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Some Reaction Basics:

ALL single and double replacement MUST HAVE net ionic equations (eliminate spectator ions: ones that remain aqueous) All S!nthesis" decomposition" and combustion #$%LU&E e'er!thing" so $( net ionic equation )eactions in *ater: Acti'e metals + *ater , metal h!dro-ide (strong base) + h!drogen gas $onmetals o-ide (%(." S(." etc)+ *ater , aqueous acid (can be strong or *ea/ acid) $onmetal + *ater , acid + other nonmetal compound (o-!gen" another acid" etc)

)eactions *ith acids: Acti'e metal + acid , salt *ater + h!drogen gas (basic S) r-n) Strong bases + strong acids , salt + *ater (neutrali0ation r-n) 1ea/ base + strong acid , acidic salt *ater Strong base + *ea/ acid , basic salt *ater

)eactions *ith bases: $onmetal o-ide + base , salt + *ater

2asic reactions o3 metals and nonmetals: Metal + nonmetal , ionic compound (i3 in *ater" chec/ solubilit! 3or net ionic)

$onmetal + nonmetal , comple- non4metal compound (can ha'e 'arious cmpds)

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Lab Due Dates

8age 9 301 303 306 309 311 314 316 321 323 325 328 333 337 341 345 347 Lab $ame 1: 1hat #s the )elationship 2et*een the %oncentration o3 a Solution and the Amount o3 Transmitted Light Through the Solution: 2: Ho* %an %olor 2e Used to &etermine the Mass 8ercent o3 %opper in 2rass: 3: 1hat Ma/es Hard 1ater Hard: 4: Ho* Much Acid #s in ;ruit <uices and So3t &rin/s: 5: Stic/! =uestion: Ho* &o >ou Separate Molecules That Are Attracted to (ne Another: 6: 1hat?s in That 2ottle: 7: Using the 8rinciple That Each Substance Has Unique 8roperties to 8uri3! a
Mi-ture: An E-periment Appl!ing @reen %hemistr! to 8uri3ication

Lab &a!

1rite4up &ue

8: Ho* %an 1e &etermine the Actual 8ercentage o3 H2(2 in a &rugstore 2ottle o3 H!drogen 8ero-ide: 9: %an the #ndi'idual %omponents o3 =uic/ Ache )elie3 2e Used to )esol'e %onsumer %omplaints: 10: Ho* Long 1ill That Marble Statue Last: 11: 1hat #s the )ate La* o3 the ;ading o3 %r!stal Violet Using 2eer?s La*: 12: The Hand 1armer &esign %hallenge: 1here &oes the Heat %ome ;rom: 13: %an 1e Ma/e the %olors o3 the )ainbo*: An Application o3 Le %hAtelier?s 8rinciple 14: Ho* &o the Structure and the #nitial %oncentration o3 an Acid and a 2ase #n3luence the pH o3 the )esultant Solution &uring a Titration: 15: To 1hat E-tent &o %ommon Household 8roducts Ha'e 2u33ering Acti'it!: 16: The 8reparation and Testing o3 an E33ecti'e 2u33er: Ho* &o %omponents #n3luence a 2u33er?s pH and %apacit!:

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Table of ontents
!nit "#$ame @eneral )-ns Lab List @eneral #n3ormation %a&es 7 . C E B F G 7 1hat is H47. %hemistr! 7C47D 7E47G . Math o3 7H4.6 %hemistr! .74.. .C .D4.F C Language o3 .G4CD %hemistr! CE CB4CF CG4D6 D Heart and Mole D74DD o3 %hemistr! DE4DG DH4E. E %hemical EC4EB equations EF4B7 B.4BD BE4FB FF4FG FH4GB B Atomic GF4GG Structure and GH4H6 $uclear #ntro H74H. H.4HC HD4HG HH476D F Trends 76E (rbitals 76B477E =uantum 9?s 77B477G 77H47.6 7.647.7 7..47.B G %hemical 7.F47D7 2onding and 7D.47DF Molecular 7DG47D Structure 7E647E. 7EC47EF !nit "#$ame H @as La*s 7EG47BD
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7 747 C . 74. C 7D 7E 7B . B4. G .D 7" .D C .E .4.E D C C4C E D E4D B C 74C . D. DD .6 74.6 H C B4C F . 74. D B 74B . BC BD .7 (all) F7 F .4F B B E4B B B F4B G G. G 74G G H 74H G .C E4.C F 77 . '#Section 76 all

To(ics @eneral )eactions 3or re3erence List o3 all 7B A8 required Labs (.67C4.67D) Table o3 %ontents S!llabus @rading 8olicies Sa3et! %ontract 8ol!atomic #ons Energ!" Matter" 8roperties Atoms" Molecules" #ons 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es Units" densit!" temperatures Uncertaint!" 8ercent Error" Signi3icant ;igures %on'ersion 2asics 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es ;ormulas" $ames" H!drates" Acids Metals and Ligands (rganic $ames and ;unctional @roups 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es EmpiricalIMolecular" K %omp" H!drates" %ombustion Anal!sis %oncentrations" &ilutions" Stoich o3 Solutions 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es S!nthesis" decomposition" combustion S)" &)" solubilit! song" net ionic )E&(L basics" o-idation 9?s Electrochemistr!" %ells" @ibbs" Spontaneit! Mole map" limiting" K !ield 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es Theor!" 8eople" #sotopes Light and energ! %alculations Line spectrum and 2ohr Model 1a'e and nuclear intro )adioacti'it!" deca!" M li3e calculations 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es 8eriodic Table 2asic #n3o Trends (all o3 them) and properties =uantum Mechanics " 9?s" (rbitals )ules" electron con3iguration Transition metals and (rbital $otation 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es Le*is" #onic" %o'alent" Strengths Shapes" VSE8)" H!brids" )esonance Metallic" Allo!s #nterIintra molecular 3orces 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es To(ics @as La*s (all o3 them)" NTM" stoich *Igases

76 Solids" Liquids" and 8hase %hanges

77 Equilibrium 7. AcidI2ase

Things to Nno* Labs A8 E-am #n3o

7BE47BG 7BH47F. 7F.47FG 7FH47GC 7GD47H. 7HC47HH .664.7E .66 .7B4.7H ..64..B ..F4.CD .CE4.CB .CF4.D7 .D. .DC4.DF .DG .DH4.EC .EC4.EH .B64.B7 .B.4.FC .FD4.GE .GB4.HE .HB4.HH C66 C66 C674CE6 CE7

E 74E . E D4E G 7H 747H C 77 D477 B 7H D47H F 7D 747D F 7E D 77 7I CI F 7E 747E F 7F B O 7F F D7 7C 747C B D7 D C" D B 7B 747B E 7B 77 7B B47B 76 7F 747F E

8roblem SetI(bJecti'es Thermod!namics #ntro Enthalp!" %alorimetr!" Hess?s La* Thermo La*s" Spontaneit!" Entrop! 8hase %hanges" Heating %ur'es" 8hase &iagrams More Entrop! and ;ree Energ! Ninetics" )ates: La*s" graphs" mechanisms Le %hAtelier?s SolidIliquidIgas comparison and properties 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es Neq" Nsp" Nc" Np" Applications = 's Nsp" Metallic elements 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es @eneral Solutions 8roperties Solutions" %oncentrations" %olligati'e 8roperties" %olloids Molecular %ompounds #n *ater AcidI2ase r-ns" properties" titration basics AI2 theories" reactions o3" pHIp(H calculations" strengths Na" Nb" N*" K #oni0ation" reactions %ommon #ons" bu33ers" titration cur'es Le*is Theor!" more reactions 8roblem SetI(bJecti'es Space 3or organi0ing in3ormation and important 3actsI3ormulas @uidelines @eneral #n3ormation Labs 2asic in3o on changes to A8 e-am

P1hen !ou ha'e eliminated all *hich is impossible" *hate'er remains" ho*e'er improbable" must be the truth Q
Sir %onan &o!le Sherloc/ Holmes

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)% 'emist*+

,*s- oo(e*smit' 2012.13


Chemistry b! 2ro*n" LeMa!" 2ursten" Murph! T23S B445 ,!ST B6 476R6D A scienti3ic calculator 8encil andIor pen A periodic table (the A8 sheet) Lab goggles R noteboo/ *hen a lab is scheduled

E'er! da! in class !ou *ill need:

ou*se ontent 60aluation

See table o3 contents abo'e 3or speci3ic details A qui0 *ill be gi'en EVE)> &A> that *ill be either multiple choice or reactions *ith related questions These qui00es are meant as practice as *ell as re'ie* o3 concepts A problem set *ill be due at the end o3 e'er! unit )eleased A8 ;ree )esponse questions *ill be assigned A comprehensi'e e-amination *ill be gi'en at the completion o3 each semester The A8 %hemistr! E-am *ill be required as scheduled in Ma! All grading is done on a K o3 total basis 8oints 3rom test" qui00es" labs" and assignments are totaled and grades assigned according to recommended school percentage 3or PAQ"Q2Q" etc # do $(T belie'e in e-tra credit as there are plent! o3 opportunities 3or PreasonableQ (H1 and lab) points Home*or/ *ill be assigned in the 3orm o3 A8 pac/ets and practice tests (ccasionall!" the! *ill be chec/ed 3or points $o credit *ill be gi'en 3or late home*or/ Success in chemistr! depends on a continued e33ort to*ards completing assignments 1e *ill be co'ering the si-teen required labs as outlined b! the A8 %ollege 2oard E'aluation o3 the lab *ill be in the 3orm o3 a lab report" questions" andIor a qui0 # am a'ailable 3or help almost e'er! da! a3ter school and # am in almost e'er! morning b! F:C6 a m unless a meeting requires m! attendance E'en though !ou do not need to sign up 3or help" !ou ma! *ant to chec/ to ma/e sure # *ill be a'ailable during that time 3rame Also" don?t be a3raid to call me an+ time Students are e-pected to treat others *ith respect and 3ollo* all rules o3 the school as *ell as all sa3et! rules o3 the laborator! T*o 'er! important rules to be noted: 1- Late :o*; :ill not be acce(te9 an9 2- =oo9 an9 9*in; a*e not (e*mitte9 at an+ time in t'e labo*ato*+I look forward to helping you expand your chemistry knowledge!




6<t*a 2el(


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A8 %hemistr!

@rading 8olicies

2ome:o*; (olic+: 7 Home*or/ *ill be assigned regularl! . Home*or/ *ill be chec/ed regularl!" but not all assignments *ill be chec/ed 3or credit C Home*or/ is not accepted a3ter the time it is chec/ed in class 3or an! reason e-cept absence D Home*or/ *ill mostl! be graded 3or completion" but *ill also be graded 3or correctness occasionall! Labo*ato*+ Re(o*t#%*o1ect (olic+: 7 Laborator! reportsIproJects are t!picall! larger" more encompassing assignments . $o laborator! reportIproJect *ill be accepted late An! missed assignment *ill result in a grade o3 P6Q C These assignments *ill t!picall! ta/e more time to completeS there3ore the! are usuall! due t*o or more da!s a3ter completionIassignment o3 the acti'it! 8lease be a*are o3 due dates as the! 'ar! D #3 a student is absent 3or a lab" please see the instructor 3or details on completing the missed lab )emember" it is the student?s responsibilit! to arrange ma/e4up o3 missed labs Test#>ui? (olic+: 7 Tests and =ui00es ma/e up the maJorit! o3 a mar/ing period grade . #3 a student is absent 3or a testIqui0" she is required to ta/e the testIqui0 the da! she returns E-tended time is a'ailable 3or students that missed multiple da!s or ha'e special situations These matters" ho*e'er" must be discussed in a stu9ent.initiate9 con0e*sation be3ore the 3inal ma/e4up date The student must contact the instructor i3 an e-tension is required C Ma/ing up tests on time is in the best interest o3 the student This polic! is not enacted to be puniti'e" but rather to encourage timel! ma/e4up o3 tests missed due to absence =inal $ote: ;or those o3 !ou *ho ha'e had me be3ore" !ou /no* this: #n all the !ears # *or/ed" # ne'er had a boss gi'e me a pop4qui0 on an!thing (3ten" the! *anted in3ormationIdata quic/l!" but the! al*a!s *anted it to be correct abo'e all Ho*e'er" in all the !ears # *or/ed" # ne'er had a boss or client *ho *as *illing to accept data that *as late # *atched numerous people squirm" and e'en get 3ired" o'er dela!s in in3ormation That said" # do not gi'e PpopQ qui00es As a balance" # do not accept late *or/ E'er! assignment *ill be gi'en *ith adequate notice be3ore it is due 8lease learn to schedule !our li3e and time so !ou are not scrambling last minute to complete assignments 3or chemistr!

#n addition" A8 %hemistr! is a %(LLE@E le'el course and should be treated *ith the respect and time it deser'es

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'emist*+ Safet+ ont*act

8ene*al Rules: 7 %onduct !oursel3 in a responsible manner at all times in the laborator! . ;ollo* all instructions #3 !ou do not understand something" as/ C $e'er *or/ aloneT D &o not eat" drin/" or che* gum in the lab E 8er3orm onl! the e-periments authori0ed b! the instructor B )ead all procedures thoroughl! be3ore entering lab F The lab is $(T a pla! groundS do not treat it as one G (bser'e good house/eeping policies: clean up a3ter !oursel3 H Nno* the location and operating procedures o3 all sa3et! equipment in the room (3ire e-tinguishers" 3ire blan/et" e!e *ash station" 3irst aid /it" emergenc! e-it) 76 2e alert and noti3! instructor o3 an! unsa3e conditions immediatel! 77 &ispose o3 all *aste as instructed 7. Neep hands a*a! 3rom e!es and 3ace *hile *or/ing 7C 1ash !our hands *ith soap a3ter the e-periment is completed 7D &o not lea'e an! e-periment unmonitored at an! time 7E Students a*e (e*mitte9 in the chemical closet B6 )R6=!L 7B Nno* *hat to do i3 there is a 3ire drill 7F #3 !ou ha'e a medical condition" noti3! the instructor lot'in&: 7G Students 1#LL *ear lab glasses during e'er! e-periment 7H Hair *ill be pulled bac/Iup depending on the e-periment .6 $o loose clothing or dangl! Je*elr! )cci9ents#3n1u*ies: .7 )eport an! unsa3e conditions immediatel! .. )eport an! inJur! immediatel! .C #3 *ater splashes in !our e!es" rinse *ell *ith *ater at the e!e *ash station 2an9lin& 'emicals: .D All chemicals in the lab should be considered dangerous .E %hec/ labels t*ice be3ore using an!thing .B $e'er return unused chemicals to the container .F $e'er dispense 3lammable liquids near an open 3lame .G $e'er remo'e an! materials 3rom the lab room .H ;ill *ash bottles onl! *ith &# *ater 2an9lin& 8lass:a*e: C6 $e'er handle bro/en glass *ith !our bare hands C7 E-amine glass*are be3ore use $e'er use chipped or crac/ed glass*are C. &o not put hot glass into cold *ater: it *ill brea/ 2eatin& Substances: CC )emo'e plugs 3rom outlets at the plug" not b! the cord CD Use e-treme caution *hen using a gas burner CE $e'er lea'e a heat source unattended CB $e'er loo/ into a test tube o3 other glass*are *hen heating CF &o not place hot glass*are directl! on the lab bench Basicall+: #3 !ou don?t understand it" don?t /no* *hat it is" or ha'e a question ASN Also" use common sense 8arentUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU StudentUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

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List of (ol+atomic ions to be lea*ne9

The 3ollo*ing is a list o3 7B pol!atomic ions to be learned 1h! do !ou need to /no* these: These pol!atomic ions are part o3 the language o3 chemistr! 8lease learn these pol!atomic ions immediatel! as *e *ill soon e-pand the original list into a much larger list #t is necessar! to be able to /no* all pol!atomic ions b! mid $o'ember

8hosphate Sul3ate %arbonate %hromate &ichromate

8(D 4C S(D 4. %(C 4. %r(D 4. %r.(F 4.

$itrate %hlorate Acetate H!dro-ide

$(C 47 %l(C 47 %.HC(.47 (H 47

Ammonium $HD +7 (-alate %!anide %.(D4. %$47

T'e $e: 4nes: 8ermanganate Mn(D47 Thioc!anate 8ero-ide S%$47 (.4.

Thiosul3ate S.(C4.

Seriousl!: *e *ill be using these and learning more this !ear >ou $EE& to N$(1 these" not Just recogni0e and loo/ them up *hen the! occur >ou *ill ha'e to go 3rom names to 3ormulas and bac/ <ust start no*" it is easier in the end

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Befo*e :e sta*t: Bi&&est im(act (ictu*e in c'emist*+ on (& 218- 3 :oul9 'a0e lo0e9 to be t'e*e-

!nit 1: T'e @A'oB A'atB an9 A'+C of 'emist*+

As a note" !ou should loo/ at the pictures and diagrams" and at least )EA& TH)(U@H e'er! e-ample in each chapterIsection >ou should also actuall! readIs/im through e'er! sectionS !ou ma! not get it all" but actuall! )EA& it all #3 !ou need a Pho* to read a science te-tboo/Q re3resher" as/ Section 1-1 O The Stud! o3 %hemistr!: )ead this section so that !ou /no* *h! !ou too/ this class ;rom %hapter E" *e?ll see it again later: 6ne*&+ O the abilit! to cause change (energ!Iph!sical) or do *or/ (a bit e-panded 3rom *hat # told !ou) 5inetic O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (otential O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU also called energ! o3 position T!pes o3 energ! O electrical" mechanical" chemical" ph!sical (sound" heat" *ind" *ater)" electromagnetic radiation (energ! o3 *a'es)" nuclear La: of onse*0ation of ,ass O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (/e!*ord being ordinar!) La: of conse*0ation of ene*&+ O energ! can be con'erted 3rom one 3orm to another" but UUUUUUUUUU UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU matter and energ! are related in the equation UUUUUUUUUU (Einstein?s 3amous one)

and Ninetic Energ! (NE) is speci3icall! related to mass (m) and 'elocit! (') 56 D E m02 5inetic an9 %otential 6ne*&+ 56: The magnitude (amount) o3 NE depends on the obJect?s mass (m) and speed (V) NE W M m V. 1here mass (m) W mass speed or 'elocit! (V) W (mIs) 2asicall!" a hea'ier or 3aster mo'ing obJect has more NE than a lighter or slo*er mo'ing one 1hich *ould !ou rather: 2e hit b! a pitch at H6 mph baseball (maJor league pitcher) or at 76 mph baseball (C !r old): Ha'e !our 3oot stepped on b! an elephant or a /itten: Atoms and Molecules ha'e mass and are AL1A>S in motion EL%E8T at 0ero /el'in (absolute 0ero)" so the! ha'e NE @ases ha'e the highest" solids the lo*est %6: Arises *hen a 3orce operates on an obJect (something is pushedIpulled)" li/e gra'it! The more potential energ! an obJect has" the greater the NE it can obtain

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;alling 3rom a step stool is no big deal" but 3alling o33 o3 a .6 stor! building hurts The PpullQ o3 gra'it! is greater the 3urther 3rom the sur3ace o3 the Earth *e go: this is *h! *e start small and learn to *al/ *hen *e are little (closer to the ground" less li/el! to get hurt) So" *e get a relationship bet*een 8E" mass (m)" height o3 obJect (h)" and gra'it! (g): 8E W mgh @ra'it! (g) mass (m) height (h) @ra'it! is negligible 3or atomsImolecules due to their relati'e mass The lo*er the energ! o3 a s!stem" the more stable it is There3ore" a $E@AT#VE E el gi'es a more stable s!stem (atoms *ith a strong opposite charge W more stable) The potential energ! o3 a substance (e'entuall! turning into NE) is generall! in the 3orm o3 chemical energ! (bondIlattice energ!) 2ut" thermal energ! (energ! trans3er during reactions) is also associated *ith NE !nits of 6ne*&+ <oule (<) is the S# unit 3or heat $amed 3or <ames <oule" *or/Iheat gu! #3 *e loo/ at the 3ormula 3or NE or 8E" *e get the unit o3 energ! as (/g m.Is.) W <oule (<) A Joule is actuall! as small amount o3 energ! (much li/e *e generall! do not measure oursel'es in grams)" so *e use /iloJoules (/<) instead %alorie (c) *as the old unit (and still *idel! used) 3or energ! %alorie O amount o3 heat needed to raise 7 gram *ater b! 7o% 7 calorie (c) W D 7GD < (e-act number" no more s3) The 3ood calorie (%) (upper case %) is equal to 7666c (chemistr! calories) or 7 Nc (Nilocalorie)

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1-2 lassification of ,atte* ,atte* 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU4 is e'er!thing e<ce(t ene*&+ Mi-tures" Substances" %ompounds" and Elements4 lassification of ,atte* 'a*t (a di33erent 'ersion that sho*s a 3lo* chart is on pg G" please dra* it belo*)

%u*e substance O homogeneous sample o3 matter that al*a!s has the same composition (either Just one compound or one element) element O simplest 3orm o3 matter" can?t be bro/en do*n b! ordinar! chemical change com(oun9 O . or more elements chemicall! combined (can?t separate b! ph!sical means)

,i<tu*e O combination o3 t*o or more /inds o3 matter (elementIcompound) but each retains its o*n properties 'omo&eneousO uni3orm composition *here e'er! sample is the same 'ete*o&eneous O composition is not uni3orm and samples are di33erent

Solute 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Sol0ent 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2ottom line: the smaller amount o3 solute is dispersed in the larger amount o3 sol'ent Homo&eneous solutions (mi-ture dissol'ed in *ater) can be separated b! distillation or e'aporation (temp di33erences) 2ete*o&eneous mi-tures can be separated b! 3iltration or 9ecantin& (pouring o33 one la!er slo*l!) E- o3 a compound brea/ing into its elements is 2+9*ol+sis of :ate* (Just means 0apping it *ith electricit!" *hich is a 3orm o3 energ!) This is used to create pure o-!gen 3or health uses *here *ater decomposes into h!drogen gas and o-!gen gas *ith an energ! source (batter! or plugged in) Equation: This brings us to the La: of onstant om(osition (also called de3inite proportions) proposed b! <oseph 8roust in 7GG6 )toms combine in 9efinite sim(leB :'ole numbe* *atios F(a*t of DaltonGs (ostulatesHThis la* holds 3irm regardless o3 *ho prepared the compound (man 's nature) 1ater is *ater (H.() regardless o3 *here or ho* it is made

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%lasma O gas at e-tremel! high temperature (7 - 76G N) *here electrons separate 3rom the nucleus 1e?re tal/ing places li/e the sun" nuclear reactions" and VE)> controlled heating used 3or metal #& in a lab *ith a Mass Spectrometer 1-3 %*o(e*ties of ,atte*: 'emical an9 %'+sical %*o(e*ties ('+sical (*o(e*t+ . a propert! that is obser'ed *ithout changing the substance into a ne* substance #ntensi'e O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU e- mp" bp" densit!" color" temperature E-tensi'e O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU e- si0e" *eight" mass" length" 'olume" heat c'emical (*o(e*t+ . a propert! that can be obser'ed *hen changing the substance into a ne* substance (or properties that describe how a substance interacts or doesnt interact with other substances) L3ST: 3lammabilit!Ie-plosi'eness" abilit! to rustItarnish" decomposesI3erments 'emical an9 %'+sical 'an&es O ('+sical c'an&e 4 *hen a substance changes 3orm" but its identit! or chemical propertiese-amples: cutting" grinding" magneti0ing 4 all changes o3 state (sublime" boil" condense" 3ree0e" melt) sublimation (sublime) O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU deposition 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 'apori0ation O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU e'aporation 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Melting(3usion)I3ree0ing(solidi3ication) 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU c'emical c'an&e 4 a change *hen the substance turns into another substance b! losing" gaining" or rearranging atoms e-amples: 3orms a gas" 3orms a solid" change in odor" change in color" change in temperature (*ithout addingIremo'ing heat) L3ST: change in energ! (usuall! heatIlight)" change in color" change in odor" 3ormation o3 a precipitate" and 3ormation o3 a gas (3orming a bubblesIsteam) ALL chemical changes in'ol'e some energ! change although those changes ma! not be easil! detected (some are small and some are great) Se(a*ation of ,i<tu*es O . basic methods: distillation and 3iltering 2ased on the idea that e'er! PcomponentQ in a mi-ture has its o*n unique set o3 properties %*ocess of Se(a*ation %*o(e*t+ ;iltration 8article Si0e &istillation Volatilit! (boiling or 3ree0ing pt ) %hromatograph! Attraction o3 substance to a reacti'e medium (solubilit!Ipolarit!) '*omato&*a('+ %an be: paper" thin la!er" glass plate" gas" liquid" high per3ormance liquid" mass spec" etc

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'a(te* 2 )tomsB ,oleculesB an9 3ons

T'e )tom Historical 2ac/ground 4 #n appro-imatel! DB6 2%" &emocritus (@ree/) coins the term PatomQ (means indi'isible or not able to cut) 2e3ore that matter *as thought to be one continuous piece 4 called the continuous theor! o3 matter &emocritus creates the discontinuous theor! o3 matter DaltonGs )tomic T'eo*+ Fea*l+ 1800GsH O P2illiard 2all Theor!Q 4 &alton put together the la*s o3 conser'ation o3 mass" de3inite proportion" and multiple proportion to create his o*n atomic theor! 7 All matter is made up o3 atoms *hich are indi'isible (a lie" butX) Y. Atoms o3 the same element are identical in mass and properties Y 9. is *rong becauseX (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) YC Atoms can?t be changed into other elements and atoms cannot be created or destro!ed Y 9C is *rong becauseX (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) D %ompounds are 3ormed *hen atoms combineIseparate chemicall! E The relati'e numbers and /inds o3 atoms are constant in a gi'en compound (simple" *hole 9 ratios) )tom 4 smallest part o3 most elementsS retain chemical identit! o3 that element ,olecule 4 smallest part o3 some elements and all compounds monatomic molecules 4 $oble gases" Metals" etc 9iatomic 4 H. $. (. ;. %l. 2r. #. (naturall! occurring) (ol+atomic O (C" AsD" SG (naturall! occurring) La: of onstant om(osition . (3rom %hpt 7" so it must be important) )elati'e /inds and numbers o3 atoms are constant in a gi'en compound (goes *I9E) La: of onse*0ation of ,atte* F,assH O (should /no* this alread!) The total mass o3 the materials a3ter a chemical reaction equals the total mass o3 the materials present be3ore the reaction 2etter /no*n as: Matter cannot be created or destro!ed in an ordinar! chemical reaction (goes *I9C) La: of Definite %*o(o*tions 4 (deduced 3rom &alton?s postulates) 1hen t*o or more elements combine to 3orm compounds" the ratios o3 the masses o3 the elements must be in simple *hole numbers 2asicall!" atoms can be grouped in di33erent amounts to 3orm di33erent compounds" but !ou can?t ha'e part o3 an atom (no 3ractions)

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2-3 ;undamental 8articles O Just a quic/ re'ie*

Subatomic particle 8roton (p or p+) $eutron (n or no) Electron (e4) Location $ucleus $ucleus (rbit nucleus %harge +7 6 47 Mass &eterminesX

7 66FCamu #dentit! (element) 7 66GFamu mass 6 666EDGEGamu charge

$ote: the PchargeQ is not reall! 7 #t is 7 B6. - 76 47H % (% W coulombs) >ou probabl! sa* this in ph!sics class Ho*e'er" it is an incon'enient number" so *e Just use +7 E'er! atom has an equal number o3 protons and electrons" so atoms ha'e no electrical charge (nl! ions (charged particles" usuall! in a solution) ha'e a charge amu (atomic mass unit) O 7 amu W 7 BB6ED - 76 4.D g W 7I7. o3 a %47. atom 1e use amu because it is an easier number to *rite and *or/ *ith &iameters o3 atoms O PpmQ W picometer A pico is 7 - 7647. m %an also use )n&st*om (Ao) O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 1 can do Pcon'ersionsQ *ith these numbers Atomic $umber" Mass $umber" and #sotopes atomic 9 smallest 9 W UUUUUUUUUUUUUU atomic mass a'erage mass o3 isotopes mass number larger 9 W UUUUUUUUUU plus UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 3soto(e O &i33erent 'ersions o3 the same element *ith di33erent masses due to di33erent numbers o3 neutrons Some isotopes occur naturall! 4 most are produced arti3iciall!

$3B The isotopes o3 H!drogen

$ame 8rotium (7p+" 6n" 7e4) &euterium (7p+" 7n" 7e4) Tritium (7p+" .n" 7e4)

3on (Just a reminder) O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Atoms become charged b! gaining electrons (become a negati'e charge) or losing electrons (become a positi'e charge) A@A#$: USUALL> #($S A)E ;()ME& #$ S(LUT#($S" but can also happen in the gas phase

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!nit 1 %*oblems#>uestions#%*actice: List the ph!sical properties o3 *ater than can used to #& it in the lab 1hat is the ph!sical state o3 each at room temperature: Sil'er gasoline helium candle *a%lassi3! each as an element" compound" or mi-ture Argon eth!l alcohol (%.HE(H) grape Juice %lassi3! each as a chemical or ph!sical change ;ood spoils *ater boils a nail rusts 2read is ba/ed A sno*3la/e melts gas is pumped into a tan/ paper burns

rubbing alcohol



a 3ire3l! emits light sugar dissol'es in *ater

a batter! starts an engine

Ho* man! di33erent 3orms o3 energ! are in'ol'ed *hen a candle burns Lots o3 practice: Element (ionIisotope) Atomic $umber Atomic Mass Atomic Mass $umber 8roton .B EC #



D6 %s



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!nit Set 1 7 #3 matter is uni3orm throughout and can?t be separated b! ph!sical means but can be bro/en do*n b! a chemical process" it is called a(n)UUUUUUUUU a heterogeneous mi-ture c element b homogeneous mi-ture d compound . 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing is $(T a chemical reaction: a dissol'ing a penn! in acid c 3orming pol!eth!lene 3rom eth!lene b burning a candle d the condensation o3 *ater 'apor C A student per3orms an e-periment using a .E mL graduated c!linder and an anal!tical balance The results 3or the densit! *ere 7C FgImL" 7D G gImL" and 7. BgImL The actual densit! 3or the obJect *as 7B D gImL The e-periment *asUUUUUUUUUUU a precise c accurate b neither accurate nor precise d precise and accurate D #n the periodic table" ro*s are called UUUU and columns are called UUUU a (cta'es" groups c cogeners" 3amilies b Sta33s" 3amilies d periods" groups E UUUUUUUUUUU are 3ound uncombined as monatomic species in nature a Halogens b Al/ali metals c %halcogens d $oble @ases B The empirical 3ormula o3 a compound containing 7. carbon atoms" 7D h!drogen atoms" and B o-!gen atoms is UUUUUU a %7.H7D(B b %H( c %H.( d %BHF(C F The 3ormula o3 a salt is L%l. The L4ion in this salt has .G electrons The element is UUUUU a $i b Zn c ;e d V e 8d G 1hich pair o3 elements belo* are most similar in chemical properties: a % and ( b 2 and As c # and 2r d N and Nr

e %s and He

H Aluminum reacts *ith a nonmetallic element to 3orm AlL L is a diatomic gas at room temperature: a (-!gen b 3luorine c chlorine d nitrogen 76 @ra'itational 3orces act bet*een obJects in relation to theirUUUUU a 'olumes b charges c densities d masses

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77 Element < has three naturall! occurring isotopes The masses and K abundances are listed ;ind the a'erage atomic mass o3 the element Abundance Mass E 6F CF H7H 7E CE CH 67F FH GE D. 777 a D7 ED b CH BG c CH 6F d CG BD e CC CC

7. 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing are chemical processes: 7 rusting o3 a nail . 3ree0ing o3 *ater C decomposition o3 *ater into h!drogen and o-!gen gases D compression o3 o-!gen gas a ." C" D b 7" C" D c 7" C d 7" .

e 7" D

7C All o3 the 3ollo*ing 3orm ions *ith a charge o3 +. e-cept UUUUUUUUUU a %u b ;e c Au d Zn e 1 7D (-!gen 3orms an ion *ith a charge o3 UUUUUUUUUU a 4. b +. c 4C d +C

e +B

;or questions 7E through 7H" use the 3ollo*ing in3ormation Each ans*er can be used once" more than once" or not at all a %hemical propert! b ph!sical propert! c %hemical change d 8h!sical change 7E Energ! is added to *ater in the 3orm o3 heat 7B A spar/ is added to a h!drocarbon 7F The temperature o3 a gas is reduced to one tenth the original 'alue 7G 2leach" an o-idi0ing agent" is spilled on a red shirt 7H Lead has a higher densit! than table salt .6 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing is an e-ample o3 La* o3 Multiple 8roportions: a %47. and %47D b %47D and $47D c %HD and %%lD d %( and %(. e %.HE(H and %HC(%HC

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!nit 1 4b1ecti0es
7 . C D E B F G H &e3ine chemistr! and the basic sections o3 chemistr! &escribe and #& chemical 3rom ph!sical properties 2e able to di33erentiate bet*een atoms" molecules" compounds" and mi-tures as *ell as pure substances and solutions &escribe ho* a mi-ture can be separated &etermine the number o3 protons" neutrons" and electrons in an atom based on name" s!mbol" or atomic number 2e able to match names and s!mbols o3 elements 2e able to #& a chemical reaction and describe the e'idence that a chemical" not ph!sical" reaction has occurred 2e able to de3ine energ! and /no* the di33erence bet*een potential and /inetic Also /no* the relationship bet*een mass and energ! &istinguish bet*een temperature and heat

76 State the la*s o3 conser'ation o3 mass" energ!" de3inite proportions" etc 77 2e a*are o3 @L8 (good laborator! practices) and sa3e chemical handling

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!nit 2 ,at'ematical Relations'i(s in 'emist*+

As a note" !ou should still be loo/ing at the pictures and diagrams" and at least )EA&#$@ e'er! e-ample in each chapterIsection >uantitati0e 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU >ualitati0e 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 1-4 !nits of ,easu*ements Metric s!stem O basic units are: mass (UUUUU)" length (UUUUU)" 'olume (UUUUU)" temperature (%elsius) Nno* O 6 667 /ilo" 76 deci" 766 centi" 7666 milli" 76B micro" 76H nano" 767. pico all W 7 base (gram" liter" meter" second" etc) S# Units O the internationall! accepted set o3 units (S# W S!steme #nternational d?Unites: it?s ;rench) (Table 7 D" pg 7D) 8h!sical =uantit! Mass Length Volume Time Energ! ;orce Light intensit! $ame o3 Unit Nilogram Abbre'iation Ng

Might also *ant to add the Metric 8re3i-es here 3or 3uture re3erence >ou $EE& to learn these and be able to con'ert *ith them ALLTTT Mega II Nilo hecta de/a base unit deci centi milli II micro

$ote: Mega through micro The ones listed abo'e) are the ones !ou?ll see o'er and o'er The others should loo/ 3amiliar" but probabl! *on?t be used o3ten Units o3 measurement: Mass and *eight O used interchangeabl!" but there is a di33erenceX ,ass O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU" 3i-ed amount (!our Pbul/Q doesn?t change regardless o3 *here in the uni'erse) Aei&'t 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU O changes *ith location (larger celestial bod! W higher gra'it! W higher *eight) E-act numbers O 7. eggs W 7 do0en" FB6 mmHg W 7atm" 76 cm W 766 mm" 7 min W B6 sec" etc $ote: e-act numbers ha'e an endless 9 o3 sig 3igs The! $EVE) limit the 9 o3 sig 3igs in a problemTTT 2eat an9 Tem(e*atu*e Tem(e*atu*e O a measure o3 the UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (intensit! o3 hotness or coldness) measured in degrees (;ahrenheit" %elsius" Nel'in)
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2eat O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Heat AL1A>S 3lo*s UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU So" HEAT is *hat brings about a change in state (all molecules must ha'e enough NE to change 3rom one state o3 matter to another)" not temperature Temperature is sort o3 a b!4product o3 heat %on3used !et::: Temperature scales ;ahrenheit 2oiling 8oint .7. 2od! Temp HG B )oom Temp F6 Melting 8oint C. %elsius 766 CF .6 6 Nel'in CFC C76 .HC .FC ;or /el'in N W o% + .FC 7E

To con'ert ; [ %" use boo/ 3ormulas o o % W EIH(o; O C.) or ; W HIE(o%) + C. MUST ha'e degree sign 3or % and ;" but $EVE) 3or N

An aside: Nel'in is used 3or gases" %urium is used 3or e-tremel! hot temperatures (plasma range) De*i0e9 !nits O used 3or multiple unit 3unctions (densit!" speed" measured 'olume) 2asicall!" Just plug in the numbers and get the deri'ed unit E-: the gas constant has units o3 Patm LI mol NQ #3 7 mol o3 gas is at ST8" *hat is the 'alue o3 ): 8as constant ) W 7olume O can be measured and calculated in S# units o3 length cubed (cmC) () 3ound using *ater displacement in S# unit o3 Liters The measured one can be con'erted to Liters (7 cmC W 7mL) Densit+I &ensit! W mass per unit 'olume W mI' &ensit! is characteristic" intensi'e" and tem(e*atu*e 9e(en9ent Meaning that the S#ZE o3 the sample doesn?t matter" but the TEM8E)ATU)E does Also" the densit! o3 an obJect can help identi3! 1HAT the chemical ma/e4up o3 the material is #n addition" people tend to use densit! and mass interchangeabl!: the! aren?t 1-5 !nce*taint+ in ,easu*ements T*o t!pes o3 numbers: e-act (*e /no* the actual 9" not limited b! sig 3igs) And ine-act (measured 9?s" limited b! sig 3igs) These are also called PmeasurementsQ ,easu*ements O in chemistr! class" *e almost al*a!s use measurements O the! all in'ol'e uncertaint! (Peducated guessQ 3or the last digit)
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T*o important points to remember regarding measurement: 7 #nstruments can onl! measure so *ell . 1e onl! need some measurements to be reall! e-act 1hen measuring" include all readable digits 8LUS one estimated digit (sig 3ig?s) Masses are PreadQ 3rom a scale (an!thing digital does not ha'e an estimated last digit) (*ecision 4 re3ers to the reproducibilit! o3 a measurement 4 is usuall! a 3unction o3 the person measuring %*ecision e**o* I based on measured 'alues" used to determine precision o3 e-perimental 'alues K W (range)Ia'erage - 766K accu*ac+ 4 closeness o3 a measurement to the true 'alue 4 is usuall! a 3unction o3 the measuring instrument %e*cent e**o* O ho* 3ar the measured 'alue is 3rom the actual (accepted) 'alue 2ased on actual and e-perimental 'alues Used to determine accurac! (error\ 76K $(T accurate) o3 the e-periment K error W (measured a'erage O actual) 766K actual %ositi0e J e**o* means +ou o0e* measu*e9 (contamination" scale issues" h!droscopicW absorbed moisture 3rom air) $e&ati0e J e**o* means +ou un9e* measu*e9 (spilled" di33erent scale issues" incomplete reaction) $4T6: acceptable error limits 'ar!" but a good rule o3 thumb is +76K An!thing o'er that 3or a qualit! lab *ith properl! trained personnel is $(T acceptable Some labs *ill ta/e up to +7EK" but that is Just ine-cusable e-: a person measures the 'olume o3 an obJect using *ater displacement three times *ith the 3ollo*ing results: CE 7. mL" CD HF mL" and CE 6G mL The accepted 'olume o3 the obJect is C. 6H mL Are the results: accurate" precise" neither" both: E-plain

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Rules fo* fin9in& t'e " of si&nificant fi&u*es F+ou s'oul9 ;no: t'ese b+ no:B butKH 7 All non40eros are signi3icant . Zeros bet*een non40eros are signi3icant C All other 0eros are signi3icant only if.... a) there is a decimal point an9 b) the 0eros are to the right o3 a non40ero number 4 all other (not a and b) are simpl! place holders Another *a! to remember: Leading 0eros ne'er count" middle 0eros al*a!s count" and trailing 0eros onl! count *hen a decimal point is in'ol'ed Sig 3igs appl! to scienti3ic notation as *ell The 9 o3 s 3 in scienti3ic notation W 9 s 3 in non4scienti3ic notation E-: . CE - 764D and 6 666.CE ha'e the same s 3 E DF - 76B and EDF6666 ha'e the same s 3 $ote: the more the sig 3igs in the data" the better the results #3 !ou ta/e bad data" !ou &ESE)VE to get bad resultsTTT alculatin& :it' ,easu*ements F Si& =i& ,at' H multi(l+in& o* 9i0i9in& 4 the ans*er should ha'e the smaller 9 o3 sig 3igs in the original problem &o a better Job on the measurements" !ou get better (more precise) data in the end And use the best equipment (accurac!) a'ailable a99in& o* subt*actin& 4 round to the last common signi3icant digit on the right (This means that !ou line them all up" do the math" and then round to *here the PshortestQ number ends in terms o3 the decimal point) YYY;inal note on sig 3ig?s 4 e-act con'ersion 3actors do not limit the 9 o3 sig 3igs 4 the 3inal ans*er should al*a!s end *ith the 9 o3 sig 3igs that started the problem also note: (n the A8 e-am" signi3icant 3igures are graded A correct response must ha'e the correct number o3 sig 3igs (one more or one less is also accepted) A good rule o3 thumb is that most ans*ers ha'e three signi3icant 3igures >ou don?t need that PcheatQ O !ou /no* the rules o3 sig 3igsT

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1-6 T'e !nit =acto* ,et'o9 F9imensional anal+sisH T23S 3S B38 3$ 26,3STRL ;actor Label Method 4 a method o3 problem sol'ing that treats units li/e algebraic 3actors %on'ersions are all the same: start *ith *hat !ou /no*" mo'e units upIdo*n and go to another related unit" 3ill in numbers" cancel" repeat until desired units are le3t A$& 3or s 3 : end *ith the starting amount on0e*sions 3n0ol0in& 7olume Fan9 ot'e* 9e*i0e9 unitsH The! *or/ the same as an! other con'ersion" e-cept P1hat !ou /no*Q goes o'er P7Q and the bottom unit (B6mph W B6 milesI7 hour) ;rom there" !ou can ta/e units PupQ to change them" not Just do*n E-: con'ert 7D GmgIcmC to gIL:

$3B Fbut s'oul9 beH )ules o3 )ounding 4 3or numbers ending on E:

numbers greater than E (B4H) get rounded up numbers less than E (74D) get rounded do*n round to the e'en number

note 4 the PEQ rule onl! applies to a Pdead e'enQ E 4 i3 an! digit other than 6 3ollo*s a E to be rounded" then the number gets rounded up *ithout regard to the pre'ious digit *eMui*e9 met*ic.6n&lis' con0e*sions to ;no:: 1 inc' D 2-54 cm 1 lb F(oun9H D 454 &

1 Mua*t D 0-946 L

Reall+B t'ese come in 'an9+ in life in &ene*alB not 1ust c'em class-

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8*a('s: These sho* up 3rom time to time" so let?s tr! one >ou *ant to determine the e33ects o3 temperature pressure 3or a certain gas The table belo* *as obtained @raph the results to pro'e the relationship bet*een temperature and pressure (>ep" 2o!le?s La* 3or gases) 2e sure to label EVE)>TH#$@ properl!TTTT Temp o % 8ress torr 7. 6 76 E. .. 6 7H GC D6 6 EE C EE 6 77G 6 BE 6 7GF E F6 6 .CC F G6 6 CEE 7 H. 6 EBF 6 76. G7E H

$ote: !ou ma! *ant to use graph paper 3or this: #T #S $(T (8T#($ALTTTTTTTTTT Turn this graph in *ith the problem set at the end o3 the unit !nit 2 %*oblems#>uestions#%*actice: %on'ert each 7 6D Mg W UUUUUUUUUg HC6.mm W UUUUUUUm 6 GHC cm W UUUUUUUUUmm .E 6 o% W UUUUUUUUUUN EDdL W UUUUUUUL .E 6o% W UUUUUUUo;

*eMui*e9 met*ic.6n&lis' con0e*sions to ;no:: 1 inc' D 2-54 cm 1 lb-F(oun9H D 454 & con'ert 7 7E gal to L('olume) E E6 lb to /g(mass)

1 Mua*t D 0-946 L FE 3t to m(distance) 6 E66 mile. to /m.(area)

Ho* man! gallons o3 *ater are in m! s*imming pool measuring .D 6 3t b! 7. 6 3t b! C E6 3t: ( 3t to cm" cm(C) to cmC" cmC to mL to qt to gal)

8resuming the densit! o3 *ater to be 7 gIcmC" ho* much does the *ater *eigh in tons: (cmC to g to lb to tons)

a *ater tan/ *ith a diameter o3 H6 6 3t and a height o3 7E6 6 3t holds ho* man! gallons o3 *ater: (V W ]r.h) (3t to cm" 'olume 3ormula" con'ert cmC (ml) to quart" then gallon

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A8 %hemistr! Unit . Set 7 a . a C A liquid *ith a densit! o3 . BF gIcmC is added to C6 66 mL o3 *ater *ith a 3inal 'olume o3 B6 E mL The liquid has a mass o3 UUUUUUUUUNg G7 D b 77 D c 6 6GFE d 6 6G7D e 6 677D The ans*er o3 ^(77 7C4. B) - 76D_ I ^(76C 6E + 7B H) - 764B_ has UUUUU signi3icant 3igures E b D c C d . #n *hich o3 the 3ollo*ing are $($E o3 the 0eros signi3icant: a) 766 6 b) 76BE c) 6 6766 d) 7 66CDE6

e) 6 66667

D The /inetic energ! o3 a .C .g obJect mo'ing at a speed o3 G7 G /mIhr is UUUUU< (< W /g m.Isec.) a 7H66 b B 66 c FF G d 7DE e 7 DC - 764C E a b c d #3 the heat o3 an obJect is increased" then the temperature o3 the obJect goes do*n the temperature o3 the obJect can sta! the same 3or a period o3 time be3ore increasing the temperature o3 the obJect immediatel! increases the temperature o3 the obJect remains unchanged inde3initel!

B The temperature o3 47C7 E`% is UUUUUUUUUU in Nel'in A) D6E G 2) 7D7 E %) 7D7 F &) 7D7 BB F The 3ree0ing point o3 *ater at 7 atm pressure is UUUUUUUUUU A) 6`; 2) 6 N %) 6`% &) 4.FC`% G 7 /ilogram W UUUUUUUUUU milligrams A) 7 a 76B 2) 7"666 %) 76"666 H bAbsolute 0erob re3ers to UUUUUUUUUU A) 6 N 2) 6` ; %) 6` %

E) D6E FE E) 4C.`;

&) 7"666"666

E) none o3 the abo'e

&) `% + HIE(`; 4 C.)

E) .FC 7E`%

76 The element UUUUUUUUUU is the most similar to strontium in chemical and ph!sical properties A) Li 2) At %) )b &) 2a E) %s 77 The number 6 66DC6 has UUUUUUUUUU signi3icant 3igures A) . 2) C %) E &) B 7. The ans*er o3 7. FG6 + 6 6DEF. is A) 7. GC 2) 7. G.E %) 7. G.

E) D

&) 7. G.B

E) 7. G.EF

7C A combination o3 sand" salt" and *ater is an e-ample o3 a UUUUUUUUUU A) homogeneous mi-ture 2) heterogeneous mi-ture
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%) compound &) pure substance E) solid 7D )ound the 3ollo*ing number to three signi3icant 3igures and e-press the result in standard e-ponential notation: ..H B7C A) 6 .C6 a 76C 2) .C6 %) . C6 a 76. &) . .H a 76. E) ..H 7E The atomic number indicates UUUUUUUUUU A) the number o3 neutrons in a nucleus 2) the total number o3 neutrons and protons in a nucleus %) the number o3 protons or electrons in a neutral atom &) the number o3 atoms in 7 g o3 an element E) the number o3 di33erent isotopes o3 an element 7B 1hich pair o3 atoms constitutes a pair o3 isotopes o3 the same element: A) &)
7D L B 7H L 76 7D L F 7H L H

2) E)

7D L B .6 L 76

7. L B .7 L 77


7F L H

7F L G

7F The densit! o3 a certain substance decreases as the temperature gets 3urther a*a! 3rom room temperature The substance must beUUUU a mercur! iodide b ammonia c sodium chloride d *ater e carbon dio-ide Use the 3ollo*ing to ans*er questions 7G through .7 Each ans*er can be used once" more than once" or not at all a Li b %u c $a d ;e e Tc 7G This element produces a bright red color in a 3lame test 7H This element usuall! produces a +. charged cation" but also ma/es a +7 cation .6 This element has the largest atomic and ionic radius o3 those listed .7 This transition metal does not ha'e an! isotopes

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!nit 2 4b1ecti0es 7 . C D E B F G &istinguish bet*een quantitati'e and qualitati'e List and de3ine basic S# units &emonstrate a logical approach to problem sol'ing and con'ersions using dimensional anal!sis &e3ine and use densit! 3or calculations &e3ine and di33erentiate bet*een accurac! and precision and be able to per3orm K error calculations &e3ine sig 3ig?s and be able to determine them in numbers %on'ert numbers to and 3rom scienti3ic notation 2e able to create a graph 3rom in3ormation *ith all necessar! in3ormation" and be able to determine the math relationship bet*een . 'ariables 3rom a graph

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!nit 3 T'e Lan&ua&e of 'emist*+

<ust sa!ingX 'emical =o*mulas: an o0e*0ie: 'emical fo*mula O combination o3 s!mbols that represent the composition o3 a compound (H%l" H$(C" $a.S(D" Al((H)C" etc) Subsc*i(ts O indicates the actual number o3 each t!pe o3 atom 3or an element in the 3ormula Al*a!s 3ollo*s the element or group o3 elements oefficient O in a chemical 3ormula in a balanced equation" indicates the relati'e number o3 moles (molecules) 3or each compound needed 3or the reaction


Molecules and Molecular %ompounds molecule (molecularIco'alent compound) These are the compounds that are composed o3 . or more a non4metals )emember: monatomic diatomic pol!atomic: atoms o3 the UUUUUUUUUUUUelement

Molecular and Empirical ;ormulas Neep in mind" these are compounds that STA)T *ith a non4metal (molecular W co'alent) 8icturing Molecules 6m(i*ical fo*mula D basic *atio of atoms in a com(oun9 ,olecula* fo*mula D actual *atio of atoms in a molecule St*uctu*al fo*mula O sho*s the actual arrangement o3 the atoms relati'e to each other in a .4 dimensional *orld (basic PpictureQ or dra*ing o3 the molecules) S(ace fillin& mo9el O (2EST 3or P/no*ingQ purposes) sho*s relati'e si0e" angles" and bond lengths o3 the molecule (a C4& model is a Le*is &ot representation bee3ed up) The C& ones *e ha'e o'erhead (go ahead" !ou /no* !ou *ant to loo/) are not e-actl! to scale" but are at least correct as 3ar as atomic arrangement and t!pes o3 bonds (single" double" triple) ;or man! compounds" the molecular and empirical 3ormal are the same E-: methane W %HD 1ater W H.6 %arbon dio-ide W %(. Ho*e'er" man! compounds can come 3rom the same empirical 3ormula: basic h!drocarbons (%nH.n+.) %CHG propane (3or gas grills) %GH.6 octane (in gasoline) %DH76 butane (lighter 3luid)

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Let?s turn dra*ings into 3ormulas and 3ormulas into dra*ings: %CHG $HC %(. %a((H). (#onic" soX)

2-7 3ons an9 3onic com(oun9s

3ons 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU created *hen an atom readil! (easil!) gains or losses electrons ation (comes 3rom the anode end o3 a cathode ra! tube) O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU )nions (produced 3rom the cathode end) 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU and remember" a positi'e ion gets smaller *hile a negati'e one gets bigger due to UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (called e33ecti'e nuclear charge: more later) Ho* about 8ol! (can?t 3orget the pol!atomics) &ra*: H!dro-ide Ammonium

Neep in mind that the chemical properties o3 )T4,S are di33erent 3rom the chemical properties o3 34$S (the electrons are responsible 3or bonding" *hich is *here all o3 the %HEM#%AL stu33 happens) The ph!sical properties are basicall! the same regardless o3 charge 8redicting #onic %harge The $oble @ases are the ro!alt!" and e'er!one *ants to be li/e them" soX 3soelect*onic 4 Atoms gainIlose electrons to obtain a noble gas con3iguration (the! all *ant G 'e4" or . 'e4 i3 the! are li/e Helium) Ho* do *e /no* charges: memori0e" learn a bunch o3 rules" or Just count (reall!) across the s and p bloc/ in the ro* o3 the gi'en element 3onic om(oun9s %ontain both UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
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A lot o3 chemical acti'it! is based on the mo'ement (trans3er) o3 electrons Again" this is *here all o3 the %hemistr! reall! happens (e-cept the nuclear stu33" but *e get to that later) #onic compounds are arranged in a C4& structure called a cr!stal lattice (li/e those *ood structures on the sides o3 houses that hold up plants" but C4& not 3lat) 1e *rite the 3ormula as an empirical (3or ease in reactions)" but ionic compounds are reall! complestructures that are held together b! all o3 that PchargeQ The charge becomes e'ident *hen *e pass a current through the compound or dissol'e it in *ater (and can measure a charge increase in the solution due to the charge imbalance) A+ + 24 , %ation anion 2! the *a!" great graphic on pg EB A2A2A2 cr!stal lattice 3ormula unit A2

8lease read through the %hemistr! and Li3e (pg EF) <ust as a re3erence )lsoB t'e Strategies in Chemistry t'*ou&'out t'e boo; Fsta*t on (& 58H a*e useful- T'e+ also e<(lain :'+ :e 9o t'in&s in small @c'un;sC an9 *e(eat info often- )&ainB 1ust *ea9 t'is stuff: it 'el(sA*itin& 6m(i*ical =o*mulas fo* 3onic om(oun9s: #3 !ou /no* the charges" it is eas! Again" learn to count across the s and p bloc/ 8ositi'e ions 4 cations (AL1A>S listed 3irst) negati'e ions O anions (listed second) Total charges must W 6 (net charge on ionic compound) must /no* charges on columns (or be able to count) and learn the 8ol!atomic ions e-amples: Magnesium (-ide

%opper(##) 8hosphate

Aluminum %arbonate

Lead (#V) (-ide

#ron (###) Sul3ide

8otassium #odide

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2-8 $amin& 3no*&anic

om(oun9s Fnon.ca*bon base9 molecula* com(oun9sH 2e3ore *e start" there are t*o important PtraditionalQ names that don?t 3ollo* the rules: 1ater (H.() ammonia ($HC) #norganic (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) compounds include ionic" molecular" and most acids 2ases are part o3 the ionic compounds (M(ST bases begin *ith a metal and end in h!dro-ide) 2! the *a!: Nno* !our list o3 7G pol!atomics !et:T:T STA)T $(1TTTT $ames an9 =o*mulas of 3onic om(oun9s ;#)ST: name cation" $( E$&#$@ %HA$@E 7 . The s bloc/ are Just *hat the! appear to be: 7st column W +7" .nd column W +. The d4bloc/ %A$ 3orm di33erent cations The charge is indicated b! )oman $umerals 0inc is al*a!s +. @old is generall! +C

notable e<ce(tions 4 Ag al*a!s W +7 ;or the p bloc/" *atch 3or Tin and Lead

t*a9itional s+stem 4 lo* charge W 4ous ending e- 4 ;e%l. 3errous chloride (+. charge on ;e) ;e%lC 3erric chloride (+C charge on ;e)

high charge W 4ic ending

Latin names to ;no: (not used in !our boo/" but MA> sho* up on A8 e-am) (%u) cuprous" ic (;e) 3errous" ic (Sn) stannous" ic (8b) plumbous" ic (Hg) mercurous" ic 2E %A)E;UL: the mercurous or Mercur! (#) cation is actuall! Hg.+. 8ol!atomic ions (!es" the! are molecular) that end in Oium: ammonium ($HD+) and H!dronium (HC(+) (This is the list" there are a 3e* others but *e ma! ne'er actuall! see them" soX) C

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SE%($&: name anions 7 ;ormed b! replacing the end *ith 4ide (-ide nitride chloride phsophide $ote: some 8ol!?s also end in O ide" h!dro-ide" c!anide" pero-ide )eall!" do !ou /no* these !et:::: . ternar! compounds O C elements ma/e up the compound (basicall!" !ou ha'e a 8ol! there some*here or t*o lo* charge metals *ith a higher charge 8ol!)

