti-armour and special retrieval system, or transmitted in any form
with a flat bed, while the command and Raytheon wins Excalibur forces operations. or by any means, photocopying, recording,
electronic, or otherwise without the prior
ambulance variants have enclosed cabs Ia-2 round contract written permission of the publishers.
at the rear. An ambulance developed with The US Army has awarded a $73.3 million ■ Printed in India
enhanced protection is scheduled for ser- (Rs 344 crore) contract to Raytheon to pro- by Kala Jyothi Process Pvt Ltd
vice in 2010 along with the command post duce Excalibur Ia-2, 155mm precision-guid- Fourteenth Field Marshal K.M. © SP Guide Publications, 2009
vehicle. The Husky is similar in construction ed projectile rounds. The future-generation Cariappa Memorial Lecture Annual Subscription
to the mine-resistant ambush-protected precision-guided projectile rounds provide To commemorate the memory of Field Inland: Rs. 600 • Overseas: US$180
(MRAP) vehicle. MRAP vehicles are designed soldiers with an accurate first-round, fire- Marshal K.M. Cariappa, the first Indian Email:
to sustain improvised explosive device (IED) for-effect capabilities in urban settings using C-in-C and an Infantryman, the Infantry Letter to Editor
attacks and ambushes and belong to the cat- global positioning system guidance technol- Directorate at the Army HQ organises the
egory of armoured fighting. ogy. Raytheon Excalibur programme director ‘Field Marshal K.M. Cariappa Memorial For Advertising Details, Contact:
The armour has been designed by Steve Bennett said that the army was redefin- Lecture’ as part of Infantry Day Celebrations,
Plasan Sasa and has two removable ing what precision meant to the warfighter. where eminent speakers are invited to
armour kits, A-kit and B-kit. The weapons “Precision means consistently impacting the address issue of national importance. Field
included in the weapon system have a cali- target to within 10m. Excalibur provides this Marshal Cariappa was a the first officers to
bre of up to 12.7mm. precision, which is essential to the protec- receive the King’s Commission in 1919 and POSTAL ADDRESS
tion of civilians and combat forces,” he said. became the first Commander-in-Chief of Post Box No 2525, New Delhi 110 005, India
■ Raytheon recently tested the Excalibur Ia- the Indian Army on January 15, 1949. He Corporate Office
1’s new inertial measurement unit by firing was bestowed with the highest rank of Field A 133 Arjun Nagar, Opp Defence Colony,
French Army to receive 500 nine shots with a 100 per cent success rate. Marshal by the Government on January 14, New Delhi 110 003, India
Tel: +91(11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130
Sagem vehicle info systems 1986. The 14th Field Marshal K.M. Cariappa
Fax: +91 (11) 24647093
■ Memorial Lecture was delivered by the Chief
Regd Office
Guest M. Hamid Ansari, the Honourable Fax: +91 (11) 23622942
Light Tanks (wheeled and Vice President of India on “Insecurity and Email:
tracked) for Indian Army the State : Emerging Challenges”, at DRDO Representative Offices
The Indian Army is in the process of Auditorium, New Delhi on October 7. Army BANGALORE, INDIA
acquiring light tanks for use in semi Chief General Deepak Kapoor and other ser- Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey
mountainous and mountainous regions vice chiefs were also present. The event was 534, Jal Vayu Vihar,

Kammanhalli Main Rd,

in the North and Northeast, developed organised by the Director General of Infantry. Bangalore 560043, India.
and semi-developed terrain in the western Tel: +91 (80) 23682534
borders and in the island territories. The ■ MOSCOW, RUSSIA
requirement is for approximately 200 light LAGUK Co., Ltd
tanks (wheeled) and approximately 100 Appointments Yuri Laskin
The French Army will receive 500 SITEL light tanks (tracked). The army is seek- Krasnokholmskaya, Nab.,
• Lieutenant General P.C. Bhardwaj has 11/15, app. 132,
(système d’information terminal elémen- ing the following information to be pro- Moscow 115172, Russia.
taken over as the Vice Chief of Army Staff
taire) vehicle-mounted tactical information vided in detail in reply to the Request for Tel: +7 (495) 911 2762,
at the Integrated Headquartes of MoD
systems from Sagem, a member of the Safran Information (RFI): Fax: +7 (495) 912 1260
(Army), Delhi.
Group. The SITEL is a tactical radio and • Original Equipment Manufacturer
• Lieutenant General B.S. Jaswal has
navigation system designed to provide con- (OEM) status of the equipment.
taken over as the GOC–in–C of Northern
nectivity between basic units and combat • Names of the firms, if any, that have RNI Number: DELENG/2008/25818
Command at Udhampur.
vehicles using a terminal with a touch screen been authorised by the OEM to deal
• Lieutenant General A.S. Lamba has
and digital map. SITEL allows both combat with the Indian Ministry of Defence
taken over as GOC-in-C of Army Training
and support units to exchange formatted (MoD).
Command at Simla.
messages, calculate the range of a target, • Level of technology that the firm would
• Lieutenant General M.C. Badhani has
consult data bases and share displays of be willing to transfer to a firm that will
taken over as the new Director General of
tactical situations. The systems are already be nominated by Indian MoD.
Border Roads at Delhi.
installed on several types of combat vehicles, • Any other relevant inputs.

5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES 15

that coordinated the multi-
branch strike against the
hostiles who ambushed
the recon patrol.

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