)emember # mentioned that *e *ould Pe-pandQ (add to) the list o3 8ol!?s: All 8ol!?s containing Po-!genQ end *ith either Oate (most common 3orm o3 8ol!) or Oite (same charge but one less o-!gen) The! are called o<+anions: anions that contain o-!gen $(C47 nitrate $(.47 nitrite S(D4. sul3ate S(C4. sul3ite

Neep in mind that M(ST bases end *ith O(H Let?s do strong 's *ea/ bases:

#n addition" *e can go PupQ one o-!gen 3rom the common 3orm" gi'ing a per(pol!)ate or do*n 3orm the reduced gi'ing a h!po(pol!)ite 1hat does it all mean: 1ell" D o-!gens are per C o-!gens are . o-!gens are 7 o-!gen is h!po ate ate ite ite perchlorate chlorate chlorite h!pochlorite %l(D47 %l(C47 %l(.47 %l(747

This s!stem *or/s 3or A$> o3 the halogen4o-!gen combinations Ho*e'er" there are some 8ol!?s *here there is a PperXateQ that reall! doesn?t brea/ do*n or an PX ateQ is as high as it goes (phosphate" chromate" sul3ate to name a 3e*) <ust do !our best The boo/ has all sorts o3 tables" ignore *hat con3uses !ou and 8)A%T#%E *riting the 8ol!s

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C Anions that ha'e a h!drogen out 3ront are named b! adding the either Ph!drogenQ 3or one H+ or Pdih!drogenQ 3or . H+ to the pol! The e-tra h!drogen(s) reduce the o'erall charge o3 the 8ol! (each h!drogen is +7" soX) %arbonate %(C4. H!drogen carbonate H%(C47 phosphate dih!drogenphosphate 8(D4C H.8(
47 D

$ote: some older sources use PbiQ 3or one H+ and PdiQ 3or . <ust use *hat # sho*ed abo'e 2ut loo/ out 3or bicarbonate H%(C47 and bisul3ate HS(D47 Last note on 8ol! (3or no*) The 8ol!s in the Halogens (FA) all ha'e a 47 charge and the ones in column BA (under o-!gen) all ha'e a 4. charge There is a tric/ /no*n as Sli'/a?s Square: ###A 2 Al @a #n Tl #VA % Si @e Sn 8b VA $ 8 As Sb 2i V#A ( S Se Te 8o V##A ; %l 2r # At (utside square chlorate bromate iodate nitrateY carbonateY #nside square sul3ate selenate phosphate arsenate tellurate

Ycharge is di33erent than the Oide ion?s charge This same pattern can be applied 3or a pol! in the d4bloc/ as *ell: Manganate Mn(C47 (;inall!) #onic %ompounds $ames (8utting it in simpler terms) $ame the cation (remember d4bloc/ generall! uses roman numerals 3or charges) $ame the anion changing the end to Oide 1atch 3or cation and anion 8ol!s and be able to name them

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$ames and ;ormulas o3 Acids All aci9s O start *ith h!drogen and are molecules that ioni0e (act li/e ionic compounds) *hen dissol'ed in *ater An acid has enough h!drogen?s to PbalanceQ the charge o3 the 8ol! or non4metal anion Neep #n Mind: 7 Acids containing anions *hose name ends in Oide are named as h!dro(element name)ic acid 2asicall!" *e?re tal/ing about the 2alo&ens and an! single element acid *ith h!drogen List: H%l" H2r" H#" H; ($ote: H; is the *ea/ halogen acid)" along *ith H.S" HC8 (both *ea/ acids) $amed: h!drochloric acid" h!drosul3uric acid (Sul3uric acid is H.S(D)" etc . Acids *ith endings o3 Oate or Oite ha'e their ends changed to Oic (3rom ate) and Oous (3rom Oite) along *ith the *ord acid 2asicall!" *e?re tal/ing 8ol!s

Let?s do a quic/ list o3 strong acids:

,olecula* $ames )ules 3or naming: These are 3!%) (#nternational Union o3 8ure and Applied %hemistr!) rules" not mine # still occasionall! use the PoldQ or standard names (old habits are hard to brea/) 7 1rite the name o3 the 3irst element in the 3ormula

. 1rite the name o3 the second element in the 3ormula" changing its ending to Oide Oide ending: usuall! signi3ies a binar! (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) compound C Add pre3i-es to indicate the number o3 atoms o3 each element $ote: mono is dropped 3or the ;#)ST element ($L> monoUUUUU tetraUUUUUU heptaUUUUU decaUUUUU diUUUUUU pentaUUUUU octaUUUUU triUUUUUU he-aUUUUU nonaUUUUU D 2inar! compounds ha'e . *ord names (one 3or each element)

4t'e* :a+ Fnames to fo*mulasH 1ust elementGs s+mbol t'en (*efi< numbe* fo* cation follo:e9 b+ elementGs s+mbol t'en (*efi< numbe* fo* anion-

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2+9*ates 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2asicall!" name the compound" then use a pre3i- 3or the coe33icient o3 the *ater 3ollo*ed b! Ph!drate: %uS(D EH.( is copper (##) sul3ate pentah!drate (!ep" need to *atch 3or roman numerals)

24-1 Metal %omple-es" %oordination %ompounds and Ligands (*a! beastl! and the! ma! sho* up)
,etal om(le< I A central metal ion bonded to a group o3 surrounding molecules or ions oo*9ination com(oun9 I %ompounds that contain metal comple-es Li&an9 O the molecules or ions that bond to the metal ion in a compleE-: ^Ag($HC)._%l Ag is the metal comple-" the $HC molecules are the ligands" and the entire thing is a coordination compound

24-3 $o*" *e name the beasts

7 $ame the cation 3irst " then the anion . ;or the comple- ion" the ligand is named be3ore the metal" and ligands are named in alphabetical order (basicall!" the order in *hich the! are *ritten) C The name o3 anion ligands end in PoQ" but neutral ones are the same as the molecule $ote: Table .D C (pg 76.E) has a list o3 Pspecial casesQ $aming pattern: ^8re3i-(ligand)(non4metal cation)(metal(charge))_ anion So" ^%o($HC)E%l_%l. is called pentaamminechlorocobalt (###) chloride ^%r(H.()D%l._%l is tetra aMuadic'lo*ochromium (###) chloride cMo($HC)C2r_$(C is triamminetrib*omomol!bdenum (#V) nitrate (;U$" isn?t it:::)

T*+ a fe::

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25-2 I 25-4 Some Simple (rganic %ompounds


1e can e-pand al/anes b! adding more carbons (and h!drogens) to the Ps/eletonQ This is ho* *e (and Mother $ature) ma/e 3uels" plastics" 3oods" etc $ote: h!drocarbons (al/anes) are binar! molecular compounds (onl! . t!pes o3 atoms" both non4 metals) 2UT are not named the same as other molecular compounds T'e+ )ll en9 in Iane Fsin&le bon9sH The 3irst 3our are Just memori0ation: Methane 7carbon Ethane . carbons 8ropane C carbons 2utane D carbons A3ter that" the! *or/ o33 o3 the pre3i-es *e use 3or molecular compounds: UUUUUUUUUU E UUUUUUUUUUUU B UUUUUUUUUUUUU F UUUUUUUUUUG

(nce *e can recogni0e al/anes" *e can start on the rest o3 the organics: alcohols" aldeh!des" /etones" (Lions" Tigers" and 2earsTTT) These are all created b! replacing one or more h!drogens *ith a 3unctional group (a speci3ic arrangement o3 atoms) >our boo/ onl! reall! goes into alcohols" so: Alcohol 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU E-: Methane becomes methanol propane to 74propanol or .4propanol (isopropanol)

$ote: the properties change despite the similar structure %arbon" due to its bonding nature" gi'es rise to long chains" as mentioned abo'e That is *h! it gets its o*n 3ield o3 chemistr!

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Al/anes O all single bonds Al/enes O a double bond in the chain Al/!nes O a triple bond in the chain E-:

>ou ma! *ant to glance atI*rite do*nIdra* some o3 the 3unctional groups 3or organic chem >ou *ill absolutel! learn these b! second !ear college" so getting 3amiliar no* is a bonus (pg 76F7)

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!nit 3 %*oblems#>uestions#%*actice: $a%l




carbon tetrachloride $C(B Al.(C






sul3ur he-a3luoride UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

tetraphosphorus deco-ide UUUUUUUUUUUUUU




dinitrogen mono-ide UUUUUUUUUUUU %u%l




&i33erentiate bet*een a chemical s!mbol and a chemical 3ormula E-plain the importance o3 subscripts and coe33icients &istinguish bet*een atoms" ions" and molecules @i'en a 3ormula" state the number o3 each t!pe o3 element Use the periodic table to predict the charge and 3ormula o3 mono and pol!atomic molecules and ions 1rite 3ormulas 3or chemical compounds using o-idation numbers $ame compounds 3rom 3ormulas" both ionic and molecular &etermine the name and 3ormula o3 acids" h!drates" and comple- salts )ecogni0e basic organic molecules b! their names and *rite 3ormulas 3or simple compounds

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Unit C Set 7 Aluminum is a UUUUUUUUUU and silicon is a UUUUUUUUUU A) nonmetal" metal 2) nonmetal" nonmetal %) metal" metal &) metal" metalloid E) metalloid" metalloid . The correct result o3 the molecular mass calculation 3or H .S( D " ta/ing each mass to C past the decimal" is: a HG 6G b HG 6FH c HG 6FD d HG GCG e HG GD

C An o-ide o3 nitrogen is 3ound to be BC .K o-!gen b! mass 1hat is the empirical 3ormula: a $( b $(. c $.(C d $.(E D 1hich metal does not 3orm cations o3 di33erent charges: a %o b %u c $a E 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing is $(T an ionic compound: a 8%lE b )b%l c Mo%lB B ;or the element -B%" -WUUU
a 7H d B b 7C c F e can?t be determined based on gi'en in3ormation

d Sn

e ;e

d $a%l

e 8b%lD

F The empirical 3ormula that 3orms bet*een aluminum and o-!gen is UUUU a Al( b AlC(. c Al.(C d Al.( G The correct name 3or H.S(C is UUUUU a Sul3uric acid b sul3urous acid

c h!drosul3uric acid

d sul3ur h!dro-ide

H The correct 3ormula 3or mol!bdenum (#V) h!pochlorite is UUUUU a Mo(%l(C)D b Mo(%l()D a Mo(%l(.)D 76 Ammonium sul3ide has the 3ormula UUUUUU a $HDS(C b ($HD).S(D c ($HD).S 77 1hat is the molecular 3ormula 3or propene: a %.HG b %CHB c %CHG d %DHG

a Mo(%l(D)D

d $HCS

7. A UUUUUUUUUUU 3ormula pro'ides the most in3ormation about a compound a empirical b molecular c structural d chemical

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7C All atoms o3 a gi'en element ha'e the same UUUU a) mass b) number o3 protons d) number o3 electrons and neutrons

c) number o3 neutrons e) densit!

7D 1hich pair is most li/el! to 3orm a molecular compound *hen combined: a) aluminum" o-!gen b) magnesium" iodine c) sul3ur" 3luorine d) potassium" lithium e) barium" bromine 7E Solids ha'e a UUUUUUUUUU shape and are not appreciabl! UUUUUUUUUU A) de3inite" compressible 2) de3inite" incompressible %) inde3inite" compressible &) inde3inite" incompressible E) sharp" con'ertible 7B The number 6 666E66 has UUUUUUUUUU signi3icant 3igures A) . 2) C %) E 7F 8redict the product in the combination reaction A) Al$ 2) AlC$%) Al$. &) AlC$.

&) B

E) D

Al (s) + $ . (g) UUUUUUUU

E) Al$C

7G The balanced equation 3or the decomposition o3 sodium a0ide isUUUUU a .$a$C(s) .$a(s) + C$.(g) b .$a$C(s) $a.(s) + C$.(g) c $a$C(s) $a(s) + $.(g) d $a$C(s) $a(s) + $.(g) + $(g) e .$a$C(s) .$a(s) + .$.(g) 7H UUUUUUU is an o-idation reaction a #ce melting in a drin/ b table salt dissol'ing in a pot o3 boiling *ater c iron rusting d the reaction o3 sodium chloride and lead nitrate to 3orm a precipitant e neutrali0ation o3 h!drochloric acid b! sodium h!dro-ide .6 ;i'e grams o3 an element combines *ith 7H E grams o3 chlorine #t 3orms an o-ide *ith the 3ormula M.(C 1hat is the element: a Li b ;e c Al d 2 e Au

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!nit 4: LetGs ,a( it 4ut: ,ole Time

<ust a reminderXloo/ at all o3 it and read as best !ou can

3-3 =o*mula Aei&'ts F,asses *eall+B t'e boo; acts li;e t'ese a*e 9iffe*ent: t'e+G*e notH
All matter made o3 particles: )egardless o3 3orm" all *ill be called particles (atoms" molecules" 3ormula units) At a molecular le'el" mass and *eight A)E interchangeableXnot much e33ect b! gra'it! Molar Mass 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2asicall!" ho* man! grams or amu?s are in ($E M(LE o3 a gi'en substance Roun9 to t'e nea*est 'un9*e9t' F2 9ecimal (lacesHN (measured in amu4 atomic mass units" or gramsImole) 2asicall!" this is the mass o3 one mole o3 the substance )eall!" Just ma/e a list o3 the elements in a compound" count ho* man! o3 each" do the math" and get a total molar mass(*eight) is a term that can be used 3or atoms (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) molecules (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) 3ormula units (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) )eall!" Just add up the mass 3or each element and get a total: it?s Just a nameTTT %aC(8(D).

%e*cent om(osition (UUUUUUU) O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU The 3ormula (or 3ormula unit) indicates the number o3 atoms in a compound Each mole o3 a compound contains equi'alent numbers o3 moles o3 each element" *hich can be con'erted to gImol To 3ind the K comp" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (li/e calculating !our grade)

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3-4 )0o&a9*oGs $umbe* an9 T'e ,ole

The Mole Atoms are tin!" so *e count them in PbunchesQ 4 a mole is a Pbunch o3 atomsQ mole (mol) 4 The amount o3 a compound or element that contains UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU o3 that substance %alled UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU(it is a $UM2E)) 7 mole W 7 molar mass W B 6. - 76.C particles (atoms" molecules" 3ormula units) 2asicall!" the molar mass is the MASS o3 one M(LE o3 a substance Molar Volume 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (UUUUUUUU) ;irst proposed b! A'ogadro in 7G77 7 mol gas W .. D L gas (3or all &ases at ST8) ST%: 6(% temperature" and 7 atmosphere (atm) o3 pressure *here 7 atm is about the pressure at sea le'el (considered room pressure) Again" it is the 74L!,6 of one ,4L6 of a 8)S substance Mole )elationships ;or starters in chemistr!" *e ha'e to be able to con'ert bet*een moles" grams" and moleculesIatoms o3 substance (also lite*s *hen *e *or/ *ith 8)S6S)

)emember &imensional Anal!sis: #T?S 2A%N (along *ith units and sig 3igs) <ust a re'ie*: 7) 8lace the /no*n quantit! o'er 7 or 7 unit i3 a comple- unit .) 2ring do*nIup the U$#T C) ;ind a con'ersion (equi'alent unit)" and put it on topIbottom ;ill in the numbers D) )epeat until !ou ha'e the desired unit(s) E) Sig ;igs in original data W sig 3igs in ans*erTTTT

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3-5 6m(i*ical an9 ,olecula* =o*mulas

Empirical 3ormula O simplest *hole 9 ratio o3 atoms in a substance Molecular 3ormula O Pscaled upQ 'ersion o3 empirical 3ormula: *hat !ou reall! ha'e ;ormula unit O used 3or #($#% compounds onl! and #S the empirical 3ormula )emember: an empirical 3ormula can also be the molecular 3ormula 3or simple co'alent compounds To 3ind an empirical 3ormula" a mole ratio is used O ratio (or 3raction) that compares moles o3 each t!pe o3 atom in a 3ormula )ules 3or 3inding empirical 3ormulas: 7) 8resume !ou ha'e a 766 gram sample #3 the percentage o3 each is /no*n" change the percent to grams (C6 K W C6 g" etc) S/ip this step i3 the masses are gi'en .) %on'ert 3rom grams to moles 3or each element C) %reate a mole ratio using the mole amounts 3rom step . To do this" di'ide each 'alue b! the lo*est mole amount as calculated in the compound D) %on'ert each to a *hole number (must be done to all or none) E) The numbers in the ratio become the subscripts in the empirical 3ormula $ote: good 3lo*chart at the bottom o3 pg HE ,olecula* fo*mula (chemical 3ormula) O *hat !ou )EALL> ha'e in terms o3 ratio o3 atoms #t is either the same as the empirical 3ormula" or a simple *hole 9 multiple o3 the empirical 3ormula A3ter 3inding the empirical 3ormula" use the molar mass (gi'en) to 3ind the molecular 3ormula E-: A compound has a molar mass o3 B6 6 gImol *ith an empirical 3ormula o3 %HD$ 1hat is the molecular 3ormula: 7 3ind the empirical 3ormula MASS W C6 6 gImol . ;ind the *hole number ratio: (B6 6 gImol) I (C6 6 gImol) W . C Multipl! the number b! each subscript in the empirical 3ormula: %.HG$. Tr! it: 7) A component o3 roc/et 3uel is comprised o3 GF DK nitrogen and h!drogen" *ith a molecular mass o3 C. 6E gImol 1hat is the empirical and molecular 3ormula o3 the compound:

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$3B F:ellB so*t ofH =o*mulas of 2+9*ates 2+9*ates O compounds that are chemicall! combined *ith *ater in a speci3ic ratio H!drates are usuall! ionic compounds 2asicall!: K *ater W (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) - 766K The empirical 3ormula is *ritten *ith the *ater molecules at the end: $i($(C).dBH.6 This means there are B *ater molecules 3or e'er! one nic/el nitrate molecule $ote: the dot be3ore the *ater is $(T a multiplication sign 1hen a h!drate is heated" the *ater molecules lea'e the compound and mi- *ith the surrounding air 1hat is le3t is the ionic compound The 3ormula unit sho*s no *ater molecules E-: %uS(DdEH.6 ,%u S(D A3ter dr!ing a h!drate" the empirical 3ormula (ratio o3 moles o3 compound to moles o3 *ater) can be easil! calculated: 7 mass o3 h!drate . mass o3 compound *ithout *ater C mass o3 *ater in sample e-: A h!drate o3 MgS(D is heated gi'ing the 3ollo*ing results: mass o3 h!drate: E BE g mass o3 compound a3ter dr!ing: . FB g 7 . ( ( C D ;ind the mass o3 *ater remo'ed (loss in mass): g *ater %alculate the moles o3 compound and moles o3 *ater: g MgS(DI7) - (7 mol MgS(D I7.6 C g MgS(D ) W mol MgS(D g H.(I7) - (7 mol H.(I 7G 6 g H.() W mol H.( Using a mole ratio o3 MgS(D to H.(" di'ide each b! the smaller number: W MgS(D W H.( This means there are UUU molecules o3 *ater 3or e'er! UUU 3ormula unit o3 MgS(D" gi'ing a 3ormula o3: MgS(DdUUH.6

AeGll 9o a Muic; lab on t'is so +ou can (*actice t'e calculations-

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3-5 ombustion )nal+sis

Empirical means Pbased on obser'ation and e-perimentQ 1hen a compound that contains h!drogen and carbon (can be A$> organic compound)" it can be anal!0ed *ith a combustion 3urnace (dra*ing 3rom abo'e) 2asicall!" the compound is split apart into atoms The carbon becomes %(." the h!drogen becomes H.(" and *hate'er else is present is Premo'edQ in the %u( chamber (sort o3 a cleaning process) Ho* it *or/s: 7 @et a mass on each o3 the reaction chambers prior to combustion . Ta/e a sample o3 /no*n mass and burn it up C . A3ter the reaction is complete" get a mass on the H.( absorbing chamber The di33erence is the mass of '+9*o&en 3rom the sample D @et a mass on the %(. chamber The di33erence is the mass of ca*bon 3rom the sample E Using the mass o3 %(. and H.(" calculate the 9 o3 moles o3 % and H respecti'el! in the original sample (g cmpd , mole cmpd , mole element ,g element) B #3 a third element is present (doesn?t *or/ 3or more than %" H" and one other element)" its mass can be 3ound b! subtracting the calculated masses o3 % and H 3rom the original sample Let?s Tr!: A 6 .6B6g sample o3 a carboh!drate (%H() is combusted in a 3urnace reactor The end result is 6 EC.F g %(. and 6 76H7 g H.( 1hat is the empirical 3ormula o3 the compound:

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4-5 oncent*ations of Solutions

%oncentration 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU The more solute (stu33) in the sol'ent (solution)" the more concentrated it is E-: the concentration o3 people at the mall the da! be3ore %hristmas 'ersus on the 3irst sunn! Saturda! in the spring The people are the solute and the mall is the sol'ent More people W more cro*ded Molarit! (M W molIL) )eall! Just the number o3 moles o3 solute dissol'ed in total liters o3 solution #3 gi'en grams" con'ert to moles then plug into 3ormula E-: Ho* man! grams o3 iodine must be dissol'ed into .E6 6mL total 'olume o3 carbon tetrachloride (densit! W 7 EHEgImL) to ma/e a 6 7FEM solution o3 iodine:

E-: An ethanol4*ater solution is prepared b! dissol'ing 76 66mL o3 ethanol (%.HE(H *ith a densit! W 6 FGH gImL) in enough *ater to ma/e 766 6 mL o3 solution *ith a densit! o3 6 HG.gImL 1hat is the molarit! o3 the solution (>ep" the! loo/ Just li/e this on the test) %on'ert mL o3 ethanol to grams using the densit! (tric/!T) then to mols (one big con'ersion) Then di'ide b! total 'olume o3 solution ('ol solute) (densit!) (con'ersion 3actor) W mol solute di'ide b! 'ol solution W molarit!

SE)#(USL>: #3 in doubt" %($VE)TTTTTTTTT

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4-5 6<(*essin& t'e oncent*ation of an 6lect*ol+te

1hen an ionic compound or acid is dissol'ed in *ater (electrol!te)" the concentration can be 3or the ionic compound (original 3ormula) or 3or the relati'e concentration o3 the ions (loo/ at ho* much o3 each part) E-: 1hat is the concentration 3or the cation and anion in a 6 DEG M solution o3 sodium carbonate: 7) 1rite the 3ormula 3or the ionic compound .) con'ert the molarit! o3 the ionic compound to molarit! o3 the cation C) con'ert the molarit! o3 the ionic compound to molarit! o3 the anion

)eall!" Just brea/ the ionic compound apart and do a simple con'ersion 3or each part $o big deal

3nte*con0e*tin& ,ola*it+B ,olesB an9 7olume 2asicall! *or/s li/e densit!" but *e use Molarit! W moles soluteI liter solution #3 *e /no* an! o3 the . quantities" *e can easil! 3ind the third (sol'e 3or the 'ariable) To 3ind liters used 3or a /no*n 9 o3 moles and molarit!" Just con'ert as usual" but P3lipQ the molarit! and plug in E-: Ho* much 'olume o3 a BG F7M solution o3 a salt is required to create C7H 6 mol:

E-: Ho* man! grams o3 sodium nitrate are needed to ma/e 7D G7L o3 a D E.E M solution: (3irst 3ind mol o3 salt" then con'ert that to grams)

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4-5 Dilution
A dilution is a solution o3 a lo*er concentration than *hat is a'ailable (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) 2asicall!" *e get concentrated solutions 3or lab prep and ha'e to P*ater it do*nQ 1e need e-act numbers" soX Things to /eep in mind: 7) the number o3 M(LES does not change be3ore and a3ter the dilution .) !ou need both the 'olume and concentration o3 the concentrated (original) and diluted (ne*) solution C) moles o3 an! solution W molarit! - 'olume W molIL - L D) the molarit! o3 the concentrated solution is AL1A>S greater than that o3 the dilute solution (common sense) So" *e get the eas! *a!: Mconc - Vconc W Mdil - Vdil (r" !ou can do a bunch o3 con'ersions andIor Algebra E-: 1e *ant to ma/e DE6 6mL o3 a . 66M sul3uric acid solution 3rom a stoc/ solution (conc W 7G 6M) Ho* much o3 the acid do *e need to use:

<ust as a note o3 caution: the! can start *ith grams" gi'e a densit!" and then as/ !ou to dilute or e'en bac/4trac/ to the original molarit! <ust start *ith the 3ormula" ma/e a list i3 need be" and *or/ one thing at a time (h !eah: and *atch the unitsTTT

4-6 Solution Stoic'iomet*+ an9

'emical )nal+sis (;rom C B) )eall!" Just use the e-tended mole map and 9C abo'e and !ou?ll be 3ine

L)ST $4T6: (ne o3 the most use3ul equations 3or solutions (titrations" dilutions" etc) is: F"cationsH,7 D ,7F"anionsH *here the molarit! times 'olume o3 one solution is equal to the molarit! times 'olume o3 the other <ust ma/e sure the PproductQ is a 7:7" or adJust 3or cationsIanions used to 3orm the product Seriousl!: do the list thing" sol'e 3or the un/no*n" and remember to *atch s3 and units

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Unit D Set 7 Ho* man! grams o3 o-!gen are in BE g o3 %. H . ( . : A) 7G 2) .H %) H 6 &) CB E) 7C6

. 1hat is the empirical 3ormula o3 a compound that contains DH DK N" .6 CK S" and C6 CK ( b! mass: A) NS(. 2) NS(C %) N .S( D &) N .S(C E) NS( D C A compound contains D6 6K %" B F7K H" and EC .HK ( b! mass The molecular *eight o3 the compound is B6 6E amu The molecular 3ormula o3 this compound is UUUUUUUUUU A) % . H D (. 2) %H . ( %) %. H C( D &) %. H . ( D E) %H( . D The combustion o3 ammonia in the presence o3 e-cess o-!gen !ields $( . and H . ( :
D $HC (g) + F ( . (g) D $( . (g) + B H .( (g)

The combustion o3 DC H g o3 ammonia produces UUUUUUUUUU g o3 $( . A) . EG 2) 7FG %) 77H &) 6 HED


E The combustion o3 propane (%C HG ) in the presence o3 e-cess o-!gen !ields %( . and H . ( :
%C HG (g) + E( . (g) C%( . (g) + DH . ( (g) 1hen . E mol o3 ( . are consumed in their reaction" UUUUUUUUUU mol o3 %( . are produced

A) 7 E

2) C 6

%) E 6

&) B 6

E) . E

B The 3ormula *eight o3 aluminum sul3ate (Al. (S(D )C ) is UUUUUUUUUU amu A) CD. 7D 2) 7.C 6D %) EH 6D &) 7E6 7D F The molecular *eight o3 the acetic acid (%HC%(. H) is UUUUUUUUUU amu A) B6 2) DG %) DD &) C. G The mass K o3 % in methane (%H D ) is UUUUUUUUUU A) .E 7C 2) 7CC B %) FD GF

E) .FC 6B

&) H. .B


H There are UUUUUUUUUU atoms o3 o-!gen are in C66 molecules o3 %HC%(. H A) C66 2) B66 %) C 67 a 76.D &) C B7 a 76.B

E) 7 G6 a 76.B

76 @aseous argon has a densit! o3 7 D6 gIL at standard conditions Ho* man! argon atoms are in 7 66 L o3 argon gas at standard conditions: A) D F a 76.. 2) C D a 76.E %) . 7 a 76.. &) 7 E a 76.E E) B 6. a 76.C 77 The total number o3 atoms in 6 777 mol o3 ;e(%()C (8H C ) . is UUUUUUUUUU A) 7E 2) 7 66 a 76.D %) D DB a 76.7 &) 7 BF
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E) . FB a 764.D


7. A nitrogen o-ide is BC BEK b! mass nitrogen The molecular 3ormula could be UUUUUUUUUU A) $( 2) $( . %) $ . ( &) $ . ( D E) either $.( or $D(.

7C The titration o3 .E 66mL o3 $a(H required .F GGmL o3 6 7EHM sul3uric acid The molarit! o3 the base isUUUUU
a 6 7DC b 6 7FF c 6 .GE d 6 CEE

7D 1hat is the ph!sical state in *hich matter has no speci3ic shape but does ha'e a speci3ic 'olume: A) gas 2) solid %) liquid &) salts E) ice 7E (3 the 3ollo*ing" onl! UUUUUUUUUU is a chemical reaction A) melting o3 lead 2) dissol'ing sugar in *ater %) tarnishing o3 sil'er &) crushing o3 stone E) dropping a penn! into a glass o3 *ater 7B 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing is the highest temperature: A) CG`% 2) HB`; %) C6. N &) none o3 the abo'e 7F (3 the obJects belo*" UUUUUUUUUU is the most dense A) an obJect *ith a 'olume o3 . E L and a mass o3 7. E /g 2) an obJect *ith a 'olume o3 7CH mL and a mass o3 HC g %) an obJect *ith a 'olume o3 6 66.7. mC and a mass o3 D .. a 76D mg &) an obJect *ith a 'olume o3 C H7 a 764.D nmC and a mass o3 F HC a 7647ng E) an obJect *ith a 'olume o3 7C dmC and a mass o3 7 .H a 76Cg 7G A 6 .66 M N .S( D solution is produced b! UUUUUUUUUU A) dilution o3 .E6 6 mL o3 7 66 M N .S( D to 7 66 L 2) dissol'ing DC B g o3 N .S( D in *ater and diluting to a total 'olume o3 .E6 6 mL %) diluting .6 6 mL o3 E 66 M N .S( D solution to E66 6 mL &) dissol'ing .6 . g o3 N .S( D in *ater and diluting to .E6 6 mL" then diluting .E 6 mL o3 this solution to a total 'olume o3 E66 6 mL E) dilution o3 7 66 mL o3 .E6 M N .S(C to 7 66 L 7H 1hich solution contains the largest number o3 moles o3 chloride ions: A) 76 6 mL o3 6 E66 2a%l. 2) D 66 mL o3 7 666 $a%l %) F E6 mL o3 6 E66 ;e%lC &) .E 66 mL o3 6 D66 N%l E) C6 66 mL o3 6 766 %a%l.

E) 3ree0ing point o3 H.(

.6 Ho* man! moles o3 sodium ions are present in FE 6mL o3 6 7.C M sodium chromate: A) H .. - 764C 2) 7 CG - 764. %) 7 GD - 764. &) . FF - 764.

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!nit 4 %*oblems#>uestions#%*actice: Do ,ola* ,ass an9 J om( Fnee9 one to 9o t'e ot'e*B soKH HC8(D %BHG%lD ;e2rC

con0e*t 7C G g $a%l to atoms o3 sodium

DD G L o3 %l. to grams

7 . - 76.D atoms o3 tin to grams

7.G g o3 (. L o3 (.

A'at is t'e em(i*ical fo*mula fo* a com(oun9 :it' 40-92 & B 4-58& 2B an9 54-50 & of 4O

) sam(le contains 3-70& i*on an9 1-59 & o<+&en- A'at is t'e em(i*ical fo*mulaO

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Desc*ibe 'o: to (*e(a*e eac' of t'e follo:in& Ft'in; in mat' te*msH.E6 mL o3 D 66M $a(H solution >ou ha'e &# *ater and solid $a(H

E66 mL o3 a 7 EM H.S(D solution starting *ith 7G 6M and &# *ater

!nit 4 4b1ecti0es 7 . C D E B F G H Use dimensional anal!sis (3actor label" con'ersions) to sol'e problems con'erting mass to moles to 3ormula units or 'olume %alculate the total mass o3 each element in a compound %alculate the molar mass o3 ionic and molecular 3ormulas %alculate the K composition b! mass o3 each element in a compound ;ind the empirical 3ormula based on data &etermine the molecular 3ormula o3 a compound based on molar mass and the empirical 3ormula &etermine the 3ormula o3 a h!drate %alculate the molarit! o3 a solution &etermine the amount o3 substance needed to prepare a solution *ith a de3inite molar concentration

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!nit 5: 'emical 6Muations

(N" so # put the same thing at the top o3 each section: are !ou actuall! reading the te-tboo/::::


'emical 6Muations %hemical equations represent" *ith s!mbols and 3ormulas" the reactants and products in a chemical reaction reactants products AL1A>S TTTTTT chemical equations gi'e us EVE)> piece o3 basic in3ormation about the reaction Remembe*: t'e 46==3 36$TS a*e eMual to t'e $!,B6R 4= ,4L6S requirements 3or all chemical equations: 7 must sho* all reactants to the le3t and products to the right o3 the arro* . Use a P+Q sign i3 more than one reactant or product C 3ormulas o3 compounds must be correct D La: of onse*0ation of ,ass must be satis3ied (e'er! element must be accounted 3or and balanced on each side) %an do in s!mbols or *ords (do !ou /no* !our elementsIs!mbols and 8#?s !etTTT) States or matter and other s!mbols to /no* (3ill in *hat !ou can" as/ *hat !ou don?t /no*): W gas W solid W liquid = aqueous W one *a! reactions W re'ersible reaction

W precipitate (solid 4 onl! 3ound on products side) W heat W light W catal!stY

Ya substance that speeds up a reaction *ithout being used up in the reaction Tr! it: decomposition o3 carbonic acid to carbon dio-ide and *ater: use s!mbols" balance" states o3 matter (b! the *a!" a *ea/ acid" so re'ersible and can be spontaneous each *a! depending on conc)

oefficients D numbe* of moles fo* eac' substance$676R c'an&e t'e subsc*i(ts )=T6R t'e co**ect fo*mulas a*e foun9

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Balancin& 'emical 6Muations Trul! a trial and error process i3 there e'er *as one Equations MUST be balanced to be correct because o3: La* o3 %onser'ation o3 Mass (Matter) Help3ul hints: 7 7 atom at a time (# usuall! start *ith the 3irst one and go 3rom there) . 2alance atoms that appear onl! 7L per side 3irst C 2alance 8ol!s as *hole units D 2alance diatomic elements near end E Sa'e (-!gen and H!drogen 3or last B All coe33icients must be in the smallest *hole number ratios (reduceTTT) And: i3 this doesn?t succeed" tr! doubling e'er!thing (e'en number carbons in %H combustion usuall!) So*t of in Boo;: All chemical reactions in'ol'e a change in energ! . t!pes: 7) 8otential O the energ! o3 position or composition (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) .) Ninetic O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU All t!pes o3 non4stored are /inetic (light" heat" sound" *ind" etc) La* o3 %onser'ation o3 Energ! O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2asicall!" as the potential energ! decreases" the /inetic energ! increases (balance bet*een the .) The total energ! UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (unchanged) And: energ! o3 a substance is 8A)T potential and 8A)T /inetic" but ne'er ALL /inetic 3n9icatin& t'e States of Reactants an9 %*o9ucts (N" so A8 does $(T require this" but being able to do states gi'es clues 3or the questions that 3ollo* the equation section (*e?ll do some so !ou can see *hat # mean) 7 Metals are solids (e-cept Hg) . #n single replacement reactions" all compounds are al*a!s aqueous C #n double replacement reactions" reactants are aqueous and products should ha'e their phases identi3ied using a solubilit! chart (seriousl!" learn the song) D #n s!nthesis and decomposition reactions" ionic compounds are solids E #n combustion reactions" the *ater ('aporIsteam)" %(." and (. are gases The h!drocarbon is hard to tell" but is usuall! a liquid at %WB and higher and A$> time there is an (H on the end it is a liquid B Most co'alent (molecular) compounds are gases or liquids: tr! !our best F Acids (chemicals starting *ith H) are al*a!s gases or liquids U$LESS the! are in replacement reactions G ALL #($#% %(M8(U$&S $(T #$ 1ATE) A)E S(L#&S

)$D L6)R$ L4!R %4LLGs )$D D3)T4,3 SNNNNNN

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3-2 Simple 8atterns o3 %hemical )eacti'it!

remember 4 3irst !ou ha'e to 3ind the right (*o9ucts" then !ou need to balance s+nt'esis (also called combination) 4 needs energ! to happen H3 + $. chlorine

copper +

,etal 4<i9e P Aate* +iel9s base: $a.( + H.( ,olecula* com(oun9s combine to &i0e ne: molecula* com(oun9s YH%l + (. Y$ote: can ha'e more than 7 outcome *hen . nonmetals react () i3 there is a transition metal (d4bloc/ ones *ith more than one possible charge due to more than one possible electron con3iguration) *ith a nonmetal 2asicall!" the! accept a *ide list o3 possible compounds AS L($@ AS the product is 3easible 9ecom(osition (brea/ apart) 4 needs energ! to happen (usuall! UUUUUUU" UUUUUUUUUUUUUU" or UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) U(C

H.%(C [ Seriousl!" ho* man! times can !ou see this one be3ore !ou actuall! learn it:T:T Another notable one: H.S(C [ 1h! re'ersible: 2oth are 1EAN A%#&STTTTTT

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cellular respiration (care3ul about the state o3 matter 3or *ater in a li'ing s!stem" and !ep: its re'ersible) %BH7.(B(s) + (.(g) [

1h! *e don?t use ethanol near an open 3lameTTTTTT %.HE(H

(ctane (gas 3or the car: octa W eight and Oane W all single bonds soX)

Neep in mind: combustion ma! need !ou to P&ouble e'er!thingQ to get it to balanceTTTT (usuall! *ith an e'en number o3 carbons" 2UT not al*a!s *ith alcohols: ha'e O(H on the end)

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4-2 Sin&le *e(lacement

Ta/e place in aqueous solution 4 need 'er! little energ! to happen" sometimes gi'es o33 energ! )cti0it+ Se*ies of t'e 6lements He!" some reactions happen and some don?t )eaction *ill happen onl! i3 the ne* element is more acti'e than the ion it is replacing in the original compound Must loo/ at acti'it! series to determine See page 7D7 in boo/ 3or metal acti'it! series 3or s!nthesis" combustion" and decomposition" *e *ill assume the! all happen gi'en su33icient acti'ation energ! (UUUUUUUUU) Rules fo* )cti0it+ Se*ies FSame as t'e Stan9a*9 Re9uction %otentialsB 1ust u(si9e 9o:nH: 7 ;or the acti'it! series" higher up on list (more acti'e) belongs in compound . Top G elements (most acti'e metals) can react *ith UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU C Metals 3rom Mg to 8b react *ith UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU D The nonmetal reacti'it! series is UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUAL1A>S Time to loo/ at the A8 chem sheet Lots o3 help" i3 !ou /no* *hat !ou?re loo/ing atTTT 2 t+(es: Fcan *e(lace cation 4R anionH @allium + sul3uric acid

(-!gen + antimon! (###) sul3ide diantimon! tetro-ide + sul3ur dio-ide

Magnesium %hloride + ;luorine gas

Magnesium %hloride + liquid bromine

Aluminum + *ater

sodium + *ater

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4-2 Double *e(lacement Falso calle9 ,etat'esis o* 6<c'an&eB an9 is also neut*ali?ation fo*
)ci9#BasesH O MUST be in *ater (aq) 4 little energ! 4 usuall! 3orms one soluble ionic product (a/a 4 aqueous) and either a ppt" *ater (or other molecular compound)" or a gas $ote: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU are in'ol'ed UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 3or double replacement reactions" use the rules (learn these" !ou *ill see them again soon) 7 i3 one o3 the products 3ormed is molecula*" the reaction happens . i3 a &as is 3ormed" the reaction happens C i3 a (*eci(itant 3orms (# or Ss)" the reaction happens (actuall! a reaction ma! happen *hen t*o soluble products 3orm" but it doesn?t go to completion and is not directl! obser'able) Solid calcium carbonate + h!drochloric acid

(acid4base reaction: gi'es salt and *ater as products) 8hosphoric acid + solid calcium carbonate

Solutions o3 Lithium bromide and sil'er chloride are mi-ed to createX

Solutions o3 lead(##) nitrate and potassium iodide (ho* to treat lead poisoning: the (s) is bright !ello*)

There is both a LA)@E set o3 rules" and a song ;or the A8 e-am" !ou MUST learn the rules The song is easier" trust me on this

$3B Sho*ing Energ! %hanges in Equations

endothermic 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU orX e-othermic 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 4 put on the le3t side o3 the equation 4 put on the right side o3 the equation

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Rules fo* solubilit+ (Ta/en 3rom %ornell Uni'ersit! %hemistr! &ept " as *ritten b! S!l'ia %ooper R Morganto*n HS A8 %hem) #t?s corn!" but e33ecti'e (Sung to the tune PHH bottlesQ) Al/ali metals and ammonium salts" 1hate'er the! ma! be" %an al*a!s be depended upon 3or solubilit! 1hen as/ed about the nitrates The ans*er is al*a!s clear" The! each and all are soluble" #s all *e *ant to hear Most e'er! chloride?s soluble At least *e?'e al*a!s read Sa'e sil'er" mercur! one And chlorine o3 lead E'er! single sul3ate #s soluble" it is said E-cept barium" strontium" mercur! one And calcium and lead H!dro-ides in general &on?t dissol'e at all 2ut barium" strontium" and calcium Are slightl! soluble ! but dont forget! Al/ali metals and ammonium salts" 1hate'er the! ma! be" %an al*a!s be depended upon 3or solubilit! The carbonates are insoluble" #t?s luc/! that it is so" (r else" our marble buildings 1ould melt a*a! li/e sno* ! but once again" dont forget! Al/ali metals and ammonium salts" 1hate'er the! ma! be" %an al*a!s be depended upon 3or solubilit! $o carbonates e-cept: al/ali metals and ammonium salts Also" none o3 the: 8hosphates" o-alates" chromates" sul3ides" and o-ides EL%E8T al/ali metals and ammonium salts AL1A>S dissol'e" AL1A>STTT Summar! o3 Soluble %ompounds all al/ali metals and ammonia salts AL1A>S all nitrates" acetates" chlorates" nitrates" and perchlorates are soluble

All chlorides" bromides and iodides are soluble EL%E8T: Ag+" Hg.+." 8b+. All sul3ates e-cept: 2a+." Sr+." Hg.+." %a+." 8b+.

($L> strong bases to an! e-tent (N$(1 THE L#ST:)

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A quic/ pre'ie* o3 )E&(L and AcidI2ase %hemistr!: $et 3onic 6Muations O *hich ions change state 3or replacement reactions ()emember 3or decomposition" s!nthesis" and combustion" e'er!thing is in'ol'ed) S(ectato* ions 4 ions that remain in the aqueous state The regular" 3ull4blo*n equation is called a molecular equation bIc it does $(T sho* the ions" Just the compounds in'ol'ed in the reaction E-: 1hen *e made chal/" *e used calcium sul3ate (%aS(D) %alcium sul3ate is made 3rom the 3ollo*ing reaction: %d((H).(aq) + H.S(D(aq) ,%dS(D(aq) + H.((l) The $et #onic equation is: . (H4(aq) + . H+ (aq) , . H.((l) $ote UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU %d+. (aq) + S(D4. (aq) ,%dS(D(aq) These are the UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU )ules: 7 1rite the balanced equation *ith states o3 matter . )e4*rite to sho* ions that are 3ormed 3or e'er! A=UE(US compound C #denti3! and cancel spectator ions (aqueous both sides) So" in A8 *orld" al*a!s *rite a net ionic i3 it is one (not all ha'e net ionic equations" Just S) and &)) Tr! #t: 1rite the $et #onic Equation 3or the 3ollo*ing reactions 7 8b($(C). (aq) + N# (aq) , 8b#. (s) + N$(C (aq)

;eS(aq) +

H%l(aq) ,

H.S(g) + ;e%l. (aq)

Are there A$> spectator ions in the 3ollo*ing: Sodium chloride is added to a dilute solution o3 sil'er chloride resulting in a *hite ppt Ag+(aq) + $a+(aq) + %l4(aq) , Ag%l(s) + $a+(aq) $ote: this is a Pcommon ionQ t!pe o3 problem Also" an! ionic compound in (aq) is sho*n as #($STTT This applies to strong acidsIbases as *ell (more on that later)

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$3B: Balancin& eMuations usin& )l&eb*a F3ma&ine t'atNH

1or/s *ell i3 the 8ol! bro/e apart" or there *ere no real 8ol!?s to start 7 . C D E Label each compound as a 'ariable (see belo*) %ount the number o3 atoms present in each reactant or product and list the number as the coe33icient 3or the 'ariable Let a W 7" then plug that 'alue in to sol'e 3or the others E-press all o3 the 'alues as a *hole number ratio" then use them as coe33icients 3or balancing the equation #3 there is a 3raction" multipl! EVE)> coe33icient b! the denominator to get rid o3 the 3raction 8lug in the 'alues and rechec/ to ma/e sure it balances H$(C b + H.( c , HCAs(D d + $( e

As.(C + a As: (: H: $:

.a W d Ca + Cb + c W Dd + e b + .c W d bWe

Let a W 7" so d W . ^.(7) W d_ ;or b + .c W C(.)" sol'ing 3or c W (B4b)I. Then C(7) + Cb + (B4b)I. W D(.) + b sol'ing 3or bWDIC That means that eWDIC also (bWe) 8lug all the other 'alues in and sol'e 3or cWFIC This lea'es us *ith 3ractions" so multipl! e'er!thing b! C to get: aWC" bWD" cWF" dWB" eWD CAs.(C + D H$(C + FH.( , BHCAs(D + D$(

@o ahead" !ou /no* !ou *ant to chec/TTT Tr! one (this is tough but do4able: e-tra creditT:T:): H.( + 8D + 8.#D , 8HD# +


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4-4 4<i9ation.Re9uction Reactions FT'is stuff s'o:s u( a&ainB so lea*n itH (-idation4reduction (redo-) is another t!pe o3 reaction that in'ol'es the trans3er o3 electrons bet*een reactants
(ld de3inition basicall! stated that the substance gaining o-!gen is o-idi0ed *hile the substance losing o-!gen is reduced 2UT The ne* de3inition: the loss o3 electrons is o-idation (largerImore positi'e o-idation 9) the gain o3 electrons is reduction (smallerImore negati'e o-idation 9) The boo/ sa!s to remember: L64 t'e lion sa+s 86R (#?'e actuall! heard this be3oreS it *or/s) E$a(s) + %l.(g) [ $a%l(s)

$a is o-idi0ed (0ero to +7 o-idation 9)" %l is reduced (0ero to 47 o-idation 9" gain o3 electrons) (-idi0ing agent O element that causes the o-idation o3 another element (it gets reduced itsel3) )educing agent O element that is o-idi0ed (causes reduction o3 another element)





+ $(.




2utX the o-idi0ing agent doesn?t al*a!s contain o-!genX EZn + %u%l. [ Zn%l. + %u



E-: %u(s) + . Ag%l(aq) [ %u%l.(aq) + . Ag(s) (N" so net ionic" then &o )E&(L (-idi0ed:UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU )educed: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU %hlorine is the spectator ion #t *ould be eliminated 3rom a net ionic equation

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4<i9ation $umbe*s O the apparent charge assigned to an atom (2oo/ /eeping 3or redo-) The rules (mine include a 3e* things the boo/ doesn?t" Just more details) 7 ;ree elements WUUUU molecules) e- O $a(s) and all other atoms in the elemental 3orm (includes diatomic

. (-idation 9?s o3 ions W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU e- O 2r W 47" Al W +C" $a W +7"etc 2asicall!" the charges !ou should /no* alread! (did # teach !ou PmarchingQ !et:) C ; W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (ther halogens are 47 e-cept *hen *ith o-!gen *here the! are positi'e D ( W 4. e-cept in UUUUUUUUUUUUU ((.4.) o-!gen W 47" and *ith 3luorine *here it can be positi'e E H W +7 usuall! 4 e-cept in metal h!drides (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) *here H is 47 B More electronegati'e atom (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) gets a (4) charge F (- 9?s add up to UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (not tal/ing 8#?s alone: the! ha'e a net charge) G (- 9?s W the charge in pol!atomic ions (3or 8(D4C the total o-idation charge is 4C)

E-: ;e(





$(C 47

$(. O7

$aH (metal h!dride" rule 9 E)



$aH(. W $(T A T>8(TTT (a tough one: /no* !ou?re pol!?s:)

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(-idation o3 Metals b! Acids and Salts The boo/ ma/es it loo/ complicated: it?s not #t is a simple single replacement (the! call it simpl! a Pdisplacement reactionQ" same thing) in'ol'ing an! metal in the elemental 3orm (pure metal) *ith E#THE) an acid (begins *ith h!drogen) or a salt (a metal *ith either a halogen or a pol!) )eall!" Just S) r-ns Some r-ns can be balanced b! trial and error O others cannot E;e%lC + Zn [ Zn%l. + ;e

So Zn goes 3rom a 0ero to a +." so o-idi0ed (loss o3 electrons) ;e goes 3rom a +C to a 0ero (gain o3 electrons so reduced) 2alanced: E.;e%lC(aq)+ H.( CZn(s) [ + S CZn%l.(aq) S(. + + .;e(s) %r.(C

N.%r.(F +

N(H +

so S goes 3rom a 6 to a +D (loss o3 electrons so UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) %r goes 3rom a +B to a +C" (gain o3 electrons so UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) 2alanced: .N.%r.(F(aq) + .H.((l) + CS(s) CS(.(g) + D N(H(aq) + .%r.(C(s)

(one o3 those Pdouble e'er!thingQ t!pes that is $(T combustion) $ote ho* the o-idation number is sho*n belo* EA%H element on both sides This sho*s that it is a redo- r-n" and it sho*s us *here the o-idation (loss o3 electrons to be UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) and reduction (gain o3 electrons to be UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) ha'e occurred Since the other elements all sta!ed the same in terms o3 o-idation number (thus are spectators)" *e can do net ionic redo- equations:

More practice: %u(s) + H$(C(aq) , %u($(C).(aq) + $((g) + H.((l)

(ans: C" G" C" ." D)

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'a(te* 20 6lect*oc'emist*+
The reall! hard stu33" but *e need to co'er it #t is all about po*er (batteries" electricit!)

20-1 4<i9ation States an9 4<i9ation.Re9uction Reactions FR6D4QH

)E&(L O o-idation numbers (o-idation states) o3 atoms indicate *hether or not the r-n is redo#3 electrons are trans3erred 3rom one atom to element to another in an equation" it is redoLE( the lion sa!s @E): UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU &isplacement reactions are al*a!s redo- reactions" acidIbase ne'er are redo(-idation O originall! gain o3 o-!genO no* loss o3 electrons (increase o- 9) )eduction O originall! loss o3 o-!gen (gain o3 h!drogen) O no*X E-) Label agents" o- 9?s" *hat?s reduced" etc ;e2rC + %l. , ;e%lC + 2r.

;or an! redo-" B4T2 o<i9ation an9 *e9uction must occu* 4<i9i?in& a&ent (o-idant) O the substance that ma/es it possible 3or another to be o-idi0ed (is reduced) Re9ucin& a&ent (reductant) O gi'es up electrons causing another substance to be reduced (is o-idi0ed) E-) Label reducingIo-idi0ing agent ;e2rC + %l. , ;e%lC + 2r.

1hich substance is the reducing agent in the reaction belo*: The o-idi0ing agent: 8b + 8b(. + .H.S(D , .8bS(D + .H.(

1rite the net ionic equation that occurs *hen sil'er ions are reduced b! iron (##) ions

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20-2 Balancin& Re9o< 6Muations

Some equations are easil! balanced: H%l(aq) + Zn + Al(s) , Al%lC(aq) %u + + H.(g) ZnS(D

%uS(D ,

(thers are much more di33icult: $a.S(C(aq) + $aMn(D(aq) + H%l(aq), $a.S(D(aq) + Mn%l.(aq) + H.((l) + $a%l(aq) These redo- reactions can be easil! done b! the hal34reaction method

(E" ." B" E" ." C ".)

2alf Reactions Used onl! 3or redo-" the! trac/ electron trans3er All based on ionic equations o3 reduction and o-idation separatel!" then put together at the end Steps: 7) &i'ide the reaction into . hal34reactions" one 3or o-idation R one 3or reduction .) 2alance each hal34reaction separatel! b! a) ;irst" balance elements other than H and ( b) 2alance ( atoms b! adding *ater as needed c) 2alance H atoms b! adding H+ as needed 3or acid (H4 3or base C) Multipl! each hal3 reaction b! *hole numbers so the electrons are the same D) Add the . hal34reactions" simpli3! b! canceling E) %hec/ to ma/e sure the atoms and charges are balanced Sounds harder than it is %r.(S(D)C (aq) + $a$(C(aq) , $a.%r(D(aq) + $(.(g) + H.S(D(aq)

;irst" 3ind the LE(I@E)" then brea/ into the . hal3 reactions noting the number o3 e4 change 3or each: (-idation: .%r+C , %r(D4. %r goes 3rom +C to +B (LE( and Ce4) and starts as .%r+C )eduction: $(C47 , $(. $ goes 3rom +E to +D (@E) and 7 e4)

$e-t" 2alance each hal3 reaction and add *ater to balance o-!gen" then h!drogen to other side:4 (-idation: )eduction: .%r+C + UUUUUUUU , $(C47 + UUUUUUUU , %r(D4. + UUUUUUU $(. + UUUUUU

;inall!" scale up to ma/e sure the same 9e4 3or each" then Just add and cancel (Hess? La* t!pe o3 thing) (-idation (4Ce4): -UU (.%r+C + UUUUUUUU , %r(D4. + UUUUUUU ) 47 )eduction (+7e4): -UU ($(C + UUUUUUUU , $(. + UUUUUU) $ote: $a+ and S(D4. are


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#n acid" add H.( to balance (?s" then H+ to balance H?s then e4 to balance charge #n base" add (H4 to balance (?s" then H.( to balance H?s" then e4 Al*a!s ma/e sure other species balance and remember conser'ation o3 charge Let?s tr! one in an acidic solution: %r.(F4. + %.HE(H , %r+C + %.HD(. (acid)


So no* let?s do one in a basic solution: Al + H.( , Al((H)D4 + H. DH.( + Al , Al((H)D4 +

(basic) -.

DH+ + Ce4


2UT this is in base" so H+ on one side W (H4 4 H.( on other BH.( + .Al + .(H4 , .Al((H)D4 + CH. added . (H4 so had to subtract . *aters 3rom le3t and . h!drogen ions 3rom right 2oo/ does this a bit di33erent" so loo/ at the e-ample (pgGE6) &oesn?t matter *hich *a! !ou go" Just as long as !ou can do one o3 them ()edo- balancing is a State 3unction: path doesn?t matter)

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20-3 7oltaic

ells O Sur3ace upon *hich o-idation and reduction occur Electrodes ma! or ma! not participate in the reaction (some electrodes are inert) Also called 8al0anic ells These are cells in *hich spontaneous redo- reactions produce electricit! (-idation and reduction occur in separate compartments and electrons 3lo* 3rom one side to the other %ell notation: anode (o-idation)e cathode (reduction) $#2: but it is in lots o3 other boo/s o-idation at the anode" reduction at the cathode Also" Anode and o-idation both start *ith 'o*els" reduction and cathode both start *ith consonants Electrodes O solid metal attached to an e-ternal circuit (*ire) ano9e O o-idation occurs and electrons are L(ST (mo'e a*a! 3rom anode) cat'o9e O reduction occurs and electrons are @A#$E& (mo'e to*ards the cathode) 3n elect*ol+sis energ! is A&&E& (po*er source) e4
%athode 8o*er source

3n 0oltaic cells energ! is 8)(&U%E& ('oltmeter)



2! /eeping the anode and cathode separated" *e can harness (use) the 3lo* o3 electrons through an e-ternal circuit (*ire) in the 3orm o3 po*er (*or/ energ!) >ep" this is a batter! (Voltaic) The solutions must remain electricall! neutral (not absorbIrelease e4 themsel'es) in the hal34cells All o3 the 3lo* o3 electrons MUST occur bet*een the electrodes (anode and cathode) b! means o3 a circuit to get usable energ!I*or/ ;lo* o3 ions bet*een solutions in hal34cells can be b!: Salt b*i9&e: U4shaped tube containing an electrol!te (usuall! in a paste or gel medium) %o*ous Ba**ie*: can be glass or other neutral material that allo*s 3lo* o3 ions )egardless o3 ion 3lo* method" anions al*a!s 3lo* to*ard the anode( 4 charge)" cations al*a!s 3lo* to*ard the cathode (+ charge) e-) 1hich trans3ormations could ta/e place at the anode o3 an electrochemical cell: The cathode end: %r.(F.4 , %r.+ $( , H$(. HS(D4 , H.S(C Mn.+ , Mn(D4 A Molecular Vie* o3 Electrode 8rocesses Seriousl!: this is de3initel! a higher le'el under grad or e'en grad le'el concept ;eel 3ree to read through the Psimpli3iedQ 'ersion the! are dishing out 1on?t be on an! test this !ear" e'en the A8 one
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20-4 %ell EM; Under Standard %onditions

Electrons 3lo* spontaneousl! to the anode 3rom the cathode due to a di33erence in potential energ! (e4 3lo* to*ard the electrode *ith the more positi'e electrical potential: the cathode) Volt (V) O potential di33erence required to impart 7Joule (<) o3 energ! to a charge o3 7 coulomb (%) 17 D 1R# 1 )m( D 1 #sec 7e4 has a charge o3 7 B6-7647H% (again" it?s on the A8 sheet)

6lect*omoti0e fo*ce F6,=H O the dri'ing 3orce that pushes electrons through the e-ternal circuit due to the potential di33erence bet*een . electrodes o3 a 'oltaic cell 2asicall!" a *a! o3 measuring ho* PstrongQ" in terms o3 po*er" a 'oltaic cell ma! ha'e The em3 o3 a cell (Ecell) is %4S3T376 3or an! s(ontaneous reaction (0oltaic onl!TTT) Side $ote: 7oltaic cells Os(ontaneous FP6cellH reactions happen *ithout the input o3 electricit! (batteries) 6lect*ol+tic cells Inon.s(ontaneous F.6cellH reactions are 3orced to happen b! the input o3 electricit! (applied energ!" used to separate compoundsIelements) EM; depends on: 7) Speci3ic reactions at the anode and cathode .) %oncentrations o3 reactants and products C) Temperature (presume .Eo%" standard state %an be di33erent" but 3or no*X)

6ocell D Fstan9a*9 cell (otentialH emf at stan9a*9 con9itions F1 atmB 1, conc fo* *eactants#(*o9ucts / 25o H fo* a cell *eactionThe electromoti'eIacti'it! series o3 the elements O de'eloped 3rom standard reduction potentials Li+7 + e4 , Li 4C 6DE V (not going to happen O actuall!" most li/el! to get o-idi0ed)

. H+ + . e4 , H. 6 666 V (depends on *hat t!pe o3 cell it?s connected to: re3erence electrode) Au+C + Ce4 , Au + 7 E6 V ('oted most li/el! to get reduced ^metals di'ision_ ) ;. + . e4 , . ;47(aq) + . GF V (3luorine al*a!s *insT)

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Let?s loo/ at N(s) + $a+(aq" 7M) , $a(s) + N+(aq" 7M) Eocell W 46 .7V $a+(aq) , $a(s) Ecathode W 4. F7V (gain o3 electron W reduction W cathode) N(s) , N+(aq) Eanode W 4. H.V (loss o3 electron W o-idation W anode) o E cell W Ecathode 4 Eanode Since Eocell W +" this is a batter! and is spontaneous Ma/es sense since 3urther up is cathode 3or a spontaneous ('oltaic cellIbatter!) reaction The standard cell potential (E`cell) 3or the 'oltaic cell based on the reaction belo* is 6 B. V Sn.+ (aq) + .;eC+ (aq) , .;e.+ (aq) + SnD+ (aq) .;eC+ (aq) , .;e.+ (aq) Sn.+ (aq) , SnD+ (aq) Eocell W Ecathode 4 Eanode W E-ample: %alculate the cell potential 3or %u+. + N , N+7 + %u Spontaneous: UUUU More or less po*er than pre'ious:UUUUUUUUUU E-ample: 1ill %r+C o-idi0e %u to %u+. or *ill %u+. o-idi0e %r to %r+C o* (said another *a!): 1hich r-n is spontaneous: %r%lC + %u , %u%l. + %r 4R %r + %u%l. , %u + %r%lC (Hint: Just pic/ one: i3 negati'e" then other *a! is spontaneous) Eanode W Ecathode W (gain o3 electron: (loss o3 electron: ) )

E-ample: %alculate the cell potential 3or Hg+. + 8b , Hg + 8b+.

A 3e* things to remember: 7) All reactions are *ritten as reduction: use as *ritten .) changing the stoich coe33icient does $(T change the 'alue o3 the standard reduction potential(intensi'e propert!" but ratio remains constant 3or <I%) C) Must #& cathode (@E)" more positi'e) and anode (LE(" more negati'e) D) More positi'e Eoreduction 'alue W greater dri'ing 3orce 3or reduction under standard condition E) Smaller di33erence bet*een the Eoreduction o3 the anode and cathode" the smaller the dri'ing 3orce (less po*er generated)

(ne more Just 3or 3un:

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%u(s) + .Ag+7 (aq) , .Ag (s) + %u+. (aq)

T'e Stan9a*9 2+9*o&en 6lect*o9e FS26H 2ecause a cell is al*a!s made o3 t*o hal3 cells" it is impossible to determine the potential o3 a single hal3 cell This is an Einstein (relati'it!) thingTTTT The SHE (standard h!drogen electrode) is assigned a 'alue o3 e-actl! 6 'olts #t is aQ relati'eQ thing All others are based on the SHE reduction (used as a calibrator) .H+7 (aq" 7M) + .e4 , H.(g" 7atm) Eoreduction W 6V (de3ined" set 'alue) Had to start *ith something Since H got bumped as the basis 3or molar mass (%47. no* rules)" the! ga'e H this (consolation pri0e" # guess) Actuall!" there is a 'er! good reason" but trust me: !ou don?t *ant me to go into it Strengths o3 (-idi0ingI)educing Agents The more positi'e the Eoreduction 'alue 3or a hal34reaction" the greater the tendenc! 3or the reactant to be reduced" and there3ore to o-idi0e another species Since an element being reduced is the o-idi0ing agent" and the one being o-idi0ed is the reducing agent $eed to get this straight: there *ill be questionsT 2! the *a!" there is a picture on pg GB7 1hich o3 the halogens is the strongest o-idi0ing agent:

1hich o3 the al/aline earth metals is the strongest reducing agent:

1hich element in the 3irst period transition metals is most easil! reduced:

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20-5 =*ee 6ne*&+ an9 R6D4Q Reactions

An! r-n in a 'oltaic cell that produces a positi'e em3 (Eocell) is spontaneous Since reductionW cathode and o-idation W anode" it can be restated as: Eo W Ereduction O Eo-idation

This can be applied to non4cell reactions 2asicall!: (ositi0e Eo is spontaneous" ne&ati0e Eo is non4spontaneous EM; and f@ S8 D .nF 6 Fon t'e )% s'eetH n is the number o3 electrons trans3erred during the reaction (positi'e number *ithout units) F is ;arada!?s constant HB"E66 %Imol W HB"E66 <IV4mol (on the A8 sheet) E is the em3 'alue (in 'olts) Since n and F are both positi'e" i3 Eo is also positi'e" f@ *ill be negati'e )&ainB a (ositi0e 6o an9 a ne&ati0e S8 in9icate a s(ontaneous *eaction1hen the reactants and products are in standard states" *e get f@ o W 4nFEo Since f@o can be related to the equilibrium constant" N" *e get f@o W 4)T lnN (on A8 sheet) E-) The standard cell potential (E`cell) o3 the reaction belo* is +6 7.B V The 'alue o3 g@` 3or the reaction is UUU /<Imol 8b (s) + .H+ (aq) , 8b.+ (aq) + H. (g) f@o W 4nFEo

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$3B#But :ill be on t'e e<am=a*a9a+Gs La: O The amount o3 substance o-idi0ed or reduced at an electrode is directl! proportional to the amount o3 electricit! that passes through the cell Units o3 electricit!: ;arada! W passage o3 B 6. - 76.C electrons 7 amp W 7 coulombIsec 7 ;arada! W HB"E66 %Imol e4 7 mol Metal W 9mol e4 based on charge (7 mol %u+. W . mole e4)

;arada!s? La* can be used to calculate quantit! o3 material" time or current needed" and o-idation state o3 metals E-ample: %alculate the mass o3 solid copper produced b! passing 7 E6 amps o3 electricit! through a solution o3 %uS(D 3or B6 6 minutes %u+.(aq) + .e4 , %u(s) so 7 mol %u W . mol e4

7 amp W 7%Isec" so 3irst *e 3ind 9 %oulombs and HBE66 %Imol e4" so

Ho* long *ill it ta/e a current o3 E 66 amps passed through a sil'er nitrate solution to produce 76 E grams o3 Sil'er:

A current o3 C 66 amps is passed through a solution o3 copper ions 3or 7 hour The result is C EE grams o3 solid copper is produced %alculate the o-idation number o3 the copper ions

These start to border into ph!sics more than chem" so this is Just reall! e-tra (a practical application) o3 this material

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ell 6,= un9e* $on.stan9a*9 on9itions #n an actual r-n (batter!)" the reactants are used up as product is 3ormed E'entuall!" the em3 drops until E W 6 (batter! dies) (N" so this section co'ers the e'er dreaded $e*nst 6Muation: it is on the A8 sheet" and *as actuall! on an e-am a 3e* !ears bac/ Ho*e'er" the! dropped it this !ear" butX (3uture re3erence) oncent*ation ells EM; (electrical charge that can be used 3or *or/) depends on concentration" soX %oncentration %ell 4 Uses same species at cathode and anode" Just di33erent concentrations Eo W Ecathode 4 Eanode W (9 V) O (9 V) W 6 3or standard conditions Ho*e'er" standard conditions speci3! 7M 3or each" and a concentration cell has non4standard conditions (both are $(T 7 M) )no9e (o-idation) O the compartment *ith the lo*er concentration (r-n *ill occur until both cells are equimolar W equilibrium has been established) at'o9e (reduction) O compartment (cell) *ith higher concentration 1hen *e calculate o'erall em3" *e still use the $ernst equation: E W E o O(6 6EHE.VI n) log = This time" *e /no* that Eo W 6 (same E 'alue 3or cathode and anode) The = 'alue *ill be based on the o'erall reaction: concentrated , dilute so = W ^dilute_I^concentrated_ #; the cells contain h!drogen electrodes (one SHE" one o3 a non4standard concentration)" *e can calculate the non4standard concentration in the .nd cell i3 a /no*n pH 'alue is gi'en Another application is to use the concentrated cell to calculate a pH o3 a solution (this is basicall! ho* a pH meter *or/s) as long as the non4standard concentration is /no*n The $ernst equation becomes: E W 6 O(6 6EHE.V)pH or E W (6 6EHE.V)pH There is some mathamagic in'ol'ed" but this is the equation 3or pH o3 a concentrated cell E-) An un/no*n solution has a pH o3 C E6 1hat is the measured cell 'oltage: E W 6 6EHE.pH EW

#n a %oncentration %ell: 7) The anode and cathode are the same element .) At equilibrium" E W 6 and = W 7 C) pH is a part o3 the equation 3or H!drogen electrodes

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20-7. 20-9
Batte*+ O portable" sel34contained electrochemical po*er source that contains . or more 'oltaic cells Lead Storage 2atteries" $ic/el4%admium %ells" $ic/el4Metal H!drides" Lithium #on" and the H!drogen4(-!gen ;uel %ell O Students should read these sections 3or intellectual enrichment and the sheer Jo! o3 learning o**osion O spontaneous redo- r-ns in *hich a metal is attac/ed b! some substance in its en'ironment and con'erted to an un*anted compound (rust" tarnish" etc) Again" 3ascinating topic and great pictures >ou reall! should read through this to understand *h! !ou should seal metal (and put !our bi/e in the garage) 6lect*ol+sis O non4spontaneous redo- reactions caused b! addition o3 electrical input (input o3 energ! 3orces the reaction to occur) 7oltaic cells are spontaneous and gi'e o33 a charge as the r-n proceeds Metallic conduction O atoms don?t mo'e" no chemical change 6lect*ol+tic cells are non4spontaneous and require charge to be added 3or the r-n to proceed #onic conduction (electrol!tic conduction) O motion o3 ions through a solution to*ard electrodes o3 opposite charge (N" so *hen !ou see adds 3or hair remo'al the Pelectrol!sisQ is an electrol!tic cell (machine) that requires a 'oltaic cell (batter!) or po*er suppl! to operate (Also see pg GFB" 3igure .6 .F) This is a &o*ns %ell: contains melted (molten) $a%l #onic cmpds ma/e up electrol!tic cells #onic cmpds ha'e high m p " so Electrol!tic cells are run at 'er! high temperatures )emember: e4 must be PpumpedQ (3orced) through an electrol!tic cell b! an outside energ! source Most electrol!tic cells contain #nert cathodes and anodes

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ommon )((lications of 6lect*ol+tic ells 1e?'e alread! seen ho* electrol!tic cells can produce sodium (&o*ns %ell) Acti'e metal electrodes can be used 3or electroplating 4 a great *a! to rip o33 unsuspecting teenagers on the board*al/T >ou should read this section (3rom mid4*a! do*n on pg GFF to the top o3 page GFG) and Jot do*n an!thing !ou deem important (r" *e can do some more practice

>uantitati0e )s(ects of 6lect*ol+sis The stoich o3 the hal3 reaction in electrol!sis directl! relates to moles E-: $a+ + e4 , $a metal means that 7 mol e4 *ill plate out (release 3rom the molten state) 7 mole o3 $a

%u+. + UUUe4 , %u means that UUU mol o3 e4 are needed to plate out UUU mol %u (.:7 ratio 3or e4:%u) Al+C + UUUe4 , Al means that UUU mol o3 e4 are needed to plate out UUU mol o3 Al

2asicall!: in an electrol!tic cell" the amount o3 substance that is reduced or o-idi0ed is directl! proportional to the 9 o3 electrons passed into the cell There is more math" but it *on?t be on the A8 test and ha'en?t *e seen enough this chapter:T Electrical 1or/: # suggest !ou )EA& this section #t is more o3 a ph!sics thing" but *orth the time <ust read" no notes

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3-6 >uantitati0e 3nfo*mation f*om Balance9 6Muations

stoichiometr! 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU bet*een chemical 3ormulas" reactions" and equations (3anc! *ord 3or chemical recipes) this chapter *e do reaction stoichiometr! O some boo/s sa! there are man! di33erent t!pes o3 problems There is reall! onl! one t!pe: the! are all gram" mole" atom" liter con'ersion problems tied into equations t'e ne: Fe<ten9e9H mole ma( (again" pg 7DH: it helps) (# *on?t bore !ou *ith a bunch o3 con'ersions" but please practice these)

$3B Stoic' :it' Solutions =uic/ re'ie* 3rom last !ear: Molarit! is a measure o3 the UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2asicall!" it *or/s li/e an! other stoich problem" e-cept that *hen !ou use Molarit!" the units are UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU %EH7. + (. %(. + H.(

;or the combustion equation abo'e" i3 !ou ha'e 7 E6 molIL o3 o-!gen" *hat *ill be the 3inal molarit! (molIL) o3 carbon dio-ide:

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3-7 Limitin& Reactants an9 %e*cent Liel9

Limiting reactants are the ones that are in UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (determine ho* much *e get in the end) The other reactant(s) are re3erred to as UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU e- 7) (N" so !our boo/ ma/es sand*iches: *e can do actual chemistr!TTT Ho* man! moles o3 iron (###) h!dro-ide can be produced *hen starting *ith 7 6 mol o3 iron (###) sul3ide" . 6mol *ater" and C 6 mol o-!gen gas: (2asicall!" C starting points con'erted to the same end point Smallest number limits *hat *e can ma/e ) Ho* much o3 the e-cess reactants did !ou use: (Start *ith the smallest end amount" and *or/ bac/*ards to the e-cess material used)

T'eo*etical F%e*centH Liel9 (K !ield) W (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) - UUUUUUUU 1here PUUUUUUUUUUUUUUQ is *hat !ou actuall! ha'e" and PUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUQ is *hat !ou calculated (should ha'e in theor!) based on ideal stoich and the amount o3 starting material Used 3or sports stats" business outloo/s" etc Measures UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU These problems usuall! gi'e !ou the starting amount o3 material in grams (con'ert to grams o3 product 3or UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 'alue) and the A%TUAL (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) 'alue o3 product )eall!" Just label e'er!thing care3ull! then plug the numbers into the equation Remembe*: the units are K sample problem

K !ield is al*a!s UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUK ;actors that lo*er !ield: 7 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (reactions not /no*n aboutIplanned 3or originall!) . UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (bad measuring or original calcs) C UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (*ater absorbed" contaminated stoc/s" etc) Anal!tical chemists are al*a!s a*are o3 theseTTTTTTT 8ercent !ield o3 a reaction can be increased b! UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (temp" press" etc)

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!nit 5 Set )
7) Sul3ur and o-!gen react in a combination reaction to produce sul3ur trio-ide" an en'ironmental pollutant: .S (s) + C( . (g) .S( C (g) #n a particular e-periment" the reaction o3 7 6 g S *ith 7 6 g ( . produced 6 G6 g o3 S(C e-periment is UUUUUUUUUU A) C6 2) .H %) .7 &) GG E) DG .) 1hen a h!drocarbon burns in air" *hat component o3 air reacts: A) o-!gen 2) nitrogen %) carbon dio-ide C) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing are decomposition reactions: 7) %H D (g) + ( . (g) %( . (g) + H . ( (l) .) %a( (s) + %( . (g) %a%(C (s) C) Mg (s) + ( . (g) Mg( (s) D) 8b%(C (s) 8b( (s) + %( . (g) A) 7" ." and C 2) D onl! %) 7" ." C" and D &) . and C E) ." C" and D D) Lithium and nitrogen react in a combination reaction to produce lithium nitride: BLi (s) + $ . (g) .LiC $ (s) Ho* man! moles o3 lithium nitride are produced *hen 6 DE6 mol o3 lithium react in this 3ashion: A) 6 7E6 2) 6 H66 %) 6 6FE6 &) 7 CE E) 6 ..E E) Automoti'e air bags in3late *hen sodium a0ide decomposes e-plosi'el! to its constituent elements: .$a$C (s) .$a (s) + C$ . (g) Ho* man! moles o3 $ . are produced b! the decomposition o3 . GG mol o3 sodium a0ide: A) 7 H. 2) G BD %) D C. &) 6 HB6 E) 7 DD B) %alcium o-ide reacts *ith *ater in a combination reaction to produce calcium h!dro-ide: %a( (s) + H . ( (l) %a((H) . (s) A 7 E64g sample o3 %a( is reacted *ith 7 DE g o3 H . ( Ho* man! grams o3 *ater remains a3ter completion o3 reaction: A) 6 66 2) 6 66.HF %) 6 HBB &) 7 6D E) 6 6ECB The K !ield in this

&) *ater

E) argon

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F) 2ased on the equations belo*" *hich metal is the most acti'e: 8b($(C ) . (aq) + $i (s) $i($( . ) . (aq) + 8b (s) 8b($(C ) . (aq) + Ag (s) $o reaction %u($(C ) . (aq) + Ag (s) $o reaction A) $i 2) Ag %) %u &) 8b E) $

G) 1hat is the concentration (M) o3 a $a%l solution prepared b! dissol'ing H C g o3 $a%l in su33icient *ater to gi'e CE6 mL o3 solution: A) 7G 2) 6 7B %) 6 DE &) .F E) . F a 764. H) Ho* man! grams o3 sodium chloride are there in EE 6 mL o3 a 7 H6 M aqueous solution o3 sodium chloride: A) 6 76E 2) B 77 %) C .7 &) B 77 a 76C E) 7. . 76) 1hat mass in grams o3 h!drogen is produced b! the reaction o3 D FC g o3 magnesium *ith 7 GC g o3 *ater: Mg (s) + .H . ( (l) Mg((H) . (s) + H . (g) A) 6 76. 2) 6 67B. %) 6 6DGE &) 6 .7H E) 6 .6D 77) The combustion o3 ammonia in the presence o3 e-cess o-!gen !ields $( . and H . ( : D $HC (g) + F ( . (g) D $( . (g) + B H .( (g) The combustion o3 DC H g o3 ammonia produces UUUUUUUUUU g o3 $( . A) . EG 2) 7FG %) 77H &) 6 HED E) DC H 7.) 1hat is the coe33icient o3 ( . *hen the 3ollo*ing equation is completed and balanced: %D HG ( . + (. UUUUUUUU A) . 2) C %) E &) B E) 7 7C) 1hen the 3ollo*ing equation is balanced" the coe33icient o3 *ater is UUUUUUUUUU $ . (E (g) + H . ( (l) H$(C (aq) A) E 2) . %) C &) D E) 7 7D) 1hen the 3ollo*ing equation is balanced" the coe33icient o3 Al is UUUUUUUUUU Al (s) + H . ( (l) Al((H)C (s) + H . (g) A) 7 2) . %) C &) E E) D 7E) Aluminum 3orms an ion *ith a charge o3 UUUUUUUUUU A) +. 2) 4C %) +7 &) +C

E) 47

7B) 8redict the empirical 3ormula o3 the ionic compound that 3orms 3rom magnesium and 3luorine A) Mg . ;C 2) Mg; %) Mg . ; &) Mg C ;. E) Mg;.

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7F) The correct name 3or N .S is UUUUUUUUUU A) potassium sul3ate 2) potassium disul3ide %) potassium bisul3ide &) potassium sul3ide E) dipotassium sul3ate 7G) A compound *as 3ound to be soluble in *ater #t *as also 3ound that addition o3 acid to an aqueous solution o3 this compound resulted in the 3ormation o3 carbon dio-ide 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing cations *ould 3orm a precipitate *hen added to an aqueous solution o3 this compound: A) $H D + 2) N+ %) %rC+ &) )b + E) $a + 7H) 2ased on the acti'it! series" *hich one o3 the reactions belo* *ill occur: A) Zn (s) + Mn# . (aq) Zn# . (aq) + Mn (s) 2) Sn%l . (aq) + %u (s) Sn (s) + %u%l . (aq) %) .Ag$(C (aq) + 8b (s) .Ag (s) + 8b($( C ) . (aq) &) CHg (l) + .%r($(C )C (aq) CHg($(C ). + .%r (s) E) C;e2r. (aq) + .Au (s) C;e (s) + .Au2rC (aq) .6) Sodium does not occur in nature as $a (s) because UUUUUUUUUU A) it is easil! reduced to $a 4 2) it is easil! o-idi0ed to $a + %) it reacts *ith *ater *ith great di33icult! &) it is easil! replaced b! sil'er in its ores E) it undergoes a disproportionation reaction to $a 4 and $a +

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!nit 5 Set B
7) A strong electrol!te is one that UUUUUUUUUU completel! in solution A) reacts 2) decomposes %) disappears &) ioni0es .) A) 2) %) &) E) The spectator ions in the reaction bet*een aqueous perchloric acid and aqueous barium h!dro-ide are UUUUUUUUUU (H 4 and %l( D 4 4 .+ H + " (H " %l( D 4 " and 2a 4 H + and (H .+ H + and 2a %l( D 4 and 2a .+

C) The spectator ions in the reaction bet*een aqueous h!drochloric acid and aqueous ammonia are UUUUUUUUUU A) H + and $H C 2) H + " %l4 " $HC " and $H D + %) %l4 and $H D+ &) H + " %l4 " and $H D + E) %l4 onl! D) The net ionic equation 3or 3ormation o3 an aqueous solution o3 $i#. accompanied b! e'olution o3 %( . gas 'ia mi-ing solid $i%(C and aqueous h!droiodic acid is UUUUUUUUUU A) .$i%(C (s) + H# (aq) .H .( (l) + %( . (g) + .$i .+ (aq) 2) $i%(C (s) + #4 (aq) .H . ( (l) + %( . (g) + $i .+ (aq) + H# (Aq) %) $i%(C (s) + .H + (aq) H .( (l) + %( . (g) + $i .+ (aq) &) $i%(C (s) + .H# (aq) .H . ( (l) + %( . (g) + $i# . (aq) E) $i%(C (s) + .H# (aq) H .( (l) + %( . (g) + $i .+ (aq) + .#4 (aq) E) (-idation cannot occur *ithout UUUUUUUUUU A) acid 2) o-!gen %) *ater

&) air

E) reduction

B) UUUUUUUUUU is an o-idation reaction A) #ce melting in a so3t drin/ 2) Table salt dissol'ing in *ater 3or coo/ing 'egetables %) )usting o3 iron &) The reaction o3 sodium chloride *ith lead nitrate to 3orm lead chloride and sodium nitrate E) $eutrali0ation o3 H%l b! $a(H F) 7V W UUUUUUUUUU A) 7 amp s 2) 7 <Is

%) HBDGE %

&) 7 <I%

E) 7 %I<

G) The more UUUUUUUUUU the 'alue o3 E` red" the greater the dri'ing 3orce 3or reduction A) positi'e 2) negati'e %) e-othermic &) endothermic E) e-tensi'e

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H) The standard cell potential (E`) o3 a 'oltaic cell constructed using the cell reaction belo* is 6 FB V: Zn (s) + .H+ (aq) , Zn .+ (aq) + H. (g) 1ith 8H. W 7 6 atm and ^Zn .+_ W 7 6 M" the cell potential is 6 BB V The concentration o3 H+ in the cathode compartment is UUUUUUUUUU M A) . 6 a 764. 2) D . a 764D %) 7 D a 7647 &) D H a 767 E) 7 6 a 7647. 76) Ho* man! minutes *ill it ta/e to plate out . 7H g o3 chromium metal 3rom a solution o3 %r C+ using a current o3 CE . amps in an electrol!te cell UUUUUUUUUU : A) E FF 2) CDB %) 77E &) 7 H. E) 7F C 77) Ho* man! grams o3 %a metal are produced b! the electrol!sis o3 molten %a2r . using a current o3 C6 6 amp 3or 76 6 hours UUUUUUUUUU: A) .. D 2) DDG %) 6 6B.. &) ..D E) 77. 7.) %onsider an electrochemical cell based on the reaction: .H+ (aq) + Sn (s) , Sn.+ (aq) + H. (g) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing actions *ould change the measured cell potential: A) increasing the pH in the cathode compartment 2) lo*ering the pH in the cathode compartment %) increasing the ^Sn .+_ in the anode compartment &) increasing the pressure o3 h!drogen gas in the cathode compartment E) An! o3 the abo'e *ill change the measure cell potential

!nit 5 %*actice#%*oblems
Ho* man! moles o3 h!drogen gas can be produced 3rom the reaction o3 F. 6g $a *ith an e-cess o3 *ater:

Ho* man! grams o3 o-!gen are needed to completel! burn GD Hg o3 carbon:

1hen an iron nail is placed in a bea/er *ith FE 6mL o3 sul3uric acid" some o3 the nail remains the ne-t da! #3 the nail lost C G7g o3 mass" *hat *as the original molarit! o3 the sul3uric acid:

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1rite 3ull and net ionic equations 3or the 3ollo*ing and balance: Sil'er nitrate and sul3uric acid

%alcium carbonate and h!drochloric acid

Lithium h!dro-ide and phosphoric acid

2alance b! the hal34reaction (redo-) method %hloride ions and permanganate ions 3orming chlorine gas and manganate ions

Solid sul3ur reacting *ith dichromate ions to 3orm sul3ur dio-ide and chromium (###) o-ide

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,o*e %*actice
7 a) An unidenti3ied organic compound containing onl! carbon" h!drogen" and o-!gen *as subJected to combustion anal!sis 1hen 6 H.H g *as burned in the presence o3 e-cess o-!gen" . 77. g o3 carbon dio-ide and 6 GBE g o3 *ater *ere obtained &etermine the masses o3 %" H" and ( in the sample

b) &etermine the simplest 3ormula 3or the compound


&etermine the molecular 3ormula considering the molecular *eight W 7FD .F amu

. a)

1hen a sample o3 a copper o-ide *as decomposed" 7 HC. g o3 %u and 6 .DC g o3 ( *ere produced 1hat mass o3 copper o-ide *as decomposed:

b) 1hat is the K composition o3 the copper o-ide:


1hat is the empirical 3ormula:

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!nit 5 4b1ecti0es
7 . C D E B F G H List the 'arious parts o3 a chemical equation including s!mbols and states o3 matter *ith an! energ! changes sho*n 2alance equations b! inspection" hal34reaction method" or algebra 2e able to ta/e names o3 compounds and turn them into 3ormulas" then balance the equations Assign o-idation numbers to elements in a reaction and identi3! *hich ha'e been o-idi0ed or reduced %lassi3! the reaction as one o3 the 3i'e basic t!pes o3 reactions Use generali0ations to predict products o3 simple reactions i3 gi'en onl! the reactants &etermine the mole" mass" atom" or gas 'olume o3 a reactant o3 product based on a balanced chemical equation and a starting point &etermine *hich reactant(s) isIare in e-cess and *hich is limited to calculate the amount o3 product that can be 3ormed &escribe ho* an electrochemical cell operates" be able to read a diagram" and be able to determine o-idation and reduction

76 %alculate the 'oltage" *or/" and 3lo* o3 electrons 3or a 'oltaic and electrochemical cell based on reduction potentials

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!nit 6 )tomic St*uctu*e an9 $uclea* 'emist*+

2-7 Stu9ents s'oul9 *ea9 t'is section: 3 canGt *eall+ 'el(: it is sim(l+ a *ea9 an9 t*+ to
follo: it all- T'is :ill most li;el+ s'o: u( on an e<amB es(eciall+ 9ia&*ams of t'e e<(e*iments :it' an @e<(lain t'e follo:in& e<(e*imentC t+(e of Muestion- Rust ;no: t'e basics :it' a fe: 9etails an9 +ou s'oul9 be 45&alton?s Atomic Theor! (>ep" it is important and sho*s up all the time on the A8 e-am)

at'o9e Ra+s an9 6lect*ons %athode O Anode 4 $ote: a cathode gi'es o33 negati'e ions (anions) *hile an anode gi'es o33 positi'e ions (cations) ;luorescence O << Thompson O %athode )a! Tube &ra*ing (pg CH):

)obert Milli/an and the (il &rop O (N" so Just read through it and loo/ at the pictures #n realit!" 'er! 3e* college chem students understand this 2ottom line: used to 3ind the charge and mass o3 an electron )uther3ord and The $uclear Atom4 (gold 3oil e-periment)

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<ames %had*ic/ O person actuall! credited *ith disco'er! o3 neutron All his *or/ *as based on *hat )uther3ord had done" but %had*ic/ put a PnameQ to the particle and de3ined it better" soX&on?t *orr!" )uther3ord got credit 3or a bunch o3 Mosele!?s *or/ a3ter his death in 11# (Mosele! *or/ed in )uther3ord?s lab and *as his pupil)

2-4 )tomic Aei&'ts

The Atomic Mass Scale and Atomic Mass O Atomic mass is based on 7.% W 7. 6666 amu so 7 amu W 7I7. (3 a %47. atom W 7 BB6ED - 76 4.D g A'erage Atom Mass (*eight) Atomic mass is the a0e*a&e mass o3 all o3 the natural isotopes An isotope is di33erent 'ersions o3 the same element based on di33erent numbers o3 neutrons (gi'ing di33erent masses) )emember: mass D46S $4T 6>!)L :ei&'t Ho*e'er" P*eightQ is the more common *ord *hile PmassQ is the correct *ord a'erage atomic mass W (KI766K)(mass o3 7st isotope)+(KI766K)(mass o3 .nd isotope) @allium consists o3 B6 D6K BH@a (BG H.EFg) and CH B6K F7@a (F6 H.DHg) %alculate the a'erage atomic mass (BH F.g)

Mass Spectrometr! and #sotopic Abundance (pg DG)4 the mass spec (chemist lingo) is used to detect" anal!0e" and identi3! un/no*n chemicals Samples are 'apori0ed" bombarded *ith electrons (in order to create + ions ^positi'el! charged particles due to a loss o3 7 electron_)" and placed in electrical and magnetic 3ields &ue to di33erences in mass (9 o3 neutrons) or charge (9 o3 electrons)" the paths o3 the molecules cur'e based on their indi'idual massIcharge Hea'ier particles cur'e less as do smaller charge particles This change in cur'ature causes the particles to land on di33erent places on a detector

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6-1 T'e Aa0e $atu*e of Li&'t

;irst" light thought to tra'el in *a'es Then thought to be particles or bundles (Einstein *on a $obel 8ri0e 3or this *or/" called them photons) ;inall!" the 9ual (a*ticle.:a0e t'eo*+ *as born (also 3rom &r Einstein) Electromagnetic )adiation &ra* *a'e" label *a'elength (lambda)" sho* 3requenc! (nu) red light: h i W UUU V W UUU E 'iolet light: j i W UUU V W UUU E

1a'elength ( i )4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU unit is length (m usuall!) ;requenc! ( V ) 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU unit is sec47 or H0 (hert0) Amplitude 4UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU ALL electromagnetic radiation mo'es through a 'acuum at the speed o3 light (c) W C 66- 76G mIs Electromagnetic spectrum 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU @amma W highest 3requenc!" shortest *a'elength radio W lo*est V" longest i So 2lue W high 3requenc!" short *a'elength (close to UV) and red W lo* 3requenc!" high *a'elength (close to #)) ;or the 'isible range: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 1here blue has a small *a'elength and high 3requenc! so it has high energ! that Pburns outQ quic/l! And )ed has a long *a'elength and small 3requenc! has lo*er energ! so it tra'els 3urther (*h! it is used 3or beacons" bra/e lights" pes/! red lights that ma/e !ou late 3or school) Eas! to remember: blue near UV (ultra'iolet)" red near #) (in3rared) Loo/ at A8 test equation sheet: it sho*s all applicable 3ormulas and constants c W C 66 - 76G mIs" speed o3 light h W B B.B - 764CD <sec" 8lan/?s constant !seful con0e*sion . 1 an&st*om D 1 < 10.10 m 8roperties o3 *a'es? electromagnetic radiation depend on the *a'elength: a gamma *a'elength is about the diameter o3 atomic nuclei" but radio *a'es can be longer than a 3ootball 3ield (tal/ing one *a'elength)
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E- The !ello* light gi'en o33 b! sodium 'apor street lights has a *a'elength o3 EGH nm (76 4H m W 7nm) %alculate the energ! o3 the light

E- Lasers used in e!e surger! ha'e a 3requenc! o3 D BH - 767D s47 1hat is the *a'elength:

%alculate the quantum energ! o3 blue light (D66 nm)

6-2 >uanti?e9 6ne*&+ an9 %'otons

The *a'e model e-plained man! aspects" but not C important 3actors: 7) 2lac/bod! radiation 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU .) The 8hotoelectric e33ect 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU C) Emission Spectra 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Hot (bJects and =uanti0ation o3 Energ! As solids are heated (and e'entuall! change state)" the! release radiation (as *ell as e-cess heat) 1a'elength distribution is a 3unction o3 temperature: 2asicall!" the color gi'en o33 b! a solid is related to the temperature absorbed b! the obJect Ma- 8lan/ (7H66?s) @erman 8h!sicist" *or/ed *ith light and heat: *on $obel 8ri0e in 7H7G 3or this quantum energ! 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Energ! o3 a single PquantumQ equals a constant times the 3requenc!: *here h W 8lan/?s constant W B B.B - 764CD<4s (<oule4second) so E W hV and can be related to *a'elength using c W Vi Matter can onl! emitIabsorb energ! in *hole number multiples o3 hV" *here hV is re3erred to as a PUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUQ A quantum o3 energ! is li/e steps: can onl! step ($ each" not bet*een them Ho*e'er" 8lan/?s constant is S( small" *e don?t notice it e-cept on a molecular le'el T'e %'otoelect*ic 6ffect O Students should read through this section 3or a better understanding 2asicall!" ho* the electrons are responsible 3or Pre3lectingQ light 3rom a metal sur3ace 6-3 Line S(ect*a an9 t'e Bo'* )tom O There are emission spectra (described abo'e) also absorption spectra Spectrum (spectra) 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

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%ontinuous 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2right Line (or Just Line) 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU PnQ is the principal quantum number in *hich each orbit corresponds to a di33erent" de3inite" *hole number integer )elated to ro* on periodic table 2asicall!" the orbital closest to the nucleus (center) has nW7" the ne-t orbital out is nW." etc To determine the energ! o3 a mo'ing obJect" use the de 2roglie equation lambda W hIm' (' W 'elocit!) reminder that : h has to change unit to /g(m.)Is and masses must correspond in unit To determine the energ! o3 a mo'ing electron" use the )!dberg equation 7I i W ()H) (7In7. 4 7In..) *here ) W 7 6HF - 76F m47 o* (e'en easier) A8 test 3ormulas sheet gi'es E n W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (unit is <oules) The more negati'e the energ! is" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU e- %alculate the *a'elength o3 light emitted (nm) *hen an electron 3alls 3rom n W D to n W . in a h!drogen atom (;ind E 3or each le'el" then fE" plug into E W h(V) getting V" then 3inall! use c W iV to 3ind *a'elength" or can combine E and c equations )

Bo'*Gs ,o9el Electron?s path UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (li/e a mini4solar s!stem) 8roblem: *hen an obJect mo'es in a circular path" it loses energ! and e'entuall! spirals into center (those coin things at the mall) 2ohr proposed three concepts to e-plain: 7) Electrons UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU *ith corresponding energies .) An electron in an orbit *ill ha'e a UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU that does not radiate (degrade) C) Energ! is emitted or absorbed UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (3rom one le'el to another) 1hat does it all mean: it is li/e a gu! on a motorc!cle in a cage He can onl! ride around the top #; he has enough energ!" and once there he *ill not 3all #3 he decreases his energ!" he must change his path T'e 6ne*&+ State of t'e 2+9*o&en )tom: The boo/ goes on 3or . pages *ith 'arious substitutions in the 3ormulas The! e'entuall! get to the )!dberg 3ormula (see top o3 last page) Again" *e %(UL& go this *a!" o* (Again) A8 test 3ormulas sheet gi'es En W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU(unit is <oules) 2ottom line: the indi'idual lines in a spectrum *e see are 3rom electrons PJumpingQ bet*een orbitals (energ! le'els) and emittingIabsorbing energ!
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8lease 3eel 3ree to read this and tr! to 3ollo* it (don?t stress i3 !ou get lost) Limitations of t'e Bo'* ,o9el (nl! *or/s 3or H!drogen (one proton" 7 electron" no neutrons) He *ent on the idea that the electron did not P3allQ into the nucleus because PUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUQ (sort o3 a Pbecause # sa! soQ statement)

6-4 T'e Aa0e Be'a0io* of ,atte* O students should read this section
&e2roglie proposed a *a'elength (i) calculation that relates momentum (mk) to 8lan/?s constant (h): i W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (on A8 3ormula sheet) also called Pmatter *a'esQ $ote: k W 'elocit!" not 3requenc! (V) The! loo/ similar" so loo/ closel!TTTT E-: 1hat is the *a'elength associated *ith electrons mo'ing at one4hundredth the speed o3 light: Mass o3 electron is H 77 -764C7/g" 'elocit! is speed o3 light - 7I766 (C 66 - 76B mIs)" use plan/?s constant" and 3inall! remember that 1R D 1;& m2#s2 (. D. - 76476m W 6 .D.nm)

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The Uncertaint! 8rinciple O a 3e* points be3ore mo'ing on to predicting quantum numbers 7 . C Atoms and molecules can onl! e-ist in UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU A change in energ! state requires that an atom UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUat a gi'en 3requenc! The allo*ed energ! states o3 electrons can be described b! a set o3 quantum numbers

Electrons can be treated as small particles o3 matter" but more o3ten it is more producti'e to treat them as *a'es O this leads to quantum mechanics Also" a bunch more math" but not reall! used an!more" soX 2eisenbe*& unce*taint+ (*inci(le O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT (li/e loo/ing 3or an airplane *ithout lights in the dar/) #n order to locate an electron" !ou must turn on the lights *hich adds energ! and changes the energ! le'el o3 the electron (along *ith the speed and general location) So" Heisenberg is pulled o'er b! a policemanX 2asic de3initions (*e?ll get details later): $uclear reactions O in'ol'es changes in the nucleus o3 an atom (generall!" changes in neutrons) =ission O to ta/e a PlargerQ (hea'ier) atom and ma/e it . or more PsmallerQ (lighter) atoms b! remo'ing neutrons (3ission W 3issure W to brea/) =usion O ta/es smaller atoms and binds them into a larger one (3usion W 3use W to stic/ together) gi'ing o33 neutrons or electrons (depends on the r-n) T!pes o3 )adioacti'e &eca! )l('a FUH O a stream o3 He4D particles" has a +. charge" *ea/ radiation s!mbol: D.He

Beta FVH O high speed electrons" negati'e charge" stronger radiation" causes an increase in mass (adding a proton) s!mbol: 67e4 8amma FWH O high energ!" short *a'elength photons" 'er! strong radiation (can be deadl! e'en in small doses)" neutral charge" changes neither atomic 9 nor mass s!mbol: 66 l or Just l More in3o on three t!pes o3 radiation: m alpha 7I76 speed o3 light Helium nucleus *ea/ (stopped b! a piece o3 paper) n beta near speed o3 light electron medium ( stopped b! Al 3oil) l gamma speed o3 light energ! (ra!s) strong (stopped b! 8b) gamma ra!s ioni0e atoms in 3lesh O cause se'ere cell damage )ead the intro" 'er! interesting Also" the bar graph o3 *ho is using nuclear energ! is interesting

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21-1 )adioacti'it!

Some basic B but inte*estin&B t+(e of info $ucleus made up o3 proton and neutrons (both are re3erred to as nucleons) All atoms o3 a single element ha'e the same 9 or protons (atomic 9" smaller 9)" but di33erent 9?s o3 neutrons ( mass numbers" larger 9) called isotopes $uclear Equations )adioacti'e elements discharge e-cess energ! b! emitting radiation Urunamium4.CG emits helium4D nuclei" called alpha (m) particles )l('a *a9iation O a stream o3 alpha particles Ho* it *or/s: 1hen a Phea'!Q element loses energ! through radiation" it also loses mass 2asicall!" it degrades into a lighter element:
.CG H.

U , .CDH6Th + D.He

$ote: the numbe*s o3 the product(s) add up to the numbe*s in the reactant(s): basic mathTTT %alled radioacti'e deca! #3 an alpha particle is in'ol'ed" it can also be called alpha deca! )adioacti'e properties o3 the nucleus are in9e(en9ent of t'e c'emical state o3 the atom The chemical 3orm" atom or molecule" is irrele'ant: a radioacti'e element *ill deca! the same in both a compound or as an element %an?t stop the process b! bonding it to a more stable element

Bottom line: canGt s(ee9 it u(B slo: it 9o:nB o* sto( it21-3 )ates o3 )adioacti'e &eca!
Some trans4uranium elements do e-ist in nature and deca! slo*l! (thers are onl! arti3icial and deca! rapidl! Ra9ioacti0e 9eca+ is a fi*st o*9e* ;inetic (*ocess Fst*ai&'t fo*:a*9 *eactant to (*o9uctH 2alf.life O amount o3 time required 3or hal3 or a gi'en substance to react (in this case" deca!) )ealit! chec/: !ou almost certainl! learned this 3ormula (or something similar) and used it in Algebra ##: TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Each isotope has its o*n hal34li3e (e'en isotopes 3or the same element all ha'e di33erent hal34li'es) The M li3e in3o can be used to #& an un/no*n or trac/ deca! o3 a substance (radio4carbon dating) A hal34li3e can be immeasurable ('er! short: in the nanosecond range) or 'er! long (billions o3 !ears range) .CG .7D hal34li3e?s U O D E billion !ears ..C;r O .6 min 8o 4 6667E sec E-ample o3 a Hal34Li3e O the time it ta/es 3or hal3 o3 a radioacti'e sample o3 Magnesium4.G to deca!
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.7 hrs

.7 hrs , ,

.7 hrs (*e can also go the opposite *a!)


$(TE: hal34li'es are UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (*eathering" temperature" contamination" etc) )emember: radioisotopes deca! regardless o3 bonding (single atom or in a compound) This means that" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 1e can onl! *ait (and *ait) 3or it to deca! completel! so it is no longer harm3ul &on?t let 3ol/s bur! this stu33 onInear !our propert! no matter ho* much the! pa! !ou: the mone! *on?t repair the damage done b! the radiation ((N" m! opinion on this is done: than/s 3or listeningT) $uclear Stabilit! Atoms *ith the highest bond energ! (2E) are the most stable #n general" the higher the 2E" the more stable the nucleus to*ard decomposition T:o im(o*tant (oints: )n9 +ou s'oul9 ;no: t'e basics 7) Hea'! nuclei gain stabilit! and gi'e o33 energ! i3 the! are 3ragmented into t*o mid4range nuclei (big atom becomes . smaller ones) called 3ission (fissu*e D to b*ea;) .) E'en greater amounts o3 energ! are released *hen i3 'er! light nuclei are combined into more massi'e nuclei (. H become one He: *e call this the Sun) called 3usion (to fuse D to attac'H Bot' fusion )$D fission a*e e<ot'e*mic (*ocesses Floa9s of ene*&+ :it' )$L nuclea* *eactionH1h!: Medium mass nuclei are more stable (ha'e lo*er energ!)" so both smaller and larger *ant to be medium" and release energ! as the! 3ragment (3ission) or combine (3usion) %alculations based on Hal34li3e (again" 3irst order /inetics) rate W /$ *here / is the deca! constant and $ is the 9 o3 radioacti'e nuclei ln($tI$o) W 4/t $t W 9 remaining a3ter time inter'al and $o W nuclei at time 0ero (initial 9)

t 7I. W BHCI/ and / W 6 BHCIt 7I. (neither is on the A8 sheet" learn one and be able to get to the other) Also" the mass o3 a certain isotope and its acti'it! (deca! rate) are proportional to the number o3 radioacti'e nuclei 1e can substitute either masses at timeW6 and timeWt" or deca! rates (acti'it!) at each time

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e-) 7C7# has a hal34li3e o3 G 6D da!s Assuming !ou start *ith a 7 EC mg sample o3 7C7#" ho* man! mg *ill remain a3ter 7C 6 da!s UUUUUUUUUU: ln($tI$o) W 4/t / W 6 BHCIt7I. W 6 BHCIG 6D da!s W 6 6GB. da!s47 t W 7C 6 da!s $6W 7 EC mg $tW : mg e-) The deca! o3 a radionuclide *ith a hal34li3e o3 D C a 76E !ears has a rate constant (in !r47) equal to UUUUUUUUUU t7I. W D C a 76E !ears / W 6 BHCIt 7I.

it ta/es about 76 M li'es 3or HH HK o3 a sample to deca! O that?s *h! 7D% dating is onl! good to about E6"666 !ears (t M W EFC6 !ears) Actuall!" correcting 3or 3luctuations in solar acti'it!" climate changes" etc" the 'alue is closer to .B"666 !ears 3or %47D dating

=L3B :onGt be on testB but still an inte*estin& *ea9 )adiometric &ating (commonl! re3erred to as radio4carbon dating)

21-2 8atterns o3 $uclear Stabilit!

$o hard and 3ast rules" but some guidelines" to predict i3 a particular nucleus is radioacti'e 1orth the read" but no PneededQ in3o Ho*e'er" bac/ground is al*a!s use3ul

21-3 $uclear Transmutations

(ccurs *hen a neutron or another nucleus stri/es a nucleus causing a nuclear reaction This is $(T the same as spontaneous deca! due to relati'e 9?s o3 p+Ino Accelerating 8articles Atom Smashers O particle accelerators used to o'ercome electrostatic charge repulsion bet*een alpha particles and nucleus target (Visited ;ermi Labs outside %hicago" so a*esome" but a smaller 'ersion) This is *here the Pstart o3 the uni'erseQ research is done Also" the basis 3or the science in #ngels and $emons (great boo/" decent mo'ie) These things send particles mo'ing through miles o3 surprisingl! small tubes in monstrousl! large tunnels *a! underground Just to PsmashQ atoms and hope to create hea'ier elements than *hat *e alread! ha'e Small but cool 3acilit! outside %hicago (;ermi Labs) @reat *a! to *aste a M da! Trans uranium Elements Elements abo'e atomic 9 H. are made arti3iciall! through transmutations (that atom smashing thing)

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The! are called trans uranium because the! start a3ter Uranium (9H.) These elements are made in small quantities" are 'er! unstable" and deca! at an ama0ingl! rapid rate (N" sci43i time: %ack to the &uture (great 3lic/) re3ers to plutonium as the 3uel source 3or the 3lucapacitor (time machine) %an *e actuall! bridge the time4space continuum: #3 so" can *e onl! mo'e 3or*ard (li/e in a *orm hole)" or can *e actuall! go bac/: #3 *e go bac/" do *e change e'ents and hope 3or a better outcome or ris/ a 'er! di33erent" less pleasant 3uture: These are the hard questions that 3ace man! nuclear ph!sicists and chemists #3 !ou are e'er up 3or it" *e can ha'e a great discussion

21-5 &etection o3 )adioacti'it!

More historical bac/ground" and interesting in3ormation

21-6 Energ! %hanges in $uclear )eactions FStill =L3 an9 t'is is t'e stuff t'at &ets me *eall+ e<cite9
about bein& a c'emistNNNH ;inall!" *e get to that gu!" !ou /no*: the one *ith that 3amous equationX E W mc. &r EinsteinTTTTTTT (so a*esome) Energ! W mass - (speed o3 light). *here c W C 66 - 76GmIs (on the A8 sheet) 2ottom line: i3 it losses mass" it losses energ! (e-othermic" negati'e E) #3 it gains mass" it gains energ! (endothermic" positi'e E) 2ecause the speed o3 light is a big number" and *e square it" small changes in mass equal large releasesIabsorption o3 energ! ;or a 3ission reaction (nuclear reactor t!pe) 3or 7 mol o3 uranium:


U , .CG 666Cg


Th + .CC HHD.g

He D 667Eg

(there are DE6 g in a lb" so less than 7lb)

This means there *ill be o'er D66 2#LL#($ <oules o3 energ! released 3or less than 7 lb (7 mol) o3 Uranium (& W 7H 6E6gImL) #n real terms: a small test tube amount o3 uranium (about 7. mL)" under the right conditions" can release enough po*er to 3latten (as in completel! 3lat) 8hiladelphia (and reall! mess up the surrounding areas) $o* !ou understand *h! countries are ner'ous *hen nut4Jobs come to po*er in countries that ha'e nuclear *eapons Tomorro*" let me /no* ho* *ell !ou slept tonightT

21-7 $uclear 8o*er: ;ission O More bac/ground" but some important in3ormation e'er! human
should /no*: The reaction is sel34sustaining (until *e run out o3 stu33)

The constant deca!ing results in a chain reaction The reaction also gi'es o33 quite a bit o3 energ!

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%ritical mass 4 %ertain minimum mass must be present to start chain reaction (other*ise the neutrons escape and the reaction ends) About 7 /g (. .lb) 3or Uranium4.CE Supercritical mass O an! mass o'er the critical mass (more than enough: r-n still happens" Just *a! bigger boom) (did !ou read the paragraph top o3 pg H7E: Sobering" isn?t itT) $uclear )eactors This is de3initel! a good read: it e-plains the Pho*Q and P*h!Q *e useIdon?t use them as po*er sources Actuall!" there is a compan! that has de'eloped a small" underground" sel34contained model that supplies enough po*er 3or smaller to*ns (need about D 3or )ichboro) The! ha'e lo*er Plea/ageQ incidents" less nuclear *aste" and are eas! to op6erate The! are ma/ing some head*a! in Europe" but Americans are slo* to change (ironic 3or a countr! that *as 3ounded on 2#@ change and ris/) )ead through this: interesting" but not on A8 test


$uclear 8o*er: ;usion (n the sun" D atoms o3 H!drogen are 3used to ma/e one atom o3 helium" . positrons and energ! is liberated A temperature o3 about D6 million Nel'in (thus the name PthermonuclearQ) is required to initiate the reaction 2! the *a!: do the con'ersion to ;ahrenheit: !ou /no* !ou?re curiousTTT #n a nuclear 3ission bomb (smaller to larger)" one atom o3 deuterium could be 3used *ith an atom o3 tritium to 3orm helium" a neutron" and a large amount o3 energ! (there are other possibilities O see pre'ious section)


)adiation in the En'ironment and Li'ing S!stems #oni0ing radiation O radiation that causes ioni0ation (remo'al o3 electron 3rom atomImolecule) Harm3ul to li'ing tissue: gamma" L4ra!s" higher energ! UV $onioni0ing radiation O radiation that is non4damaging (Just causes an increase in energ!" resulting in higher 'ibration" motion o3 the particles) Visible light on up through radio *a'es are non4ioni0ing radiation (>ep" micro*a'e radiation is in this range: it coo/s 3ood through increased 'ibration W heat" but does $(T cause radiation damage $o" !ou can?t get cancer standing in 3ront o3 a micro*a'e *atching 3ood coo/: Just a bigger *aistlineT) ;ree radicals O specie produced *hen an electron is remo'ed The! o3ten set o33 a chain reaction resulting in more 3ree radicals (that stu33 the! sa! is destro!ing !our s/in 1ell" the!?re right: it is 1ear sun bloc/ e'er! da!: it reall! does stop the UV that can produce 3ree radicals) )adiation &oses )adiation is measured in rems 4 unit used to measure radiation damage (usuall! used in medicine) 1e?re e-posed to bac/ground radiation constantl! 3rom air" 3ood" *ater" cosmic ra!s" soil" roc/s" 3l!ing in an airplane 2ric/ houses gi'e o33 more radiation than *ood houses (Just sa!ingX)
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&iagnostic L4ra! gi'es o3 about .6 mrem O a therapeutic (bad cell /illing) L4ra! gi'es o33 about E"666"666mrem

!nit 6 4b1ecti0es
7 . C D E B F G H

State a brie3 histor! o3 the de'elopment o3 the theor! o3 atomic structure #denti3! some /e! people *ho de'eloped the theor! along *ith the subatomic particles &i33erentiate among e4" p+" and n" and be able to describe the structure o3 an atom 2e able to do isotope calculations based on masses and percent distribution o3 the isotopes &i33erentiate among the C t!pes o3 radiation 2e able to calculate 3requenc!" *a'elength" or energ! o3 a particle E-plain the dualit! o3 the P*a'e4particleQ and describe the PelectronQ cloud 1rite and balance nuclear equations and do hal34li3e calculations based on data &e3ine and di33erentiate bet*een 3usion and 3ission

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!nit 6 Set
7) This reaction is an e-ample o3 UUUUUUUUUU .76 .6B 8o , 8b + UUUUUUUUUU GD G. A) alpha deca! &) positron emission 2) beta emission E) electron capture %) gamma emission

.) The missing product in this reaction *ould be 3ound in *hich group o3 the periodic table: .D 6 $a , e + UUUUUUUUUU 77 47 A) 7A 2) .A %) CA &) GA E) FA

C) The reaction sho*n belo* is responsible 3or creating 7D% in the atmosphere 1hat is the bombarding particle: 7D 7D 7 $ + UUUUUUUUUU , %+ H F B 7 A) alpha particle 2) electron %) neutron &) proton

D) 1hich t!pe o3 radioacti'e deca! results in no change in mass number and atomic number 3or the starting nucleus: A) alpha 2) beta %) electron capture &) gamma E) The hal34li3e o3 a radionuclide A) is constant 2) gets shorter *ith passing time %) gets longer *ith passing time &) gets shorter *ith increased temperature E) gets longer *ith increased temperature B) #3 *e start *ith 7 666 g o3 strontium4H6" 6 H6G g *ill remain a3ter D 66 !r This means that the hal34li3e o3 Sr4H6 is UUU!r A) C 6E 2) D D6 %) .G G &) C BC E) D7 B F) (smium has a densit! o3 .. B gIcmC The mass o3 a bloc/ o3 osmium that measures 7 67 cm a 6 .CC cm a 6 BDG cm is UUUUUUUUUU g A) B FE a 76 C 2) C DE %) 7DG &) B FE a 76C E) CD E G) The /inetic energ! o3 a F C /g steel ball tra'eling at 7G 6 mIs UUUUUUUUUU < A) 7 . a 76C 2) BB %) . D a 76C &) 7 C a 76. H) UUUUUUUUUU signi3icant 3igures should be retained in the result o3 the 3ollo*ing calculation (77 7C 4 . B) a 76D A) 7 (76C 6E + 7B H) a 764B 2) . %) C &) D E) E

E) F C

76) The energ! o3 a photon o3 light is UUUUUUUUUU proportional to its 3requenc! and UUUUUUUUUU proportional to its *a'elength
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A) directl!" directl! %) in'ersel!" directl!

2) in'ersel!" in'ersel! &) directl!" in'ersel!

77) (3 the 3ollo*ing" UUUUUUUUUU radiation has the shortest *a'elength A) L4ra! 2) radio %) micro*a'e &) ultra'iolet

E) in3rared

7.) 1hat is the *a'elength o3 light (nm) that has a 3requenc! o3 C .. a 767Ds47 UUUUUUUUUU: A) HC. 2) BDH %) H BB a 76 .. &) H C. a 764F E) 7 6F a 76B 7C) The energ! (<) required 3or an electronic transition in a 2ohr h!drogen atom 3rom n W . to n W C is UUUUUUUUUU < A) D 6 a 7647H 2) C 6 a 7647H %) 4C 6 a 7647H &) 4F H a 7647H E) D B a 767D 7D) A spectrum containing onl! speci3ic *a'elengths is called a UUUUUUUUUU spectrum A) line 2) continuous %) 'isible &) )!dberg 7E) There are UUUUUUUUUU orbitals in the second shell A) 7 2) . %) D &) G 7B) Ho* man! p4orbitals are occupied in a $e atom UUUUUUUUUU: A) 6 2) 7 %) B &) C

E) in'ariant

E) H

E) .

7F) The photoelectric e33ect is UUUUUUUUUU A) the total re3lection o3 light b! metals gi'ing them their t!pical luster 2) the production o3 current b! silicon solar cells *hen e-posed to sunlight %) the eJection o3 electrons b! a metal *hen struc/ *ith light o3 su33icient energ! &) the dar/ening o3 photographic 3ilm *hen e-posed to an electric 3ield E) a relati'istic e33ect 7G) The uncertaint! principle states that UUUUUUUUUU A) matter and energ! are reall! the same thing 2) it is impossible to /no* an!thing *ith certaint! %) it is impossible to /no* the e-act position and momentum o3 an electron &) there can onl! be one uncertain digit in a reported number E) it is impossible to /no* ho* man! electrons there are in an atom 7H) Ho* man! liters o3 ice cream can be held in a barrel *hose capacit! is .B 6 gal: 7 gal W D qt W C FGED L A) 7 DB 764D 2) 6 7DB %) HG D &) B GF 76C E) B GF .6) 1hich statement belo* correctl! describes the responses o3 alpha" beta" and gamma radiation to an electric 3ield: A) 2oth beta and gamma are de3lected in the same direction" *hile alpha sho*s no response 2) 2oth alpha and gamma are de3lected in the same direction" *hile beta sho*s no response %) 2oth alpha and beta are de3lected in the same direction" *hile gamma sho*s no response &) Alpha and beta are de3lected in opposite directions" *hile gamma sho*s no response E) (nl! alpha is de3lected" *hile beta and gamma sho* no response .7) The correct name 3or $ . (E is UUUUUUUUUU A) nitrous o-ide 2) nitrogen pento-ide &) nitric o-ide E) nitrogen o-ide

%) dinitrogen pento-ide

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..) The correct name 3or H . %(C is UUUUUUUUUU A) carbonous acid 2) h!drocarbonate &) carboh!drate E) carboh!dric acid

%) carbonic acid

.C) The 3ormula o3 the chromate ion is UUUUUUUUUU A) %r( D .4 2) %r( .C4 %) %r(4 &) %r(C.4

E) %r(.4

.D) %hromium and chlorine 3orm an ionic compound *hose 3ormula is %r%lC A) chromium chlorine 2) chromium(###) chloride %) monochromium trichloride &) chromium(###) trichloride E) chromic trichloride .E) 1hat is the molecular 3ormula 3or heptene UUUUUUUUUU: A) %B H7. 2) %B H7D %) %F H7D &) %F H7B

The name o3 this compound is UUUUUUU

E) %F H7G

.B) %alculate the absolute energ! change (in <oules) 3ound *hen an electron goes 3rom nW. to nWE a E E -7647H b E G - 764EC c D B -7647H d B E-7647H e G F-764.6

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!nit 6 %*oblems#>uestions
7 #n 3irst order reactions" rate W / ^reactant_ 7 #n nuclear deca! problems this pattern *ith rates also holds true $uclear )eactions: Alpha deca! 2eta deca!


, ,

o 47

+ e +



)ate W / ^)n_ hal34li3e W C G. da!s )ate W / ^8_ hal34li3e W 7D E da!s



A) Starting *ith 76 66 g o3 )adon" ho* much remains a3ter C6 da!s:

2) Ho* long" in hours" does it ta/e EK o3 the )adon to deca!:

%) #3 the hal34li3e 3or a radioacti'e isotope is .E 6 minutes" calculate /

&) Uranium .CG undergoes alpha deca! *ith a hal3 li3e o3 D 7E - 76H !ears #3 one starts *ith 7 66 lbs" ho* much *ill be le3t a3ter E 66 billion !ears: Ho* long *ill it ta/e until onl! 7 66K o3 the material remains:

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=in9 t'e missin& (a*ticle fo* eac':


Ho + 647e4 , UUUUUUUUUU 8u , UUUUUUUUU + .CGH.U %r + 77E2 , UUUUUUUU + D76n 2/ , UUUUUUU + D D.He + . 647e4 Am ,

.D. HD

.E6 HG



.CC H7


1hat is the a'erage mass o3 Ha3nium i3 .DK ha'e a mass o3 7FF" .FK ha'e mass 7FG" 7DK ha'e mass 7FH" and CEK ha'e mass 7G6:

&etermine the 3requenc! o3 a *a'e i3 the *a'elength is B F - 764Fm Then" calculate the energ! o3 the *a'e

A patient is gi'en 7E 6mg o3 iodine47CE 3or treatment #3 the M li3e is G da!s" ho* much remains in the bod! a3ter D *ee/s (.G da!s):

The hal34li3e o3 8rotactinium (8a) is .B hours #3 a lab requires a minimum 76 6g sample" and the shipping ta/es Fand a hal3 da!s" ho* much 8a should the lab order to ensure the minimum amount is recei'ed 3or testing:

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!nit 7 6lect*on )**an&ement an9 %e*io9ic %*o(e*ties of t'e 6lements 7-1 De0elo(ment of t'e %e*io9ic Table
8eriodic Table O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU ()ussian) 4 publish 3irst real periodic table 4 7GBH (Also mention o3 Me!er (@erman) 4 same time 3rame" same stu33) based on UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU listed elements in order o3 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU le3t spaces 3or UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU(e/a W Pbelo*Q)

Mendelee' 3ormulated the o*i&inal %e*io9ic La: 4 8roperties o3 elements are a periodic 3unction o3 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 7H77 4 Mosle! (English) disco'ers the proton and atomic number so ne: %e*io9ic La: 4 8roperties o3 elements are a periodic 3unction o3 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Al*a!s a good question: *hich element pairs s*itched places 3rom Mendelee'?s to Mosle!?s 'ersion:

;>#: Re(*esentati0e elements O PAQ columns Os or p bloc/ 8roperties eas! to predict T*ansition 6lements O P2Q columns Od bloc/ 8roperties are similar across this section 3nne* t*ansition elements O 3 bloc/ Again properties are similar in this section etals (about G6K o3 all elements): all are solids" EL%E8T Hg" at room temperature 'on(metalsO Most are gases at room temperature (S" 8" Se" # are solids" 2r is a liquid) etalloids (semimetals) O E steps + . under the stairs (2" Si" As" Te" At" @e" Sb) 8roperties controlled b! changing conditions (temp" pressure" compounds) 'oble )ases O unreacti'e but a 3e* can be 3orced into compounds under ELT)EME conditions Ho*e'er" Just the larger ones" $(T Helium" $eon" and generall! Argon

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7-2 6ffecti0e $uclea*

'a*&e oulombs La: 4 the strength o3 the interaction bet*een negati'e (e4) and positi'e (p+) charges depends on both the magnitude (numerical 'alue) o3 the charges and the distance bet*een them Since *e /no* that higher energ! le'el electrons are 3urther 3rom the nucleus" the o'erall strength is a33ected 1e also /no* that the electrons are in'ol'ed *ith bonding (3orming compounds" ph!sical properties" etc) This means *e need to understand the o'erall trends o3 elements as arranged on the periodic table 6ffecti0e $uclea* 'a*&e O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (protons)UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Ta/es into account the repulsion b! other electrons in the atomic orbital Ze33 W Z O S *here Z is the 9 o3 protons and S is the Pscreening constantQ

S is based on *here the inner electrons 3all *ith respect to the nucleus: the 3urther 3rom the 'alence electrons" the higher the S 'alue (closer to P7Q) All the math is cumbersome" so 3or our purposes" *e gi'e e'er! inner electron (non4'alence) a 'alue o3 P7Q E-: Li W C4. W +7 (7 C actual) $a W 77476 W +7 (. E actual) N W 7H O 7G W +7 (C E actual) Ho*e'er" since the upper le'el electrons ha'e a lo*er S 'alue" the Ze33 is larger as *e mo'e do*n the table

;or going across a period" the 'alue also increases: $a W +7 Mg W +. Al W +C" etc (actuall!" the! are all slightl! larger" but !ou get the idea) Across a period" Ze33 increases 3aster than going do*n a group

The outer electrons are shielded (repelled) b! inner electrons *hile still being attracted b! the protons in the nucleus The! ha'e a lo*er e33ecti'e nuclear charge than an! electrons on a lo*er energ! le'el" meaning that Ze33 is closer to 0ero 3or 'alence" and closer to P7Q 3or inner4most electrons

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>uic; note on )tt*acti0e fo*ces befo*e :e mo0e on: o0alent atomic *a9ius 4 distance 3rom the nucleus to the outer shell *hen t*o atoms are in'ol'ed in a co'alent bond

7an 9e* Aaals *a9ius 4 hal3 the distance bet*een t*o atoms *hen the atoms aren?t bonded together" *hich results in the motion o3 atomsImolecules And !es: e'en solids Pmo'eQ

,etallic atomic *a9ius 4 hal3 the distance bet*een the nuclei o3 t*o metal atoms

the radius is measured in nanometers (764H m) Van der 1aals radius is generall! greater than co'alent Metallic radius is also generall! greater than co'alent 1h!: 4 co'alent bonds hold atoms tighter together (deals *ith bonding" *e alread! /no* this soX)

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TR6$DS: these are important" reall!" !ou *ant to learn them


atoms are not spheres *ith outer boundaries due to the *a'e mechanical model Atomic radius is measured in nanometers or Angstroms . trends Si0e UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU4 add more shells Si0eUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU4 ;rom le3t to right 4 more protons are added" but not more shells #ncreasing effecti0e nuclea* c'a*&e pulls electrons closer 2asicall!" the effecti0e nuclea* c'a*&e #$%)EASES as *e mo'e across A$> ro* in the table (more protons" but not more shells) The increase in nuclear charge steadil! dra*s in the electron cloud The o'erall si0e increases as *e mo'e do*n due to more orbitals (energ! le'els) 3or the e-tra electrons These added electrons ha'e a higher probabilit! o3 being 3urther 3rom the nucleus 1ith transition metals (d4bloc/)" electrons are added to inner shell so radius increases slightl! mo'ing across the table There are PblipsQ due to other complicating 3actors (electron repulsion" etc ) @reat picture 3igure F F" pg .B7 trend loo/s li/e this

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3onic Ra9ii O ions are created b! gaining or losing electrons %ation 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Anion 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU %ations are smaller than the neutral atom 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Anions are larger 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU so shells are pushed 3arther apart trend loo/s li/e this





e-amples: N+7 or @a+C 4 Li is bigger because less protons pull the shell in less (lo*er nuclear charge) S 4. or %l 47 4 S is bigger because lesson protons pull the shell in less (also electron repulsion) 3soelect*onic se*ies (*or/s here" butX) O a group o3 ionsIatoms all containing the same number o3 electrons 1hen atoms gainIlose electrons" the! do so in a *a! that the! Ploo/ li/eQ the noble gases (e-tremel! stable state) in general 4 an isoelectronic series decreases in radius as atomic number increases in a period (ro*) 1ho is isoelectronic *ith (list all o3 them 3or each noble gas): Ar He Le

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loosel! held) UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 3rom the outer energ! le'el o3 an atom (or ion 3or higher #E 'alues) in its gas phase M! Little 8on!: *ho *ill it be easier to ta/e a*a! 3rom: big or little: More than one remo'ed: 7st #E: .nd #E: Crd #E: A(g) + energ! energ! energ! !ields !ields !ields A+(g) A+.(g) A+C(g) + + + e. e. e.

A+(g) + A+.(g) +

$ote: electrons are al*a!s remo'ed 3rom the highest energ! le'el (outside e4) to lo*est energ! le'el 2asicall!" *or/ bac/*ards 3rom electron con3iguration PaddressQ trend loo/s li/e this

#E is related to atomic radius 4 . reasons *h! smaller going do*n the table 7 greater distance 3rom the nucleus W lo*er e33ecti'e charge so less energ! needed . /ernel electrons PshieldQ outer electrons 3rom the nucleus The s and p bloc/ elements sho* a larger range o3 #E 'alues across a period due to the larger increase in nuclear charge (shell collapses as increase in protons dra*s in the outer electrons) Also" the d and 3 bloc/ elements sho* a slight but stead! rise in #E due to the smaller increase in nuclear charge There is also a .nd and Crd #E 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU #E o3 elements greatl! increases *hen the outer shell has been emptied MUST count electrons a'ailable to be remo'ed (or chec/ the charge) be3ore deciding 3= .nd and Crd are Pdo4ableQ or Just a *hole bunch o3 unreasonable energ! 1hich has a higher .nd #E 4 N or %a: *hich has a higher Crd #E 4 2e or 2:

>ou should also recogni0e anomalies in the graph There are do*n*ard PblipsQ at column ###A (2oron 3amil!) and V#A (o-!gen 3amil!) These are caused b! nature?s tendenc! to 3ind stabilit! in empt! and 3ull shells as *ell as *hen 7 electron is in each orbit (Hund?s )ule is satis3ied)

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UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (*e sa! absorbed since 3or most atoms" this is an endothermic process O certainl! not 3a'ored b! nature) M! Little 8on!: *ho *ill 3ight harder to get it i3 it is Just sitting there: big or little: #t ta/es energ! to remo'e an electron" so *hen one is attached to an atom or ion" energ! is released Ho* much energ! released is directl! related to ho* much an atomIion can accept the electron The more it is able to ta/e on an electron" the lo*er (more negati'e) the number Most atoms must be 3orced to accept an electron ( metals) A + e. + energ! , A.

(endothermic" positi'e f E)

And other atoms )EALL> ha'e to be 3orced to accept an electron ( noble &ases) A + e. + energ! , A. (endothermic" high positi'e f E) 2ut some atoms release energ! *hen accepting electrons (nit*o&en famil+ t'*ou&' 'alo&ens) A + e. , A. + energ! (e-othermic" negati'e f E) 2asic idea 4 some atoms *ant to ta/e on electrons 4 the! ha'e a high electron a33init! 'alue 4 the! recei'e a lot o3 energ! *hen accepting electrons E-amples: ; W 4C.. /<Imole $a W EC /<Imole Ar \6 (means Just *on?t happen)

; has a higher electron a33init! 4 higher" more negati'e 'alue general trend loo/s li/e this

Also 4 .nd EA 'alues are al*a!s positi'e because it requires the absorption o3 energ! to o'ercome electron4electron repulsion4 it happens" but the EA is positi'e (small" but positi'e) o ;or some elements the energ! absorption is too great: 3luorine releases energ! *hen ta/ing an electron" but it onl! *ants one electron #3 it ta/es . electrons it has more electrons than it needs and becomes li/e sodium The .nd EA is positi'e as !ou need to 3orce it to ta/e a .nd electron

5 Amanda ) %oopersmith .676


6lect*on )ffinit+ 0s 3oni?ation 6ne*&+: ) Reca( #oni0ation energ! measures ho* strongl! a gaseous atom holds onto its electrons Electron A33init! measures ho* strongl! an atom attracts additional electrons An atom *ith both a high electron a33init! and a high ioni0ation energ! *ill ha'e a high electronegati'it! (it *ants them all) F%& 308H 6lect*one&ati0it+ O abilit! o3 an atom 3$ ) ,4L6 !L6 to attract electrons 2asic idea 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (Linus 8auling) electronegati'it! is related to atomic si0e: smaller P*antsQ the electron more little atom :ants it more" big doesn?t so little has higher electron a33init! trend loo/s li/e

real de3inition o3 electronegati'it! 4 the abilit! o3 an atom to attract electrons that are shared *ith another atom in a co'alent bond (sets up idea o3 dipoles" partial charges" etc: bonding chapter) electronegati'it! 'alues are based on 8auling?s *or/ *ith bond energies 8osition o3 Electrons 4 #E and Electronegati'it! are related" but di33erent #E in'ol'es the attraction o3 a nucleus 3or an electron and a measureable energ! #E can be measured Electronegati'it! is not a measurement o3 energ! O it is based on P:'o :ants t'e f*ee elect*onQ most #t is determined mathematicall! b! equations based on bond energ! 'alues (8auling)

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7-6 ,etalsB $onmetalsB an9 ,etalloi9s F4' ,+H

)cti0it+ . 3or metals 4 larger atoms are more acti'e 4 the! lose electrons more easil! 3or nonmetals 4 smaller more acti'e 4 the! gain electrons more easil! ,etallic c'a*acte* 4UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU reall! it is Just a statement about their acti'it! #3 the! are a more acti'e metal" the! are said to be more metallic metal acti'it! trend (*ho gi'es e4 up easiest W largest metal)

nonmetal acti'it! trend (*ho *ants e4 most W smallest non4metal" $(T noble gas)

Most acti'e metals + most acti'e nonmetals W most stable compounds e-: )b; 4 'er! stable Li2r 4 less stable ('er! small *ith 'er! large" so di33icult trans3er o3 e4)

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Reca(#Re0ie: F:e al*ea9+ ;no: all of t'isB but 9o it a&ainB it 'el(sH

Metals 4 ha'e lo* ioni0ation energies" so the! tend to 3orm positi'e ions (cations) ;ound to the le3t o3 the staircase $on4metals 4 'ar! greatl! in appearance (all C states o3 matter: colorless to dar/ green gases" e'er! color 3or solids" and a liquid) The! ha'e high ioni0ation energies" so the! 3orm negati'e ions (anions) ;ound to the right o3 the staircase Metalloids O properties o3 both metals and non4metals %an be P3orcedQ either *a! depending on *hat else is added (called PdopantsQ) to create the metalloid compound 8eriods o3 elements O called a periodic table because it is read 3rom le3t to right (periods run across in ro*s) 8roperties change across the period due to di33erences in electrons" protons" and neutrons @roups o3 elements O groups (also called 3amilies) run do*n the table (in columns) The! share the same number o3 electrons in the outer shell" so the! ha'e 'er! similar properties &o a quic/ labeling again o3 the E underlined items abo'e: !ou can ne'er practice this too much

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Properties of families (!ou reall! should read these sections: the! go into a bit more detail" but Just more o3 an ;># 8g .F74.GE) This is the important stu33" but read it an!*a!s @roup 7 4 Al/ali Metals 4 Pal/aliQ comes 3rom Arabic 4 means PashesQ 4 earl! chemists separated sodium and potassium compounds 3rom ashes 4 the h!dro-ides o3 these compounds are strongl! basic These compounds are not 3ound alone in nature 4 e-plosi'e *ith *ater 4 the! are stored under /erosene 4 'er! reacti'e The! react *ith nonmetals to 3orm salts (Man! o3 the compounds the! 3orm are *hite in color) The! are sil'er!" shin! (luster)" ha'e a lo* melting point" conduct electricit!" and are so3t (so so3t" !ou can cut them *ith a /ni3e) The! are malleable (able to 3lattened into a sheet) and ductile (able to be dra*n into a *ire) Sodium and 8otassium are particularl! important in bod! chemistr! @roup . 4 Al/aline Earth Metals 4 PearthQ 4 chemists term 3or o-ides o3 these elements 4 it *as originall! thought that the o-ides o3 these elements *ere the actuall! the elements themsel'es Tend to 3orm *hite colored compounds Strongl! basic 4 .nd most reacti'e elements Also not Plone stateQ elements Harder" denser than group 7 %ommon in sea salts Transition Metals 4 @roups C47. Harder" more brittle" higher melting point than groups 7 and . ;orm colored compounds %onduct heat and electricit! *ell and are shin! 8d" 8t" Au 4 'er! unreacti'e ($oble metals) Metalloids 4 2" Si" As" Te" At" @e" Sb 4 stairs and . people under the stairs 8roperties o3 metals and nonmetals 2rittle 4 used in semiconductors" computers Halogens 4 @roup 7F 4 most reacti'e o3 the nonmetals $ot 3ound 3ree in nature PHalogenQ 4 @ree/ 3or salt 3ormer solids" liquids" and gases in this group *idespread 4 sea salts" minerals" li'ing tissue Man! applications 4 bleach" photograph!" plastics" insecticides $oble @ases 4 @roup 7G 4 Used to be called inert 4 not so since Nr" Le" )n made compounds Used to be called rare (He and Ar 3airl! abundant) Least reacti'e elements 4 used in air conditioners" double pane *indo*s" lights" balloons 2! the *a!" an actual noble gas compound pictured on pg .GE Lanthanides 4 3 bloc/ 4 rare earth elements 4 not reall! rare 4 shin!" sil'er" reacti'e" used to ma/e TV?s glo*" used in creating metal allo!s Actinides 4 3 bloc/ 4 unstable" radioacti'e 4 all but D are arti3iciall! created Uranium used as nuclear 3uel and 3or coloring glass and ceramics (3iesta *are) Also ha'e 3ound use in deep sea di'ing suits and smo/e alarms 3 bloc/ elements are called inner transition elements 4 the! *ere put into their current position b! @lenn Seaborg 4 the onl! li'ing person e'er to ha'e an element named a3ter him This is the gu! *ho *or/ed on the Manhattan 8roJect (also called the 8hiladelphia E-periment) *ith (ppenheimer and other greats in nuclear chemistr! based on the *or/ o3 greats such as ;ermi" Hahn" 2ohr" and Meitner This is some 1A> cool science (and *as a great and interesting mo'ie) 2! the *a!" Einstein *as persuaded to *rite the letter to set the PbombQ into motion 3or use as a *eapon He *as deepl! troubled and saddened b! that choice the rest o3 his li3e

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Rea9+O Aa+ ne: an9 9ifficult c'em- T'is is :'+ 3 lie9 to +ou a bunc' t'e fi*st time: 1ust too muc' to ta;e in all at once-

6-5 >uantum ,ec'anics an9 )tomic 4*bitals

Sc'*X9in&e* Aa0e 6Muation O connects the *a'e and particle nature o3 electrons through math # *on?t e'en put it in here" it?ll Just scare !ou 2! the *a!" e'er *atch the 2ig 2ang Theor!::: )emember *hen Leonard started dating 8enn! (Schrpdinger?s cat)::: 2asicall!" Schrpdinger gi'es us a *a! o3 s/irting the 2eisenbe*& !nce*taint+ %*inci(le b! 3inding the Pdensit! probabilit! o3 an electronQ (electron cloud) So *e use his math to narro* do*n the search 3ield Sort o3 ho* the %oast @uard searches 3or a missing boat: start *here the! *ere last reported" 3igure out the *inds" tides" storms in the area" then search *ithin those parameters The same applies 3or an electron 6lect*on onfi&u*ations (<ust a re3resher) >ou could dra* the &iagonal &iagram: it is in e'er! chem boo/ e-cept !ours" and %A$ be use3ul *hen *riting electron con3igs o3 elements" ho*e'er # pre3er to simpl! count across the ro*s" /no* the sIpIdI3 bloc/s" and remember that 7s" .p" Cd" D3 are the 3irst 3or each sub4orbital t!pe 2e a*are o3 changes in trends in the d bloc/ (at D and H d electrons most notabl!) T'e s 4*bital The orbital 3or the s shape is UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (a ball)" so the probabilit! o3 3inding an electron at a set distance 3rom the nucleus in A$> direction is equal This is true regardless o3 the energ! le'el (n 'alue) 3or an s orbital: the! are all spheres Since both l and ml are 0ero" t'e*e is onl+ 4$6 @sC o*bital (e* ene*&+ le0elT'e ( 4*bitals The shape is more o3 a UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (eas!: p W peanut) shape *here the electron densit! (cloud) is on either side o3 the nucleus *ith a no9e Fem(t+H a*ea a*oun9 t'e nucleus The electron cloud areas are called PlobesQ This is simpl! an a0e*a&e9 9ist*ibution of t'e elect*on 9ensit+ F1ust a bunc' of mat' an9 &oo9 &uess.:o*;HB not a contained path o3 actual motion There are C p orbitals (l W 7 so ml W 47" 6" 7) that lie in the -" !" 0 planes o3 a C& graph This means that at an! energ! le'el (n 'alue) there are C p orbitals (-" !" and 0) The! are all the same si0e and shape fo* eac' &i0en ene*&+ le0el" Just di33er in orientation (along *hat a-is the! la! in a C& graph) Neep in mind" as *e increase energ! le'els (n 'alue increases)" the si?e of t'e o*bital inc*easesB but t'e s'a(e *emains con&*uent (shape is scaled up) T'e 9 an9 f 4*bitals Fall 5 9 s'a(es on (& 232H

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;or the nWC and higher" *e add 9" and then f" orbitals The! are a completel! di33erent PshapeQ 3or the electron clouds The 9 orbital has E shapes (76 bo-es across the table" e4 go in pairs" soX)" *hile the f orbital has F shapes (againX) This is *here the )EALL> 2#@ MATH comes into pla!: it is all about the algebra and graphing 3unctions The f orbital shapes are rarel! sho*n in te-tboo/s belo* the @rad le'el" but the 9 shapes do sho* up 3or re3erence (and 3un)

=L3 4nl+: 4*bitals an9 >uantum $umbe*s FT'is :as 9*o((e9 f*om t'e )% e<amB butKH
7) %*inci(al Muantum numbe* (n W 7" ." C" etc) O si?e an9 ene*&+ of t'e o*bital- As PnQ increases the orbital becomes larger and the electron mo'es 3urther 3rom the nucleus Higher PnQ also means more energ! in the electron *hich results in less attracti'e 3orce *ith the nucleus .) 4*bital Muantum numbe* (l W 6 to n47 3or each 'alue o3 n) O 9efines s'a(e of o*bital $ote: sWsharp" p W principal" d W di33use" and 3 W 3undamental C) ,a&netic Muantum numbe* (m l W 4l" 6" +l) O describes the o*ientation in s(ace of t'e o*bital *elati0e to ot'e* o*bitals (-" !" 0 a-is" or e'en in a PplaneQ) D) S(in Muantum numbe* (ms W + M ) O 8auli E-clusion O elect*ons in a sub.o*bital ,!ST 'a0e o((osite sin- 2asicall!" a magnetic 3ield is created *hen the! spin opposite: it holds the electrons in place around the nucleus E'en though the electron can Poccup!Q an! number o3 orbitals" it can onl! e-ist in one at an! gi'en time 1e sa! that Pthe electron occupiesQ a speci3ic orbital All other orbitals are PunoccupiedQ i3 there is no electron in them at that time That is *h! *e can PpromoteQ an electron using energ!" and can PseeQ the loss o3 energ! *hen the electron P3alls bac/ do*nQ (3lash o3 colored light)

6-6 Re(*esentations of 4*bitals

The energ! o3 an electron is important" but so is the probabilit! o3 3inding the electron (general position in space)" *hich brings us to the shapes o3 the electron clouds" or orbitals

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Ra9ial (*obabilit+ function O the probabilit! *e *ill 3ind the electron at a speci3ic distance 3rom the nucleus (ho* 3ar out is it) As 2ohr predicted" it is most li/el! to be 3ound at E.HAo (angstroms)" *hich is also the 2ohr radius o3 an orbit" so it is called the 2ohr radius The boo/ sho*s graphs (pg ..H) 3or the 'arious s orbitals and their radial probabilit!: read this and loo/ at the graphs so !ou can appreciate it more no9e 4 The probabilit! 3unction goes to 0ero (*on?t 3ind an electron EVE)) This happens bet*een each s orbital energ! le'el (*here n changes 3rom 7 to . " etc): again" a PstepQ not a PslideQ bet*een energ! le'els ontou* *e(*esentations O picture o3 the electron cloud (probabilit! 3unction) that ta/es into account relati'e si0e o3 the area 3or about H6K o3 the electron densit! 3or an orbital The si0e increases as the energ! le'el (and n 'alue) increases

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6-7 ,an+.elect*on )toms

Most o3 *hat *e ha'e seen applies to one electron (li/e 3or H!drogen) 2ut all o3 the others ha'e . or more electrons: *e ha'e to #& and /eep trac/ o3 ALL o3 them 4*bitals an9 T'ei* 6ne*&ies #n a man! electron atom" at a gi'en 'alue o3 n" the energ! o3 an orbital increases *ith an increasing 'alue o3 Pl. 2asicall!" all o3 the orbitals (shapes) in a gi'en energ! le'el (74F) are $(T at the same energ! state due to the repulsion 3orces o3 the electrons in those orbitals and sub shells (shapes) This is *h! the Crd energ! le'el goes PCs" Cp" Ds" CdQ instead o3 straight across the table Cd has a higher energ! le'el than Ds" so it is 3illed A;TE) the Ds %hec/ out 3igure B .E on pg .CC

6lect*on S(in an9 t'e %auli 6<clusion %*inci(le Line spectrum sho*ed PpairsQ instead o3 single lines" *hich lead to the idea o3 PspinQ on an electron %auli e<clusion (*inci(le 4 $o t*o electrons in an atom can ha'e identical sets o3 3our quantum numbers: n" l" ml. " and ms (A bit di33erent 3rom the 3irst time around" but it sa!s the same thing ) (rX an orbital can onl! hold . electrons and the! MUST ha'e opposite spins (!eah" that sounds more 3amiliar) S(in ,a&netic $umbe* FmsH O designation 3or positi'e (+) and negati'e (4) spin o3 electrons that are in an orbital either in singles or pairs 2asicall!" a spinning charge produces a magnetic 3ield The . opposite spins o3 a pair o3 electrons gi'es . unique magnetic 3ields" so . lines in a spectrum

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6lect*on onfi&u*ations )ufbau (so" !our boo/ ignored this b! name" but it?s all there in theor!) O electrons 3ill 3rom lo*est to highest energ! le'els The diagonal diagram (also not in !our boo/) and 3igure B .E sho* this 3illing o3 electrons 2asicall!" 3rom the ground up (inside near the nucleus to*ards the outside) <ust li/e a building 2un9Gs Rule 4 3or degenerate orbitals (orbitals *ith the same energ!) the lo*est energ! is attained *hen the number o3 electrons *ith the same spin is ma-imi0ed >ep" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU is here: electrons *ant to be in singles be3ore the! are paired up in a sub shell (di33erent parts o3 the same orbital and energ! le'el) An s orbital onl! has 7 PseatQ" so both electrons 3ill in (no choice) A p orbital has C seats (-" !" and 0)" so each PseatQ gets an electron be3ore the! pair up A d orbital has E seats (remember the dra*ings)" so each PseatQ gets one be3ore the! pair up (more choices) And an 3 orbital has F seats" so each gets a single be3ore pairing up (trul! mass transit o3 orbitals) %auli 6<clusion %*inci(le O electrons MUST ha'e (88(S#TE S8#$ in the SAME sub4orbital Actuall!" Au3bau is 'iolated *hen an electron absorbs enough potential energ! to Pmo'eQ to an e-cited state Additionall!" 8auli is 'iolated *hen enough electromagnetic radiation energ! is added to 3orce the re4 alignment (happens *hen 3ood coo/s in a micro*a'e o'en: the reason !ou need *ater around Also happens in an $M) and an M)#) 6lect*on onfi&u*ation O the *a! in *hich electrons are distributed among the 'arious orbitals o3 an atom (a99*ess s'o:in& all elect*ons fo* a s(ecific atom) >ou remember this: ro* shape number" ro* shape number" etc Let?s do a 3e* basics 3or re'ie*:

8-2 T*ansition.,etal 3ons

The d4bloc/ metals do not 3ollo* the same rules" e-actl!" as other cations *hen 3orming 2ecause the! can Pborro*Q 3rom the s4bloc/ to hal3 3ill or completel! 3ill the d4bloc/ electrons" the! then ha'e onl! 7s electron le3t 1hat does it mean: 1ell" the! lose this s electron 3irst" then the! lose as man! d electrons as are required to reach the charge o3 the ion 2asicall!" the! 'iolate the octet rule and lose inner (d electrons) as part o3 their bonding 3ormation (ther elements in the same column as listed abo'e lose electrons in a similar manner" leading to the same electron con3igurations T*o notable e-ceptions are gold *hich 3orms a +C ion and sil'er *hich 3orms a +7 (all /inds o3 *eird happens *hen *e get into the larger si0ed atoms *hose electrons are S( 3ar 3rom the nucleus)

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$o* 3or the 4*bital $otation: a 9ia&*am of t'e elect*ons :it' t'ei* s(ins: 1or/s the same *a!: ro* shape number" but no* *e use bo-es or lines to sho* *here the electrons are Also" MUST sho* . electrons in a pair *ith (88(S#TE spin (one up arro*" one do*n arro*) Tr! it:

S'o*t'an9 Foute* s'ellB 0alence elect*ons onl+B etcH: *e did it the long *a!" no* 3or the shortcut Start *ith the $oble gas in the ro* be3ore" in brac/ets" then start at the beginning o3 the ro* the element is in and do ro* shape number to the element Tr! some (do both E%4 addresses and ($4 electrons *ith spin):

These are the 'alence (bon9in&) electrons: the ones in'ol'ed in bonding (%A$ 2E 9 R f #; the inner shell becomes hal3 3ull b! remo'ing a 3e*) <ust an aside: the d4bloc/ is called t*ansition metals and does some *eird stu33: The! are called anomalous O attributed to the closel! related energies o3 the (n47)d and (n)s orbitals This happens *ith the d4 and 34bloc/ *hen a ne-t le'el electron (3rom the s bloc/ in that ro*) can be Pborro*edQ to either e-actl! hal343ill or totall! 3ill the d or 3 orbitals The boo/s sa!s it is interesting" but o3 no real signi3icance chemicall! T26L L36: this is the reason the d and 3 bloc/ elements can and do ha'e di33erent charges The p4bloc/ has 'arious charges 3or a *hole di33erent set o3 reasons The 34bloc/ is the inne*.t*ansition metals The s4bloc/ and p4bloc/ are re3erred to as the *e(*esentati0e elements (main4group) 1hat does it all mean: 1e can use all o3 this in3o to predict o-idation numbers (charges) 3or elements based on *here the electrons are located in the 'alence (outside) shell (3 course" *e can also Just PcountQ across the ro* 3or the s and p bloc/s The d bloc/ gets hair!" and *e usuall! Just PcalculateQ these numbers based on *hat else is hanging around So" predict o-idation numbers 3or the 3ollo*ing based on placement in the table onl! H Al % ( ; $e N H.S(D %a %u (both) H.S(C 8 N.%r.(F !nit 7 Set S $ #;E

7) UUUUUUUUUU is a unique element and does not trul! belong to an! 3amil! A) $itrogen 2) )adium %) H!drogen &) Uranium

E) Helium

.) Element M reacts *ith o-!gen to 3orm an o-ide *ith the 3ormula M( 1hen M( is dissol'ed in *ater" the resulting solution is strongl! basic Element M could be UUUUUUUUUU
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A) $a

2) 2a

%) S

&) $

E) % E) $a%l

C) All o3 the 3ollo*ing are ionic compounds e-cept UUUUUUUUUU A) N . ( 2) $a .S( D %) Si( . &) LiC $ D) %onsider the 3ollo*ing properties o3 an element: (i) #t is solid at room temperature (ii) #t easil! 3orms an o-ide *hen e-posed to air (iii) 1hen it reacts *ith *ater" h!drogen gas e'ol'es (i') #t must be stored submerged in oil 1hich element 3its the abo'e description the best: A) sul3ur 2) copper %) mercur!

&) sodium

E) magnesium

E) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing traits characteri0es the al/ali metals: A) 'er! high melting point 2) e-istence as diatomic molecules %) 3ormation o3 dianions &) the lo*est 3irst ioni0ation energies in a period E) the smallest atomic radius in a period B) $onmetals can be UUUUUUUUUU at room temperature A) solid" liquid" or gas 2) solid or liquid &) liquid onl! E) liquid or gas F) (3 the 3ollo*ing o-ides" UUUUUUUUUU is the most acidic A) %a( 2) %( . %) Al. (C &) Li . ( %) solid onl!

E) $a . (

G) (3 the 3ollo*ing metals" UUUUUUUUUU e-hibits multiple o-idation states A) Al 2) %s %) V &) %a E) $a H) (3 the elements belo*" UUUUUUUUUU has the highest melting point A) %a 2) N %) ;e &) $a E) 2a 76) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing is a metalloid: A) @e 2) S %) 2r &) 8b E) %

77) 1hich equation correctl! represents the electron a33init! o3 calcium: A) %a (g) + e4 %a 4 (g) 2) %a (g) %a + (g) + e 4 %) %a (g) %a 4 (g) + e 4 &) %a 4 (g) %a (g) + e 4 E) %a + (g) + e4 %a (g) 7.) (3 the 3ollo*ing elements" UUUUUUUUUU has the most negati'e electron a33init! A) 8 2) Al %) Si &) %l E) 2

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7C) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing is an isoelectronic series: A) 2E4 " Si D4 " AsC4 " Te.4 2) ;4 " %l4 " 2r 4 " #4 %) S" %l" Ar" N &) Si .4 " 8 .4 " S.4 " %l .4 E) (4." ;47" $e" $a+7 7D) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing has the largest second ioni0ation energ!: A) %a 2) N %) @a &) @e E) Se 7E) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing correctl! lists the 3i'e atoms in order o3 increasing si0e (smallest to largest): A) ; q N q @e q 2r q )b 2) ; q @e q 2r q N q )b %) ; q N q 2r q @e q )b &) ; q 2r q @e q N q )b E) ; q 2r q @e q )b q N 7B) (3 the choices belo*" *hich gi'es the order 3or 3irst ioni0ation energies: A) %l \ S \ Al \ Ar \ Si 2) Ar \ %l \ S \ Si \ Al %) Al \ Si \ S \ %l \ Ar &) %l \ S \ Al \ Si \ Ar E) S \ Si \ %l \ Al \ Ar 7F) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing atoms has the largest radius: A) ( 2) ; %) S &) %l E) $e

7G) The atomic radius o3 main4group elements generall! increases do*n a group because UUUUUUUUUU A) e33ecti'e nuclear charge increases do*n a group 2) e33ecti'e nuclear charge decreases do*n a group %) e33ecti'e nuclear charge 0ig0ags do*n a group &) the principal quantum number o3 the 'alence orbitals increases E) both e33ecti'e nuclear charge increases do*n a group and the principal quantum number o3 the 'alence orbitals increases 7H) (3 the 3ollo*ing" *hich gi'es the correct order 3or atomic radius 3or Mg" $a" 8" Si and Ar: A) Mg \ $a \ 8 \ Si \ Ar 2) Ar \ Si \ 8 \ $a \ Mg %) Si \ 8 \ Ar \ $a \ Mg &) $a \ Mg \ Si \ 8 \ Ar E) Ar \ 8 \ Si \ Mg \ $a .6) #n *hich set o3 elements *ould all members be e-pected to ha'e 'er! similar chemical properties: A) (" S" Se 2) $" (" ; %) $a" Mg" N &) S" Se" Si E) $e" $a" Mg .7) (3 the halogens" *hich are gases at room temperature and atmospheric pressure: A) 3luorine" bromine" and iodine 2) 3luorine" chlorine" and bromine %) 3luorine" chlorine" bromine" and iodine &) 3luorine" chlorine" and iodine E) 3luorine and chlorine ..) The onl! noble gas that does not ha'e the ns . npB 'alence electron con3iguration is UUUUUUUUUU A) radon 2) neon %) helium &) /r!pton

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E) All noble gases ha'e the ns . np B 'alence electron con3iguration .C) 1hich periodic table group contains onl! nonmetals UUUUUUUUUU: A) GA 2) .A %) BA &) FA E) EA .D) 1hich group BA element is a metal: A) tellurium and polonium &) tellurium 2) sul3ur E) polonium %) selenium

.E) The reaction o3 a metal *ith a nonmetal produces a(n) UUUUUUUUUU A) base 2) salt %) acid &) o-ide

E) h!dro-ide

.B) An al/aline earth metal 3orms a compound *ith o-!gen *ith the 3ormula UUUUUUUUUU (The s!mbol M represents an! one o3 the al/aline earth metals ) A) M( 2) M . ( %) M(. &) M . ( . .F) The substance" UUUUUUUUUU is al*a!s produced *hen an acti'e metal reacts *ith *ater A) $a(H 2) H . ( %) %( . &) H . E) ( . .G) Most o3 the elements on the periodic table are UUUUUUUUUU A) gases 2) nonmetals %) metalloids .H) Metals can be UUUUUUUUUU at room temperature A) liquid onl! 2) solid onl! &) solid" liquid" or gas E) liquid or gas &) liquids

E) M(C

E) metals

%) solid or liquid

C6) The 3irst ioni0ation energies o3 the elements UUUUUUUUUU as !ou go 3rom le3t to right across a period o3 the periodic table" and UUUUUUUUUU as !ou go 3rom the bottom to the top o3 a group in the table A) increase" increase 2) increase" decrease %) decrease" increase &) decrease" decrease E) are completel! unpredictable C7) The UUUUUUUUUU ha'e the most negati'e electron a33inities A) al/aline earth metals 2) al/ali metals %) halogens &) transition metals E) chalcogens C.) UUUUUUUUUU is credited *ith de'eloping the concept o3 atomic numbers A) &mitri Mendelee' 2) Lothar Me!er %) Henr! Mosele! &) Ernest )uther3ord E) Michael ;arada! CC) Ho* man! quantum numbers are necessar! to designate a particular electron in an atom UUUUUUUUUU: A) C 2) D %) . &) 7 E) E CD) #n *hich orbital does an electron in a phosphorus atom e-perience the greatest shielding UUUUUUUUUU: A) .p 2) Cs %) Cp &) .s E) 7s CE) The principal quantum number 3or the outermost electrons in a 2r atom in the ground state is UUUUUUUUUU A) . 2) C %) D &) E E) 7 CB) All o3 the UUUUUUUUUU ha'e a 'alence shell electron con3iguration ns7 A) noble gases 2) halogens %) chalcogens
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&) al/ali metals

E) al/aline earth metals

CF) The largest principal quantum number in the ground state electron con3iguration o3 iodine is UUUUUUUUUU A) 7 2) D %) E &) B E) F CG) Most elements in group UUUUUUUUUU ha'e a npB electron con3iguration in the outer shell A) DA 2) BA %) FA &) GA E) EA CH) 1hich group in the periodic table contains elements *ith the 'alence electron con3iguration o3 ns . np7 UUUUUUUUUU: A) 7A 2) .A %) CA &) DA E) GA D6) All o3 the orbitals in a gi'en electron shell ha'e the same 'alue o3 the UUUUUUUUUU quantum number A) principal 2) a0imuthal %) magnetic &) spin E) psi D7) 1hich o3 the subshells belo* do not e-ist due to the constraints upon the a0imuthal quantum number: A) D3 2) Dd %) Dp &) Ds E) none o3 the abo'e D.) #n a p - orbital" the subscript - denotes the UUUUUUUUUU o3 the electron A) energ! 2) spin o3 the electrons %) probabilit! o3 the shell &) si0e o3 the orbital E) a-is along *hich the orbital is aligned DC) At ma-imum" an 34subshell can hold UUUUUUUUUU electrons" a d4subshell can hold UUUUUUUUUU electrons" and a p4 subshell can hold UUUUUUUUUU electrons A) 7D" 76" B 2) ." G" 7G %) 7D" G" . &) ." 7." .7 E) ." B" 76 DD) 1hich electron con3iguration represents a 'iolation o3 the 8auli e-clusion principle: A)





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!nit 7 %*oblems#%*actice
1hich atom in each pair is larger" has higher #EIEA: Ar Le Li % 8 %l

1hat is the o-idation state (number) o3 each: 1 Al Le 2a



1rite the electron con3ig and orbital notation 3or each (go ahead" do shorthand 3or the lo*er ones) Aluminum ion Lead atom 2romide ion Nr!pton atom

!nit 7 4b1ecti0es
7 . C D E B F G &escribe organi0ation o3 the modern periodic table and /no* propert! relations 3or periods and 3amilies &e3ine the D quantum numbers and ho* the! relate to an electron 1rite electron con3igurations" dra* orbital notations" and be able to use the in3o to create a &ot &iagram 3or an element &escribe properties o3 metals" non4metals" and metalloids 2e able to #& each o3 the main groups on a periodic table E-plain the octet rule and *h! there are e-ceptions to the octet rule 8redict the o-idation number o3 an element based on location 2e able to de3ine" e-plain" and relate trends in the periodic table to other trends and speci3ic sets o3 elements

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!nit 8 'emical Bon9in& an9 ,olecula* St*uctu*e

There are C basic principles to bonding: 7 All bonds can be e-plained in terms o3 attraction o3 one or more electrons 3rom one atom to the protons in the nucleus o3 another atom The t!pe o3 bond is based on electronegati'it! di33erences 2igger di33erence W more ionic . Most chemical reactions can be e-plained based on ho* the electrons are rearranged to brea/I3orm bonds A certain amount o3 )cti0ation 6ne*&+ is needed be3ore the reaction can proceed 2asicall!" ene*&+ is nee9e9 to b*ea; t'e bon9s be3ore ne* ones can be 3ormed" and then ene*&+ is *elease9 :'en ne: bon9s a*e fo*me9 H(1EVE)" the energ! in does $(T equal the energ! out C 2asic chemical bonding is not Just a HS class thing" it is occurring inside e'er! li'ing (and non4 li'ing) s!stem


'emical Bon9sB Le:is S+mbolsB an9 t'e 4ctet Rule

Three t!pes o3 bon9s inside a particle O 3orces that hold the atoms together in a compound (int*amolecular 3orces) o0alent Fmolecula*H O . non4metals bonded together (s'a*in& of elect*ons) 3onic 4 metal cation *ith non4metal anion (t*ansfe* of elect*ons) ,etallic 4 d4bloc/ metals subset o3 ionic" but di33erent 3rom an electron standpoint (Psea o3 electronsQ no one atom 'ol9s elect*onsB so f*ee floatin& amon& t'e cation.li;e metal atoms) $ote: bonding happens *hen electrons in an atom are promoted 3rom the ground ( lo:est ene*&+) state to an e-cited (an+ 'i&'e* ene*&+) state" thus creating single electrons in PorbitsQ that are no* read! to be paired up Sort o3 li/e at a dance: e'en i3 !ou didn?t come *ith a date" !ou still *ant to dance *ith someone #3 !ou sit in the corner *ith !our best 3riend" no one *ill as/ !ou to dance: need to sho* some interest 3or it to happen

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Le:is S+mbols 7alence elect*ons 4 outer le'el ('i&'est ene*&+ le0el) electrons in'ol'ed in bonding Le:is Dot Dia&*ams 4 @ilbert Le*is de'eloped a method 3or *riting and trac/ing the mo'ement o3 the 'alence electrons 1rite the shorthand electron con3iguration (sho*s onl! outer electrons) %ount the s an9 ( elect*ons 8lace one dot per electron around the s!mbol doing one per side" then pairing them up (Hund?s )ule again) 1here the! go depends on ho* man! PunpairedQ electrons are hanging about the atom Tr! some: 7 . C

T'e 4ctet Rule O atoms gain" lose" share electrons to gain a noble gas con3iguration o3 'alence electrons (the! all *ant G 'e4" unless the! are isoelectronic *ith helium) ;or a Le*is &iagram" this means 3our pairs o3 electrons 3or a total o3 G around the element?s s!mbol Let?s splurge and e-pand a 3e* no*TTT 8;E $HD+ #;D+ #;D4 #;E

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8-2 3onic Bon9in&

;ormation o3 #onic %ompounds O another name 3or ionic bonding is elect*oco0alent bon9in& 8articles in an ionic compound are held together b! electrostatic 3orces *hich are 'er! strong There3oreS 7 All ionic compounds are soli9s :'en $4T in :ate*. All ionic compounds ha'e @'i&'C meltin& (oints Actual melting point depends on the relati'e strength o3 the attracti'e 3orces C Electrons are trans3erred 3rom the cation (em(t+ oute* s'ell) to the anion (full oute* s'ell) 2asicall!" the ioni0ation energ! o3 the cation coupled *ith the electron a33init! o3 the anion sho*s ho* easil! the electrons are trans3erred to 3orm the ionic compound ((N" no* in English: the metal atom *ants to @#VE U8 an electron *hile the non4metal atom *ants to @A#$ an electron)

dd 2a

< <<

<< < < <


< <

2a . - %l




< <

;or Le*is &ot &iagrams o3 ions: 7 Use a brac/et to sho* it is charged . 8lace the charge on the outside o3 the brac/et C Ma/e sure the dots are correct ;or cations" there are $4 D4TS inside the brac/ets (empt! outer shell) ;or anions" there are 8 D4TS inside the brac/ets (3ull outer shell) #onic compounds e-ist as 3ormula units (dra* some): Li.( %a((H). Mg%(C

#n realit!" the ionic compound is a cr!stal lattice structure (li/e di33erent si0ed balls stac/ed tightl! together)" *hich allo*s 3or the strength in the o'erall material And remember: cations tend to be smaller (3e*er electrons than protons gi'ing increased nuclear charge) *hile anions tend to be larger (more electrons than protons" so not as strong o3 a hold on the outer ones and the e4 spread out more)
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6ne*&etics of 3onic Bon9 =o*mation (Seen this be3ore" but *e?ll do it again) 1e /no* that remo'ing an electron ta/es energ!" and *hen an electron is absorbed it releases energ! The o'erall process" ho*e'er" requires more energ! than it releases Ho*e'er" 3orming ionic bonds is e-othermic" so *here does the e-tra energ! come 3rom: The attraction bet*een the ions o3 unli/e charge (inte*molecula* fo*ces) Lattice 6ne*&+ I ene*&+ *eMui*e9 to com(letel+ se(a*ate a mole of an ionic soli9 com(oun9 into its &aseous ions() Lattice Energ! 4 energ! released *hen an ionic compound 3orms

The e-tra energ! needed to 3ull! separate (*hat holds them together) ionic compounds o'ercomes the endothermic nature o3 fH3o (energ! o3 3ormation o3 the compound) 2asicall!" the ionic nature is a stable arrangement o3 atoms The lattice energ! o3 ionic (not metallic) compounds also accounts 3or the high melting point and brittle (not malleable) properties o3 these compounds There is a *a! o3 calculating lattice energ! based on potential energ! (E el) calculations: (;rom %hpt E) elect*ostatic (otential ene*&+F6elH Oarises 3rom the interaction bet*een charged particles (attracti'e 3orce) Eel W / =7=.Id *here / W is a constant (G HH - 76H <4mI%.) $ote: % W coulomb is a unit o3 electrical charge = is the electrical charges on the obJects (usuall! around the charge o3 an e4 W 7 B6 - 7647H %) d W distance bet*een obJects ;or a gi'en arrangement o3 ions" t'e lattice ene*&+ inc*eases as t'e c'a*&es on t'e ions inc*eases an9 t'e *a9ii 9ec*eases2asicall!" the higher the charge di33erence and the smaller the atoms" the bigger the lattice energ! (more strongl! bonded) All goes bac/ to metallic character and acti'it! trends (*hich o3 course go to atomic radius" electron a33init!" etc) #t should be noted that *e are less concerned *ith atomic radii ('er! little di33erence o'erall in si0e o3 atom)" but more concerned *ith ioni0ation energ! and electron a33init! (*ho easil! gi'es up and *ho readil! ta/es on gi'e a higher lattice energ!) T'e boo; s'o:s t'e Bo*n.2abe* c+cle fo* calculatin& Lattice ene*&ies F(& 304H This is Just li/e doing change in enthalp! calculations (Hess?s La*) using 3ormation energies 3or ionic compounds (*e used molecular be3ore) Same thing" di33erent part o3 the periodic table

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o0alent Bon9in& The maJorit! o3 compounds *e use e'er! da!: gases" liquids" and solids *ith lo* melting points Again" a co'alent (molecula*) bond PsharesQ electrons (e'er!one gets along nicel! and shares) 1hen a molecular (co0alent) bond occurs" the electrons repel *hile the protons attract" setting up a balanced electrostatic interaction (see 3igure G E" pg C6E) Le:is St*uctu*es 1or/s the same" e-cept the electrons Lare not trans3erred" but shared The compound is dra*n as a structure instead o3 as cations and anions: $ote: *e get tired o3 the dots" so lines are used to sho* co'alent (molecular) bonds %(. %( 2en0ene

Ho*e'er" there are also Plone pairsQ" *hich can be dra*n as dots or lines (depends on the boo/) Lone %ai* O (ai* of 0alence elect*ons t'at a*e $4T in0ol0e9 in bon9in& (the! are e-tra electrons an atom brings *ith it to the part!) oo*9inate o0alent Bon9 O molecula* bon9 :'e*e bot' elect*ons come f*om t'e same atom (a lone pair is used as a bonding pair o3 electrons) The boo/ has an entire chapter (.D) that goes into monster detail about this: coordination spheres" ligands" 1erner?s Theor!" coordination numbers" comple- geometries A little bit o3 light reading (as Hermione @ranger *ould sa!) >ou?ll see this in organic chem" but *e?ll onl! tal/ ligands this !ear

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o0alent ,ulti(le Bon9s Sin&le bon9s I Double bon9s I T*i(le bon9s I Molecular (co'alent) compounds can 3orm all three t!pes depending on the a'ailable electrons and the con3iguration o3 the electrons *ithin each atom

Bon9 len&t's F1ust t'e basics 'e*eB mo*e in section 8-8H: Sin&le 4 T*i(le O

8-4 Bon9 %ola*it+ an9 6lect*one&ati0it+

(N" so *e did electronegati'it!" but *e?ll loo/ at it a bit more and relate it to polarit! %ola* O Sets up a partial charge on each atom (not quite ionic" but getting close) $on.(ola* O 6lect*one&ati0it+ an9 Bon9 %ola*it+ There is a scale 3or determining polarit! in co'alent compounds: electronegati'it! di33erences used to predict the abilit! o3 an atom to attract electrons (3luorine highest" 3rancium lo*est) D 6 O 7 F W 766 to E6K ionic character (ic) 7 F4 C W E6 to EK ic \6 C W less than EK ic so \ 7 F W ionic 7 F 46 D W polar co'alent (pc) 6 C or less W non4polar (npc) These are not PHard numbersQ but a rough rule o3 thumb (ther 3actors also a33ect the bond t!pe e-amples: Li; D6O76WC6 H; D6O.7W7H ((nl! co'alent i3 Pdr!Q) ;. D6OD6W6

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Di(ole ,oments Di(ole ,oments I :a+ to e<(*ess bon9 (ola*it+ st*en&t's nume*icall+&ipole moment (r) W =r (charge - distance) = is the charge $UM2E) (the charge must be equal but opposite) And r is the distance bet*een nuclei (total radii o3 each atom) As electronegati'it! di33erences increase" so does dipole moment ;or the case o3 H;" the ionic character indicates that it is an ionic compound" not molecular Ho*e'er" it is a molecular compound (but acts ionic in *ater: it is an acid and ALL acids do this) 1e see a large dipole moment: H is partiall! positi'e (s+) *hile ; is partiall! negati'e (s4) s+ s4 H 444444 ; or H44444 ;

# ha'e $EVE) done a dipole moment calculation" but # ha'e seen 8LE$T> o3 dipole moment tables (the! go *ith bond length and electronegati'it! di33erences) As the electronegati'it! di33erence decreases" the bond length increases (bigger atoms ha'e smaller electronegati'ities" no surprise there) The larger separation causes a decrease in dipole moment due to the larger distance (r) 2asicall!" the bigger the atoms are" the lo*er their dipole moment and the less ionic character the! ha'e This in turns goes bac/ to acti'it!" electron a33init!" ioni0ation potentials (been there" done that)" the lo*er the o'erall reacti'it!X 2ut # digress" it?s Just all so 3ascinating and interestingTTTT

Although in carbon dio-ide the o-!gens ha'e a partial negati'e charge and the carbon a partial positi'e charge" the molecule has no dipole 4 it *ill not orient in an electrical 3ield 1ater has a dipole and *ill orient in an electrical 3ield

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Diffe*entiatin& 3onic an9 o0alent Bon9in& The! are bonded di33erentl! (trans3er 's sharing o3 electrons) The! are named di33erentl! (. sets o3 rules) The! act di33erentl! in solution (dissolutionInon4electrol!tes 's dissociationIelectrol!tes) The! ha'e di33erent ph!sical properties (high 's lo* melting points" state o3 matter di33erences" etc) There are e-ceptions to the general classi3ication (there are AL1A>S e-ceptions in chem): Sn%lD is a molecular substance (colorless liquid at room temp) Mn.(F is a green liquid that e-hibits molecular properties <ust /no* that not e'er! compound is *hat it ma! appear to be based on general classi3ications (The! li/e to PpretendQ as *ell)

8-5 D*a:in& Le:is St*uctu*es

>ou )EALL> need to be able to do this: it is li/e 3actoring in math class )ules (steps" reall!: Just do this each time and !ou?ll be 3ine): 7 Sum up the 'alence electrons 3or all atoms in the compound . 1rite the s!mbols 3or the compound sho*ing *ho is attached to *hom (use lines to represent the bonding electrons) 2e sure to start *ith the most electronegati'e ones" *or/ out 3rom there" and through h!drogen around last @enerall!" *or/ 3rom le3t to right C %omplete the octets around all o3 the atoms bonded to the central atom(s) D #3 there are not enough electrons to gi'e an octet to the central" !ou need multiple (double or triple) bonds 8%lC H%$





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=o*mal c'a*&e #n a case *here more than one Le*is Structure is possible" e-perimental e'idence is needed to /no* 3or certain the correct structure O i3 this is not a'ailable" 3ormal charge can help Basicall+B calculatin& o<i9ation numbe*s to see :'at ma;es t'e most sense f*om a c'emical stan9(oint=o*mal c'a*&e on an! atom in a molecule is the charge the atom *ould ha'e i3 there *ere no electronegati'it! di33erences (each set o3 electrons *ere equall! shared) $(T THE )EAL %HA)@E ($ A$ AT(M" Just a 3orm o3 boo/ /eeping Le*is structure assignment o3 atoms: 7 All unshared electrons (non4bonding) are assigned to the atom on *hich the! are 3ound . ;or an! bond (single O triple)" hal3 o3 the bonding electrons are assigned to each atom in the bond (each gets one o3 each pair) ;% W (group 9) O ^(9 o3 bonds) + (9 o3 unshared electrons)_ (3c adds up to 6 in molecules)

%alculate ;% in S(%l. s W 6" ( W 6" %l W 6 ( all single bonds" S in the middle) %alculate 3ormal charge 3or %S%l. %l"%"S"%l ( 7 chain) % W 47" S W 6" %l W 6 S in middle" single bonds to %l?s" one double bond to % % W 4." S W +." %l W 6

% in middle" double bond to S" single bonds to %l?s % W 6" S W 6" %l W 6 So" 2est StructureT

#3 a structure can be dra*n t*o or more *a!s" lo*est 3ormal charge is best 1hich is better: H4Si triple bond to 8 or H48 triple bond to Si

1hich is better H%$ or H$%:

#n a pol!atomic ion" 3ormal charge o3 the ion W o'erall charge And put the negati'e charge on the more electronegati'e atom(s) S(D4.

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8-6 Resonance (*hich has ne'er been pro'en to e-ist) is also called Pdelocali0ationQ
Resonance O :'en 2 o* mo*e (ossible st*uctu*es can be 9*a:n fo* t'e same molecule2asicall!" t*ins" triplets" etc but are treated as one indi'idual (li/e at earl! birthda! parties: so sad) #n the case o3 molecules" the! A)E all equi'alent (the! don?t ha'e 3eelings or birthda!s" so no *orries)

E-: S(. on *hich side does the double bond go: Ans*er: both" do resonance structuresT

The PactualQ is

The boo/ ta/es the paint analog!: blue and !ello* ma/e green @reen cannot be blue sometimes and !ello* others" it is green (one compound) all the time Ho*e'er" to get to that color" *e needed both the blue and !ello* colors (. di33erent structures) @reat 3igure G 7." pg C7H )esonance ta/es care o3 the hal34bond problem: *e can?t ha'e hal3 a person" hal3 an atom" or hal3 a bond so *e need alternati'e methods 3or dealing *ith it Let?s tr! $itrate ion (classic e-ample *ith C resonance structures) &ra*ing these actuall! sho*s up o3ten" soX

2ottom line: each o3 the three $4( bonds is a 7 7IC bond" in terms o3 lengthIstrengthIenerg! Resonance in Ben?ene FRust fo* funH 2ottom line: i3 !ou can do resonance" the molecule shouldn?t be a problem regardless o3 shape
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2en0ene is a ring (circular) structure o3 B carbons and B h!drogens *e see a 2U$%H in organic chem &ra*ing these is something !ou *ill be able to do in !our sleep at the end o3 organic chem


)esonance one

resonance t*o

blend o3 the resonance structures

8-7 6<ce(tions of t'e 4ctet Rule

$ot all elements get octets The rule 3ails *hen: Molecules and pol!atomic ions contain an odd number o3 electrons Molecules and pol!atomic ions ha'e an atom *ith 3e*er than an octet o3 'alence electrons (2" Al) Molecules and pol!atomic ions ha'e an atom *ith more than an octet o3 'alence electrons (8"S" %l" 2r" #) 499 $umbe* of 6lect*ons Sometimes there Just aren?t enough electrons to ma/e 3ull pairs" so *e ha'e to dra* resonance and sho* the odd electron $( contains E electrons 3or $ and B electrons 3or ( so 77 electrons total

2asicall!" a double bond and one atom gets . lone pairs *hile the other gets 7 lone pair and a single electron: . resonance Less T'an an 4ctet of 7alence 6lect*ons Re9uce9 octet 4 There are $4T enou&' 0alence elect*ons to go around the central atom Happens *ith H He" 2" Al and other +C non4metals

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&ra* Al;C"


There are onl! B 'e" so the outer atoms are distributed di33erentl! (geometr! o3 compounds: coming soon) The o'erall 3ormal charge is 0ero 3or all atoms in'ol'ed" so this is a 'alid" and stable" structure #3 *e tried a double bond *ith C resonance structures" *e *ould satis3! the octet rule" but *e *ould 3orce 3luorine to share a lone pair: not going to happen (gi'es 3luorine a 3ormal charge o3 +7" but ; is M(ST electroneg" so Just *on?t gi'e up an! electrons) That said" these compounds (B 'e) react *ell *ith compounds that ha'e an unshared pair (lone pair) on the central atom to create coordination compounds <ust sho*s that" in the end" e'er!one is e'entuall! happ! ,o*e T'an an 4ctet of 7alence 6lect*ons 6<(an9e9 4ctet O mo*e t'an 4 (ai*s of elect*ons (G 'e) are arranged around a central atom Usuall! occurs *ith higher energ! le'el (ro* C and up) p4bloc/ atoms 1h!: )o* 7 and . Just don?t ha'e enough room (places to accept e-tra electrons) Atomic radius (si0e) also determines the e-pansion o3 an octet: a bigger atom (table) can accommodate more electrons (chairs) 8;C (e-pected)" 8;E (e-panded" une-pected) goes *ith h!bridi0ation

;or some pol!?s" there are e-panded octets that require resonance in order to ha'e the most stable 3orm (goes bac/ to 3ormal charge) Ho*e'er" a Le*is structure that satis3ies the octet rule *ith $( multiple bonds" i3 possible" is usuall! the best regardless o3 3ormal charge 8(D4C has D equal resonance structures 3or lo*est o'erall 3ormal charge R one *ith no double bonds

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8-8 St*en&t's of

o0alent Bon9s Bon9 6nt'al(+ O enthalp! change (fH) 3or the brea/ing o3 a certain bond in one mole o3 a gaseous substance Easiest *a! to determine the PstrengthQ o3 a bond: brea/ it apart and measure the heat (energ!) gi'en o33 The boo/ tal/s about using &(bond t!pe)m to sho* the bond enthalp! # thin/ the! are ma/ing stu33 up: # ha'e $EVE) seen this an!*here else (and # chec/ed 77other boo/s to be sure) Most boo/s (and *hat # learned) use fH to sho* enthalp! change and then Just sho* the t*o elements that ma/e the bond that is being studied E-: %l4%l fH W 4C.B /<Imol H4%l fH W 4DC7 /<Imol

There is a huge list o3 fH 'alues on pg C.B" table G D &on?t memori0e" but be able to use this in3o These are a'eraged 'alues based on gas molecules: not as accurate" but does 3ine 3or estimates $ote: the table gi'es the fH in terms o3 b*ea;in& bon9s F(ositi0e D ene*&+ a99e9H" # listed them in the e-ample in terms o3 fo*min& bon9s Fne&ati0e D ene*&+ *elease9H So" brea/ing W 4 (3ormation) 3or enthalp! change 'alues Ma/es sense The fHbrea/ing is *hat is listed #t is positi'e because it TANES energ! to brea/ apart a stable 3orm (bond)

. C H!dration

Solubilit! is 3a'ored b! solute4sol'ent attraction

solute4solute attraction"

sol'ent4sol'ent attraction" and

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&issol'ing an ionic compound in *ater: $a+ %l4 %l $a+


%l4 $a+ P $a %l4 H Step 9. 2rea/up the Sol'ent (

+ +

$a+ (4. H

$a+ (4. $a+ $a+ (4. H+ %l4 H %l4


H (

H %l4

Step 97 2rea/up the Solute ( )

H+ %l4 Step 9C ;ormation o3 the Solution ( )

#3 step 97 plus step 9. are more than step 9C" then the o'erall reaction is Energ! Le'el &iagram: E . 7 Time #3 step 97 plus step 9. are less than step 9C" then the o'erall reaction is Energ! Le'el &iagram: E . 7 C (acids and bases are UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) C (most ionic solutions are UUUUU)


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Bon9 6nt'al(ies an9 t'e 6nt'al(ies of Reactions Using Hess?s La* (adding fH 'alues) and general bond enthalp! data" *e can determine i3 a r-n *ill be endo or e-o o'erall i3 strong bonds , *ea/ bonds" i3 *ea/ bonds , strong bonds" fH \ 6 (endothermic) fH q 6 (e-othermic)

2ond brea/ing is AL1A>S en9ot'e*mic FPH and bond 3orming is AL1A>S e<ot'e*mic F.H" so *e Just use the correct sign" add up the 'alues" and determine i3 the 'alue is + or 4 E-: Estimate the enthalp! change and determine i3 the 3ollo*ing is endo or e-othermic: %.HD(g) + H.(g) , %.HB(g) fH W CDG/<Imol 3or %4% fH W DCB /<Imol 3or H4H fH W D7C /<Imol %4H $eed to brea/ one %4% bond and one H4H bond" but 3orm t*o %4H bond" so fHr-n W fHbrea/ing + fH3orming 2UT: brea/ing W 4 (3orming) so 1AT%H the signs

>ou ha'e to )EA& an! question care3ull! and /no* *hat the! are as/ing and ho* to 3ind it Bon9 6nt'al(+ an9 Bon9 Len&t' The length o3 a bond depends on *hether it is a single" double" or triple bond: Single bonds are the longest" triples are the shortest Loo/ing at data on bond length and bond enthalp!" *e see that as the number o3 bonds increases" the enthalp! increases and the length decreases: central atom pulls e'er!one in more 2asicall!" the shorter the bond" the more tightl! held the electrons" the more energ! it ta/es to brea/ it" so it 3orms a stronger bond

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,olecula* 8eomet*+ an9 Bon9in& T'eo*ies

Molecules ha'e a C& arrangement o3 the atoms based on angles o3 the atoms" distances bet*een the nuclei" and bond lengths The shape" along *ith bond strength and polarit!" determine ph!sical properties o3 the compound

9-1 ,olecula* S'a(es

A C& model o3 the Le*is structure o3 a compound: sho*s *hat *e reall! should be seeing (loo/ upT) Bon9 an&les O the angles made b! the lines Joining the nuclei o3 the atoms in a compound %oupled *ith bond lengths" accuratel! de3ine the shape (geometr!) and si0e o3 a compound The boo/ goes into a bunch o3 e-cess detail" but i3 !ou learn the chart !ou?ll be 3ine @reat pictures o3 these on pg CD.4CDE *ith a chart that loo/s li/e mine on pg CDE 7S6%R O The shape o3 a molecule is determined b! the 7alence s'ell elect*on (ai* *e(ulsion This is *hat determines the bond angles and tells us *hat it should loo/ li/e 9-2 T'e 7S6%R ,o9el @eneral ;ormula A2 A2. A2C A2D A2C + 7 lone pair A2.+ . lone pairs @eometr! 2ond Angle E-ample $a%l %(. Al%lC %HD $HC H.(

5ee( in min9: VSE8) ta/es into account L($E 8A#)S and 2($&E& AT(MS" *here the lone pairs can Psquee0eQ the bonded atoms closer together dictating the o'erall shape Molecular geometr! usuall! re3ers to the bonded atoms onl!: it gi'es a PliarsQ 'ie* o3 the structure Bon9in& %ai* I de3ines a region *here the electrons *ill most li/el! be 3ound bet*een atoms $on.bon9in& %ai* Flone (ai*H I a region o3 electrons that are located principall! on one atom 6lect*on Domain O area o3 3inding a pair o3 e4 bonded or not (general term 3or P*here are the!Q) Multiple bonds onl! gi'e rise to one electron domain (all the electrons are located inside this region) So" each single bonding" multiple bonding" or non4bonding pair produces an elect*on 9omain around the central atom These domains are *hat *e loo/ at 3or o'erall geometr! o3 the molecule The VSE8) theor! is based on the 3act that electron domains are all ne&ati0el+ c'a*&e9 (ma/es sense) and there3ore *e(el one anot'e* (again" ma/es sense)

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So" in order to get the best o'erall shape" the arrangement that is the most stable is the one *ith the least amount of *e(ulsion amon& oute* atoms a*oun9 t'e cent*al atom (again" ma/es sense) The! do the *hole Pballoon structureQ thing: it *or/s and is 3airl! accurate The! ma/e the distinction that Pmolecular geometr!Q does $(T include lone pairs (onl! atoms in the molecule) and that electron4domain geometr! includes bonding and non4bonding pairs 1hate'er %hemists onl! thin/ in terms o3 PALL o3 itQ" so *e call it molecular geometr! and include the unshared (lone pair) electrons Same thing" Just di33erent names (again" # thin/ the!?re ma/ing stu33 up) The! sho* a chart on pg CDF that demonstrates the Pdi33erencesQ Again: *hate'er Same thing" Just thin/ in terms o3 PallQ" not Just atoms" and !ou?ll be 3ine T'e 6ffect of $on.Bon9in& 6lect*ons an9 ,ulti(le Bon9s on Bon9 )n&les E-plains di33erences in bond angles 3or apparentl! identical electron4domain (using their term" impressi'e" huh:) geometries E-: methane %HD ammonia $HC *ater H.( all tetrahedral *I di33erent bond angles bet*een h!drogens

76H Eo

76Fo 7 lone pair 8ushes H?s do*n

76D Eo . lone pairs pushes H?s closer

Neep in mind that lone pair electrons ha'e more Pnegati'eQ charge thus a stronger repulsion o3 other electron4domains (a big bull!T) Same applies 3or multiple bonds: more electrons in domain so mo*e ne&ati0e c'a*&e an9 st*on&e* *e(ulsion of ot'e*s (a group o3 big bulliesT)

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9-3 ,olecula* S'a(e an9 ,olecula* %ola*it+

2oo/ tal/s about dipole moments" bond dipoles" and o'erall dipoles (English to me" but good luc/ *ith that) 2ottom Line: #3 a molecule is to be polar" it must: a) ha'e one polar bond or at least one lone (ai* on the central atom an9K b) polar bonds must not cancel eac' ot'e* out e- 1ater 's carbon dio-ide" methane 's chloro3orm (trichloromethane: %%lCH)

There are more great pictures and comparisons on pg CED ()eall!" dra* a 3e* 3or practice)

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9-4 o0alent Bon9in& an9 4*bital 40e*la( 7alence Bon9 T'eo*+ O %o'alent bonds are the result o3 o'erlapping atomic orbitals (H%l :s O p)

VSE8) e-plains :'e*e elect*ons a*e locate9" V2 theor! e-plains 'o: t'e bon9s a*e fo*me9 H!bridi0ation I mi<in& of a set of atomic o*bitals unh!bridi0ed 's h!bridi0ed to ma/e spC (spC ne* set o3 orbitals" ne* orientation" di33erent energies intermediate o3 s and p" di33erent properties) ;>#: h!bridi0ation e-ists mostl! in the minds o3 chemists (*e are such gee/s" but *e lo'e this stu33) See chart pg CB7: (N" so here?s the deal: # learned h!bridi0ation in gen chem in college then ne'er used it again Ho*e'er" the A8 3ol/s in their in3inite *isdom as/ a question (!es" Just 7) about this stu33" soX )eall!" <ust memori0e that 2er!llium ;amil! 4 Linea*" . electron domains" s( h!brid 2oron ;amil! 4 T*i&onal (lana*" C electron domains" s(2 h!brid %arbon ;amil! 4 Tet*a'e9*al" D electron domains" s(3 h!brid $itrogen 3amil! O t*i&onal (+*ami9al" D electron domains (one lone pair)" s(3 h!brid

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9-6 ,ulti(le Bon9s O more complicated

E-: %.HD O ethene O double bond bet*een the carbons O sp. h!brid (trigonal planar 3or each carbon) remaining orbital is unh!bridi0ed p0 orbital O perpendicular to the plane $ote the change O .s and .p electrons normall! 3orm D spC orbitals #n a double bond .s and 7 p h!bridi0es to sp. O one p orbital does not h!bridi0e Shape o3 the molecule is a 3lat triangle (loo/ing at one side onl!) O all in the same plane #nternuclear a-is O line connecting the nuclei o3 . atoms *here the electron densit! is concentrated (the line Joining the . atoms passes through the M#&&LE o3 the o'erlap (the node region) Si&ma FYH bon9s O PUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUQ o'erlap o3 bonding orbitals (single bonds o3 A$> t!pe: s4s" p4p" and an! orbital o'erlapped *ith sp" sp." or spC h!brid orbitals) %i FZH bon9s 4 PUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUQ o'erlap o3 p4p bonding orbitals (double bond: must be p4p bond orbitals perpendicular to the internuclear a-is plus one sp (t) orbital) 84p orbital must be planar" so molecule is more rigid (stronger sheer 3orce) A pair o3 pi (u) bonds plus one sigma (t) bond results in a triple bond bet*een atoms &ouble and triple (implies one t and one or t*o u bonds) are mostl! seen *ith small atoms" li/e ro* . non4metals (%" $" () The larger atoms (S" 8" Si) 3orm these less readil! due to si0e restrictions

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Resonance St*uctu*esB Delocali?ationB an9 Z Bon9in& Locali?e9 O sigma and pi bonds are associated totall! *ith the . atoms the! connect )emember" *esonance st*uctu*es: di33erent possible 'ersions o3 the same molecule 1ell" the P3loatingQ bonds are not Pset in stoneQ (associated *ith Just speci3ic atoms)" so the bonds are said to be 9elocali?e9 2ac/ to ben0ene: a B %" B H ring structure En'ision a round table *ith si- men seated around the table Their *i'es (H) are directl! behind them in chairs ((N" go the other *a! *ith the men behind the *omen i3 !ou *ant" # don?t care) A minister (sue me" #?m protestant) does a pra!er be3ore the meal Each man holds hands *ith the man ne-t to them *hile the *i3e o3 each places one o3 her hands on her husband?s shoulder (all single bonds) The PbondQ bet*een each husband and *i3e is a basic sigma bond (sp. t!pe) The PbondQ 3rom man to man is also a simple sigma bond (sp. t!pe) (nce the pra!er is o'er" the men are 3ree to tal/" but no one ma! release contact (*eird 8agan thing ma!be::: <ust go *ith it) As the men tal/" the! tal/ to either the man to their right or the man to their le3t: this 3orms a Pdouble bondQ bet*een an! pair o3 men (pi bond) at an! gi'en time (both ph!sical and e!e contact) The pi bond ma! be to the le3t or right at an! point" but a con'ersation MUST be bet*een . people ($L> (e!e contact is 'er! important and sho*s good manners) The pi bond Pshi3tsQ side to side in the circle: this leads to resonance structures Same thing 3or ben0ene: B carbons in a circle *ith a single bond bet*een each carbon (sp. sigma bond) along *ith a single bond bet*een each single carbon and one h!drogen (also an sp. sigma bond) This lea'es a pi bond on each carbon: an unh!bridi0ed .p orbital on each carbon *ith onl! 7 electron The! h!bridi0ed orbitals (blend) result in three delocali0ed double (pi) bonds that are shared equal among the B carbons $o one carbon pair Po*nsQ the double bond" but it dri3ts equall! among each pair Voila: *esonanceTTT ;inal note on delocali0ed pi bonds: in order 3or the unh!bridi0ed orbitals to ha'e the best o'erlap to 3orm pi bonds" the! must all lie in the same plane (ma/es the o'erall structure much more rigid) (N" no* loo/ at the pictures on pg CBE: see the people # described sitting at the table: 1eird" but it *or/s

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%a*ama&netism#Diama&netism O proo3 o3 Hund?s ruleTTTTT Diama&netic O sample is 'er! *ea/l! repelled Happens *ith Helium" Magnesium" etc (1ea/est t!pe) &ra* orbital notation to determine: no unpaired electrons W diamagnetic %a*ama&netic O sample is *ea/l! attracted b! a magnetic 3ield O increases *ith increased 9 o3 unpaired electrons More pre'alent in transition metals &ra* the (rbital $otation to determine unpaired electrons: more unpaired e4 W stronger paramagnetic element =e**oma&netism O permanent magnetismY associated *ith ;e" %o" $i *here unpaired electrons align their spin (Strongest t!pe) Y#3 raised abo'e a certain temperature (%urie Temperature" li/e on the sun)" these substances can be demagneti0ed

23-5 ,etallic Bon9in&

The 3ield o3 metallurg! allo*s us to isolate pure (or mostl! pure) elements 3rom ore (metal containing compounds 3ound in nature)" create ne* metal compounds (allo!s)" and to 3urther understand ho* melt bonds are di33erent 3rom regular ionic bonds %'+sical %*o(e*ties of ,etals Fseen it befo*eH 2een there" but a recap: etals (about G6K o3 all elements): all are solids" 6Q 6%T 2&" at room temperature Hard" Luster" Malleable" &uctilit!" High tensile strength" %onduct heat and electricit! 6lect*on.Sea ,o9el fo* ,etallic Bon9in& As a general rule" transition metals (non4s bloc/ metals) do not ha'e enough 'alence electrons to 3orm stable bonds: the! must share the electrons equall! 6lect*on.Sea ,o9el 4 This creates a delocali0ed sharing (no one claims them" all use them) o3 electrons among the atoms in a lattice (cr!stalline structure) The! are held in place" and e'enl! distributed" b! electrostatic attraction to the nucleus (positi'e charge in nucleus attracts negati'e electrons" *hile the electrons repel each other) 2asicall!" the electrons P3loatQ 3reel! among the atoms in the lattice structure The result: *hen an electrical current is applied to one end" the electrons rapidl!" and *ith little resistance" mo'e along to*ards the other end

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23-6 )llo+s
)llo+ O contains more than one d4bloc/ metal and has properties o3 a metal E-: 2ron0e (copper R tin)" sterling sil'er (usuall! sil'er and copper)" brass (copper R 0inc)" gold Je*elr! (gold and copper bIc gold is a so3t metal) Solution )llo+s O homogeneous mi-tures *here the elements are uni3orml! dispersed %reated at high temperatures and cooled slo*l! to ensure proper mi-ing The solute atoms either: 7 Ta/e the place o3 the sol'ent particles (substitutional allo!) or . ;it inside the PholesQ in the cr!stalline structure (interstitial allo!s) 2ete*o&eneous )llo+ O components are $(T uni3orml! distributed La!ering can be seen due to the rapid cooling process (all goes bac/ to properties o3 the elements) 3nte*metallic om(oun9s O homogeneous allo!s *ith speci3ic properties and compositions Atoms are ordered instead o3 random (li/e homogeneous allo!s) 2etter stabilit!" higher melting points" lo*er densit!" etc Sadl!" also more brittle" so the! do not P*earQ as *ell Used 3or small components (batteries" ampli3iers" Jet engine parts) and at high temperatures" but not as a structural metal

23-7 T*ansition ,etals

These are d4bloc/ ($L> metals (not the ones in the p4bloc/" li/e abo'e) These ha'e the same properties" but also add Pfo*m colo*e9 com(oun9sQ to the list (it?s a biggie) The boo/ goes on and on about atomic radius: basicall!" the radius decreases until the hal34*a! point" then it starts to go bac/ up some (shielding e33ect o'erta/es increased nuclear charge) 6lect*on onfi&u*ation an9 4<i9ation Sates F)&ainH The d4bloc/ electrons can act as either 'alence or inner electrons depending on the location in the periodic table and *hat other atoms are around The d4bloc/ electrons gi'e rise to some interesting properties: 7 Man! o3 their compounds are colored (did # mention this *as a biggie !et:) . Transition metals and their compounds ha'e magnetic properties (para" di" 3erro) C The! o3ten can ha'e more than one o-idation state (+7" +." +C) The elements *ith a partiall! 3illed d4bloc/ (B d electrons) tend to be able to lose another (be!ond the . s electrons)" gi'ing rise to a +. or a +C compound Ho*e'er" the elements that are 7 sh! o3 being hal3 3illed (D d4electrons) o3 totall! 3illed (H d4electrons) *ill Pborro* 3rom the s bloc/" gi'ing either a +7 or +. o-idation state #t should be noted that the unpaired d4bloc/ electrons can ALL go to bonding" 3orcing o-idation numbers as high as +F (both s electrons can be used plus the E d4bloc/ electrons that are unpaired) These states are usuall! onl! 3ound *hen the transition metal is bonded to the 'er! electronegati'e elements (( and ; mostl!" sometimes %l) As *e go across a ro*" the abilit! to PuseQ the d4electrons diminishes 2! the end" *e can onl! use the s4electrons (the d4electrons are too tightl! held to the nucleus)

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11-2 3nte*molecula* =o*ces

#nter O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (amongIbet*een particles) #ntra O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (*ithin a molecule) #ntermolecular 3orces (3,=Gs) O hold compounds in a substance together The stronger the 3orces" the more ordered and the more PsolidQ the! become #M;?s 'ar! in strength" but are generall! *ea/er than molecular or ionic bonds (implies solid ionic" not in *ater) Less strength W less energ! required to brea/ bond 2asicall!" can change state easier than changing into a ne* substance This is *h! change o3 state (gas [ liquid [ solid) is ph!sical" not chemical As 3or compounds: the stronger #M;?s result in 'i&'e* meltin& an9 boilin& (oints (ha'e to o'ercome 3orces to separate) %ommon sense: stronger ties (thin/ ropes) need more energ! (cutting) to brea/ (separate the parts) ALL #M;?s are electrostatic: attraction bet*een negati'e and positi'e ends o3 neighboring particles cause temporar! (*ea/) PbondsQ 3on.Di(ole =o*ces: e-ist bet*een an ion and the partial charge on the end o3 a polar molecule (molecularIco'alent cmpd) The magnitude (number) increases as either 7 The charge on the ion increases . The magnitude o3 the dipole moment increases (measure o3 ho* 3ar apart the + and O ends are in a molecule)

Used 3or ionic compounds dissol'ed in polar solutions (remember: *ater is the most polar o3 them all) Di(ole.9i(ole: positi'e end o3 one molecule attracts the negati'e end o3 another molecule Li/e those Magneti- to!s &ipole . *hen electrons are une'enl! distributed" it causes a permanent unbalance o3 charge (polar compounds: one atom *ants the electrons more" but can?t completel! claim them so still shared" Just not equall!)

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Lon9on FDis(e*sionH =o*ces 4 Temporaril! induced dipoles caused b! the motion o3 electrons: electrons can PcollectQ in one area o3 an orbital" so the! set up a temporar! charge that a33ects other atoms in the area P:ea;est of t'em allQ 8olari0abilit! O PsMuis'inessQ (their *ord" not mine) o3 the orbital 2asicall!" ho* *ell can the orbit be distorted more electrons W more attraction so" bigger atoms ha'e stronger London 3orces (more PsMuis'inessQ) London 3orces appl! to $4$.(ola* molecules 4$LL: the! stic/ together" so there must be #M;?s present (and the! sho* changes in state: g,l or g,s) The! are the 4$LL 3orces bet*een nonpolar particles (holding molecular compounds together) and it is *hat holds diatomic and noble gas particles together London 3orces occur in A$> molecular compound: polar and nonpolar #n 3act" the! are o3ten the leading #M; in polar molecules (more PsquishinessQ o3 the molecule) )eall! onl! seen *hen particles are close together (in a container" 3or instance ) Shape o3 molecule also in3luences London 3orce strength Long" s/inn! molecules (chains) ha'e higher London ;orces due to more points o3 contact than spherical molecules Thin/ ropes 's bas/etballs: ropes can be more easil! stac/ed li/e bric/s" the balls *ould go e'er!*here #M; generali0ations: 7 T*o molecules *ith about the same mass and shape ha'e generall! equal #M;?s The more polar it is" the stronger the dipole4dipole #M; attraction . T*o molecules o3 di33erent masses use London ;orces (dispersion 3orces) to determine the stronger attraction

%reates a slight negati'e charge in that area This causes a slight positi'e charge on the other side o3 the atom Thin/ people on a boat all mo'ing to one side at once: temporar! imbalance &ispersion 3orces increase as the si0e o3 the atom increase This is *h! the halogens change 3rom gas to solid as *e mo'e do*n the table (thin/ bac/ to trends) &ispersion 3orces inc*ease as the temperature 9ec*eases This is *h! helium becomes a liquid at lo* temperatures (this is ho* it is transported in c!linders) The boo/ sa!s dipole4dipole and London ;orces are also called Van der 1aals ;orces: The! use Van der 1aals as a general term 3or an! inte* molecular 3orce <ohannes Van der 1aal O de'eloped the equation 3or predicting the de'iation 3rom ideal beha'ior 3or gases 2+9*o&en Bon9in& H4bonding is a Psu(e*Q dipole4dipole 2asicall!" the h!drogen atom releases its electron" lea'ing it a bare proton *ith a positi'e charge

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Are *e ha'ing ;($: 4 H4bonding happens an! time H is bonded to UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 4$LL *h!: A large di33erence in electronegati'it! bet*een ;" (" or $ and H results in one end o3 the molecule being 'er! negati'e" *hile the other end is 'er! positi'e 1h! $ and not %l: The! ha'e identical electronegati'itiesT 1ell" $ is so much smaller than %l so the negati'e charge is spread o'er a smaller area *hich e-erts more 3orce E33ect o3 H4bonds on ph!sical properties: Aate* e<(an9s as it f*ee?es (read pg DDE" and reall! great graphics sho*ing H4bonding) H4bonding is also responsible 3or the shapes o3 li'ing things (remember biolog!:::) The! hold us together (&$A strands" proteins" muscles" s/in" cells in general) 8et 3t To&et'e*: F*eall+B ma;e a c'a*tB li;e t'e one on (&446 o* (& 464: 3 (*efe* t'e one on 464B but :'ate0e* :o*;s fo* +ou-H S6R34!SLL: inte* # int*a fo*ces s'o: u( mo*e t'an onceB so +ou nee9 to ;no: t'e 9iffe*ence-

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!nit 8 Set
7) There are UUUUUUUUUU paired and UUUUUUUUUU unpaired electrons in the Le*is s!mbol 3or a phosphorus atom A) D" . 2) ." D %) ." C &) D" C E) 6" C .) The electron con3iguration o3 the S.4 ion is UUUUUUUUUU A) ^Ar_Cs . Cp B 2) ^Ar_Cs . Cp . %) ^$e_Cs . Cp . &) ^$e_Cs . CpB

E) ^Nr_Cs . .p4B

C) Ho* man! single co'alent bonds must a silicon atom 3orm to ha'e a complete octet in its 'alence shell: A) C 2) D %) 7 &) . E) 6 D) #n the molecule belo*" *hich atom has the largest partial negati'e charge UUUUUUUUUU: %l ; O % O 2r # A) %l 2) ; %) 2r &) # E) %

E) The abilit! o3 an atom in a molecule to attract electrons is best quanti3ied b! the UUUUUUUUUU A) paramagnetism 2) diamagnetism %) electronegati'it! &) electron change4to4mass ratio E) 3irst ioni0ation potential B) @i'en the electronegati'ities belo*" *hich co'alent single bond is most polar: Element: Electronegati'it!: A) %OH H .7 2) $OH % .E $ C6 %) (OH ( CE &) (O% E) (O$

F) The Le*is structure o3 AsHC sho*s UUUUUUUUUU nonbonding electron pair(s) on As A) 6 2) 7 %) . &) C E) This cannot be determined 3rom the data gi'en G) Using the table o3 a'erage bond energies belo*" the fH 3or the reaction is UUUUUUUUUU /<

2ond: & (/<Imol): A) +7B6

%v% GCH 2) 47B6


HO# .HH %) 4.7F

%O# .D6

%OH D7C &) 4BC E) +BC

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H) Using the table o3 a'erage bond energies belo*" the fH 3or the reaction is UUUUUUUUUU /< H4% %4H (g) + H4# (g) H . %W%H# (g) 2ond: & (/<Imol): A) +E6B %v% GCH 2) 4HC7 %W% B7D HO# .HH %) 4E6B %O# .D6 %OH D7C &) 47.H E) +7.H

76) #n *hich o3 the molecules belo* is the carbon4carbon distance the shortest: A) H . %W%H . 2) H4% %4H %) HC%4%H C &) H . %W%W%H . E) HC%4%H . 4%H C 77) The Le*is structure o3 the %(C.4 ion is UUUUUUUUUU A) 2) %)



7.) A 'alid Le*is structure o3 UUUUUUUUUU cannot be dra*n *ithout 'iolating the octet rule A) $;C 2) #;C %) 8;C &) Sb;C 7C) The molecular geometr! o3 the %H%lC molecule is UUUUUUUUUU A) bent 2) trigonal planar %) trigonal p!ramidal &) tetrahedral 7D) The molecular geometr! o3 the S;. molecule is UUUUUUUUUU A) linear 2) bent %) trigonal planar &) tetrahedral 7E) There isIare UUUUUUUUUU u bond(s) in the molecule belo*

E) T4shaped

E) octahedral

A) 6

2) 7

%) .

&) D

E) 7B

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7B) There isIare UUUUUUUUUU u bond(s) in the molecule belo*

A) F

2) B

%) .

&) 7

E) 6

7F) According to VSE8) theor!" i3 there are t*o electron domains (unbounded pairs o3 electrons) on a central atom" the! *ill be arranged such that the angles bet*een the domains are UUUUUUUUUU A) CB6` 2) 7.6` %) 76H E` &) 7G6` E) H6` 7G) #n liquids" the attracti'e intermolecular 3orces are UUUUUUUUUU A) 'er! *ea/ compared *ith /inetic energies o3 the molecules 2) strong enough to hold molecules relati'el! close together %) strong enough to /eep the molecules con3ined to 'ibrating about their 3i-ed lattice points &) not strong enough to /eep molecules 3rom mo'ing past each other E) strong enough to hold molecules relati'el! close together but not strong enough to /eep molecules 3rom mo'ing past each other 7H) A gas is UUUUUUUUUU and assumes UUUUUUUUUU o3 its container *hereas a liquid is UUUUUUUUUU and assumes UUUUUUUUUU o3 its container A) compressible" the 'olume and shape" not compressible" the shape o3 a portion 2) compressible" the shape" not compressible" the 'olume and shape %) compressible" the 'olume and shape" compressible" the 'olume &) condensed" the 'olume and shape" condensed" the 'olume and shape E) condensed" the shape" compressible" the 'olume and shape .6) Together" liquids and solids constitute UUUUUUUUUU phases o3 matter A) the compressible 2) the 3luid %) the condensed

&) all o3 the

E) the disordered

.7) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing e-hibits dipole4dipole attraction bet*een molecules: A) Le;D 2) AsHC %) %( . &) 2%lC E) %l. ..) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing deri'ati'es o3 ethane has the highest boiling point: A) %. 2rB 2) %. ;B %) %. #B &) %. %lB E) %. HB .C) The predominant intermolecular 3orce in %a2r. is UUUUUUUUUU A) London4dispersion 3orces 2) ion4dipole 3orces %) ionic bonding &) dipole4dipole 3orces E) h!drogen bonding

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.D) 2ased on the 3igure abo'e" the boiling point o3 *ater under an e-ternal pressure o3 6 C7B atm is UUUUUUUU`% A) F6 2) D6 %) B6 &) G6 E) H6 .E) The 3irst ioni0ation energ! UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU as !ou go 3rom le3t to right across a period" and UUUUUUUUUUUU as !ou go 3rom bottom to top in a group a increase" increase b increase" decrease c decrease" decrease d decrease" increase e are completel! unpredictable .B) The principle quantum number 3or the outermost electrons in a 2r atom in the ground state is UUUUU a C b 7 c D d . e E .F) The nW7 shell contains UUUp orbitals" all others contain UUUp orbitals a 6" C b 6"B c B". d C"C e C"B .G) There are UUUU orbitals in the third shell a 7 b D c H

d 7B

e .E

.H) Ho* man! unpaired electrons are there in the S4. ion: a 6 b 7 c . dC C6) Elements on opposite sides o3 the periodic table tend to 3orm UUUU a ionic compounds b gas compounds at room temperature c co'alent gaseous compounds at room temperature d compounds that are e-clusi'el! liquids at room temperature e homonuclear diatomic compounds

e can?t be predicted

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!nit 8 4b1ecti0es
7 . C D E B F G H 8redict the t!pe o3 bonds 3ormed bet*een . atoms and describe the properties o3 the bond 2e able to sho* orbital notation" electron con3iguration" and Le*is structures and use these to sho* *hat happens to electrons in bond 3ormation E-plain ho* multiple bonds 3orm bet*een atoms" predict strength" and dra* Le*is structures E-plain isomers and resonance structures 3or comple- molecules &escribe h!bridi0ation and use it to e-plain bonding E-plain ho* bonding and non4bonding electrons a33ect shape and can be used to predict shape and angles o3 compounds 8redict polarit! o3 molecules based on shape &escribe intermolecular and intramolecular 3orces and #& the di33erence bet*een them E-plain di33erences in ph!sical properties (bp" 3p" etc) based on the strength o3 the #M;?s

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!nit 9 T'e 8as La:s 'a(te* 10 8ases

8lease also note that as part o3 this course" it is also !our responsibilit! to read all o3 e'er! chapter Ha'e !ou been doing this: #t is this instructor?s opinion that !ou should be %hapter 76 *ill mo'e 'er! quic/l! because *e ha'e seen this all be3ore <ust a ne* thing or t*o

10-7 5inetic ,olecula* T'eo*+

Nno* the PrulesQ o3 NMT" then attac/ the other stu33 The Ninetic Molecular Theor! O 3or ideal gasesX 7 @ases are composed o3 indi'idual molecules *hich actuall! occup! almost no 'olume and ha'e no attraction 3or each other ($(T true 3or real gases) . Molecules are in continuous" random" straight line motion %ollisions are elastic ($(T true 3or real gases) and indi'idual 'elocities ma! 'ar! (changing 'elocities caused b! collisions) C A'erage /inetic energ! is proportional to Nel'in temperature At an! gi'en Nel'in temperature" the NE o3 di33erent gases are equal Students should be able to e-plain all gas la*s in terms o3 NMT And remember: NTM 3ails 3or gases at L(1 temperatures and H#@H pressures (no longer reall! a gas" soX)


'a*acte*istics of 8ases )ead through this: it is interesting >ou alread! /no* this stu33" so no notes" Just read

10-2 %*essu*e

# highl! suggest !ou read through this and are able to 3ollo*" and be able to master" the con'ersions o3 pressure and ho* to PreadQ a barometer e-ercises on pg CHF UUUU atm W UUUUU /8a W UUUUUmmHg W UUUUUUUUtorr

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10-8 ,olecula* 6ffusion an9 Diffusion

&e3ine: di33usion" e33usion" root mean square and equation 3or rms And the Proot mean square speedQ is both important A$& on the A8 equation sheet (go ahead" !ou *ant to see i3 # am right) >ou ma! *ant to sho* the di33erence bet*een the boo/ and the A8 e-am 3ormulas and 'ariables used" Just to eliminate an! con3usion later Students should also be 3amiliar *ith the deri'ation o3 the root mean squared speed 3ormula urms W (C)TIM)7I. *here M W UUUUUUUUUU and ) W (gas constant) UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

8*a'amGs La: #3 NE W M m'." then at an! constant temperature" all molecules" regardless o3 their mass" ha'e identical energies There3ore the! must ha'e di33erent 'elocities O go through deri'ation @raham?s la* rate AIrate 2 W (m*2Im*A)7I. or can use densities" as long as units match and can be cancelled" it?s all good

E-ample: A) Using @raham?s la*" calculate the speed o3 h!drogen molecules at .6 o% i3 Helium molecules are tra'eling at GE6 mIs at the same temperature

2) Using the root mean squared speed 3ormula" per3orm the same calculation

&i33usion and Mean ;ree 8ath ,ean f*ee (at' W a'erage distance a gas particle tra'els bet*een collisions As si0e increases" mean 3ree path decreases (elephant 's mouse running across room: bigger molecule ta/es up more space" so has less distance to tra'el relati'e to smaller one)

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10-6 8as ,i<tu*es an9 %a*tial %*essu*es

8artial 8ressure O the pressure e-erted b! a speci3ic gas in a mi-ture DaltonGs La: of %a*tial %*essu*es 8 total W 87 + 8. + 8C X E-ample: A 76 6 L 3las/ at .HG N contains 6 .66 moles o3 o-!gen" 6 C66 moles o3 carbon dio-ide" and 6 B66 moles o3 h!drogen %alculate the pressure o3 each gas in atm

%ollecting @ases ('er 1ater The main use o3 &alton?s la* is 3or collecting gas b! *ater displacement &ra* apparatus O label 8i as gas inside (sample collected)" 8o gas outside (atmospheric)

#3 *ater le'els line up" 8iW8o at 7atm #3 *ater le'els don?t line up" then adJust until le'els line up so that 8iW8o at 7 atm ;or calculations" use the equation 8total W 8gas + 8*ater 8*ater 'alues are temp dependant and 3rom a table

E-ample: A E66 6 mL sample o3 o-!gen is collected b! *ater displacement at a temperature o3 .C 6 o% and a barometric pressure o3 766 B /8a Ho* man! grams o3 o-!gen *ere collected: ((N" so !ou ha'e 8"V"T" and /no* ) ;ind n" then con'ert to grams)

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10-3 T'e 8as La:s


%*essu*e.7olume: Bo+leGs La:

Tem(e*atu*e.7olume: 'a*lesGs La:

,ass.7olume Relations'i(s: )0o&a9*oGs La: Since all gases occup! equal amounts o3 space (A'ogadro?s La* W .. D L at ST8)" *e ma! use 'olumes indirectl! in stoichiometr! problems

E-ample: .6 L o3 *ater decomposes into ho* man! L o3 o-!gen at: a) ST8 b) not ST8 E-ample O Ho* man! liters o3 sul3ur trio-ide can be created 3rom BD 7. g o3 sul3ur and an e-cess o3 o-!gen at . 66 atm and EDB N:

10-4 T'e 39eal 8as 6Muation Falso calle9 !ni0e*salH

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10-5 =u*t'e* )((lications of t'e 39eal 8as 6Muation

@as &ensities and Molar Mass (N" so basicall! *e use *hat *e /no*" and e-pand it a bit Start *ith substituting in 3or moles: 8V W (mI ) )T Then multipl! both sides b! &ensit!: & W mIV *here m W mass and W molar mass

so 8V (mIV) W (mI ) )T (&)

So basicall!" the moles and 'olume cancel" lea'ing us *ith: 8 W (&I ) )T And *e Just related densit! to the ideal gas equation in the 3orm o3: & W 8I)T

$ot on A8 sheet" but VE)> USE;ULL to memori0e (or !ou can re4deri'e it e'er! time !ou need it) E-ample: A .EE mL sample o3 gas at 766 6 o% and FG6 6 torr has a mass o3 6 CDC g %alculate molecular *eight

E-ample: A CE6 6 mL sample o3 gas at CFC N and FE6 6 mm Hg has a mass o3 7 C77 g The gas is /no*n to be B. 6F K %" 76 CDK H and the remainder o-!gen Sol'e 3or the molecular 3ormula

>ou can also use this equation to sol'e 3or the molar mass o3 a substance i3 all other 'ariables are /no*n (#?'e seen this question on e-ams A 2U$%HTTT)

Volumes o3 gases in %hemical )eactions )eall!" Just use the ideal to sol'e 3or 'olume" and remember that the balanced equation %(E;;#%#E$TS are in M(LESTTTTT Loo/ at the e-amples: the! help 2ottom line: it is all there on the equation sheet the! gi'e !ou >ou Just need to recogni0e *hat the! are loo/ing 3or and be able to manipulate the equations to get one that has the 'ariables !ou need )emember algebra:T:T

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10-9 Real 8ases: De0iations f*om 39eal Be'a0io*s

@raphs and pictures are nice" but the bottom line is gases de'iate 3rom ideal conditions at: Also" #deal @as beha'ior is based on gases ha'ing t*o properties: 7 molecules occup! no space ('olume) . molecules ha'e no attraction 3or each other (no #M;?s) #n a real gas under Pnormal? conditions" these assumptions are close enough" ho*e'er" at a high enough pressure and lo* enough temperature" real gases de'iate enough 3rom predicted beha'ior to require a modi3ication o3 the ideal gas la* 8V W n)T becomes (8 + n.aIV.) (V O nb) W n)T (Van der 1aals equation)

(bser'ed 8Vq ideal 8V due to 3e*er container collisions" so n.IV. corrects 3or #M; Letter PaQ corrects 3or the 3act that real molecules do attract and there3ore produce 3e*er collisions than e-pected Letter PbQ corrects 3or the 3act that real molecules do ta/e up space and there3ore cause the 'olume occupied to be greater than e-pected LetterQ Pa depends on molecular attractions: Letter PbQ depends on molecular si0e: 2oth PaQ and PbQ are determined e-perimentall! E-ample: %alculate the pressure (atm) e-erted b! 7 66 mole o3 %HD in a 6 E66 L 'essel at .HG N &o this assuming the gas beha'es ideall! %HD W . .E (BB- strength) %HD W 6 6D.G (. - si0e)

$o* *rite out the 'an der 1aals equation (.nd one under gas la*s on the A8 equation sheet) and tr! again

Diffe*ence bet:een t'e 2 numbe*sOOO >eah" onl! need the 'an der 1aals i3 doing roc/et science

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Stoic' :it' &ases an9 ST% 0s $on.ST% calcGs

Stoich requires a balanced equation" and can go 3rom an! state o3 matter to gas" or the other *a! )eall!" Just balance the equation and con'ert ST% 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU S 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU ST8 and S% ha'e PhiddenQ 'alues" so *atch 3or these Stoic': Ho* man! liters o3 o-!gen gas are needed to completel! burn D 6L o3 methane (%HD) gas: Also" ho* man! liters o3 carbon dio-ide are made:

)t ST%: 1hat 'olume o3 h!drogen gas can be made 3rom the reaction o3 7 .E g magnesium *ith .E 6 mL o3 . 66 M H%l: (*e?ll do this as a lab) This is a straight con'ersion

$on.ST%: 1hat mass o3 mercur! (##) chloride *ill react *ith EBF mL o3 ammonia at .Fo% and 76. F N8a: Ha'e to use 8V W n)T 3irst" then con'ert Hg%l. + .$HC , Hg($H.)%l + $HD%l

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Unit 9 Set
7) A pressure o3 7 66 atm is the same as a pressure o3 UUUUUUUUUU o3 mmHg A) 7HC 2) 767 %) FB6 6 &) .H H. E) CC 6 .) The concentration o3 a ben0ene solution prepared b! mi-ing 7. 6 g %B H B *ith CG 6 g %%lD is UUUUUUUUUU molal A) D 6E 2) 6 .CH %) 6 B.. &) 6 C7B E) 6 E6G C) A sample o3 gas (.D . g) initiall! at D 66 atm *as compressed 3rom G 66 L to . 66 L at constant temperature A3ter the compression" the gas pressure *as UUUUUUUUUU atm A) D 66 2) . 66 %) 7 66 &) G 66 E) 7B 6 D) A sample o3 an ideal gas (C 66 L) in a closed container at .E 6 `% and FB 6 torr is heated to C66 `% The pressure o3 the gas at this temperature is UUUUUUUUUU torr A) H7. 2) 7DB %) FB E &) CH E E) . EC a 764. E) A sample o3 a gas (7 E6 mol) is contained in a 7E 6 L c!linder The temperature is increased 3rom 766 `% to 7E6 `% 8. The ratio o3 3inal pressure to initial pressure ^ _ is UUUUUUUUUU 87 A) 7 E6 2) 6 BBF %) 6 GG. &) 7 7C E) 7 66 B) The reaction o3 E6 mL o3 %l. gas *ith E6 mL o3 %H D gas 'ia the equation: %l. (g) + %. H D (g) %. H D %l . (g) *ill produce a total o3 UUUUUUUUUU mL o3 products i3 pressure and temperature are /ept constant A) 766 2) E6 %) .E &) 7.E E) 7E6 F) The pressure o3 a sample o3 %H D gas (B 6.. g) in a C6 6 L 'essel at D6. N is UUUUUUUUUU atm A) . D. 2) B B. %) 6 D7D &) 7. D E) .. D G) A sample o3 gas (7 H mol) is in a 3las/ at .7 `% and BHF mmHg The 3las/ is opened and more gas is added to the 3las/ The ne* pressure is FHE mmHg and the temperature is no* .B `% There are no* UUUUUUUUUU mol o3 gas in the 3las/ A) 7 B 2) . 7 %) . H &) C E E) 6 .G H) The densit! o3 $ . ( at 7 EC atm and DE . `% is UUUUUUUUUU gIL A) 7G . 2) 7 FB %) 6 CGG &) H HH

E) . EG

76) The molecular *eight o3 a gas is UUUUUUUUUU gImol i3 C E g o3 the gas occupies . 7 L at ST8 A) D7 2) E E a 76C %) CF &) D B a 76. E) . F a 764. 77) Since air is a mi-ture" it does not ha'e a bmolar mass b Ho*e'er" 3or calculation purposes" it is possible to spea/ o3 its be33ecti'e molar mass b (An e33ecti'e molar mass is a *eighted a'erage o3 the molar masses o3 a mi-turews components ) #3 air at ST8 has a densit! o3 7 .GE gIL" its e33ecti'e molar mass is UUUUUUUUUU gImol A) .B H 2) C7 D %) C6 6 &) CD D E) .G G 7.) #n a gas mi-ture o3 He" $e" and Ar *ith a total pressure o3 G D6 atm" the mole 3raction o3 Ar is UUUUUUUUUU i3 the partial pressures o3 He and $e are 7 E6 and . 66 atm" respecti'el!
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A) 6 7FH

2) 6 .CG

%) 6 CEF

&) 6 EGC

E) 6 D7F

7C) A sample o3 ( . gas (. 6 mmol) e33used through a pinhole in E 6 s #t *ill ta/e UUUUUUUUUU s 3or the same amount o3 %( . to e33use under the same conditions A) D C 2) 6 .C %) C B &) E H E) B H 7D) (3 the 3ollo*ing" UUUUUUUUUU is a greenhouse gas A) ( . 2) %H D %) %l. &) %. H D

E) Le

7E) (3 the 3ollo*ing gases" UUUUUUUUUU has densit! o3 . 76D gIL at C6C N and 7 C7 atm A) He 2) $e %) Ar &) Nr E) Le 7B) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing statements about gases is 3alse: A) @ases are highl! compressible 2) &istances bet*een molecules o3 gas are 'er! large compared to bond distances *ithin molecules %) @ases e-pand spontaneousl! to 3ill the container the! are placed in &) All gases are colorless and odorless at room temperature 7F) (3 the 3ollo*ing" UUUUUUUUUU has the odor o3 rotting eggs A) $HC 2) H .S %) %( &) $( .

E) H%$

7G) Molecular compounds o3 lo* molecular *eight tend to be gases at room temperature 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing is most li/el! not a gas at room temperature: A) %l. 2) H%l %) Li%l &) H . E) %H D 7H) According to /inetic4molecular theor!" in *hich o3 the 3ollo*ing gases *ill the root4mean4square speed o3 the molecules be the highest at .66 `%: A) H%l 2) %l. %) H . ( &) S;B E) $one The molecules o3 all gases ha'e the same root4mean4square speed at an! gi'en temperature .6) b#sothermalb means UUUUUUUUUU A) at constant pressure 2) at constant temperature &) at ideal temperature and pressure conditions

%) at 'ariable temperature and pressure conditions E) that H r-n W 6

.7) 1hich statement about ideal beha'ior o3 gases is 3alse: A) At lo* densities all gases ha'e similar properties 2) Volume o3 . 66 moles o3 o-!gen gas" ( . " is assumed to be the same as that o3 . 66 moles o3 carbon dio-ide gas" %( . " as long as the temperature and pressure conditions are the same %) @as idealit! assumes that there are no interactions bet*een gas particles &) All particles in the ideal gas beha'e independentl! o3 each other E) Lo* pressures and high temperatures t!picall! cause de'iations 3rom the ideal gas beha'ior

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..) A .EE mL round4bottom 3las/ is *eighed and 3ound to ha'e a mass o3 77D GE g A 3e* milliliters o3 an easil! 'apori0ed liquid are added to the 3las/ and the 3las/ is immersed in a boiling *ater bath All o3 the liquid 'apori0es at the boiling temperature o3 *ater" 3illing the 3las/ *ith 'apor 1hen all o3 the liquid has 'apori0ed" the 3las/ is remo'ed 3rom the bath" cooled" dried" and re*eighed The ne* mass o3 the 3las/ and the condensed 'apor is 77E .C g 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing compounds could the liquid be: (Assume the ambient pressure is 7 atm ) A) %D H76 2) %C H F (H %) %. H B &) %. HE (H E) %D HH (H .C) According to /inetic4molecular theor!" i3 the temperature o3 a gas is raised 3rom 766 `% to .66 `%" the a'erage /inetic energ! o3 the gas *ill UUUUUUUUUU A) double 2) increase b! a 3actor o3 7 .F %) increase b! a 3actor o3 766 &) decrease b! hal3 E) decrease b! a 3actor o3 766 .D) A mi-ture o3 t*o gases *as allo*ed to e33use 3rom a container (ne o3 the gases escaped 3rom the container 7 DC times as 3ast as the other one The t*o gases could ha'e been UUUUUUUUUU A) %( and S;B 2) ( . and %l. %) %( and %( . &) %l. and S;B E) ( . and S;B .E) The densit! o3 /r!pton gas at 7 .7 atm and E6 6 `% is UUUUUUUUUU gIL A) 6 6DEB 2) 6 .B. %) 6 .HE &) C G. E) F BE .B) #3 C .7 mol o3 a gas occupies EB . L at DD `% and FHC torr" E .H mol o3 this gas occupies UUUUUUUUUU L under these conditions A) 7D F 2) B7 F %) C6 H &) H. B E) DFG .F) 1hen argon is placed in a container o3 neon" the argon spontaneousl! disperses throughout the neon because UUUUUUU A) o3 the large attracti'e 3orces bet*een argon and neon atoms 2) o3 h!drogen bonding %) a decrease in energ! occurs *hen the t*o mi&) the dispersion o3 argon atoms produces an increase in disorder E) o3 sol'ent4solute interactions .G) #n a Torricelli barometer" a pressure o3 one atmosphere supports a FB6 mm column o3 mercur! #3 the original tube containing the mercur! is replaced *ith a tube ha'ing t*ice the diameter o3 the original" the height o3 the mercur! column at one atmosphere pressure is UUUUUUUUUU mm A) CG6 2) FB6 %) 7 E. a 76C &) D FG a 76C E) 7.7 .H) A balloon originall! had a 'olume o3 D CH L at DD `% and a pressure o3 F.H torr The balloon must be cooled to UUUUUUUUUU`% to reduce its 'olume to C FG L (at constant pressure) A) CG 2) 6 %) F. H &) .FC E) EDB C6) The number o3 moles in . E6L o3 nitrogen gas at 766 o% and F66torr isUUU a EF 7 b . 77 c 6 .G6 d 6 6FE. e .. D

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!nit 9 4b1ecti0es
7 . C D E B F Summari0e the di33erences bet*een solids" liquids" and gases Use NTM to e-plain the di33erences bet*een states o3 matter &escribe ho* 'elocities o3 gases are a33ected b! temperature R pressure changes" and molar mass 2e able to use all gas la*s to per3orm calculations to calculate the molar mass" densit!" or molar 'olume o3 a gas 3rom e-perimental data Use the gas la*s to sol'e stoichiometr! problems %alculate gas 'ariables at standard and non4standard conditions %alculate gas 'ariables at ideal and non4ideal conditions

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!nit 10 Soli9sB LiMui9sB an9 %'ase 'an&es

This is the section on heat" s!stems" surroundings" etc $o* *e do )LL o3 the math *ith the 'ocabT T'e*mo9+namics (heat po*er) O stud! o3 energ! and its trans3ormations T'e*moc'emist*+ (heat and matter) O the relationship bet*een energ! changes and chemical reactions

5-1 T'e $atu*e of 6ne*&+

6ne*&+ UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Ao*; O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2eat O energ! used to cause the temperature o3 an obJect to increase (trans3er o3 energ! 3rom one obJect S+stem an9 Su**oun9in& S+stem 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Su**oun9in&s 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU(reall!" all o3 it) ;or a reaction" the reactants and products are the s!stem The container out*ard is the surroundings S!stems can be: 4(en O matter and energ! can be e-changed *ith the surroundings lose9 O neither matter nor energ! can be e-changed *ith the surroundings 2est 3or thermochemistr! studies (traps heat energ! as *ell as the reactants and products) T*ansfe**in& 6ne*&+: Ao*; an9 2eat Energ! can be trans3erred b! (mo'es bet*een s!stems and surroundings in t*o *a!s): 7) :o*; O changing directionIspeed o3 obJects (sports" *al/ing do*n the hall*a!" etc) .) 'eat O heatingIcooling o3 obJects (coo/ing" ba/ing" ma/ing ice cream" etc) Ao*;() O energ! needed to cause an obJect to mo'e against a 3orce The magnitude (amount) o3 *or/ depends on the 3orce (;) and the distance (d) the obJect is mo'ed W;-d (N" this is getting into ph!sics" so a quic/ re'ie*Ipre'ie* 3or !ou 1or/ can be done *hen *e li3t obJects" mo'e something across a 3lat sur3ace" drag something up a hill (inclined plane)" etc ;or chemistr!" *e de3ine the Ps!stemQ as an obJect" then *e are in the surroundings and an!thing *e do to the s!stem is *or/" so *e are trans3erring energ! to it 2eat (again) O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (also bet*een the s!stem and surroundings) ;or a reaction s!stem" *hen *e touch the PobJectQ *e trans3er our heat to heat or its heat to us (don?t pic/ up hot things" the! burnT)

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5-2 T'e =i*st La: of T'e*mo9+namics

Energ! can be trans3erred 3rom one place to another and one 3orm to another 2UT: La: of onse*0ation of 6ne*&+ 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUEVE) So 1st La: T'e*mo 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2asicall!" energ! is conser'ed (ne'er goes a*a! or is created) 3nte*nal 6ne*&+ F6H #nternal Energ! (E) is de3ined as the energ! o3 atomsImolecules in motion" their rotation about each other and other obJects" their 'ibrations (mo'ements) about their bonds" and the energ! b! the sub4 atomic particles (p+" e4" n) 2asicall!" e'er!thing that could possess energ! in an atomImolecule is PinternalQ energ! 1e can $EVE) /no* the e-act 'alue o3 internal energ!" but *e %A$ measure a change (fE) in the energ! fE W E3inal 4 Einitial )emember" in science *e must get to the end be3ore *e loo/ bac/ at the beginning (sometimes science *or/s and sometimes it doesn?t: can?t /no* the end till *e get there) Again" E3inal and Einitial are not needed" Just fE This quantit! has C parts: 7) a number .) a unit (number + unit W magnitude o3 change) C) a sign (gi'es direction o3 change) positi'e fE W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU negati'e fE W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU interesting graphic bottom o3 pg 7F6 (r" !ou could use common sense: *hate'er *or/s 3or !ou AL1A>S discuss energ! changes 3rom 0ie: of s+stem (easier to de3ine) Relatin& S6 to 2eat an9 Ao*; A change in energ! can be through 63T26R :o*; o* 'eat (or sometimes both) fE W q + q W UUUUUU (<) W UUUUUUU (<) so fE is in (<) also

#3 !ou get one o3 these" Just plug in the numbers and do the math: basic algebra 1hen heat or *or/ is done to a s!stem" its internal energ! increases W +fE (again" common sense) So" heat lost to the surroundings and *or/ done to the surroundings b! the s!stem is a decrease in internal energ! W 4fE ()eall!" Just thin/ a bit about it" and use a real e-ample)

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6n9ot'e*mic an9 6<ot'e*mic %*ocess 6n9ot'e*mic 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 6<ot'e*mic 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU %an tal/ in terms o3 S!stem () Surroundings" () both )emember" *hate'er happens to one" the opposite happens to the other State =unctions 2ased onl! on the state or present condition o3 the s!stem and not on ho* it *as obtained #n thermo" the energ! used in one direction o3 a chemical reaction must be equal to *hat is used going the other *a!: fE W 6 2ottom line: it is a state 3unction i3 !ou can ta/e multiple paths and get to the same end The paths are $(T state 3unctions" but the end #S a state 3unction 6nt'al(+ ,ec'anical :o*; (associated *ith a change in 'olume) is the onl! real *or/ done b! an open s!stem E-: a &) r-n that ma/es gas bubbles allo*s us to PseeQ the gas being 3ormed" *e can e'en P3eelQ heat being released" but *e can?t PseeQ the *or/ being done b! the e-pansion o3 the gas against the surrounding molecules (atmospheric pressure increases slightl! in that area) A closed s!stem allo*s us to measure *or/ and heat o3 all t!pes" gi'ing us a better P'ie*Q o3 the o'erall energ! change %*essu*e.0olume :o*; O *or/ in'ol'ed in the e-pansion or compression o3 a gas W 48 fV 8 W pressure (atm" /8a" mmHg" etc) V W 'olume (L)

remember" f W final . initial AL1A>S ;or a +fV (e-panding gas 'olume)" is negati'e and *or/ is done 2> the s!stem to the surroundings ;or a 4fV (compress gas 'olume)" is positi'e and *or/ is done T( the s!stem b! the surroundings 2asicall!" a positi'e means that energ! is entering the s!stem (absorbed)"3or negati'e it is lea'ing the s!stem

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6nt'al(+F2H 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2asicall!" onl! pressureI'olume *or/ is done" no other 3orms o3 *or/ are seen #3 H W E + 8V then fH W f(E + 8V) but 8ressure is %onstant so" fH W fE + 8fV

(N" no* 3or some algebra 3un: Using fE W q + 3or the heatI*or/ relationship to energ! A$& that the *or/ in'ol'ed 3or gas e-pansionIcompression is W 48 fV" then *e can substitute it all in and get: S2 D M >ep" heat and enthalp! are basicall! the same thing (a slight di33erence in terms o3 PactualQ 'ersus PtheoreticalQ" but onl! in the Dth 4Eth s3) This means that at constant pressure: +q W + fH W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 4q W 4 fH W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU So that?s *here # got it 3rom in 7st !ear chem ()eall!" # don?t ma/e this stu33 up) 2ac/ to state 3unctions: H is a state 3unction" so fH (qp W heat at a constant pressure) is also a state 3unction: the path doesn?t matter" Just the end result This onl! holds true i3 pressure is constant (close9 s+stem) and onl! 84V *or/ is in'ol'ed

5-4 6nt'al(ies of Reactions

2ecause change in (fH) is 3inal 4 initial" 3or a chemical reaction it is products 4 reactants fHr-n W Hproducts 4 Hreactants fHr-n is the enthalp! change o3 a reaction (also called the heat o3 reaction) Thermochemical equations: uses a balanced equation (*here coe33icient W 9 moles) and a fH 'alue The sign on fH indicates endo ( ) or e-o ( ) r-n The boo/ also drones on about Enthalp! &iagrams: Just a picture o3 products on top" reactants on bottom" *ith enthalp! as the dependent (!) a-is #3 there are . arro*s bet*een the reactants and products" the reaction is re'ersible (ne arro* sho*s onl! a one4*a! reaction and the *a! the energ! 3lo* mo'es (endoIe-o) @o ahead" loo/ at a 3e* (pg 7FG47FH) >ou might ha'e to interpret one sometime

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@uidelines 3or Thermochemical Equations: 7) Enthalp! is an e<tensi0e (*o(e*t+ (depends on sample si0e" mass" etc) The magnitude (number and charge) is directl! related to the amount o3 reactant consumed in the process E-: i3 7 mol o3 methane release GH6/< o3 heat during combustion" then 76 mol o3 methane *ill release GH66/< o3 heat 3or the same reaction conditions .) The enthalp! change (fH) 3or a reaction is equal in magnitude (number *ith unit) but opposite in sign (+ or 4) to fH 3or the re'erse reaction E-: #3 GH6/< are released (fH W 4GH6/<) *hen methane and o-!gen combust into carbon dio-ide and *ater" then *e need to use GH6/< (fH W +GH6/<) during the re'erse reaction to re3orm the methane and o-!gen Another *a! to thin/ about it is the Pcircle o3 li3eQ thing: the plants need a certain amount o3 energ! to ma/e the sugars *e eat 1hen *e brea/ them do*n" *e get that energ! bac/ (photos!nthesis and animal cellular respiration are opposite reactions) C) The enthalp! change 3or a reaction depends on the state o3 the reactants and products #3 a product is 3ormed into a liquid instead o3 a gas" then the o'erall energ! a'ailable 3or the surroundings *ould be lo*er (the e-tra energ! needed to 3orm a gas uses up some o3 the energ! that could ha'e been P:releasedQ to the surroundings) Temperature 3or reactants and products is the same" unless other*ise noted (ma/es calculations more manageable) 2asicall!" as energ! use goes solidsq liquidsqq gases so a gas *ould ha'e the LEAST amount o3 e-tra energ! to gi'e a*a! (uses the most to 3orm)" *hile a solid *ould ha'e the M(ST amount o3 energ! to gi'e a*a! (uses least amount to 3orm) at the end o3 a reaction

2as ene*&+ to &i0e a:a+ D (otential !ses ene*&+ to *emain @acti0eC D ;inetic

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alo*imet*+ FRemin9 meB :eGll (la+ :it' oneH alo*imet*+ O measure o3 heat 3lo* An e-perimental determination o3 fH at constant pressure (closed s!stem) alo*imete* 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 2eat a(acit+ an9 S(ecific 2eat E'er!thing changes temperature *hen heated" but the magnitude (number) di33ers depending on the substance Heat %apacit! general term 3or amount o3 needed to cause a temperature change $o real 'alue 2asicall!" the temperature change seen b! an obJect *hen it absorbs a gi'en amount o3 heat ,ola* 2eat a(acit+ F S(ecific 2eat a(acit+ (



2oth o3 these terms are used 3or %!R6 substances (not mi-tures" Just elements and compounds)


or m W UUUUUUU (g)



1e are using Nel'in because the boo/ does # learned in %elsius" but #?ll adJust 2esides" Nel'in and %elsius temperature magnitudes are equal The! scale upIdo*n at the same rateInumber o3 degrees) Also remember" grams can be con'erted to moles" so the molar and speci3ic heat capacities are easil! related &on?t tr! to memori0e lots o3 3ormulas" Just use *hat !ou /no* and con'ert onstant %*essu*e alo*imet*+ ;or solution thermochem" /eeping pressure constant is easier: Just do it in a sealed container qsol W 4qr-n An increase temp temperature (+fT) means the reaction is e-othermic (4qr-n) #n other *ords" i3 a chemical reaction happens in *ater" the *ater is the surroundings #3 the *ater heats up" the reaction (s+stem) ga'e o33 heat and is e-othermic Bomb alo*imet*+ F onstant 7olume alo*imet*+H Used 3or combustion o3 liquids and solids (can do gases" but ha'e to ha'e a speci3ic one 3or that) =r-n W 4%cal - fT %cal is determined 3or each set4up" but it is a %($STA$T once /no*n

A 2omb calorimeter?s heat trans3er is a measure o3 change in internal energ! (fE)" *hereas a %onst 8ress calorimeter?s heat trans3er is a measure o3 change in enthalp! (fH) The o'erall di33erence bet*een fE and fH is 'er! small" so the! are 'irtuall! the same thing

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5-6 2essGs La:

There are T($S o3 tables that sho* fH 'alues 3or T($S o3 reactions" so doing calorimetr! is not necessar! 1e can Just calculate 'alues (&on?t 3rea/: Just adding and subtracting" more or less) )emember" enthalp! (S2) is a state 3unction (Just need to /no* start R end states o3 matter" and amount o3 stu33 used" not path ta/en to get there) Since *e can?t control the reaction to get either a) complete reaction or b) to get onl! the desired product" measuring directl! *ill not *or/ #nstead" *e loo/ up the reactions on a chart 7) .) C) D) 1rite the complete reaction" balanced" at the bottom 2ring up each %(M8(U$& (elements ha'e a fH3 W 6)" then brea/ into elements 2alance each partial reaction Scale each partial based on the 3inal balanced equation 2e sure to scale each fH3 as *ell Neep in mind: scaling ma! be b! a 3raction or *hole number E) &o the math E-: ;or a reaction o3 pure carbon (graphite) *ith h!drogen gas to 3orm propane (%CHG)" determine the enthalp! change

2e sure to remember to Pscale upQ the fH 'alue as *ell *hen multipl!ing the equations #n order to do these" !ou ha'e to ha'e a table o3 reactions" and be able to piece together possible reactions to get to the end Neep in mind: there are numerous paths" Just as long as *e all get to the same endpoint 2asicall!" there are lots o3 di33erent loo/ing solution steps to the same question" but onl! one correct 3inal ans*er (#t?s a Zen thing) L(TS o3 good e-amples in the boo/ (pg 7GB47GG) # *ould tr! them on the ne-t page under the other C e-amples

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E-: the 3ormation o3 chloric acid (H%l(.) 3rom liquid *ater

The 3ormation o3 glucose 3rom liquid *ater and carbon dio-ide

The decomposition o3 sul3uric acid into *ater and sul3ur trio-ide

A 3e* 3rom the boo/ ma!be::::

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5-7 6nt'al(ies of =o*mation FS2fH

=o*mation O *hen compounds are 3ormed 3rom their elements 1e can calculate enthalp! o3 3ormation (fH3 ) also called heat o3 3ormation The P3Q subscript Just means that the heat releasedIabsorbed is due to the compound being 3ormed Since the magnitude (number 'alue) o3 fH is based on temp" press" and states o3 matter" *e need to de3ine a standard set o3 conditions Stan9a*9 State O (u*e fo*m of an element at TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT )ecogni0e these 'alues o3 temp and press 3rom ST8 conditions: The!?re the same As 3or Ppure 3ormQ" Just the state o3 matter as listed on a periodic table (metals are solid" Hg and 2r are liquids" etc) Stan9a*9 6nt'al(+ 'an&e (fHo) O change in enthalp! *hen all reactants and products are in a standard state The PoQ superscript indicates Pat standard conditionsQ 2asicall!" the conditions at 7 atm and .Eo%" $(T ST8" and in their natural state So" that leads us to the standard enthalp! o3 3ormation 3or a compound (fH3o) 3or one mole o3 substance 3rom its elements in their standard states ;or a similar e-ample 3rom Hess?s La* earlier" *e are using carbon" o-!gen" and h!drogen to 3orm Ethanol (an alcohol): . %(s) + C H. (g) + M (.(g) , %.HE(H(l) fH3o W 4.FF F /<Imol

fH3o is based on 7 mole o3 P3ormedQ substance 1e use (. 3or o-!gen because it is the most stable 3orm and most readil! a'ailable 3orm o3 o-!gen Same applies 3or an! o3 the diatomics There is a LA)@E table o3 fH3o 'alues on pg 7GH" *ith a bigger list in Appendi- % #3 !ou need them" the! *ill be supplied: please don?t *aste !our time tr!ing to memori0e them S2fo of elements is ?e*o (the! are alread! P3ormedQ) 2ut be ca*eful of allot*o(es (. or more di33erent molecular 3orms o3 an element *ith the same ph!sical state: graphite" diamond" coal) Their fH3o ma! $(T be 0ero (the! need energ! to change 3rom one cr!stalline structure to another)

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!sin& 6nt'al(ies of =o*mation to alculate 6nt'al(ies of Reactions All o3 the in3o" along *ith Hess?s La* (add them up" cancel *hat isn?t needed) can gi'e us the fHor-n E-: Use standard enthalpies o3 3ormation to 3ind the heat o3 reaction 3or: . %l.(g) + . H.((l) , D H%l(g) + (.(g) fHor-n W : ;irst *e ha'e to get fH3o 3or each o3 the compounds in the 3ormula" fH3o W 6/<Imol 3or %l.(g) fH3oW 4.GE G /<Imol 3or H.((l) fH3oW 4H. C6 /<Imol 3or H%l(g) fH3oW 6/<Imol 3or (.(g) $o* *e put them into the equation (products 4 reactants) along *ith the coe33icients:

;inall!" *e do the math:

2oo/ has a great" detailed e-ample on pg 7H647H7 The! also sho* a graph o3 the r-n: a bit con3using at 3irst" but not too bad Also" tr! the sample problems on the ne-t page bIc the! reall! help

5-8 =oo9s an9 =uel

Most heat related reactions are combustion reactions (the *hole reason *e do combustion: heat and *or/ energ!) # suggest !ou read" and e'en tr!" a 3e* o3 the problems in this section 1e *ill not be co'ering this material in class" but it is additional practice and real4*orld applications o3 the rest o3 this chapter #3 !ou ha'e questions" please as/

)emember the space shuttle stor!: loo/ at the 3irst page o3 the chapter: great picture (not Pthe oneQ)
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'a(te* 19 'emical T'e*mo9+namics


This chapter deals *ith chemical thermod!namics: chemistr! and energ! relationships 2e3ore *e start" some basics: S!stem O substances *e are stud!ing Surroundings O e'er!thing else Uni'erse O s!stem + surroundings

19.1Spontaneous 8rocesses

)eactions are considered to be spontaneous i3 the products are thermod!namicall! more stable than the reactants T'e =i*st La: of T'e*mo9+namics O The combined amount o3 matter and energ! in the uni'erse is a constant (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) The 7st La* helps us /eep e'er!thing in balance (*hat goes up *ill come do*n t!pe thing) fE W q + w (goes *ith 7st La*) E W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (change in internal energ! o3 a s!stem) q W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 3rom the surroundings w W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU b! the surroundings Tells us heat trans3erred and *or/ done" but not to *hat e-tent (ho* much o3 each) S(ontaneous O one that proceeds on its o*n *ithout an! outside assistance (controlled change in pressure or temperature" or addition o3 another substance" etc) 2asicall!" lea'e it alone: i3 it changes" it is spontaneous (decomposition" rusting" tarnishing: sensing a pattern here:) Some processes can be spontaneous depending on the reaction conditions (*ater 3orming ice in *inter) Man! spontaneous reaction release heat (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU): %ombustion o3 gasoline releases 7 6H6 - 76D /< but not all: reaction o3 ammonium salts *ith *ater absorbs C7D D /< (UUUUUUUUUUUUUU) 1hen energ! is released" spontaneit! is 3a'ored" but not required 1hen energ! is absorbed" reactions ma! occur an!*a! due to an increase in randomness (entrop!)

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A PnormalQ process is spontaneous (sugar dissol'ing in *ater" e'aporation o3 *ater) The re'erse is non4spontaneous (rust disappearing 3rom a nail" table salt brea/ing into sodium solid and chlorine gas) #magine all o3 the air rushing to one corner o3 the room: is that realistic: 1h!:

&oes *ater e0a(o*ate at A$> temperature: 1h!:

2rings us bac/ to temperatureIpressure e33ects on spontaneit!: these conditions must be de3ined Also" Just because a process is spontaneous does not mean *e can PseeQ it happen (called an Pobser'able rateQ): marble (so3ter roc/) *eathers 3aster than granite (harder roc/) Ha'e to hang around 3or centuries to see the e33ects o3 *eathering Energ! o3 the uni'erse is constant" but it can be trans3erred bet*een the s!stem and the surroundings E-amples: temperature" pressure" composition (t!pe o3 substance and moles)" ph!sical state (s"l"g) O 'er! important in this chapter See/ing a %riterion 3or Spontaneit! M(ST spontaneous reactions are e-othermic Al*a!s e-ceptions such as ice melting (ta/es in heat) and ammonium salts mi-ed *ith *ater (also ta/es in heat) 8roperties o3 the s!stem are called state 3unctions O things such as pressure" internal energ!" temperature" 'olume" etc Values o3 state 3unctions depend onl! on the s!stem and not ho* it came to be in that state (applies to Hess?s la* later) %hange in state 3unction describes the di33erence and doesn?t depend on ho* it occurred (internal energ!" E" and enthalp!" H are state 3unctions) E-ample O a) heat *ater 3rom 76 to 7E degrees b) heat *ater 3rom 76 to E6 cool it to E and heat it to 7E

a and b are the same in the *orld o3 thermod!namics (again" path doesn?t matter" Just start and end points) 2eat FMH an9 :o*; FwH a*e $4T state functions: the o'erall path is VE)> #M8()TA$T )e'ersible and #rre'ersible 8rocesses Energ! e33icienc!: combustion engines are not 766K e33icient: all energ! not con'erted to *or/ 1h!: Some heat trans3erred to surroundings: the engine gets hot
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6nt*o(+ (qIT) O ratio o3 heat deli'ered to an ideal engine (766K e33icient) and the temperature at *hich it *as deli'ered 39eal en&ine O a re'ersible process in *hich a s!stem can be changed then restored e-actl! b! re'ersing the process 2asicall!: get bac/ to start *ith no net change to s!stem or surroundings (ta/e coo/ie dough apart to get eggs" 3lour" etc" or get the Statue o3 Libert! to be copper again *ith no input o3 *or/Ienerg!) A re'ersible change produces the ma-imum amount o3 *or/ that can be achie'ed b! the s!stem on the surroundings (wre' W wma-) 3**e0e*sible O cannot be re'ersed to restore s!stem and surroundings to the original states Most chemicalIph!sical processes are irre'ersible E-: 3lo* o3 heat (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU AL1A>S) Ho*e'er" an in3initesimal change (reall! small) in temp can re'erse the reaction (heat 3lo*) o3 the process So" re'ersible processes are an!thing that re'erse direction *hen an in3initesimal change is made to some propert! o3 the s!stem Usuall! associated *ith a PcontrolledQ process 3sot'e*mal O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (iso W o3 oneIsame" thermal W temperature) Since a gas e-pands to 3ill the container" i3 *e change the si0e o3 a container" the 'olume *ill increase at a constant temperature To get the gas bac/ to a smaller 'olume" *e must do *or/ (b! the surroundings) to compress the gas This is irre'ersible Re0e*sible isot'e*mal O happens onl! i3 the (*essu*e outsi9e eMuals (*essu*e insi9e: no e-pansion so no change in pressure *ith the process 2ottom line: all )EAL (non4controlled) processes are irre'ersible and an! spontaneous process is irre'ersible

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19-2 6nt*o(+ an9 t'e Secon9 La: of T'e*mo9+namics

6nt*o(+ I @SC O a measure o3 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU" e-tent to *hich energ! is distributed or dispersed among the 'arious motions o3 the molecules in a s!stem" e-tent o3 randomness as compared to temperature and heat trans3er in a s!stem Entrop! is not a single" simple de3inition (this is *here it gets 'er! abstract" Just tr! !our best) Some basic ideas o3 ent*o(+: 7) as *e mo'e 3rom solid to liquid to gas O entrop! increases (gas is 1A> higher than other .) .) &uring a spontaneous process the entrop! o3 the (pic/ one: one increase R the other decreases) s!stemIuni'erse al*a!s increases C) #t is a State ;unction (path is irrele'ant" Just start and end) ALL state functions (remind me" #?ll e-plain) depend on start and end ($L>" ne'er on the path ST W S3inal 4 Sinitial $ote: the higher the degree o3 randomness or disorder in a s!stem" the greater its entrop! ;or isothermal processes: e'en i3 the process is irre'ersible (can Ppic/Q a re'ersible path" soX) S W qre'IT

Some e-amples o3 entrop! changes (Just 3or re3erence): E-: The e-plosi'e decomposition o3 ammonium nitrate into *ater" nitrogen" and o-!gen gases )esult: a solid gi'es a large amount o3 gas An increase in entrop! occurs The e-traction o3 sodium chloride 3rom sea *ater

)esult: the $a+ and %l4 gain a high degree o3 order *hen the! lea'e solution and become solid A decrease in entrop! is seen

%( gas reacts *ith *ater 'apor to produce carbon dio-ide gas and h!drogen gas

)esult: the entropies o3 the D gases 'ar!" based on structure The o'erall reaction should ha'e an entrop! change" but it is li/el! to be small There is no change in total number o3 molecules 3or the reaction 1e ha'e no basis" as *ritten" to determine an entrop! change 3or the reaction as either increasing or decreasing <ust that there is one" and it is li/el! to be small

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S Fc'an&e in ent*o(+H fo* %'ase 'an&es S W qre'IT can be used 3or A$> phase change Also" qre' W Hchange in state (change in enthalp! 3or a change in state) E-) 1hat is the entrop! change o3 *ater at 766o%: H'apori0ation W D6 F /<Imol S W qre'IT S W A reaction in *hich Ss!stem decreases ma! still be spontaneous i3 the increase in Ssurroundings is more than enough to ma/e up 3or it E-ample O #ce 3ree0ing at a temperature other than 6 o% H3usion W B 67/<Imol and Temp needs to be in Nel'inT E-amples: to melt ice at 476 o% to melt ice at 6 o% to melt ice at 76 o% and qre' W H'apori0ation so S W H'apori0ationIT

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11-4 %'ase


# li/e mine better than theirs (pg DDH) Sa!s the same thing" but # li/e the 'isuals The! tal/ about PHeat o3Q: %ombustion (fHcombustion) O remember h!drocarbon + o-!gen gi'es us X solution (fHsolution) O heat can be either released or absorbed 3usion (fH3usion) O (melting) heat absorbed b! solid substance as it melts to a liquid solidi3ication (fHsolidi3ication) O (3ree0ing) heat released *hen a liquid substance becomes a solid 'apori0ation (fH'apori0ation) O heat absorbed *hen a liquid is turned into a gas condensation (fHcondesnation) O heat released *hen a gas becomes a liquid sublimation (fHsublimation) O heat absorbed *hen UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU deposition (fHdeposition) O heat released *hen UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU )eall!" Just the amount o3 energ! needed to change 3rom one state to another Learn the names 3or each direction and !ou?ll be 3ine And the! are all labeled as :fHname (see abo'e) Again" Just heat calculations based on reactions and endothermic (positi'eIabsorbed) 's e-othermic (negati'eIreleased)

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2eatin& u*0es Temperature and heat are $(T the same" so *e can plot temp 's heat (energ! added) 3or a phase change (change o3 state)

7e*tical a*ea sho*s ($E state o3 matter =lat a*eas sho* change 3rom one state to another Heat cur'es must speci3! the pressure o3 the s!stem (temperature and pressure are related through @a! Lussac?s La*: at constant 'olume" the pressure is directl! related to the temperature) (N" so no* a cooling cur'e:

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Using heat calculations *ith /no*n (or 3rom a graph) Pheats o3Q" *e can 3ind o'erall heat change (fH) So" i3 fH W q and qWm%p fT" *e can 3ind fHphase change

%ooling a substance is Just the re'erse o3 heating it" so fHsolid to gas W 4 fHgas to solid Again" common sense should pre'ail Last note: q W m %p fT is used 3or ($E state o3 matter (change in temperature) q W m fH is used 3or a change in state (3usion" 'apori0ation" sublimation" etc) #3 changing 3rom one state to another" need to brea/ it into pieces" then add to get the total E-: *ater heating 3rom 4.. 6o% to 7DEo% &ra* a graph i3 it helps
Heat Diagram for Water:
qD W (m) (H'ap)

Vapori0ation (2oiling) L 8 %ondensation

Temperature qD W (m) (4H'ap)

qE W (m)(%p)(T)

qC W (m)(%p)(T) q. W (m) (H3us)

s s

Melting (;usion)
q. W (m) (4H3us)

;ree0ing (%r!stalli0ation)
q7 W (m)(%p)(T)


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2n9 La: of T'e*mo9+namics Entrop! increases in A$> spontaneous process (good indicator 3or spontaneit!) So Suni0e*se D Ss+stem P Ssu**oun9in&s > 0" the reaction is spontaneous All spontaneous processes produce an increase in entrop! o3 the uni'erse Let?s calculate Suni'erse W Ss!stem + Ssurroundings 3or ice melting in !our hand H3usion W B 67/<Imol 3or ice" bod! temp is about CFo%" temp o3 ice is 6o% S W H3usionIT W S W H3usionIT W Stotal W Ss!stem

Ssurroundings W

Neep in mind that Hmelting W 4H3ree0ing (r: the heat lost b! !our hand is equal in number but opposite in sign to the heat gained b! the ice #3 the temperature *ere Just (in3initesimall!) abo'e 0ero %elsius" then the reaction *ould be re'ersible and Stotal *ould be 0ero (no change in entrop!) ;inall!" t'e Secon9 La: of T'e*mo9+namics: An! irre'ersible process results in an o'erall increase in entrop!" *hereas a re'ersible process results in no o'erall change in entrop! The total entrop! o3 the uni'erse increases *ith an! spontaneous process and all PrealQ processes are irre'ersible 2asicall!: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (r: the uni'erse *ants disorder (good argument 3or *h! !ou don?t ha'e to clean !our room: it *on?t *or/" but is *orth the tr!)

19-3 The Molecular #nterpretation o3 Entrop!

)eal molecules ha'e C t!pes o3 motion" collecti'el! called Pmotional energ!Q: 7) T*anslationalO the entire molecule mo'ing in a direction @ases ha'e highest translational motion .) 7ib*ational O atoms in molecule mo'e a*a! 3romIto*ards each other (a stretch and rebound thing) )emind me: *e?ll get out the tuning 3or/s 3or 3unT C) Rotational O motion about the center point o3 the molecule (li/e a spinning top)

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2olt0mann?s Equation and Microstates This section contains a bunch o3 P*a! o'er !our abilit!Q stu33 that belongs in a @rad le'el boo/ The! sound li/e a bunch o3 pompous 3ools to me Also" # as/ed around: no one else teaches this Jun/ at this le'el or the ne-t one up ;eel 3ree to read it" but $( 1A> *ill it be on the A8 test 2olt0mann (late 7G66?s) ga'e conceptual meaning to entrop! and a better de3inition 3or temperature: changes in the intensit! o3 molecular motion 2olt0mann?s constant" lo*er case / W 7 CG - 764.C<IN is on the A8 sheet and used in root mean square speed NTM sa!s that the higher a temperature o3 a gas" the 3aster the motion and the higher the /inetic energ! Hotter s!stems also ha'e a broader range o3 molecular speeds (goes to root mean square speed) Bottom line pure solids ha'e lo* entrop!" gases ha'e high entrop!" and entrop! changes can be seen ('er! small) at the molecule le'el" but not at the macro (larger s!stem) le'el

T'i*9 La: of T'e*mo9+namics UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU $ote: matter MUST be a solid %lassic question: *hat is the 'olume o3 a gas at 0ero /el'in: 1h!:::

1hen all matter is at 0ero Nel'in" e'er!thing *ill stop mo'ing: no more disorder so no more entrop! As *e mo'e abo'e 6N" the motional energ! o3 the solid increases )ise in entrop! 3rom 6N to melting point E'entuall!" the energ! becomes so great" the solid becomes a liquid (intermolecular bonds are bro/en) At melting point" there is a 'ertical increase in entrop! (e'er!one is 3reeTTT) Again" a rise 3rom mp to bp At boiling point" greater 'olume and speeds o3 the molecules cause a sharp" 'ertical increase in entrop!

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11-5 7a(o* %*essu*e

7a(o* (*essu*e O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (*e usuall! thin/ in terms o3 d!namic equilibriums W closed s!stems) 2asicall!" i3 a liquid is placed in a sealed container and all air is remo'ed ('acuum)" then the liquid *ill start to e'aporate 1hen equilibrium (balance bet*een l and g state) is reached" *e ha'e 'apor pressure 3or that s!stem 6<(lainin& 7a(o* %*essu*e f*om a ,olecula* Le0el 2ased on temperature (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU)" the molecules all mo'e at di33erent speeds The 3aster ones turn to a gas a3ter o'ercoming the #M;?s and sur3ace tension E'entuall!" some o3 the *ill lose their energ! and P3allQ bac/ into solution &uring the process" an equilibrium sets up *here the number going to gas and going bac/ to liquid is balanced at that temperature #ncreasing temp causes and increase in 'apor pressure (*h! soda e-plodes *hen heated more than *hen cold) The *ea/er the #M;?s" the higher the 'apor pressure (the more that can go into the gas phase)

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D+namic eMuilib*ium O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (heat can lea'e s!stem" but not particles) *here e'aporation and condensation occur at the same rate Again: liquid [ gas at same rate $ote: the d!namic equilibrium happens 3or )LL changes in state" e'en solid [ gas (sublimation) 3= the s!stem is L4S6D

7olatile O liquids that e'aporate readil! (rubbing alcohol" nail polish remo'er" etc) A substance can be more 'olatile at di33erent temperatures (hot 's cold *ater: both e'aporate e'entuall!)

$o*mal Boilin& %oint O the point at *hich the 'apor pressure o3 a substance equals the e-ternal pressure acting on the sur3ace o3 the liquid at 1 atm 2asicall!" the boiling point o3 a substance at room pressure 2oiling point re3ers to ALL o3 the temperatures based on Various pressures E-: it ta/es pasta longer to coo/ in Utah than in ;lorida (reall!" it?s true) The pressure in Utah is lo*er" so the boiling point is lo*er ($(T normal bp" Just bp) The 3ood ta/es longer to coo/ 8ressure coo/ers do the opposite: coo/ 3aster based on higher pressure" so higher bp (the! also tend to e-plode)

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%'ase Dia&*ams A graph that summari0es the conditions under *hich equilibrium e-ists bet*een di33erent states o3 matter Allo*s us to predict the stable state o3 a substance at an! temperature and pressure T'e &*a(': (nl! UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU per diagram is sho*n %*essu*e is the UUUUUUUUUU (dependant 'ariable) and is either the pressure applied to the s!stem or generated b! the substance itsel3 Tem(e*atu*e is the UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (the independent 'ariable) *itical Tem(e*atu*e4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Abo'e this temp" the molecules ha'e so much NE the! can UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU The motion energ! (NE) is greater than the attracti'e 3orces (#M;?s) Higher #M;?s W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (ma/es sense: strong #M; W stronger bond W more energ! needed to brea/) *itical %*essu*e O the pressure required to bring about the lique3action at the critical temp (*here the stu33 turns to a liquid at the highest temp) D c*itical (oint (temperature R pressure) be!ond *hich is UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (gasIliquid indistinguishable) Again: abo'e the critical point" no amount o3 pressure *ill turn the gas into a liquid i3 the temp remains high Line T to is the UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (gas [ liquid equilibrium)

7e*te< to T is the UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU at di33erent temperatures (a single point 3or each unique pressure) T to to( is the change in melting point at 'arious pressures Usuall! slope to the right (solid more dense than liquid) e-cept *ater (liquid more dense than solid) 2asicall!" higher pressures W more dense" so higher temps are needed to melt the substance )emember: melting pnt W 3ree0ing pnt A$& boiling pnt W condensing pnt (Just direction is di33erent) Also" no*mal points occur at 7atm T D T*i(le (oint is *here UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

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%'ase Dia&*ams of Aate* an9 a*bon Dio<i9e Li/e the ones 3rom pg DEG

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19-4 6nt*o(+ 'an&es in 'emical Reactions ()e'ie*) alo*imet*+ O A technique use to determine the energ! change associated *ith a chemical or ph!sical change

Let?s mi- 766 6 g o3 7 66 M $a(H and 766 6 g o3 7 66 M H%l (both at .C 6 degrees %" in the end at .F E degrees %) %alculate q (loo/ at the A8 sheet" it?s there) $o" reall!" let?s actuall+ do thisTT Seriousl!" @ET U8TTTTT AhX 2ut the calorimeter also absorbs heat" so the amount o3 heat gi'en o33 that *e calculated is actuall! a little lo*er than the true 'alue $o*" *e can calculate the absolute 'alue o3 entrop! o3 a s!stem (can?t be measured directl!: too much going on) b! means o3 molar entrop! 'alues o3 substances in their standard states (S o) Standard entrop! change (Sor-n) W xn Soproducts 4 xnSoreactants *here n is the number o3 moles (coe33icients) 3or the balanced equation o3 the reaction x Just means Psum o3Q And as al*a!s" products 3irst" reactants second (al*a!s need to get to the end" then loo/ bac/) Loads o3 tables (starting on pg 777. in !our te-tboo/) The!?ll gi'e !ou in3o to use: don?t memori0eT 8oints o3 note: 7) Enthalpies o3 3ormation (UUUUUUUUU) at 6N are 0ero" A$& standard molar entropies (UUUUUUUUUU) are $(T .) Standard molar entropies o3 gases are greater than those o3 liquids and solids (common sense) C) Standard molar entropies generall! increase *ith increasing molar mass (#M; can ha'e an e33ect" so there are some e-ceptions) D) Standard molar entropies generall! increase *ith an increase in number o3 atoms in a 3ormula (common sense: more atoms W more molecular motion options) E-ample: %alculate S 3or the reaction: ;rom pg 777.4777D" *e get So 'alues o3: $HC (g) + H%l (g) , $HD%l (s) 7H. E 7GB BH HD B all in <Imol4N y .HGN

(Sor-n) W xn Soproducts 4 xnSoreactants (Sor-n) W (HD B)<Imol4N O (7H. E + 7GB BH)<Imol4N W 4.GD EH<Imol4N 1e *ent 3rom . mol o3 gas to one mole o3 solid: more ordered so entrop! *ent do*n (negati'e) 6nt*o(+ 'an&es in t'e Su**oun9in&s

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(N" common sense time: i3 a s!stem @A#$S entrop! (energ!)" then the surroundings must L(SE entrop! (energ!)" but not an e'en trade (al*a!s a Pmiddle manQ getting some o3 the action) #n an isothermal process" *e learned Ssurrounding W 4qs!stemIT and at constant pressure" q W H So" Ssurrounding W 4H s!stemIT Using another equation 3or enthalp! change: Hr-no W Hproductso 4 Hreactantso @oing bac/ to: $HC (g) + H%l (g) , $HD%l (s) Hr-no W Hproductso 4 Hreactantso W Ho^$HD%l_ 4 Ho^$HC_ 4 Ho^H%l_ 2ac/ to the table W (4C7D D) O (4DB 7H) O (4H. C6) W 4UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU y .HGN This tells us that the 3ormation o3 ammonium chloride is e-othermic (negati'e 'alue W heat gi'en o33) at .HGN Using the 'alue 3or Hr-no" and Ssurrounding W 4H s!stemIT" *e can calculate the entrop! o3 the surroundings: Ssurrounding W 4H s!stemIT W

$ote that the magnitude (number 'alue) 3or the surroundings is greater than that lost b! the s!stem So" Souni'erse W Sos!stem + Sosurroundings W Since " Souni'erse is positi'e" *e /no* *e ha'e a spontaneous reaction in this direction Ho*e'er" *e ha'e no in3o on the )ATE at *hich it *ill occur" Just that it *ill on its o*n (e'entuall!) ;inal $otes on Standard entrop! change (Sor-n) W xn Soproducts 4 xnSoreactants a) positi'e (more disordered) 3a'ors spontaneit! b) unit is <Imol c) no 0ero 'alues due to the Crd la* o3 thermod!namics

PS W ,4R6 D3S4RD6R6D

+S W S8($AT$E(US

4S W ,4R6 4RD6R6D 4S W $4$.S%4$T)$64!S

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19-5 8ibbs =*ee 6ne*&+

(this is big) 1e can predict spontaneit! *ith S and " H 'alues 3or a constant temperature and pressure 8ibbs =*ee 6ne*&+ 'an&e F8H O indicates the spontaneit! o3 reactions b! combining the e33ect o3 enthalp! and entrop! . 3ormulas: @or-n W @ W xn @oproducts 4 xn@oreactants (summation equation) and H 4 TS (T must be Nel'in) (@ibbs equation)

#3 @ is negati'e" the reaction is spontaneous #3 @ is positi'e" the reaction is $($4spontaneous (but the re'erse r-n is spontaneous) 1hen @ W 6" the s!stem is at equilibrium 2ased on the Haber process: (pg G.7" 3igure 7H 7G: seriousl!" the PcirclesQ o3 'arious compounds ha'e sho*n
up on e-ams in the past 2e able to decipher these)

#3 *e add nitrogen andIor h!drogen gas" the reaction *ill produce more ammonia #3 *e add ammonia" the reaction *ill decompose to produce more o3 the pure diatomic gases e-) %alculate the 'alue o3 f@` at CFC N 3or" S (s" rhombic) + (. (g) , S(. (g) At .HGN" fH` 3or this reaction is 4.BH H /<Imol" and fS` is +77 B <Imol4N

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Stan9a*9 =*ee 6ne*&+ of =o*mation ;ree energ! is a state 3unction (Just li/e enthalp!) 1e use the same data table idea to 3or standard 3ree energ! ( @3o) as *e did 3or standard enthalpies o3 3ormation (H3o) @or-n W xn @oproducts 4 xn@oreactants (summation equation again)

This equation is 3or a speci3ic set o3 conditions (standard states): ;or a gas it is 7 atm pressure ;or a solid" pure solids ;or a liquid" the pure liquid ;or solutions" *e use 7 M The temp on the tables is .HGN" but that can be adJusted using the @ibbs equation ( @ W H 4 TS)
Thermod!namic =uantities 3or Selected Substances at .HG 7E N (.E`%) Substance (-!gen (. (g) H.( (l) Sul3ur S (s) S(. (g) S(C (g) fH`3 (/<Imol) 6 4.GE GC 6 4.BH H 4CHE . f@`3 (/<Imol) 6 4.CF 7C 6 4C66 D 4CF6 D S (<IN4mol) .6E 6 BH H7 C7 GG .DG E .EB .

%alculate the standard 3ree energ! change 3or the 3ollo*ing at .HGN: .S (s) + C( . (g) , .S(C (g)

@i'en that the S is 47BB D <Imol4N" at E66N" *hat is the change in enthalp!:

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19-6 =*ee 6ne*&+ an9 Tem(e*atu*e

An important application o3 the @ibbs equation is estimating the temperature at *hich a reaction becomes spontaneous 1hen chec/ing 3or spontaneit!" there are D possible combinations o3 H and SX A spontaneous reaction can: 7) .) C) D) #ncrease in entrop! and increase in enthalp! is al*a!s spontaneous #ncrease in entrop! (more ordered) and decrease in enthalp! (endothermic) can be spontaneous &ecrease in entrop! (less ordered) and increase in enthalp! (e-othermic) can be spontaneous 2ut: a reaction that decreases in entrop! A$& decreases in enthalp! (is $EVE) spontaneous)

Ho* about a chartT (table on pg G.E is a great one)

Neep in mind that i3 T is 6N" then @ W H At an! other temperature" 3ree energ! and enthalp! are not directl! related: the entrop! comes into pla! )emember: *e can calculate S and H 3rom table in3o" and *e can calculate @ 3rom enthalp! and entrop! at .HGN (room temp) #3 *e presume that S and H do not change appreciabl! at other temperatures AS L($@ AS #T #S THE SAME STATE (; MATTE)" *e can use them to calculate @ at other temperatures (1h! the! needed an entire section to restate this is be!ond me" but the chart is help3ul)

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19-7 =*ee 6ne*&+ an9 t'e 6Muilib*ium

@ W 6 3or a s!stem in equilibrium


@o (3ree energ! at non4standard conditions) can be related to @ (3ree energ! at standard conditions) soX @ W @o + )T ln = ) W G C7D <Imol N and = is the reaction quotient(basicall! N e-pression" but reactants and products do $(T need to be at equilibrium) Under standard conditions" concentrations o3 e'er!thing are 7" so = W 7 and ln= W 6 This means that @ W @o at standard conditions (*hich *e e-pect) 1hen the concentrations o3 reactants and products are not 7" *e need to do math to 3ind the = 'alue" then plug that into the @ equation %an also use to 3ind equilibrium constant (N) <ust re4arrange =uic/ note on units: @ases are done in partial pressure units o3 atm Solutes are done in molarit! (M) Soli9s an9 (u*e liMui9s 9onGt countB so no units to :o**+ aboute-) 8hosphorous and chlorine gases combine to produce phosphorous trichloride: 8. (g) + C%l. (g) , .8%lC (g) @` at .HG oN 3or this reaction is 4BD. H /<Imol 1hat is the 'alue o3 @ at .HG N 3or a reaction mi-ture that consists o3 7 E atm 8." 7 B atm %l." and 6 BE atm 8%lC : = W 8productI8reactant then @ W @o + )T ln = but ) is in < and @o is in /<" soX

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Re0ie: 6nt'al(+
*or/ *ill be in'ol'ed)

'an&es I H O heat o3 reaction at a constant pressure (Volume *ill change O

#3 the s!stem does *or/" E *ill be less than H and 'ice 'ersa #mportant equations: E W H O n)T * W 4n)T * W 48V E W H + * (or) E W q + *

E-ample: 1hen . moles o3 gaseous *ater decomposes at .E 6 degrees %" H W DGC B /<" calculate E

Re0ie: 2essGs La:

O (o3 constant heat summation) The enthalp! change 3or a reaction is not dependent on the number o3 steps in'ol'ed E-ample: %alculate H 3or %( + M (. %(. gi'en that: a) % + M (. , %( H W 4 776 E /<Imole b) % + (. , %(. H W 4 CHC E /<Imole

E-ample: %alculate H 3or %.HB + (. %(. + H.( (not balanced) gi'en that: a) . % + C H. , %.HB H W 4GD E /<Imole b) H. + M (. , H.( (g) H W 4 .D7 G /<Imole c) % + (. , %(. H W 4 CHC E /<Imole

1e can also use the equation: E-amples: a) %.HD(g) +

Hor-n W x n Ho3 products 4 x n Ho3 reactants H.((l) , %.HE(H(l)

b) #ron (###) o-ide plus Aluminum !ields aluminum o-ide plus iron

'a(te* 14 'emical 5inetics

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14-1;actors That A33ect )eaction )ates (*e learned these once: remember them:)
1- %'+sical state F(a*ticle si?eH O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU in terms o3 reaction speed #3 t*o di33erent states are used" the! depend on area o3 contact and number o3 collisions #3 *e crush a solid" it has more sur3ace area" so it more readil! reacts 2- oncent*ation of *eactants O 3aster reactions occur *ith more o3 one or both o3 the reactants The 3requenc! o3 the collisions increases" so the rate is increased 3-Tem(e*atu*e O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (more energ! a'ailable W more mo'ement o3 particles *hich means more collisions) (3 course" 3or gases temp and pressure are related" soX 4- atal+st O UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (in 2io *e call these en0!mes) E'en thought all reactions require collisions" the! need enough energ! 3or the reaction to occur Slightl! rubbing against a *all *on?t cause a bruise" but running 3ull 3orce into it can shatter a bone


Le '[telie*Gs %*inci(le UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (These are di33erent 3rom rates) #3 a s!stem at equilibrium is disturbed" it *ill react in such a *a! so as to restore the original conditions and achie'e a ne* state o3 equilibrium (usuall! close to the original state) %hanges to be considered 4 ^ _" 8" T" addition o3 catal!sts ($ote: ^ _ means Pconcentration o3Q) 7 3nc*easin& concent*ation o3 reactants shi3ts the equilibrium to the right (no* consider all other cases o3 increasingIdecreasing reactantsIproducts) &ecrease reactants W #ncrease products W &ecrease products W . 3nc*ease in (*essu*e shi3ts the equilibrium to*ards the side *ith the lo*er number o3 moles consider reaction o3 s!nthesis o3 *ater )eall!" Just count 9 o3 moles o3 @AS 3or each side #ncrease in 8 W lo*est 9 C T*eat @'eatC as a *eactant Fen9ot'e*micH o* (*o9uct Fe<ot'e*micHB and appl! the same logic as *ith concentration #ncreasing heat shi3ts endothermic reactions UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU &ecreasing heat shi3ts endothermic reactions UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU #ncreasing heat shi3ts e-othermic reaction UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU &ecreasing heat shi3ts e-othermic reaction UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU D atal+sts O speeds up the rate o3 the 3or*ard and re'erse reaction" but does not a33ect equilibrium <UST gets there more quic/l! ()EALL>: Just lo*ers the energ! o3 acti'ation" $( (THE %HA$@E)

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14-2 Reaction Rates

Rate O range that occurs in a gi'en amount o3 time )ate is a measure o3 Ho* 3ast the reaction is going and can be measured as: Ho* much product produced per time: Ho* much reactant consumed per time:

'emical *ate O change in concentrations o3 reactantsIproducts per unit time 1e can chec/ changes in concentration b! ta/ing samples 3rom the reaction 'essel o'er time ;or the reaction: )ate(Nc) W aA + W b2 , c% + d&

^%_c^&_d ^A_a^2_b

products reactants

1here the coe33icient 3rom the balanced equation becomes the e-ponent 3or each compound?s concentration Nc is called the equilibrium constant 2oo/ mentions (sort o3) that the rate o3 appearance o3 products W 4(rate disappearance o3 reactants) >eah" that *ould support the La* o3 %onser'ation o3 Matter Also o3 note (3rom 7E C): <ust common sense and a bit o3 math logicT Nc \ 7" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (proceeds to the right) Nc q 7" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (proceeds to the le3t) Nc W 7" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (no net change) ;or the reaction: )ate W H. + . #%l . H%l + #.

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'an&e of Rate :it' Time #t is t!pical 3or rates to decrease as the reaction proceeds due to the decrease in concentration o3 reactants As reactants are used up" there are 3e*er around that can collide" thus gi'ing 3e*er 3ormed products o'er time )eall!" this ma/es sense i3 !ou Just thin/ about it 3or a moment #magine a room 3ull o3 single people all standing around tal/ing An announcer sa!s the! MUST pair up *ith someone the! are *illing to spend the ne-t si- months *ith on a deserted island At 3irst" people ta/e a quic/ loo/ around then the! start to scramble 3or someone *ho seems saneIcompetentIcute As the! pair up" there are 3e*er singles le3t The! are PlostQ in the crush o3 couples and are ha'ing a harder time 3inding each other ;inall!" e'er!one is in a pair" but the last 3e* happened slo*er than the 3irst 3e* 3nstantaneous Rate &e3ined as the rate at a particular time during the reaction (one speci3ic time?s rate) )eall!" Just a slope calculation *ith units #nstantaneous )ate W 4 f^reactant_Ift tWtime *ith a unit o3 MIs (molarit!Isecond)

2! the *a!" ^ _ indicates the UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU o3 *hate'er is inside the brac/ets At tWo" the instantaneous rate is also called the PUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUQ o3 the reaction E-: &initrogen pento-ide decomposes into dinitrogen tetro-ide and o-!gen gas At G66seconds" the concentration o3 dinitrogen pento-ide is 6 DE7molIL The initial concentration o3 reactant is 6 BBE molIL 1hat is the reaction rate o3 dinitrogen pento-ide: )ate W 4f^reactant_Ift W Reaction Rates an9 Stoic' Again" the rate at *hich the reactant(s) disappear equals the rate at *hich the product(s) appear $egati'e rate (reactant) W positi'e rate (product) This is gi'en on the A8 sheet in terms o3 P=Q (reaction quotient) *hich is similar to rate or equilibrium constant (Nc) ;or the reaction: aA + b2 , c% + d&

So" combining the t*o ideas" *e get: )ate W 47 f^A_ W 47 f^2_ a ft b ft

W 7 f^%_ c ft

W 7 f^&_ d ft

1hat does it all mean: 1ell" i3 !ou /no* a balanced equation and the concentration o3 an! ($E part o3 the equation" !ou can calculate the othersT E-: ;or a brea/do*n o3 h!drogen pero-ide into *ater 'apor and o-!gen gas" i3 the rate o3 3ormation o3 *ater 'apor is G 6 76 4B MIs" *hat are the rates 3or the 3ormation o3 o-!gen and degradation o3 h!drogen pero-ide: 14-3 T'e Rate La:: T'e 6ffect of oncent*ation on Rate R)T6 L)AS 9e(en9 on R6) T)$TS 4$LLNNN Loo/ing at the general reaction again: aA + b2 , c% + d&
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The rate o3 the 3or*ard reaction depends on the number o3 collisions bet*een A and 2" *hich has to decrease as the number o3 A and 2 le3t in the container decreases )ate W / ^A_m^2_n *here /" m" and n are determined e-perimentall!

m W order in respect to A" n is order in respect to 2 m +n W o'erall order m and n are generall! small" *hole numbers" and / is the rate constant and is TEM8 dependant To 3ind /" !ou Just need the rate" conc o3 reactants" and 'alues o3 m and n (sounds hard" huh: 1ell" it?s Just Pma/e a listQ and do algebra) E-: ;ind the 'alue o3 / (rate constant) i3 the rate is F B 76 4B MIs" ^A_ is 6 6E6 molIL" ^2_ is 6 6.E molIL and m and n are both 7

Reaction 4*9e*s: T'e 6<(onents in t'e Rate La: @oing bac/ to )ate W / ^A_m^2_n m and n are called *eaction o*9e* 1e tal/ about a rate being m order *ith respect to A" or e'en m+n order o'erall $(TE: There is $( theoretical *a! to predict the e-ponents (m and n) o3 a rate la* (in'ol'ing / 'alues) #t can ($L> be done e-perimentall! A$&: sometimes the e-ponents and the coe33icients are the same" sometimes the! are not This is di33erent 3rom straight up rates (no / in'ol'ed) E-amples are Just easier" so: E-ample: . $.(E , D$(. + (.

)ate W / ^$.(E_ has a 7st order rate *ith respect to $.(E and a 7st order o'erall E-ample: . $(. + ;. , . $(.;

)ate W /^$(._^;._ has a 7st order *ith respect to each reactant" but a .nd order o'erall )emember: both o3 the abo'e e-amples had the m and n e-ponents determined e-perimentall!" $(T based on the balanced equationTTT

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!nits of Rate onstants The! do a *hole thing about it (pg EGC) *here the! re4arrange the equation 2asicall!" Just /eep trac/ o3 units and /eep in mind that some units are Just plain *eird #ts 3ine" don?t let it thro* !ouT !sin& 3nitial Rates to Dete*mine Rate La:s )emember: the rate la* MUST be determined e-perimentall! 2alanced equation coe33icients do $(T determine the m and n 'alues 3or a rate la*: )ate W / ^A_ m^2_n )eactions can be 0ero order" 7st order" .nd order" etc Zero order Just means that the change in concentration o3 the reactant(s) does not a33ect the o'erall reaction #nstead" something else is dri'ing it (light 3or photoelectric reactions" a catal!st" etc) 1hen concentration is plotted 'ersus time" it produces a straight line (slope is negati'e) This means that m and n are both 0ero" so )ate W / (an!thing to the 0ero po*er is one) 2asicall!" !ou *ill be gi'en a chart o3 data and as/ed to 3ind the rate la* #t?s all there" !ou Just ha'e to be able to PseeQ it $#2 (sort o3" butX) ,et'o9 of 3nitial Rates O ho* the rate la* o3 a speci3ic reaction is calculated $UST be able to do thisTTTT ;or: A + .2 , A2. Trial 7 . C #nitial A 67 67 6. #nitial 2 67 6. 67 )ate o3 3ormation (A2.)(MIs) 7 E - 764D 7 E - 764D B 6 - 764D

)ate W / ^A_m^2_n ^2_ - . 3rom trial 7 to trial ." but the rate *as the same so ^2_ sho*s no e33ect b! 2: 0ero order *ith respect to 2 no* )ate W / ^A_m^2_6 2et*een trial 7 and C" ^A_ - ." rate - D so the rate is second order *ith respect to A ;inall! )ate W / ^A_.^2_6 Let?s calculate /: )ate W / ^A_. *hich simpli3ies to )ate W / ^A_.

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E-ample .: . A + 2 Trial #nitial A M 7 .6 . D6 C .6 D .6 )ate W / ^A_-^2_!^%_0

+ % #nitial 2 M .6 C6 C6 D6

& + #nitial % M .6 .6 .6 B6

E )ate o3 3ormation (A2.)(MImin) . D - 764B H B - 764B . D - 764B F . - 764B

;or ^2_" in e-periments 7 and C" the initial ^A_ and ^%_ are So" an! change in the rate *ould be due to the change ^2_ Ho*e'er" the rate 3rom 7 to C does There3ore" the reaction rate is independent o3 ^2_ ! W UU The rate la* is )ate W / ^A_-^%_0 ;or ^%_" in e-periments 7 and D" the initial ^A_ is in the rate *ould be due to the change ^%_ ^%_" concentration %" 3rom trial 7 to D: )ate 3rom trial 7 to D: So" ^%_ increased b! a 3actor o3 3actor o3 3rom trial 7 to trial D The )ate changes b! a So" an! change

The e-ponent 0 can be deduced 3rom:rate ratio W (^%_ ratio) 0 So" 0 W and the reaction is order in ^%_

;or ^A_ " in e-periments 7 and ." the initial ^%_ is in the rate *ould be due to the change ^A_ ^A_" concentration A" 3rom trial 7 to .: )ate 3rom trial 7 to .: So" ^A_ increased b! a 3actor o3 3actor o3

So" an! change

3rom trial 7 to trial D The )ate changes b! a rate ratio W (^A_ ratio)and the reaction is order in ^A_

The e-ponent - can be deduced 3rom: So" - W

Using data 3rom e-periment (trial) 9." calculate the /:

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E-ample: . Hg%l. Trial 7 . C D


. %l47 +

. %(. +


#nitial Hg%l.(M) 76E 76E 6E. 6E.

#nitial %.(D4.(M) 7E C6 C6 7E

#nitial )ate mol L47 min47 7 G - 764E F 7 - 764E C E - 764E G H - 764B

&etermine order o3 r-n *ith respect to both reactants and o'erall E'aluate / %alculate initial rate o3 r-n i3 Hg%l. W 6 6.6 M and o-alate ion W 6 .. M

E-: S.(G4. + C#4 , . S(D4. + #C4 Trial 7 . C #nitial ^S.(G4._ 6CG 6FB 6FB #nitial ^#4_ 6B6 6B6 6C6 #nitial )ate MIsec 7 D - 764E . G - 764E 7 D - 764E

2e care3ul: trial . to C !ou need to loo/ at #$ )EVE)SE *ith respect to ^#4_

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T'e 'an&e of oncent*ation Ait' Time: FT'e 3nte&*ate9 Rate 6Muation H The abo'e rate la* e-pressions relate rate to concentration (^ _) The integrated rate equation relates time to concentration (^ _) #t can also be used to calculate the hal34li3e o3 a reactant

T M (hal34li3e) W time needed 3or one4hal3 o3 the reactant to be con'erted to product (nuclear r-ns" etc) =i*st 4*9e* ;or r-ns that are 7st order *ith respect to A and 7st order o'erall (A , products)" use these equations: )ate W 4 f^A_ W fT /^A_ di33erential rate la*

Using integration (calculus)" *e can relate the concentration o3 A at the start o3 the reaction ^A_ 6 to an! other time ^A_t: ln^A_t 4 ln^A_6 W 4/t or ln(^A_tI^A_6) W 4/t integrated rate la*

*here PlnQ is the natural log Also" the integrated equation can be used *ith A$> unit o3 concentration" as long as the! matchTTT )emember: this is Just a simple Pplug and chugQ The! gi'e three o3 the 'ariables" and !ou sol'e 3or the Dth Sadl!" this is $(T on the equation sheet the! gi'e !ou Ho*e'er" i3 !ou do a little rearranging" !ou get: ln^A_ t W 4/t + ln^A_6 (or: ! W m- + b)

This means that 3or a 7st order reaction" a graph o3 ln^A_t 's time gi'es a straight line A reaction that is $(T 7st order *ill $(T be a straight lineT (Eas! to spot 7st order 3or this graph t!pe) Secon9 4*9e* ;or reactions that are .nd order *I respect to A and .nd order o'erall (A , products or A + 2 , products R are .nd order 3or Just A)" use the 3ollo*ing equations: )ate W 4 f^A_ W fT /^A_. di33erential rate la*

Again" using calculus turns this into: 7 ^A_t W /t + 7 ^A_6 integrated rate la*

;or .nd order reactions" the ! W m- + b still applies" and the plot o3 7I^A_ 's time is linear ($(T ln^A_ 's t" *hich is 7st order) 2asicall!" loo/ at the !4a-is label: ln^A_ is 7st order *hile 7I^A_ is .nd order 3or linear graphs

)eaction order can be determined b! e-periment 1st o*9e* graphs loo/ li/e:
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2n9 o*9e* graphs loo/ li/e:


Ln^A_ 's t

7I^A_ 's time

\e*o o*9e*" graphs loo/ li/e (3or reactions *here something other than concentration controls the reaction li/e a catal!stIen0!me" light 3or a photochemical reaction): ^A_ 's time

2alf.life F:eG0e see t'is befo*e in $uclea* c'emH The M li3e o3 a r-n (t 7I.) is the time needed 3or the concentration o3 a reactant ^A_ to reach M o3 its initial 'alue: ^A_t7I. W M^A_6 ;or a 7st order r-n" this means that t 7I. W 4 ln7I. I / W 6 BHCI/ A$& rate W / ^reactant_ 7 2asicall!" the amount le3t a3ter PtQ is equal to hal3 o3 *hat it *as P.tQ ago >ou don?t need a starting amount" Just *hat it is Pno*Q to 3ind the M li3e Pa3terQ @i'es us an idea about ho* 3ast a r-n occurs (especiall! *ith 7st order r-ns) (N" so an e-ample ma! help: A solution is 3ound to ha'e 6 B66M o3 a reactant #3 the M li3e o3 the reaction is 7G min" ho* much is le3t a3ter ED min: So" using common sense: EDI7G W C total M li3e calc?s so a3ter the 3irst M li3e" ^A_ W A3ter the .nd M li3e" ^A_ W and a3ter the Crd M li3e" ^A_ W %an also do basic algebra (gi'en 7 o3 . 'ariables" sol'e 3or other) E-ample7: ;or A , 2 (7st order) / W 6 6DE6 sec47 %alculate hal34li3e o3 A t7I. W 4 ln7I. I / W 6 BHCI/ t7I. W 6 BHCI6 6DE6 sec47 W 7E D sec is the M li3e o3 the r-n 14-5 Tem(e*atu*e an9 Rate A good Prule o3 thumbQ 3or the relationship o3 rate o3 reaction and temperature isX )ate doubles 3or e'er! 76o% rise in temperature E-: bread dough rising" sugar dissol'ing" @lo* stic/s
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1h! is this: #3 temperature goes higher" more molecules ha'e su33icient NE to react T'e ollision ,o9el Accounts 3or 2(TH temp and conc o3 a reaction through /inetic theor! #n order 3or a reaction to occur bet*een atoms" ions" or molecules" the! must 3irst collide ( 3= there is enough energ!" the reaction *ill occur) #ncreasing concentration *ill increase the number o3 collisions" but all collisions are not necessaril! e33ecti'e #n order to be e33ecti'e" the substances must ha'e enough energ! A$& ha'e some sort o3 collision %ollision doesn?t necessaril! mean ph!sical contact O Just getting close enough to react T'e 4*ientation =acto* #3 the molecules are not PorientedQ correctl! (reacting atoms 3acing each other)" the reaction *ill not occur regardless o3 the NE (dd" but accurate" picture top o3 pg EHC )cti0ation 6ne*&+ S'ante Arrhenius (7GGG) postulated that the NE o3 colliding molecules is used to change the 8E o3 the molecules #3 the NE is lo*" the molecules PbounceQ o33 one another and *e see no r-n This lead to the concept o3 Acti'ation Energ! (EA)" *hich is the minimum energ! needed to start a chemical reaction Acti'ation Energ! and the Acti'ated %omple-: Acti'ated %omple$e* 8roducts


$ot enough energ! to ma/e ne* products (N" so sports time: The boo/ does gol3: # pre3er mini gol3 #3 !ou hit a ball that needs to roll U8 and o'er a hill to reach the cup and !ou don?t hit it hard enough" there is no chance o3 ma/ing a hole4in4one That PhillQ is a ph!sical barrier that pre'ents the ball 3rom reaching the hole Same idea @enerall! spea/ing" EA is a ba**ie* that )$ pre'ent a r-n 3= there is not enough NE" *hich goes bac/ to %ollision Theor! and (rientation ;actor At the top o3 the PhillQ in a reaction is an arrangement o3 atoms called the acti'ated comple- or transition state This is the Pgo 3or*ard or return to startQ point o3 the reaction: it is neither a reactant nor product" but a sort o3 acti'e comple- (called the acti'ated comple-) bet*een the .
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2ac/ to EA: the lo*er the EA" the 3aster the rate o3 r-n $o* 3or the graphs: e-othermic e-othermic *Icatal!st


endothermic *Icatal!st

7 . C acti'ation energ! O minimum energ! needed 3or r-n to proceed (ph!sical barrier o3 energ!) D independent 'ariable 4 E UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU 4 at pea/: can go 3or*ard or bac/ at this point B change in energ! (gE) UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU F dependant 'ariable 4 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU G Transition state (intermediate) O a stable" short4li'ed compound 3ormed then used during a multi4step reaction $ote: a catal!st is used" then re3ormed at the end o3 the reaction 2e able to recogni0e a catal!st 3rom an intermediate T'e )**'enius 6Muation F$o lon&e* (a*t of )%B but ma+ s'o: u( in colle&eH Arrhenius equation / W Ae OEaI)T *here / W rate constant" A W constant" e W . F7G (base o3 natural log clnz)" Ea W acti'ation energ!" ) W gas constant" T W temp (N) Since A is generall! (not quite" but close enough 3or our needs) a constant" the reaction rate decreases as EA increases 2asicall!" the higher the acti'ation energ!" the 3e*er actual molecules there are that actuall! ha'e enough energ! to react" so 3e*er actual reactions and a much slo*er rate (nothing happening)

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Dete*minin& t'e )cti0ation 6ne*&+ 1e can deri'e this into 3ormulas that are more use3ul in 3inding in3ormation about reactions The boo/ starts *ith ln/ W 4(EAI)T) + lnA (in the !Wm-+b 3ormat) &oes a bunch o3 math" then lands on ln /7I/. W EAI) ( T.4T7IT7T.) or Log /.I/7 W EAI. C6C ) ( T.4T7IT7T.) $o* *e can use the equation to 3ind / 'alues at di33erent temperatures" Ea 3or r-ns" etc So" # *ent through loads o3 A8 questions and 3ound . things: 7) the! *ant !ou to /no* *hat each 'ariable in the Arrhenius equation represents .) 1hen 7IT (-) is plotted 's ln / (!)" the slope o3 the line is OE AI) C) Using ln /.I/7 W EAI) ( T.4T7IT7T.) the! *ant !ou to 3ind one o3 the 'ariables The 'ariables are T1( di33erent rates at T1( di33erent temperatures *ith ($E acti'ation energ! (and ) is the gas constant) Neep in mind: 7) The larger rate *ill always be associated *ith the higher temperature .) The acti'ation energ! always has a positi'e sign (ha'e to add energ! to get it going" so al*a!s endo)

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14-6 Reaction ,ec'anisms

,ec'anism O the process b! *hich a reaction occurs 2asicall!" the order in *hich bonds are bro/en" then 3ormed along *ith an! changes in relati'e position o3 the atoms on a structure Most reactions occur as a series o3 steps" the slo*est o3 *hich is the rate4determining step ;or the reaction: aA + b2 , c% + d&

The rate o3 the 3or*ard reaction depends on the number o3 collisions bet*een A and 2" *hich has to decrease as the number o3 A and 2 le3t in the container decreases )ate W / ^A_-^2_! /" -" and ! are determined UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU - W order in respect to A ! is order in respect to 2 - +! W o'erall order

/ is the speci3ic rate constant 3or the reaction at a particular temperature #3 a reaction is one step" then the coe33icients #3 a reaction is multi step" then the coe33icients the e-ponents e-ponents

6lementa*+ Reactions an9 t'ei* Rate La:s Unimolecular O onl! one t!pe o3 molecule is in'ol'ed 2imolecular O . di33erent molecules are in'ol'ed Termolecular O C di33erent molecules are in'ol'ed (rare" but does happen) D or more molecules in'ol'ed has $( $AME (basicall!" the odds are against it e'er happening) &on?t stress about the names" Just /no* that one or t*o molecules in'ol'ed in a collision that lead to a reaction are common Larger numbers generall! not so much #3 the reaction is elementar! (one step)" then the rate is based on its molecularit! (uni" bi" etc) Unimolecular 2imolecular A , products A + 2 , products rate W /^A_ rate W /^A_^2_

This means that i3 *e double ^A_" then t'e collisions :ill 9ouble Same i3 *e double ^2_ This leads to a 3irst order rate in both ^A_ and ^2_" *ith a .nd order o'erall There is a chart *ith all o3 the elementar! reactionsIrates on top o3 pg B66 <ust loo/ at it: it all ma/es sense i3 !ou Just ta/e a minute (h !eah" and that common sense thing: Tr! it ,ultiste( ,ec'anism ] Rate Dete*minin& Ste(s

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Most reactions occur b! a series o3 elementar! (uni4 or bimolecular) that result in intermediate products and the 3inal product Thin/ in terms o3 getting dressed: !ou don?t step out o3 bed and are dressed 3or the da! (hope3ull! !ou don?t sleep in !our uni3ormT) ;or the reaction: $(. + %( , $( + %(. 1e do not mean that simpl! colliding o3 the . reactants *ill cause a reaction 1e do /no* that: rate W /^$(._. so *e propose: Step7 Step . $(. $(C + + $(. %( , , $( $(. + + $(C %(.

The steps must al*a!s add up (eliminate *hat appears on both sides) to gi'e the o'erall reaction The cancelled compound(s) is (are) the intermediates (transition states) Each step in a multistep reaction has its 4A$ !$3>!6 EA and rate constant Usuall!" one is much slo*er than the rest This is the )ate &etermining step (slo*est step dictates the rate) #n English: @etting read! 3or a dance >ou ta/e E minutes to put on the out3it" 76 minutes 3or ma/e4up" and C6 minutes to do !our hair The slo*est part o3 getting read! is the hair: that is the rate determining step (3 course" a girl can al*a!s opt 3or that lo'el! pon!tail thing *orn to school e'er! da!" but *hat 3un *ould that be::: ;or the pre'ious reaction" the 3irst step is the slo* one ( *e /no* through e-perimentation)" so the rate depends ($L> on the 3irst step: rate W /^$(._. because there are . $(. in'ol'ed Sometimes the .nd or Crd is the slo* (rate determining) step E-: ;or the reaction . $( + 2r. , . $(2r the rate W / ^$(_.^2r._

The rate e-pression is consistent *ith one big collision o3 all three molecules" but this is highl! improbable 1e 3ound e-perimentall! that )ate W /^$(_.^2r._ meaning it is .nd order *ith respect to $( and 7st order *ith respect to 2r. + $( 2r. , [ . $(2r $(2r. (3ast) (slo*)

$o* *e loo/ at each step Step 7 $( Step . $( 2r.+

(N" so here the boo/ does a bunch o3 math and a lot o3 assumptions #n the end" the! get the rate la* *e stated abo'e @o ahead" read through it all (pg B6C4B6D) The! also do it again in Sample E-ercise 7D 7E 2ottom line: *hene'er the 3ast step precedes a slo* one" *e can sol'e 3or the intermediate b! presuming that an equilibrium is established in the 3ast step (N" so # chec/ed The! gi'e !ou the steps and sa! *hich is 3astIslo* The! then as/ !ou to Justi3! the mechanism (steps) based on data 1hat does it mean: The! *ant !ou to sho* ho* the . steps cancel to gi'e the o'erall reaction (Hess?s La* thing) then do a rate la* 3or the slo* step #3 the! don?t cancel to gi'e the original reaction or the slo* step rate la* doesn?t match the o'erall" then the mechanism is 1)($@ Also" the rate determining step matches the rate la*
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(ne more time: the catal!st is used (3irst step reactant) then remade (last step product)" but the intermediate is made (product)" then used (reactant in subsequent step) 8ic/ the right mechanism: %l. + H.S , S + Also" determine an! catal!st or intermediate 3or each model Model # %l. %l4 + H.S %l+ + %l4 (slo*) H%l + HS4 (3ast) H%l + S (3ast) . H%l rate W / ^%l._^H.S_

%l+ + HS4

Model ### %l. %l + H.S HS + %l [ %l + %l (3ast"eqm) H%l + HS (3ast"eqm) H%l + S (slo*)

1hich Model is the correct one:::

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atal+sts O %atal!sts change the mechanism o3 reactions and lo*er acti'ation energ! So" *e alread! did the graph thing <ust remember: a catal!st L(1E)S the EA 2UT has no e33ect on )ATE The lo*er Ea is 3rom the catal!st pro'iding a di33erent mechanism 3or the reaction )emember State ;unctions: The path is irrele'ant" Just the end point The rate is a State ;unction E A is not 2omo&eneous catal+st O e-ists in the same phase as reactants E-amples: H!drogen pero-ide is a slo* reaction (can ta/e !ears to decompose in a dar/ bottle) Adding a catal!st (li/e sodium bromide) can rapidl! decompose the H.(. #n the end" the $a2r is le3t in solution 1e can add in3inite amounts o3 H.(. and the r-n *ill continue at a 3aster rate than *ithout the $a2r 2ete*o&eneous catal+st O e-ist in a di33erent phase Usuall! as a solid in contact *ith a gas or liquid reactants 1h!: Heterogeneous catal!sts are usuall! made 3rom metals or metal o-ides #nitial step: Adsorption (notice a PdQ not a PbQ) O binding o3 the reactant molecules to the catal!st sur3ace %atal!tic con'erters are heterogeneous catal!sts: used in combustion engines to change unburned 3uel and nitrogen o-ides into less harm3ul compounds #3 le3t as is" the! cause more air pollution than *ithout the con'ersion As/ a car person: the! *ill /no* about the P*h!Q o3 a catal!tic con'erter $o* !ou /no* about the Pho*Q 2! the *a!" a catal!st ma! be more than one compound and per3orm more than one reaction simultaneousl! 6n?+mes O proteins O 'er! large" 'er! selecti'e catal!sts )cti0e site O area o3 catal!st *here the reaction actuall! ta/es place (sort o3 li/e the minister in a *edding ceremon!: e'er!one else is Just there to *atch" but the minister PbindsQ the bride and groom) The catal!st + substrate (substances undergoing reaction) is called the en0!me4substrate comple>ou?ll learn more about this in college 2io or a 2iochem class 3n'ibito*s O bloc/ the Pacti'e siteQ on an en0!me The! pre'ent the reaction 3rom occurring 1h! plants can beat up ;rit0 Haber O go read the bo- on pg BC7 #t?s interesting" but not 'ital

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11-1 ) ,olecula*

om(a*ison of 8asesB LiMui9sB an9 Soli9s 8ases O rapid" random" constant high motion o3 *idel! spaced particles *ith 'er! high 3lo* Ver! lo* #M; $ote: liquids and gases can be 8(U)E& (as/" #?ll pour a gas 3or !ou # .) LiMui9s O less dense" more compressible" some order (molecules can mo'e past one another W 3lo*)" lo*er o'erall /inetic energ! o3 closer pac/ed particles Medium #M; Soli9s O slight 'ibrations about the indi'idual particles due to lo* /inetic energ! (increases *ith heat) o3 closel! pac/ed" usuall! organi0ed (cr!stallineIlattice structures again) particles *ith no 3lo*" 'irtuall! no compressibilit! Ver! high #M;
8hase o3 matter &i33usion 8article closeness Thermal e-pansion &e3inite 'olume &e3inite shape %ompressibilit! &ensit! Solid Liquid @as

# /no*" but do it again: it helps

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11-3 Some %*o(e*ties of LiMui9s

)esistance to 8roportional to Measures the ease *ith *hich molecules in a substance can PglideQ past each other @oes bac/ to strengthIt!pes o3 #M; More 'iscous liquids ha'e moreIstronger #M;?s" but not enough to push to a solid state Hone! O 'iscosit! @asoline O 'iscosit!

@l!cerin O three carbon chain *ith three h!dro-!l groups (dra*):

highl! )elationships:

due to multiple attracti'e 3orces temperature W W

sites UU 'iscosit! UU 'iscosit!

Viscosit! is measured *ith an (st*ald 'iscometer O measures time it ta/es 3or liquid to 3lo* through a small nec/ o3 /no*n si0e

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Su*face Tension
The in'isible Ps/inQ on the o3 a liquid

Molecules belo* the sur3ace o3 a liquid are a33ected b! Molecules on the sur3ace are attracted to*ards the These in*ard 3orces" i3 strong" tend to ma/e the molecules 3orm E-amples are blood drops" beads o3 *ater on a 3reshl! *a-ed car" shapes o3 soap bubbles Sur3ace tension also supports *ater striders 2asicall!" ho* much energ! do *e add be3ore the #M;?s brea/ apart and the liquid spreads out The #M;?s at the sur3ace o3 a liquid onl! attract to*ard the center 3rom the sides and belo* (nothing but air abo'e) @i'es stronger net 3orce at the sur3ace 2ut in the center o3 the liquid" the #M;?s attract 3rom all directions @i'es e'en 3orce all around Thin/ about a battle: the gu!s at the 3ront must sta! tightl! bonded to repel the enem! The gu!s at the bac/ (usuall! the generals) ha'e more room to mo'e and are protected b! the P3ront lineQ $#2 Su*factant O brea/s sur3ace tension o3 a substance (brea/s apart #M;?s) )emember an!:

a(illa*+ )ction
1ith liquids" t*o 3orces greatl! a33ect beha'ior O blood 3lo*" siphoning o3 *ater" P*ettingQ action *hen a to*el is le3t partiall! in a pool #ncrease in adhesi'e 3orces causes an increase in sur3ace tension *hich leads to a decreases in sur3ace area 1hen the 3orce o3 gra'it! equals the sum o3 the adhesi'e and cohesi'e 3orces" the liquid stops going up ((ut heart ta/es o'er 3rom there and allo*s the blood to go higher) o'esi0e fo*ces 4 #M;?s that bond similar molecules to eac' ot'e* Fcohesi'e unit *or/s as one) )9'esi0e fo*ces O 3orces that bond a substance to a su*face (liquid in a glass" adhesi'e substances Pstic/Q one t!pe o3 matter to another) ,eniscus Oupper sur3ace o3 a liquid 1ater has a 9o:n:a*9 meniscus (smile! 3ace): cohesi'e less than adhesi'e Mercur! has an u(:a*9 meniscus (3ro*n! 3ace) cohesi'e greater than adhesi'e $onpolar molecules" li/e oils" ha'e a flat meniscus (no emotion) cohesi'e W adhesi'e

11-7 St*uctu*es of Soli9s

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The! ha'e P3latQ 3aces that allo* 'er! ordered interaction causing regular shapes o3 the solids )mo*('ous O (*ithout 3orm) UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU E-: glass" asphalt" rubber %omposed o3 particles that are either 'er! large or are mi-tures *hose particles do not stac/ *ell (N" so remember structural geometr!: 1ell" ta/e the structure" dra* PlinesQ 3rom each outer atom to the ne-t" and !ou get the cr!stalline structure Lattice (oints O an identical en'ironment (particle) in the solid Three basic t!pes (hanging in the bac/ as *ell) 7 2asic cube (the! call it a primiti'e cube" *hate'er) Onothing in the middle" Just G lattice points at the corners (G particles) . 2od!4centered %ube O G lattice points at the corners" 7 lattice point in the middle (H particles) C ;ace4centered %ube O G lattice points at the corners" 7 lattice point on each 3ace (7D particles) lose %ac;in& of S('e*es The arrangement ma-imi0es the #M;?s and minimi0es the empt! space Since most atoms are roughl! spherical" ho* do the! P3it tightQ: Li/e stac/ing oranges: the! sit Po334setQ in successi'e la!ers" but sit *ith one central and sisurrounding in a la!er

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!nit 10 Set )
7) The 'alue o3 fH` 3or the reaction belo* is 4F. /<Imol UUUUUUUUUU /< o3 heat are released *hen 7 6 mol o3 H2r is H . (g) + 2r. (g) .H2r (g) 3ormed in this reaction A) 7DD 2) F. %) 6 DD &) CB E) 4F. .) The 'alue o3 fH` 3or the reaction belo* is 4FH6 /<Imol The enthalp! change accompan!ing the reaction .S (s) + C( . (g) .S(C (g) o3 6 HE g o3 S is UUUUUUUUUU /< A) .C 2) 4.C %) 47. &) 7. E) 4FH6 C) @i'en the 3ollo*ing reactions $ . (g) + .( . (g) .$(. (g) .$( (g) + ( . (g) .$( . (g)

H W BB D /< H W 477D . /< $ . (g) + ( . (g) .$( (g) E) 47G6 B

the enthalp! o3 the reaction o3 the nitrogen to produce nitric o-ide is UUUUUUUUUU /< A) 7G6 B 2) 4DF G %) DF G &) H6 C

D) (bJects can possess energ! as UUUUUUUUUU (#) endothermic energ! (##) potential energ! A) # onl! 2) ## onl! %) ### onl!

(###) /inetic energ! E) ## and ###

&) # and ###

E) The internal energ! o3 a s!stem is al*a!s increased b! UUUUUUUUUU A) adding heat to the s!stem 2) ha'ing the s!stem do *or/ on the surroundings %) *ithdra*ing heat 3rom the s!stem &) adding heat to the s!stem and ha'ing the s!stem do *or/ on the surroundings E) a 'olume compression B) (3 the 3ollo*ing" *hich one is a state 3unction: A) H 2) q %) *

&) heat

E) none o3 the abo'e

F) ;or a gi'en process at constant pressure" fH is negati'e This means that the process is UUUUUUUUUU A) endothermic 2) equithermic %) e-othermic &) a state 3unction G) A neutrali0ation reaction bet*een an acid and a metal h!dro-ide produces UUUUUUUUUU A) *ater and a salt 2) h!drogen gas %) o-!gen gas &) sodium h!dro-ide E) ammonia H) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing is a statement o3 Hessws la*: A) #3 a reaction is carried out in a series o3 steps" the fH 3or the reaction *ill equal the sum o3 the enthalp! changes 3or the indi'idual steps 2) #3 a reaction is carried out in a series o3 steps" the fH 3or the reaction *ill equal the product o3 the enthalp! changes 3or the indi'idual steps %) The fH 3or a process in the 3or*ard direction is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the fH 3or the process in the re'erse direction &) The fH 3or a process in the 3or*ard direction is equal to the fH 3or the process in the re'erse direction

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76) ;or the reaction .%o (s) + H . (g) + G8;C (g) .H%o(8;C ) D (l) " fH 3 o is 0ero 3or UUUUUUU A) %o (s) 2) H . (g) %) 8;C (g) &) H%o(8;C ) D (l) E) both %o(s) and H . (g)

77) 1hen a s!stem is at equilibrium" UUUUUUUUUU A) the re'erse process is spontaneous but the 3or*ard process is not 2) the 3or*ard and the re'erse processes are both spontaneous %) the 3or*ard process is spontaneous but the re'erse process is not &) the process is not spontaneous in either direction E) both 3or*ard and re'erse processes ha'e stopped 7.) ;or an isothermal process" fS W UUUUUUUUUU A) * 2) *re'IT %) *re' 7C) The entrop! o3 the uni'erse is UUUUUUUUUU A) constant 2) continuall! decreasing &) 0ero E) the same as the energ!" E

&) T*re'

E) * + *

%) continuall! increasing

7D) The second la* o3 thermod!namics states that UUUUUUUUUU A) fE W q + * o nH o3 (products) 4 mH o3 (reactants) 2) H r-n W %) 3or an! spontaneous process" the entrop! o3 the uni'erse increases &) the entrop! o3 a pure cr!stalline substance is 0ero at absolute 0ero E) fS W qre'IT at constant temperature 7E) 1hich reaction produces an increase in the entrop! o3 the s!stem: A) Ag+ (aq) + %l4 (aq) , Ag%l (s) 2) %(. (s) , %(. (g) %) H. (g) + %l. (g) , . H%l (g) &) $. (g) + C H. (g) , . $HC (g) E) H.( (l) , H.( (s) 7B) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing processes produces a decrease o3 the entrop! o3 the s!stem: A) dissol'ing sodium chloride in *ater 2) sublimation o3 naphthalene %) dissol'ing o-!gen in *ater &) boiling o3 alcohol E) e-plosion o3 nitrogl!cerine 7F) fS is negati'e 3or the reaction UUUUUUUUUU A) .S(. (g) + (. (g) , .S(C (g) 2) $HD%l (s) , $HC (g) + H%l (g) %) 8b%l. (s) , 8b.+ (aq) + .%l4 (aq) &) .% (s) + (. (g) , .%(. (g) E) H.( (l) , H.( (g)

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Thermod!namic =uantities 3or Selected Substances at .HG 7E N (.E`%) Substance %alcium %a (s) %a%l. (s) %a.+ (aq) %hlorine %l. (g) %l4 (aq) (-!gen (. (g) H.( (l) 8hosphorus 8. (g) 8%lC (g) 8(%lC (g) fH`3 (/<Imol) f@`3 (/<Imol) S (<IN4mol)

6 4FHE G ..B F 6 47BF . 6 4.GE GC 7DD C 4.GG 7 4ED. .

6 4FDG 7 .6H . 6 47C7 . 6 4.CF 7C 76C F 4.BH B 4E6. E

D7 D 76D B .66 G ... HB EB E .6E 6 BH H7 .7G 7 C77 F C.E

Sul3ur S (s" rhombic) 6 6 C7 GG S(. (g) 4.BH H 4C66 D .DG E S(C (g) 4CHE . 4CF6 D .EB . 7G) The 'alue o3 fS` 3or the o-idation o3 solid elemental sul3ur to gaseous sul3ur dio-ide" S (s" rhombic) + (. (g) , S(. (g) is UUUUUUUUUU <ImolYN A) +DGE D 2) +.DG E %) 477 B &) 4.DG E E) +77 B 7H) The 'alue o3 fS` 3or the decomposition o3 gaseous sul3ur trio-ide to solid elemental sul3ur and gaseous o-!gen" .S(C (g) , .S (s" rhombic) + C(. (g) is UUUUUUUUUU <ImolYN A) +7H C 2) 47H C %) +DHC 7 &) +7BB D E) 4DHC 7 .6) The 'alue o3 fS` 3or the decomposition o3 gaseous sul3ur dio-ide to solid elemental sul3ur and gaseous o-!gen" S(. (g) , S (s" rhombic) + (. (g) is UUUUUUUUUU <ImolYN A) +DGE D 2) +.DG E %) 477 B &) 4.DG E E) +77 B .7) The 'alue o3 fH` 3or the decomposition o3 gaseous sul3ur trio-ide to its component elements" .S(C (g) , .S (s" rhombic) + C(. (g) is UUUUUUUUUU /<Imol A) +FH6 D 2) 4FH6 D %) +CHE . &) 4CHE . E) +76E 7 ..) The 'alue o3 fH` 3or the o-idation o3 solid elemental sul3ur to gaseous sul3ur dio-ide" S (s" rhombic) + (. (g) , S(. (g) is UUUUUUUUUU /<Imol A) +.BH H 2) 4.BH H %) +6 66 &) 477 B E) +77 B .C) The 'alue o3 f@` at .E `% 3or the o-idation o3 solid elemental sul3ur to gaseous sul3ur trio-ide" .S (s" rhombic) + C(. (g) , .S(C (g) is UUUUUUUUUU /<Imol A) +FD6 G 2) 4CF6 D %) +CF6 D &) 4FD6 G E) +7GE . .D) The 'alue o3 f@` at .E `% 3or the o-idation o3 solid elemental sul3ur to gaseous sul3ur dio-ide" S (s" rhombic) + (. (g) , S(. (g) is UUUUUUUUUU /<Imol A) +CHE . 2) +.BH H %) 4.BH H &) +C66 D E) 4C66 D

!nit 10 Set B

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,he peroxydisulfate ion (S. (G .4 ) reacts with the iodide ion in a*ueous solution -ia the reaction.
(S. (G .4 ) (aq) + C#4 .S( D (aq) + #C4 (aq)

#n a*ueous solution containing 6 6E6 M of S. (G.4 ion and 6 6F. M of #4 is prepared" and the progress of the reaction followed by measuring ^#4_ ,he data obtained is gi-en in the table below. Time (s) ^#4_ (M) 6 666 6 6F. D66 6 6 6EF G66 6 6 6DB 7.66 6 6 6CF 7B66 6 6 6.H

7) The a'erage rate o3 disappearance o3 # 4 bet*een D66 s and G66 s is UUUUUUUUUU MIs A) . G a 764E 2) 7 D a 764E %) E G a 764E &) C B a 76D E) . B a 764D .) The a'erage rate o3 disappearance o3 # in the initial D66 s is UUUUUUUUUU MIs A) B 66 2) C G a 764E %) 7 D a 764D &) . F a 76D E) C . a 764D C) The a'erage rate o3 disappearance o3 # bet*een 7.66 s and 7B66 s is UUUUUUUUUU MIs A) 7 G a 764E 2) 7 . a 764E %) . 6 a 764E &) E 6 a 76D E) 7 B a 764D D) The concentration o3 S.(G.4 remaining at D66 s is UUUUUUUUUU M A) +6 67E 2) +6 6CE %) 46 66F &) +6 6DE E) +6 6EF E) The concentration o3 S.(G.4 remaining at G66 s is UUUUUUUUUU M A) 6 6DB 2) 6 6FB %) D 66 a 764C &) 6 67E E) 6 6D7 B) The concentration o3 S.(G.4 remaining at 7B66 s is UUUUUUUUUU M A) 6 6CB 2) 6 67D %) 6 6DC &) 6 6BD E) 6 6.H

F) #3 the rate la* 3or the reaction .A + C2 , products is 3irst order in A and second order in 2" then the rate la* is rate W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU A) /^A_^2_ 2) /^A_. ^2_C %) /^A_^2_. &) /^A_. ^2_ E) /^A_.^2_. G) The /inetics o3 the reaction belo* *ere studied and it *as determined that the reaction rate did not change *hen the concentration o3 2 *as tripled The reaction is UUUUUUUUUU order in 2 A+2,8 A) 0ero 2) 3irst %) second &) third E) one4hal3

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H) A reaction *as 3ound to be third order in A #ncreasing the concentration o3 A b! a 3actor o3 C *ill cause the reaction rate to UUUUUUUUUU A) remain constant 2) increase b! a 3actor o3 .F %) increase b! a 3actor o3 H &) triple E) decrease b! a 3actor o3 the cube root o3 C 76) The 3ollo*ing reaction occurs in aqueous solution: $H D+ (aq) + $(.4 $ . (g) + .H . ( (l) The data belo* is obtained at .E`% ^$HWD_ (m) ^$(.4_ (M) 6 6766 6 .66 6 6.66 6 .66 The order o3 the reaction in $HD+ is UUUUUUUUUU A) 4. 2) 47 %) +. #nitial rate (MIs) C . - 764C B D - 764C

&) +7

E) 6

77) (3 the units belo*" UUUUUUUUUU are appropriate 3or a 3irst4order reaction rate constant A) M s47 2) s47 %) molIL &) M 47s 47 E) L mol47 s47

7.) (3 the 3ollo*ing" UUUUUUUUUU *ill lo*er the acti'ation energ! 3or a reaction A) increasing the concentrations o3 reactants 2) raising the temperature o3 the reaction %) adding a catal!st 3or the reaction &) remo'ing products as the reaction proceeds E) increasing the pressure 7C) The rate la* o3 a reaction is rate W /^&_^L_ The units o3 the rate constant are UUUUUUUUUU A) mol L 47s47 2) L mol47s 47 %) mol. L 4.s47 &) mol L 47s4. E) L. mol4.s 47 7D) The hal34li3e o3 a 3irst4order reaction UUUUUUUUUU A) is the time necessar! 3or the reactant concentration to drop to hal3 its original 'alue 2) is constant %) can be calculated 3rom the reaction rate constant &) does not depend on the initial reactant concentration E) All o3 the abo'e are correct $(C + %( $( . + %( . 7E) ;or the elementar! reaction the molecularit! o3 the reaction is UUUUUUUUUU" and the rate la* is rate W UUUUUUUUUU A) ." /^$(C _^%(_ 2) D" /^$(C _^%(_^$( . _^%( . _ %) ." /^$( . _^%( . _ &) ." /^$(C _^%(_I^$( . _^%( . _ E) D" /^$( . _^%(. _I^$(C _^%(_

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7B) (ne di33erence bet*een 3irst4 and second4order reactions is that UUUUUUUUUU A) the hal34li3e o3 a 3irst4order reaction does not depend on ^A_6 S the hal34li3e o3 a second4order reaction does depend on ^A_6 2) the rate o3 a 3irst4order reaction does not depend on reactant concentrationsS the rate o3 a second4order reaction does depend on reactant concentrations %) the rate o3 a 3irst4order reaction depends on reactant concentrationsS the rate o3 a second4order reaction does not depend on reactant concentrations &) a 3irst4order reaction can be catal!0edS a second4order reaction cannot be catal!0ed E) the hal34li3e o3 a 3irst4order reaction depends on ^A_6 S the hal34li3e o3 a second4order reaction does not depend on ^A_6 7F) The decomposition o3 $.(E in solution in carbon tetrachloride proceeds 'ia the reaction .$.(E (soln) , D$(. (soln) + (. (soln) The reaction is 3irst order and has a rate constant o3 D G. a 76 4C s47 at BD`% The rate la* 3or the reaction is rate W UUUUUUUUUU ^$ . (E _. ^$( . _D ^(. _ / A) /^$.(E_. 2) / %) /^$ ( _ & E) ./^$.(E_ . E ^$ . (E _. ^$( . _D ^( . _

7G) As the temperature o3 a reaction is increased" the rate o3 the reaction increases because the UUUUUUUUUU A) reactant molecules collide less 3requentl! 2) reactant molecules collide *ith greater energ! per collision %) acti'ation energ! is lo*ered &) reactant molecules collide less 3requentl! and *ith greater energ! per collision E) reactant molecules collide more 3requentl! *ith less energ! per collision 7H) The rate o3 a reaction depends on UUUUUUUUUU A) collision 3requenc! 2) collision energ! &) all o3 the abo'e E) none o3 the abo'e

%) collision orientation

.6) #n the energ! pro3ile o3 a reaction" the species that e-ists at the ma-imum on the cur'e is called the UUUUUUUUUU A) product 2) acti'ated comple%) acti'ation energ! &) enthalp! o3 reaction E) atomic state

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!nit 10 4b1ecti0es
7 . C D E B F G E-plain thermod!namic concepts such as entrop!" enthalp!" and @ibbs 3ree energ! and ho* the! relate to each other &escribe and identi3! spontaneous 3rom non4spontaneous reactions %alculate the heat o3 3ormation based on gi'en data (Hess?s La*) &escribe ho* s!stems in equilibrium *ill change in order to reli'e stress in a s!stem #nterpret phase diagrams and reaction mechanism diagrams to identi3! ho* a reaction occurs #denti3! di33erences among the three basic states o3 matter &escribe 3actors that a33ect reaction rates #denti3! 'arious reaction mechanisms and be able to determine rate determining step" order 3or reactants" and o'erall reaction order

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!nit 11 6Muilib*ium 'a(te* 15 'emical 6Muilib*ium

2e3ore *e start: ALL equilibrium e-pressions (/ W ^products_I^reactants_) A)E THE SAME )eall!: no solids or pure liquids" products o'er reactants" and coe33icients 3rom balanced equations become e-ponents The / subscript Just indicates the T>8E o3 reaction Se*iousl+: T26L )LL A4R5 T26 S),6 A)L6Muilib*ium O a state o3 balance D+namic eMuilib*ium O balance bet*een . or more states o3 matter in a sealed container E-: rate o3 molecules lea'ing the liquid phase to go to the gas phase equals rate at *hich gas molecules stri/e a sur3ace" losing NE and returning to the liquid phase


once(t of 6Muilib*ium O Some chemical reactions do not go to completion because the! are re'ersible A + 2 % + & 1hen the 3or*ard reaction rate W the re'erse reaction rate" the s!stem is said to be at equilibrium )3 W /3^A_-^2_! )r W /r^%_-^&_! )r W rate o3 re'erse r-n /r W constant o3 re'erse r-n

)3 W rate o3 3or*ard r-n /3 W constant o3 3or*ard r-n

2ecause reactions are based on collisions" )3 must al*a!s slo* do*n as the reaction proceeds and )r speeds up This means that: 7) At equilibrium" the conc o3 reactants and products no longer change o'er time .) ;or equilibrium to occur" neither reactant nor product molecules can escape 3rom the s!stem (d!namic) C) At equilibrium" a particular ratio o3 concentration terms equals a constant E-: 1rite the e-pression 3or Neq 3or the reaction D%u((s) + % HD(g) %(.(g) + D%u (s) + .H.((g)

These 'alues *ill ne'er change becauseXo'er time" the! remain constant #; the s!stem is closed

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Since )3 W )r regardless o3 the nature o3 the /inetic process o3 the o'erall reaction 2abe* %*ocess O (;rit0 Haber" @erman chemist" 7H6G) used to arti3iciall! produce (s!nthesi0e) ammonia (used in 3ertili0ersIe-plosi'es) $ature does not support nitrogen4containing compounds to an! real e-tent (nitrogen is 3airl! inert) but *e do ha'e nitrogen 3i-ing bacteria (remember 3rom 2io:) $.(g) + C H.(g) [ . $HC(g)

The s!nthesis is carried out in a d!namic equilibrium at high pressure and temperature At some point" an equilibrium is reached #3 *e start *ith ammonia" *e can ma/e h!drogen and nitrogen gas under the same conditions (equilibrium occurs regardless o3 starting reactants) La: of ,ass )ction O (@uldberg R 1aage" 7GBD) &id other equilibrium e-periments to test relationship bet*een concentrations o3 reactants and products )esulted in Neq Neq is o3ten *ritten as Nc (c stands 3or UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) and determined b! e-periment Values 3or ^A_" ^2_" etc are actuall! e-pressed as acti'ities (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) soX aA Neq + W b2 Nc [ W c% + d&

^&_d^E_e ^A_a^2_b solutions W UUUUUUUUUUU gases W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

%u*e soli9s an9 liMui9s D 1

Since N W productsIreactants" the larger the /" the more the 3or*ard reaction proceeds E-ample 7: #3 ;rit0 Haber conducted a s!nthesis reaction in a . 6 L bo-" and at equilibrium it contained 7 . moles o3 nitrogen" 6 GD moles o3 h!drogen and 6 .. moles o3 ammonia" calculate Nc 1hat does this tell us about the position o3 the equilibrium:

E-ample .: #3 3or the s!nthesis o3 . moles o3 sul3ur dio-ide and 7 mole o3 o-!gen" the Nc W 6 7E" *hat is the equilibrium constant 3or the re'erse reaction:

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6Muilib*ium onstants in Te*ms of %*essu*esB 5 ( ;or all gas reactantsIproducts" *e can spea/ in terms o3 partial pressures instead o3 molar concentrations The Np loo/s a bit di33erent: Np W (8%)c(8&)d (8A)a(82)b Just means *e are dealing *ith partial pressures

So" *e pla! math class" rearrange a 3e* equations and substitute" then *e get: Np W Nc()T)fn (it?s on the A8 sheet under Equilibrium)

E-ample: %alculate Np 3or the decomposition o3 dinitrogen tetro-ide i3 Nc W D BB - 764C at .. o%

E-ample: %alculate Nc 3or the s!nthesis o3 . moles o3 ammonia at E66 o% i3 Np W F 76 - 764E

E-ample: 1rite the equilibrium e-pression 3or Np 3or the reaction (Np W

.(C (g)

C(. (g)

/o. ) . /oC

E-ample: 8hosphorous trichloride and phosphorous pentachloride equilibrate in the presence o3 molecular chlorine according to the reaction: 8%lC (g) + %l. (g) 8%lE (g) An equilibrium mi-ture at DE6 N contains 88%lC W 6 .6. atm" 8%l. W 6 .EB atm" and 88%lE W C DE atm 1hat is the 'alue o3 Np at this temperature:

$4T6: 5c D 5( #; the same number o3 moles o3 gas appear on either side o3 the equation (fn W 6) #3 not" then use : 5( D 5cFRTHnright 3rom the A8 e-am sheet under equilibrium

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T'e ,a&nitu9e of 6Muilib*ium onstants Also o3 note: <ust common sense and a bit o3 math logicT Nc \ 7" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (proceedsIlies to the right) Nc q 7" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (proceedsIlies to the le3t) Nc W 7" UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU (no net change) <ust thin/ about *here the bigger number is: product W top" reactant W bottom 2igger in numerator W large number (di'ide b! smaller 9 W *hole 9) 2igger in denominator W smaller number (di'ide b! bigger 9 W 3raction W decimal) The &irection o3 the %hemical Equation and N Since the reaction is in equilibrium" *e can *rite it either direction Ho*e'er" the Nc number changes depending on the *a! it is *ritten 2E A1A)E o3 this: ma/e sure to re*rite the Nc each time e-) The Neq is F E. a 764. at DG6 `% 3or 1hat is the 'alue o3 Neq at this temp 3or .%l. (g) + .H.( (g) DH%l (g) + (. (g) DH%l (g) + (. (g) .%l. (g) + .H.( (g)

The equilibrium constant e-pression 3or a reaction *ritten in one direction is the reciprocal o3 the one *ritten in the opposite direction Relatin& 'emical 6Muations an9 6Muilib*ium onstants Also be a*are o3 an! PchangesQ to the amounts (coe33icient di33erences) #3 the ne* equation is both re'ersed A$& larger" simpl! ta/e the in'erse" then raise that number to the po*er o3 the ne* number (HUH:::) <ust easier to sho* !ou E-: The Neq 3or the equilibrium is 6 77. at F66 `% o3 1hat is the 'alue o3 Neq at this temperature 3or S(. (g) + .S(C (g)
7 (. (g) .

S(C (g)

.S(. (g) + (. (g)

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Sometimes" *e ha'e a multi4step process (. or more: the! lo'e these on A8 e-ams 2rutal) This means Hess?s La* is bac/: 1rite the reactions so that an!thing that can cancel is on opposite sides Multipl! EVE)>TH#$@ b! a *hole number to ma/e sure stu33 cancels %ancel *hat !ou can: *hate'er is le3t is the entire reaction (start to end) E-) %alculate the Nc 3or .$.((g) + (.(g) D$((g) based on the 3ollo*ing intermediate steps: $.(g) + (.(g) .$((g) Nc W D 7 - 764C7

. $.(g) + (.(g) .$.((g) Nc W E G - 764CB

2ottom Line: 7) The re'erse o3 an equilibrium reaction is its in'erse .) #3 the coe33icients ha'e been multiplied b! a number" the e-pression is raised to that po*er C) The equilibrium constant 3or a net reaction that is made o3 . or more steps is the product ($(T sum) o3 the equilibrium constants 3or the indi'idual steps


2ete*o&eneous 6Muilib*ium O ;or / e-pressions" lea'e out solids and pure liquids The boo/ sho*s e-amples and drones on" but Just don?t include soli9s an9 (u*e liMui9s (aqueous and gas are all that count)

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alculatin& 6Muilib*ium onstants Since *e /no* that the magnitude (number) o3 Nc can also indicate *hich side is 3a'ored (more dominant in the r-n)" *e can use this in3o to determine #; and H(1 MU%H *e need to PpushQ a reaction to get *hat *e *ant Temperature is a good *a! to PpushQ a reaction in the desired direction #t is eas! to control and measure #3 *e /no* concentrations o3 reactions and products" *e can calculate Nc" but the real 'alue is being able to do the opposite 1e use the initialIchangeIequilibrium (#%E) method (Just algebra and a table) E-: A 6 6.66 mol sample o3 sul3ur trio-ide gas is placed into an e'acuated 7 EFL 'essel and heated to H66N The amount o3 sul3ur trio-ide gas present at equilibrium is 6 67D. mol" 1hat is the 'alue o3 Nc: . S(C(g) . S(.(g)+ (.(g) #nitial (mol) 6 6.66 6 66 6 66 %hange (mol) 4 66EG 6 66EG 6 66.H Equilibrium (mol) 6 67D. 6 66EG 6 66.H %onc y equil (M) 6 67D.I7 EF 6 66EGI7 EF 6 66.HI7 EF (7:7 change) (.:7 change) Nc W ^S(._.^ (._ ^S(C_ . W

>ou could also con'ert PmolQ 3rom question into PMQ be3ore setting up the table <ust ma/e sure !ou ta/e the 'olume into account some*here $o* *e tr! one *ith a 'ariable (-) in it and use our a*esome algebra s/illsT E-: ;or the reaction o3 carbon mono-ide + *ater(g) !ielding carbon dio-ide + h!drogen" Nc W 6 EG Suppose *e start *ith 7 66 mole o3 %( and 7 66 mole o3 *ater in a E6 6 L bo- 1hat is the concentration o3 each substance at equilibrium: (ice" ice bab!" and 7 66molIE6 6L W 6 6.66M) %((g) + #nitial %hange Equilibrium Nc W ^%(._^H._ ^%(_^H.(_ 6 6.66 46 6.664W H.((g) 6 6.66 46 6.664 %(.(g) 6 66 ++6 EG + H.(g) 6 66 ++-

(-) (-) W (6 6.664-)(6 6.664-)

&o the algebra (and a miracle occurs *ith the quadratic equation) and *e get - W 6 66GBC So" *e ha'e 6 677DM o3 each reactant and 6 66GBCM o3 each product at equilibrium (h >eah" N MUST be a positi'e 9 (can?t ha'e a negati'e rate) Tr! #t: 7) Equilibrium is established in the reaction bet*een dinitrogen tetrao-ide and nitrogen dio-ide gases at .HGN The quantities o3 reactant and product are F BD g and 7 EBg respecti'el! in a C 66L 'essel 1hat is the Nc 3or this reaction:
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So" start *ith 3inding M 3or each (g to mol then di'ide b! L W M)

Then plug into the Nc e-pression

Nc W

$o* 3ind the Np:

.) ;or H.(g) + #.(g) . H# (g) Nc W DH F #3 *e start *ith 7 66 mol H. and . 66 mol #odine in a 7 6 L bo-" *hat are the equilibrium conc?s: (again *ith the #%E chart)

C) N p W 6 67HG at F.7 N 3or the reaction .H# (g) H. (g) + #. (g) H # #n a particular e-periment" the partial pressures o3 . and . at equilibrium are 6 F76atm and 6 GGG atm respecti'el! 1hat is the partial pressure o3 H# in atm:

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)((lication of 6Muilib*ium onstants 1e /no* that the N 'alue indicates *hich *a! the reaction *ill Pshi3tQ" and allo*s us to calculate concentrations at equilibrium i3 *e /no* the starting amounts %*e9ictin& t'e Di*ection of Reaction = is the same thing as N" but = does not HAVE to be at equilibrium N is at equilibrium 2asicall!" = lets us calculate ho* much o3 each is present at A$> point in the r-n" not Just at equilibrium (Nc) 3or: aA + b2 c% + d& =W ^&_d^E_e ^A_a^2_b

@raph: (top o3 pg BDE" i3 !ou li/e 'isuals ) Easier *a!: dri'ing <ust as/" #?ll e-plain

= q Nc 3orming products(not 3ar enough)

= W Nc equilibrium

=> Nc 3orming reactants (too 3ar)

E-: &etermine i3 the 3ollo*ing is in equilibrium" and i3 not" *ill it proceed in the 3or*ard or re'erse direction 7) H.(g) + #.(g) . H# (g) Nc W DH ^H._ W 6 76M ^#._ W 6 76M ^H#_ W 6 F6M

.) 2r.(g) + %l.(g) . 2r%l (g) ^2r._ W 6 76M ^%l._ W 6 .6M

Nc W B H ^2r%l_ W 6 DEM

C) H;(aq) + H.((l) HC(+(aq) + + ^H;_ W 6 .6M ^HC( _ W 6 666.6M

;4 (aq)

Nc W B G - 764D ^; _ W 6 DEM

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17-6 %*eci(itation an9 Se(a*ation of 3ons

1e /no* that equilibrium can start *ith a solid into *ater" or a solution that precipitates a solid (start at either side) Also" *e /no* that the reaction quotient =" can be used to determine the direction o3 an equilibrium reaction: = q Nsp r-n 3orms products (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) = W Nsp equilibrium (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) = \ Nsp r-n 3orms reactants (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) Again: N is AT equilibrium" = can be" but doesn?t ha'e to be at equilibrium (Just heading there) Selecti0e %*eci(itation of 3ons 2ased on solubilit!" *e can chose to remo'e certain ions (salts) b! adding care3ull! selected compounds Also called 3ractional precipitation =*actional %*eci(itation O 1hen some ions are remo'ed 3rom solution" lea'ing others *ith similar properties 2ased on common ion and relati'e solubilit! o3 each species Most use3ul ion is the sul3ide ion: solubilit! o3 sul3ides salts ha'e a *ide range A$& 'ar! greatl! depending on pH Actuall!" there is an entire section (.. B) and 3ield o3 science dedicated to sul3ur reactions E-ample: #n a mi-ture o3 6 66766 M $a%l and 6 66766 M $a#" *hat concentration o3 sil'er ion is needed to precipitate the Ag#" but not the Ag%l: Nsp Ag%l W 7 G6 - 76476" Nsp Ag# W 7 E6 - 7647B Ag#(s) [ Ag+(aq) + #4(aq) Nsp W ^Ag+_^#4_ Ag%l(s) [ Ag+(aq) + %l4(aq) Nsp W ^Ag+_^%l4_

So" !ou need at least 7 E6 - 7647CM o3 sil'er ion but less than 7 G6 - 76{FM Neep in mind that these balanced equations all ha'e coe33icients o3 7 Use the appropriate superscripts i3 the coe33icients are $(T 7 &oing this t!pe o3 calculation can also help determine PorderQ as 3ar as precipitation order 3or compounds occurs (*ho becomes a solid 3irst)

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17-7 >ualitati0e )nal+sis fo* ,etallic 6lements

1e can do a P*etQ method (stu33 in a test tube) to determine qualitati'el! *hat is present 1e use ad'anced instrumentation (instrumental anal!sis using @%" H8L%" MS" #)" etc) to determine quantitati'el! *hat is present in a sample Most o3 the *or/ 3alls under the en'ironmental section o3 a lab (*ater" soil" air testing) &one in three sections: 7) ions are separated into broad groups based on solubilit! properties .) indi'idual ions are separated b! 3ractional (selecti'e) preparation C) ions are #&?d b! means o3 speci3ic tests (>I$ t!pe tests based on ph!sicalIchemical properties) The order o3 adding reagents (other chemicals) is 'ital: li/e ma/ing a recipe #3 the reagents are added in the *rong order" !ou *ill miss something or get a 3alse positi'eInegati'e 2oo/ sho*s a great chart" outlines the steps and reasoning" etc >ou de3initel! *ant to read through this" *a! coolTTTT

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%*actice: Uses o3 Nsp O used to 3ind 'arious solubilities" has application *ith the common ion e33ect"
can be tied to acids and bases" and relation to = e-) The solubilit! o3 manganese (##) h!dro-ide (Mn((H).) is . . a 764E M 1hat is the Nsp o3 Mn((H).:

E-ample: @i'en the Nsp 3or iron (###) h!dro-ide W B C6 - 764CG" ho* man! grams *ill dissol'e in .E6 6 mL o3 *ater at .E o%: Also calculate the number o3 h!dro-ide ions in the solution

E-ample: Ho* man! grams o3 table salt must be added to .E6 mL o3 6 67E6 M sil'er nitrate to cause a precipitate:

E-ample: 1ill a precipitate 3orm i3 76 6 mL o3 6 6766 M sil'er nitrate is mi-ed *ith .6 6 mL o3 6 66.66 M potassium chromate:

E-ample: 1hat concentration o3 sil'er ion must be added to 6 66E66 M potassium chromate solution to cause a precipitate:

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!nit 11 Set

7) 1hat is the molar solubilit! o3 barium 3luoride (2a; .) in *ater: The solubilit!4product constant 3or 2a;. is 7 F a 764 B at .E`% A) B E a 764D 2) 7 . a 764. %) 7 G a 764C &) F E a 764C E) E F a 764F .) The solubilit! o3 Ar in *ater at .E `% is 7 B a 764C M *hen the pressure o3 the Ar abo'e the solution is 7 6 atm The solubilit! o3 Ar at a pressure o3 . E atm is UUUUUUUUUU M A) 7 B a 76C 2) B D a 764D %) D 6 a 764C &) F E a 764. E) 7 B a 764C C) &initrogentetrao-ide partiall! decomposes according to the 3ollo*ing equilibrium: $.(D (g) .$(. (g) A 7 664L 3las/ is charged *ith 6 D66 mol o3 $ . ( D At equilibrium at CFC N" 6 66EE mol o3 $ . ( D remains N eq 3or this reaction is UUUUUUUUUU A) . . a 764D 2) 7C %) 6 .. &) 6 6.. E) 6 GF

D) At .. `%" Np W 6 6F6 3or the equilibrium: $HDHS (s) $HC (g) + H.S (g) A sample o3 solid $HDHS is placed in a closed 'essel and allo*ed to equilibrate %alculate the equilibrium partial pressure (atm) o3 ammonia" assuming that some solid $HDHS remains A) 6 .B 2) 6 6F6 %) 6 E. &) D H a 764C E) C G E) #n the coal4gasi3ication process" carbon mono-ide is con'erted to carbon dio-ide 'ia the 3ollo*ing reaction: %( (g) + H.( (g) %(. (g) + H. (g) #n an e-periment" 6 CE mol o3 %( and 6 D6 mol o3 H.( *ere placed in a 7 664L reaction 'essel At equilibrium" there *ere 6 7H mol o3 %( remaining Neq at the temperature o3 the e-periment is UUUUUUUUUU A) E DF 2) 6 FE %) 7 FG &) 6 EB E) 7 6 B) The equilibrium constant 3or the gas phase reaction .$HC (g) $. (g) + CH. (g) is N eq W .C6 at C66 `% At equilibrium" UUUUUUUUUU A) products predominate 2) reactants predominate %) roughl! equal amounts o3 products and reactants are present &) onl! products are present E) onl! reactants are present

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F) The 'alue o3 N eq 3or the 3ollo*ing reaction is 6 .E: S(. (g) + $(. (g) S(C (g) + $( (g) The 'alue o3 N eq at the same temperature 3or the reaction belo* is UUUUUUUUUU .S(. (g) + .$(. (g) .S(C (g) + .$( (g) A) 6 E6 2) 6 6B. %) 6 7. &) 6 .E E) 7B

G) The Neq 3or the equilibrium belo* is F E. a 76 4. at DG6 `% .%l. (g) + .H.( (g) DH%l (g) + (. (g) 1hat is the 'alue o3 Neq at this temperature 3or the 3ollo*ing reaction: .H%l (g) + M (. (g) %l. (g) + H.( (g) A) 7C C 2) C BE %) 46 6CFB

&) E BB a 764C

E) 6 .FD

H) The Neq 3or the equilibrium belo* is 6 77. at F66 `% S(. (g) + M (. (g) S(C (g) 1hat is the 'alue o3 Neq at this temperature 3or the 3ollo*ing reaction: S(C (g) S(. (g) + M (. (g) A) 6 ..D 2) 6 67.E %) 6 77. 76) At 7666 N" the equilibrium constant 3or the reaction is Np W 6 67C %alculate Np 3or the re'erse reaction" A) 6 67C 2) 7 B a 764D %) FF 77) At D66 N" the equilibrium constant 3or the reaction

&) G HC

E) 46 77. .$(2r (g) .$( (g) + 2r. (g) E) 7 7 .2r%l (g)

.$( (g) + 2r. (g) .$(2r (g) &) 6 HH 2r. (g) + %l. (g)

is Np W F 6 A closed 'essel at D66 N is charged *ith 7 66 atm o3 2r . (g)" 7 66 atm o3 %l. (g)" and . 66 atm o3 2r%l (g) Use = to determine *hich o3 the statements belo* is true A) The equilibrium partial pressures o3 2r ." %l." and 2r%l *ill be the same as the initial 'alues 2) The equilibrium partial pressure o3 2r . *ill be greater than 7 66 atm %) At equilibrium" the total pressure in the 'essel *ill be less than the initial total pressure &) The equilibrium partial pressure o3 2r%l (g) *ill be greater than . 66 atm E) The reaction *ill go to completion since there are equal amounts o3 2r . and %l. 7.) %onsider the 3ollo*ing reaction at equilibrium: .$HC (g) $. (g) + CH. (g) fH` W +H. D /< Le %h|telierws principle predicts that adding $ . (g) to the s!stem at equilibrium *ill result in UUUUUUUUUU A) a decrease in the concentration o3 $HC (g) 2) a decrease in the concentration o3 H. (g) %) an increase in the 'alue o3 the equilibrium constant &) a lo*er partial pressure o3 $. E) remo'al o3 all o3 the H. (g)

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7C) %onsider the 3ollo*ing reaction at equilibrium: .%(. (g) .%( (g) + (. (g) fH` W 4E7D /< Le %h|telierws principle predicts that an increase in temperature *ill UUUUUUUUUU A) increase the partial pressure o3 ( . (g) 2) decrease the partial pressure o3 %( . (g) %) decrease the 'alue o3 the equilibrium constant &) increase the 'alue o3 the equilibrium constant E) increase the partial pressure o3 %( 7D) The e33ect o3 a catal!st on an equilibrium is to UUUUUUUUUU A) increase the rate o3 the 3or*ard reaction onl! 2) increase the equilibrium constant so that products are 3a'ored %) slo* the re'erse reaction onl! &) increase the rate at *hich equilibrium is achie'ed *ithout changing the composition o3 the equilibrium mi-ture E) shi3t the equilibrium to the right 7E) The N p 3or the reaction belo* is 7 DH a 76 G at 766 `%: %( (g) + %l. (g) %(%l . (g) #n an equilibrium mi-ture o3 the three gases" 8%( W 8%l. W G B6 a 764D atm The partial pressure o3 the product" phosgene (%(%l. ) " is UUUUUUUUUU atm A) 7 76 a 76. 2) . 67 a 767D %) D HB a 7647E &) 7 .G a 76E E) 7 F. a 7677

7B) #n *hich o3 the 3ollo*ing aqueous solutions *ould !ou e-pect 8b%l . to ha'e the lo*est solubilit!: A) 6 6.6 M N%l 2) 6 6.6 M 2a%l. %) 6 67E M 8b$(C &) pure *ater E) 6 67E M $a%l 7F) (n a clear da! at sea le'el" *ith a temperature o3 .E `%" the partial pressure o3 $ . in air is 6 FG atm and the concentration o3 nitrogen in *ater is E C a 764D M 1hen the partial pressure o3 $ . is UUUUUUUUUU atm" the concentration in *ater is 7 7 a 764C M A) 6 BC atm 2) 6 FG atm %) 7 6 atm &) . 7 atm E) 7 B atm 7G) The concentration o3 lead nitrate (8b($(C ) . ) in a 6 F.B M solution is UUUUUUUUUU molal The densit! o3 the solution is 7 .6. gImL A) 6 DFB 2) 7 H.G %) 6 FEE &) 6 G7H E) 6 BE6 7H) The net ionic equation 3or 3ormation o3 an aqueous solution o3 $i#. accompanied b! e'olution o3 %( . gas 'ia mi-ing solid $i%(C and aqueous h!droiodic acid is UUUUUUUUUU A) .$i%(C (s) + H# (aq) .H . ( (l) + %( . (g) + .$i .+ (aq) 2) $i%(C (s) + #4 (aq) .H . ( (l) + %( . (g) + $i .+ (aq) + H# (Aq) %) $i%(C (s) + .H + (aq) H . ( (l) + %( . (g) + $i .+ (aq) &) $i%(C (s) + .H# (aq) .H . ( (l) + %( . (g) + $i# . (aq) E) $i%(C (s) + .H# (aq) H . ( (l) + %( . (g) + $i .+ (aq) + .#4 (aq) .6) 1hich combination *ill produce a precipitate: A) $H D (H (aq) and H%l (aq)

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2) Ag$(C (aq) and %a(%. HC(. ). (aq) %) $a(H (aq) and H%l (aq) &) $a%l (aq) and H% . HC( . (aq) E) $a(H (aq) and ;e($(C )C (aq) .7) 2ased on the acti'it! series" *hich one o3 the reactions belo* *ill occur: A) Zn (s) + Mn# . (aq) Zn# . (aq) + Mn (s) 2) Sn%l. (aq) + %u (s) Sn (s) + %u%l. (aq) %) .Ag$(C (aq) + 8b (s) .Ag (s) + 8b($(C ) . (aq) &) CHg (l) + .%r($(C )C (aq) CHg($(C ) . + .%r (s) E) C;e2r. (aq) + .Au (s) C;e (s) + .Au2rC (aq) ..) The net ionic equation 3or the dissolution o3 0inc metal in aqueous h!drobromic acid is UUUUUUUUUU A) Zn (s) + .2r 4 (aq) Zn2r. (aq) 2) Zn (s) + .H2r (aq) Zn2r. (aq) + .H + (aq) %) Zn (s) + .H2r (aq) Zn2r. (s) + .H + (aq) &) Zn (s) + .H + (aq) Zn .+ (aq) + H . (g) E) .Zn (s) + H + (aq) .Zn .+ (aq) + H . (g) .C) UUUUUUUUUU is an o-idation reaction A) #ce melting in a so3t drin/ 2) Table salt dissol'ing in *ater 3or coo/ing 'egetables %) )usting o3 iron &) The reaction o3 sodium chloride *ith lead nitrate to 3orm lead chloride and sodium nitrate E) $eutrali0ation o3 H%l b! $a(H .D) The balanced hal34reaction in *hich dichromate ion is reduced to chromium(###) ion is a UUUUUUUUUU process A) 3our4electron 2) t*el'e4electron %) three4electron &) si-4electron E) t*o4electron

!nit 11 4b1ecti0es
7 . C D E 1rite an equilibrium e-pression 3rom a balanced equation %alculate the number o3 dissol'ed ions in a solution based on the equilibrium e-pression &etermine a Np 3rom a Nc based on number o3 moles 3or gases %alculate the e-tent to *hich an ionic compound dissociates in a solution based on the solubilit! product constant (Nsp) )elate the equilibrium quotient to the equilibrium constant 3or a reaction

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!nit 12 Solution 'emist*+

So *e?'e alread! co'ered most o3 this" butX 4-1 8ene*al %*o(e*ties of )Mueous Solutions Electrol!tic 8roperties 3onic com(oun9s (salts" bases" h!drates" etc) create an electrical charge *hen dissol'ed in *ater due to 3ormation o3 ions (electrol!tes) ,olecula* com(oun9s (sugars" lipids" organic compounds that are $(T acids) do not (non4 electrol!tes) 6lect*ol+te O a substance *hose aqueous solution contains ions (and can thus conduct electricit!) $on.elect*ol+te O a substance that does not 3orm ions in solution and can?t conduct electricit! #onic %ompounds in 1ater #onic compounds are orderl!" cr!stalline solids *hen dr! #n *ater" the! 9issociate (brea/ apart into ions) A$& become electrol!tes The *ater molecules ma! be electricall! neutral" but the! are S( polar the! almost ha'e a charge (remember intermolecular 3orces 3rom last !ear:) The charges on H and ( are said to be Ppartial ( )Q charges 2asicall!" the H end o3 the molecule is almost a positi'e charge and can PsupportQ the negati'e ions The ( centers are almost negati'e" so the! PsupportQ the positi'e ions in solutions

The sol0ation (the clustering o3 sol'ent molecules around a solute particle) process /eeps the ionic compound 3rom re43orming Ho*e'er" sometimes conditions can P3orceQ the compounds to 3all out o3 solution and 3orm into solids (precipitants) To predict the ions 3ormed during sol'ation" Just split up the cation 3rom the anion (reall!" the 3irst part 's the second" but *atch 3or 8ol!)

Acids also 3orm ions in solution" but the! Pioni0eQ 3irst That means the! trans3er the electrons to 3orm an ion" then brea/ apart in *ater

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'a(te* 13 %*o(e*ties of Solutions

)emember" a solution is Just a homogeneous mi-ture (ocean *ater" sterling sil'er" air are all solutions)

13-1 T'e Solution %*ocess

The E33ect o3 #M; 2asicall!" i3 the #M; in the solution (solute4sol'ent) is stronger than in the pure 3orms (solute4solute and sol'ent4sol'ent)" a solution 3orms 1hat it means: *e get energ! *hen *e brea/ the #M; bonds 3or the pure stu33" *hich is used b! the solution *hen the sol'ent particles are PsupportingQ the solute particles The more random the arrangement o3 the ions" a higher energ! state pre'ails )ead 7C 7 through a 3e* times

13-2 Rates of Dissolution an9 Satu*ation

*+stalli?ation 4 *hen a solute particle that has begun to dissol'e collides *ith the solid and becomes re4attached to the solid 2asicall!" lost the energ! needed to 3ull! dissol'e Solubilit+ O the amount o3 solute needed to 3orm a saturated solution !nsatu*ate9 Oless than the ma-imum amount o3 solute that can be dissol'ed in the sol'ent Satu*ate9 OThe ma-imum amount o3 solute that *ill dissol'e in a gi'en amount o3 sol'ent at a speci3ic temperature" gi'en that e-cess solute is present 2asicall!" no more solute *ill dissol'e in the solution (sol'ent) at a certain temperature >ES: saturation is TEM8E)ATU)E &E8E$&A$T (*h! *e can get more sugar into *arm 's iced tea) Su(e*satu*ate9 O more than the ma-imum amount o3 solute can be dissol'ed in a sol'ent b! heating the solution" dissol'ing the particles" then slo*l! cooling the solution U$&#STU)2E&

13-3 =acto*s )ffectin& Solubilit+

Solubilit! is dependent on the solute" the sol'ent" the temperature" and the pressure 3or gases Solute.Sol0ent 3nte*actions Mi-ing: S!stems go to minimum energ!Imore stable and ma-imum randomness (.nd La* Thermo) ,iscible O liquids that mi- in ALL proportions (ratio o3 solute to sol'ent) Solubilit! o3 gases in *ater increases as the molar mass and polarit! o3 the solutes increase (*ater is polar" and attracts other polar molecules Also" the hea'ier it is" the more li/el! it *ill sta! as a liquid and be stabili0ed b! the sol'ent) 3mmiscible O pairs o3 liquids that do not dissol'e in one another (usuall! polar *ith non4polar) Some quic/ organic chem: polar dissol'es polar" nonpolar dissol'es nonpolar 1hat does it mean: 1ell" alcohols (an (H attached to a carbon) is polar and dissol'es easil! in *ater ;or a bigger molecule" i3 *e add more alcohol groups ((H?s) the compound dissol'es 3aster and easier in *ater A straight up h!drocarbon (% H onl!) is nonpolar and does not (petroleum products) 2ottom line: PL356 D3SS4L76S L356Q %*essu*e 6ffects O $o e33ect on solids or liquids ;or gasesX

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2en*+Gs La: O solubilit! is proportional to pressure ;ormula: S& D ;%& Sg W solubilit! o3 the gas in the solution (l) phase e-pressed as molarit! / W proportionalit! constant" or Henr!?s La* constant (di33erent 3or e'er! solute4sol'ent pair and is temperature dependant) 8g W partial pressure o3 the gas o'er the solution 2asicall!: as the pressure (VE) the sol'ent increases" the solubilit! o3 the solute increases Tem(e*atu*e 6ffects Solids: as temperature increases" so does the solubilit! o3 solid solutes in *ater (sugar dissol'es 3aster in *arm 's cold tea) @ases: the solubilit! o3 gases in *ater decreases *ith increasing temperature (soda goes 3lat 3aster i3 *arm 's cold) Ta/e a loo/ at the solubilit! graphs on pg ED7 Again: be able to PreadQ a graph

&e3initions: Solubilit!: the concentration that can dissol'e at a gi'en Solubilit!: the concentration at *hich the rate o3 dissolution W the rate o3 Solubilit!: the concentration at *hich the solution is Lo* Solubilit!: a solution that is saturated at a concentration High Solubilit!: a solution that is saturated at a concentration =uestion: 1hich compound" $a%l or N%l" has a higher solubilit! abo'e C6o%:UUUUUUUUUUUUU 2elo* C6o%: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

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13-4 Aa+s of 6<(*essin&

oncent*ation >ualitati0e: dilute (less solute) 's concentrated (mo*e solute) These are )ELAT#VE terms (one compared to another) $4T6: 9ilute D :ea; :ea; D amount o3 ioni0ationIdissociation (strength o3 #M;?s)

>uantitati0e: MUST ha'e a number A$& a unit (molarit!" ppm" ppb" K" molalit!" normalit!) ,ass %e*centa&eB ((mB ((b Mass percent (simplest one) W mass o3 soluteImass o3 solution - 766K (or partI*hole - 766K) #3 *e ha'e a 7E 6K b! mass solution o3 sugar *ater that means that 3or e'er! 766 g o3 solution" 7E 6g o3 it is sugar ((m W (a*ts (e* million *hich is li/e K (or parts per hundred) ppm means that 3or e'er! 7 g o3 solute" there must be a total o3 7 /g o3 solution Nno*ing that the densit! o3 *ater is A2(UT to 7gImL" *e see that 7 mg o3 solute dissol'ed in 7 liter o3 *ater is 7 ppm ((b W (a*ts (e* billion" *hich means 3or e'er! 6 7mg o3 solute there *ould be a total o3 7/g o3 sol'ent (or 7 liter total 'olume 3or *ater) (N" so ppm and ppb are used 3or medication" pesticides" herbicides" 3ood preser'ati'es" etc *hereas K or e'en ppt (parts per thousand) are used more 3or 3ood ingredients 2ottom line: Just *atch the units and sig 3igs" and !ou?ll be 3ine ,ole =*actionB ,ola*it+B an9 ,olalit+ Mole 3raction: La W moles aI moles a + moles b (again: partI*hole" but no P- 766KQ) E-ample: 1hat are the mole 3ractions in e-ample 7 3rom this section: ,ola*it+ (M) W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU ,olalit+ (m) W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Neep in mind that molaRit! depends on the V(LUME o3 the S(LUT#($ 2ut molaLit! depends on the MASS o3 the S(LVE$T Most o3 this is more practical" and A8 dumped it 3or the e-am >ou *ill need this 3or college and !our e'entual pro3ession" so # le3t it 3or 3uture re3erence

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olli&ati0e %*o(e*tiesO The ne-t sections o3 the chapter deal *ith colligati'e properties %8 are properties that depend on the number (not the t!pe) o3 particles o3 solute in a gi'en amount o3 solute" and the! all cause a PlargerQ liquid range 3or a sol'ent 7 )aising boiling point . lo*ering 3ree0ing point C lo*ering 'apor pressure D change in osmotic pressure E'en though the A8 3ol/s are not testing on it" # still thin/ the methods are essential >ou ma! *ant to read about the equations bIc being able to *or/ the equations can be use3ul sim(le 9istillation O mi-tures are separated ('olatile 3rom non'olatile) Simple distillation can *or/" but onl! to a degree as *hen heating mi-tures o3 'olatile liquids" some amount o3 'apor is present 3rom each part o3 the mi-ture at each point

=*actional 9istillation uses tall columns that allo* 3or cooling and re4condensing o3 higher boiling liquids so more 'olatile substances can be e'aporated and re4condensed 3irst ;ractionating columns are pac/ed *ith glass beads (large sur3ace area 3or condensation) The longer the column or tighter the pac/ing" the more e33icient is the separation

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Dete*mination of ,ola* ,ass (molar *eight) b! ;8 &epression or 28 Ele'ation O Since the 'alue o3 the 3ree0ing pt depression depends on the moles o3 solute" it can be used to determine molecular *eight (2oo/ sho*s a pair o3 e-amples" tr! them) @reatest 3ormula in all o3 chemistr!: moles D &#m: *here m* W molecular *eight (mass)

E-ample: #3 7 E6 g o3 an un/no*n solute in FE 6 g o3 phenol changes the ;8 to D. 7G o%" calculate the m* (;8 normal W DC 6 o%" /3 W F D6 o%Im)


olloi9s (%olloidal dispersions) O some general notes: Solutions are homogeneous and do not e-perience settling Suspensions are heterogeneous and particles settle %olloids are in an intermediate state Solute particles (dispersed phase) are suspended in the sol'ent (dispersing medium) 8articles are small enough to a'oid settling" but large enough to ma/e the mi-ture cloud! All /inds o3 combinations o3 s"l"g )esults in solutions" gels" emulsions" 3oams" aerosols E-amples are sha'ing cream" mist" 3og" paints" dressings" dair! products" nail polish etc

T'e T+n9all 6ffect O 8articles are so big the! scatter light (re3raction) 2+9*o('ilic colloids (:ate* lo0in&) O nonpolar groups o3 molecule are encased" *hile polar groups are e-posed to the polar sol'ent 2+9*o('obic colloids (:ate* fea*in&) O opposite situation These colloids e-ist due to presence o3 emulsi3!ing agents Mil/ has casein" ma!onnaise has lecithin (3rom egg !ol/) Solid soaps (natural" made 3rom 3att! acids) O long chain organic PtailsQ *ith carbo-!lic acid salt 3or a head (ne end polar" the other nonpolar ;orm micelles *here the nonpolar ends Pstic/Q to the oil in the center o3 micelle The h!drophilic part (carbo-!lic acid) Pstic/sQ to the *ater These micelles are large and ma/e the *ater loo/ cloud! (T!ndall e33ect) Hard *ater O contains 3erric" calcium" magnesium ions These displace sodium in sodium stearate creating precipitates O this remo'es the soap 3rom the *ater and lea'es soap scum on the tubb! S!nthetic detergents no* ha'e sul3onate (S(CU7) or sul3ate tails instead o3 carbo-!late groups since the! don?t precipitate 8hosphates used to be added to *ater since the! precipitated out metal ions contained in hard *ater O un3ortunatel! this caused uncontrolled plant gro*th in streams and ri'ers *hich *as not a good thing He! O !ou should reall! read (3rom a separate source) about *ater puri3ication (3uture en'ironmental scientists)" hemodial!sis (3uture premeds) and *h! di33erent *ines go better *ith di33erent entrees (3uture 3ood critics)

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=*om 4-1 Molecular %ompounds in 1ater

Most molecular compounds Pstic/ togetherQ in *ater and Just appear to dissol'e The! are reall! Just PdispersedQ throughout the solution (/ids on a 3ield trip to Si- ;lags: the! don?t reall! get torn limb 3rom limb" but the! spread all o'er the par/) Ho*e'er" A%#&S do brea/ apart in solution 1e call that ioni?ation (not dissociation) because the! must 3irst turn into charged parts (cation and anion) be3ore the! can Pbrea/ apartQ <ust as an aside: aci9s ioni?e in *ater (all acids are molecular compounds that A%T li/e ionic in *ater) bases 9issociate in *ater (all bases are ionic compounds) #3 !ou remember !our acidsIbases" !ou *ill /no* that some are strong and some are *ea/ Strong O com(lete ioni?ation#9issociation in :ate* (total brea/4do*n o3 compound" one *a! r-n" no equilibrium) 2asicall!" once a strong electrol!te goes into *ater !ou can?t get it bac/ *ithout a L(T o3 energ! and e33ort 1ea/ O partial dissociationIioni0ation in *ater (onl! some ions are 3ormed" other compounds sta! *hole" re'ersible r-n) 1ea/ gi'es a chemical equilibrium: balance bet*een reactant(s) and product(s) 6<tent com(oun9 9issol0esD TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Total amount in solution D TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT A *ea/ electrol!te can be 'er! soluble" but onl! 8A)TL> brea/s apart in *ater A strong electrol!te ma! be almost insoluble (/no* the song !et:::)" but the part that does dissol'e can completel! brea/ apart )&ain st*on& D concent*ate9 an9 :ea; D 9ilute

2ottom line: soluble ionic compounds are strong electrol!tes" as are all strong acids The rest *e 3igure out as *e go =uic/ $ote: ,etat'esis is Just another *ord 3or e-changeI&) reaction AcidI2ase reactions are a speci3ic t!pe o3 &) (neutrali0ation)" but the! all *or/ the same

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4-3 )ci9.Base Reactions

Acids and bases are used both industriall! and are a part o3 biological s!stems The! are also electrol!tes in *ater (remember the properties o3 AI2) )ci9s #oni0e in *ater (3orm ions" then brea/ apart 3rom a molecular 3orm) to gi'e h!drogen (H+) or h!dronium (HC(+) ions H!drogen has $( $eutrons" so the! are o3ten called Pproton donorsQ (2r}nsted4Lo*r! de3inition o3 an acid) &i33erent acids ha'e di33erent numbers o3 h!drogen" so ,ono(*otic . TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Di(*otic . TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT T*i(*otic . TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT 3oni?able I can be *emo0e9 f*om solution b+ a common ion *eaction$ote: the h!drogens 3or di and tri are remo'ed one at a time" gi'ing multiple steps 3or the ioni0ation process (each step remo'es another H+ until there are no more on the compound) E-: 8hosphoric Acid

Sul3uric Acid

#t should be noted that the process appears to be instantaneous" but there reall! is a multi4step process that ta/es time (almost none relati'e to our patience and 'ie* o3 time) Also" 3or some diprotic acids (li/e sul3uric acid)" onl! the 3irst h!drogen ioni0es completel! The .nd is partiall! ioni0ation (re'ersible: equilibrium) This is usuall! true o3 the P3inalQ h!drogen $(T ALL H+ can be ioni0ed (remo'ed) )n+ 2P follo:in& a ca*bon in t'e fo*mula :ill not be ioni?e9 (basicall!" i3 it is part o3 a pol! or a h!drocarbon" it *ill not brea/ a*a!) (rganic acids ha'e usuall! 7 ioni0able h!drogen" and all organic acids are *ea/ (can be eaten) ($L> LEA&#$@ H>&)(@E$S AS 1)#TTE$ #$ A %HEM#%AL ;()MULA %A$ 2E #($#ZE&

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Bases &issociate in *ater (all bases are ionic compounds) to gi'e h!dro-ide 8ol! ((H4) ALL ionic compounds containing h!dro-ide are bases" but not all are strong bases (complete dissociation) Ho*e'er" ammonia ($HC) is also a base: it does react *ith *ater lea'ing h!dro-ide and ammonium" but onl! about 7K Equation: $HC is a *ea/ base That is *h! it is *ritten A$#($ 3irst: onl! compound # /no* o3 li/e that 2UT: organic (carbon based) *ith a h!dro-ide are AL%(H(LS (3unctional group) 2! the *a!" great chart o3 strong AI2 on pg 7C6 >ou reall! should learn these St*on& )ci9s St*on& Bases

St*on& an9 Aea; )ci9s an9 Bases Strong W com(letel+ ioni?e (Acids) or com(letel+ 9issociate (2ases) in *ater 1ea/ means onl! partial Strong acids are more reacti'e than *ea/ *hen reacti'it! depends on H+ concentration onl! 2UT: )eacti'it! depends on the anion as *ell as the cation (H+) 1hat does it mean: #3 the cation is highl! reacti'e (thin/ electronegati'ities" *e?ll get to it in detail later)" then the compound as a *hole is higher in reacti'it! E-: 2= is a :ea; aci9 (unli/e the other halogen acids)" but is still reacts 'igorousl! due to the nature o3 the 3luoride ion 1ea/ bases include d4bloc/ h!dro-ides (the! are generall! insoluble in *ater" so little or no dissociation is seen) and ammonia ($HC)

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39entif+in& St*on& an9 Aea; 6lect*ol+tes @ood summar! table bottom o3 pg 7C7

Things to consider: 7 #onic 's Molecular #3 it is ionic" it is a strong electrol!te . #3 it is molecular" is must be an acid or the *ea/ base ammonia ($HC) to be an electrol!te All strong acids are strong electrol!tes 1ea/ acidsIbases are *ea/ electrol!tes C #3 a molecular compound is $(T an acid or ammonia" it should be considered to be a non4electrol!te (no ioni0ation in *ater) $eut*ali?ation Reactions an9 Salts )e3resher on properties: )ci9s 7 sour tasting

Bases 7 bitter tasting

. %ause an indicator to change color (an indicator is a chemical that sho*s one color in an acid" another in a base) C )eact *ith each other to produce salt and *ater (neutrali0ation r-n) H%l + $a(H D acids ioni?e in *ater D bases 9issociate in *ater 2oth are electrol!tes #$ 1ATE) E aci9s *eact :it' active metals to produce Salt and h!drogen gas Mg(s) + H%l(g) E :ate* *eacts :it' active metals to produce a base and h!drogen gas Mg(s) + H.((l)

2ac/ to 9C abo'e: This is nothing more than a &) reaction in'ol'ing one acid *ith one base )eall!" Just P(#Q 9D abo'e Just sho*s ho* each ioni0es (acids)I dissociates (bases) in *ater (brea/s apart) $ote: Salt is a term used to indicate an! compound *hose cation comes 3rom a base 2asicall!" i3 !ou can mi- a compound *ith an acid and get *ater and A$> dissol'ed or solid substance" that substance is a salt

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So no* *e do net ionic equations o3 neutrali0ation reactions: H%l + $a(H

Magnesium h!dro-ide and h!drobromic acid

)#B Reactions :it' 8as =o*mation Some ions" such as the sul3ide and carbonate ions react *ith acids to 3orm a salt and a gas These compounds are thought o3 as bases" but not in the traditional sense E-: 7 H!drochloric acid and sodium sul3ide

$et ionic loo/s li/e:

. H!drochloric acid and sodium h!drogencarbonate (also called sodium bicarbonate" or ba/ing soda) (This is actuall! a &) decomp reaction" *hich is a . step process)

$et ionic loo/ li/e:

The sodium carbonateIbicarbonate compounds are used 3or industrial acid spills and antacid tablets 1hen the P3i00ingQ stops" the reaction is o'er Al/a Selt0er actuall! has both the sodium bicarbonate (base) and citric acid (acid) alread! in the tablet 1hen dropped in *ater" the acid ioni0es" the base dissociates" and the reaction occurs 2oth the acid and base in this case are *ea/ (*on?t harm !our s!stem)

4-6 Tit*ations

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Adding a /no*n amount o3 a /no*n concentration to a /no*n amount o3 an un/no*n concentration" then do the math 1e use a standard solution (the /no*n concentration solution) in the buret (reall! e-pensi'e and accurate thin glass tube)

Also" !ou need an indicator: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU is best because it changes at the endpoint 3rom colorless to a UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU color 3n9icato*s (again) O change colors in acids or bases 6n9 (oint O point o3 neutrali0ation (actuall!" *e go o'er" but Just b! a tin! amount) 6Mui0alence (oint O *here the 9 o3 h!dronium ions equals the number o3 h!dro-ide ions (pHWF)

16-1 Acids and 2ases (more stu33 to /no*)

Acids produce UUU or UUUUU (h!dronium ions) in *ater" *hile bases produce UUUU in *ater T'e )**'enius T'eo*+ I acid O compound that contains h!drogen and produces H+7 in solution base O compound that contains h!dro-ide and produce (H47 in solution neutrali0ation O combination o3 H+7 and (H47 to 3orm *ater

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B*^nste9.Lo:*+ )ci9s an9 Bases neutrali0ation O trans3er o3 a proton 3rom and acid to a base The H+ #on in 1ater Arrhenius thought o3 H+7 as a Pbare proton *ith no 'alence electrons Q O not true H+7 combines *ith *ater to 3orm the h!dronium ion (HC(+7) This is *ritten and implied in man! *a!s 4 H+" H+(H.()n" H+(aq)" HC(+(aq)" etc (3 course" this in'ol'es a coordinate co'alent bond Let?s do a Le*is o3 the 3ormation o3 ammonium 3rom ammonia in *ater

8roton Trans3er )eactions 2r}nsted4Lo*r!:

Acid O proton donor

2ase O proton acceptor

2ecause 24L AI2 r-ns are all about the proton trans3er" the r-n does $(T ha'e to happen in *ater E-: $HC(g) + 2ase H%l(g) , acid %l4(g) + $HD(g)

Amphiprotic (accepts or donates Al((H)C acting as a 2ase: Al((H)C(s) + H%l(aq) , 's Amphoteric (acts li/e an or a )

Al((H)C acting as an Acid (accepting H 3rom $a(HXan e-cess o3 a strong base): Al((H)C(s) Sn((H)D(s) + + $a(H(aq) . $a(H , , $aAl((H)D(aq) $a.Sn((H)B(aq) this is a comple- ion see table 7647 on pCFB

Most 3amous amphoteric substance: EHS(D47 HS(D47 + + HC(+ (H47 H.S(D + S(D4. + H.( H.( acts as base (accepts H+) acts as acid (donates H+)

Most 3amous am('ote*ic substance is TTTTTTTTTTTTTTT" but also 2 43. sho*s up a bunch (ther amphoteric substances: an!thing *ith an H+ and a non4bonding pair o3 electrons on1u&ate )ci9#Base %ai*s AI2 equilibrium in'ol'e trans3er o3 protons in 2(TH directions
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A substance that gi'es up an acid goes 3rom being the acid to the conJugate base The one that accepts the proton goes 3rom being the base to the conJugate acid Easier to Just do a 3e*T H%l (acid) $HC(g) (base) + + H.( (base) H.( (acid) HC(+(aq) + conJugate acid $HD+(aq) + conJugate acid %l47(aq) conJugate base (H4(aq) conJugate base

Ho* do !ou /no*: AI2 are reactants" their conJugates are the products ;igure out *hich reactant is gi'ing up the H+" and that?s !our acid The other is the base Lin/ the acid to its conJugate base (the compound minus one H) The other product is the conJugate acid (lin/ed to the base) >our turn: H%l(. %l(4 H.8(D4 H.8(D47 + + + + H.( H.( $HC H%l HC(+ + H(%l + $HD+ + %l4 + %l(.47 (H47 H8(D4. HC8(D

;ind either a /no*n acid or a /no*n base" and label it #3 it is on the product side" it is a conJugate Then bac/ label 3rom there

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St*en&t's of )ci9s an9 Bases St*on& bases to memo*i?e O group 7 3rom $a to %s and group . 3rom %a to 2a (based on solubilit! rules O so %s through $a on the 0tandard 1eduction /otential chart: s/ip 7st" ne-t F" or the chair tric/) Again" r-n is one *a!" so M(H(aq) , M+(aq) + (H4(aq) and ^M+_ W ^(H4_ is 7:7 #t ALL dissociates 3or the strong bases (M is an! o3 the abo'e listed metals) ,emo*i?e t'ese st*on& aci9s O H#" H2r" H%l" H$(C" H.S(D" H%l(C" H%l(D (7 arro*) .nd and Crd ioni0ations (remo'al o3 .nd R Crd H+) are al*a!s *ea/ (. arro*s) All other acids get t*o arro*s (indicates *ea/) The stronger and acidI base" the *ea/er its conJugate baseIacid is St*on& )ci9 4 complete trans3er o3 proton (H+) to *ater lea'ing no unioni0ed particles in solution %onJugate base has a negligible tendenc! to ta/e protons in solution (remo'e H + 3rom HC(+) Aea; aci9 O partl! ioni0es in *ater creating a mi-ture o3 acid molecules and ions %onJugate base has some abilit! to remo'e H+ (*ea/ acid W *ea/ conJugate base) $egligible acidit! O %ontains H but has no real acidic properties (tal/ing h!drocarbons R carboh!drates: basicall! %4H bonds" but $(T carbonate ion) %onJugate base is a strong base )eall!" Just learn the list o3 strong acids" /no* that %H compounds are $(T acids" and e'er!thing else is *ea/ St*en&t's of Te*na*+ )ci9s #3 . ternar! acids ha'e the same central atom" the one *ith the most o-!gens (highest o-idation 9 on the central atom) is the strongest H%l(D \ H%l(C \ H%l(. \ H%l( \ H$(C \ H$(. butX HC8(C \ HC8(D (#sn?t there al*a!s an e-ception in this class:) *h!: O di33erent structures O #n phosphorous acid" one H is on the 8 Another e-ception O HC8(. \ HC8(C O *h!: T*o H?s attached to the 8 #3 . ternar! acids ha'e a di33erent central atom in the same o-idation state" the more electronegati'e atom 3orms the stronger acid (it results in *ea/er (4H bonds) H%l(D \ H2r(D H$(C \ HC8(D

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16-3 )uto ioni?ation of Aate*

Tap *ater conducts electricit! O *h!: O man! dissol'ed particles present e-amples: chlorine" 3luorine" salts (3or Pso3tnessQ)" etc &istilled *ater appears to not conduct electricit!" but it does O Just a little" tin! bit 1ater can act as a 2r}nsted4Lo*r! acid or base (trans3er o3 proton: can accept or donate) H.( + H.( HC(+7 + (H47 %alled auto ioni?ation O automaticall! becomes an ion (then bac/ again) rapidl! (nl! . in 76H react into ions" the rest are pure *ater: 6 666666.K and HH HHHHHHGK &ra* *ith Le*is Structures: (bottom o3 pg BFC)

auto ioni0ation o3 *ater O

am('i(*otic (accepts or donates protons) 's am('ote*ic (acts li/e an acid or a base)

T'e 3on %*o9uct of Aate* 8ure *ater ioni0es to a small e-tent according to the equation: H.((l) + H.((l) HC(+7(aq) + (H47(aq) 2ecause it is an equilibrium" *e can *rite an equilibrium e-pression: N* W ^HC(+7_^ (H47_ W ^7 - 764F_ ^7 - 764F_ W 7 - 7647D at .E o% N* is called the ion product constant o3 *ater )emember: H C(+7 W H+7 (same thing) 1e can use N* W ^H+_^(H4_ to sol'e 3or un/no*n concentrations o3 h!dronium or h!dro-ide i3 the other concentration is /no*n E-ample: %alculate h!dronium and h!dro-ide ion concentrations o3 6 6E6 M H%l (strong acid)

Last note: i3 ^HC(+7_ W ^ (H47_" the solution is neutral Also as the concentration o3 one goes up" the concentration o3 the other goes do*n (supports ^HC(+7_^ (H47_ W 7 - 7647D)

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The pH (and p(H) Scales O a con'enient *a! to e-press acidit!Ibasicit!

T'e (2 scale .0 to 14 pH W 4 log ^HC(+_ so pH + p(H W 7D ;irst" *e do s 3 3or pH: onl! the 9?s to the )#@HT o3 a decimal #$ A L(@ are signi3icant So" i3 ^HC(+_ W 7 6 - 764D" then pH W D 66 . s3 in conc W . decimal places in pH Students should be able to use the PpHQ chart to con'ert 3rom pH to p(H to ^H C(+_ to ^(H4_ (Just easier and /eeps it all straight) pH p(H ^HC(+_ E B - 764B C C - 7647. G HD 76 EG $eutral There is an AI2 scale *ith common items listed on pg BFB <ust an ;>#: !ou ma! *ant to become 3amiliar *ith this list (not memori0e numbers" Just be com3ortable *ith *hich end o3 the scale) Most li/el!" the! *ill not as/ these out o3 the blue" but it is use3ul in li3e to /no* *here the! 3all *ith respect to AI2 Measuring pH (2 ,ete*s O *or/s based on 'oltage (electricit! generated) in a solution As pH changes" so does the 'oltage Each 'olt reading corresponds to a gi'en pH The meter MUST be calibrated be3ore each use )ci9.Base 3n9icato*s O d!es *here the color depends on ^HC(+_ O used to sho* the pH o3 solution 3n9icato*s an9 colo*s to ;no:: 8henolphthalein changes G . 4 76 B (pale to bright pin/) 2elo* G ." colorless Litmus (pH paper) O red is acid" blueIpurple is base (uni'ersal indicator coated paper) H!drion (special" speci3ic pH) paper and uni'ersal indicator ha'e multiple indicators and there3ore sho*s multiple colors T*ansition inte*0al O pH range o'er *hich an indicator changes color ^(H4_ AI2 : p(H W 4 log ^(H4_ p means (4log)


Strong Acids and 2ases O prett! much co'ered this else*here" butX

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,emo*i?e t'ese st*on& aci9s O H#" H2r" H%l" H$(C" H%l(C" H%l(D" H.S(D 1e use one arro* (one *a!) bIc this is $(T an equilibrium thing: once in *ater" it completel! ioni0es #n an (aq) solution o3 a strong acid" the acid is generall! the ($L> source o3 H+ (HC(+) )emember: *ea/ solution does $(T mean *ea/ acid (dilute a strong acid *a! do*n and it is a *ea/ solution o3 a strong acid) 1hich *ould !ou rather drin/: 1h!::: A concentrated solution o3 a *ea/ acid or a dilute solution o3 a strong acid

So" 3or a strong acid: H$(C(aq)



%alculating pH o3 a strong" monoprotic (one H) is eas!: ^H+_ W ^$(C4_ &iprotic" etc are more complicated (*e?ll get there soon) St*on& bases to memo*i?e O group 7 3rom $a to %s and group . 3rom %a to 2a (based on solubilit! rules O so %s through $a on the 0tandard 1eduction /otential chart: s/ip 7st" ne-t F" or the chair tric/) Again" reaction is one *a!" so M(H(aq) , M+(aq) + (H4(aq) and ^M+_ W ^(H4_ is 7:7 #t ALL dissociates 3or the strong bases (M is an! o3 the abo'e listed metals that 3orm strong bases)

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16-11 T'e Le:is T'eo*+ O a more encompassing (general) acidIbase theor!

Acid O an electron pair acceptor (a substance that has room 3or a pair o3 electrons) 2ase O an electron pair donor $eutrali0ation O the 3ormation o3 a coordinate co'alent bond
%oordinate %o'alent 2ond

2ond 3ormed





Le*is AI2 do $(T need to contain protons (H+) 7) Acids generall! ha'e an incomplete octet .) Transition4metal ions are generall! Le*is acids C) Le*is acids ha'e a 'acant orbital ( a place to accept electron pairs) D) %ompounds *ith multiple bonds can be Le*is acids E-ample 97: dra* Le*is structures and geometric shapes 3or the reactants and products o3: 2%lC(g) )ci9
2ond 3ormed

$HC(g) Base

%oordinate %o'alent 2ond


%l 2 %l

%oordinate %o'alent 2ond

2ond 3ormed



E-ample 9.: dra* geometric shapes 3or the reactants and products o3: Sn%lD(7) + .%l47(aq) , Sn%lB4.(aq)

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l Sn l l

%oordinate %o'alent 2onds

P 2 l.1

l l

Sn l

l l

Each %l donates an electron to create t*o coordinate co'alent bonds

2+9*ol+sis of ,etal 3ons H!dration (to add *ater) 4 Metal ions are positi'el! charged and attract *ater molecules (to lone pairs on o-!gen) H!drated metal ions act as Le*is acids %u(H.()D+. %u(H.()C((H)+. + H+ Na W 7 - 764G

2ottom line on transition metals: 7) stronger charge (UUUUUUUUUUUUUU) W stronger metal4*ater interaction .) pH increase *ith ionic radius (UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU)

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'a(te* 16 )ci9.Base 6Muilib*ium 16-6

Aea; )ci9s $ote: strong acids &($?T ha'e an equilibrium bIc the! Pgo to completionQ Strong acids ioni0e 100J in :ate* O calculating pH is eas! Othe molarit! o3 a 6 6.E M H2r solution in respect to ^H+_ is 6 6.E M" so ph W 4 log 6 6.E W 7 B Most acids are *ea/" so the! onl! partl! ioni0e in *ater" and use a double arro* (re'ersible" so can calculate a N 'alue) HA(aq) + H.((l) [ H+(aq) + A4(aq) or HA(aq) [ H+(aq) + A4(aq)

Nc W ^H+_ ^A4_I ^HA_ but since this is an equilibrium 3or an acid" *e use Na W ^H+_ ^A4_I ^HA_ 5a is calle9 t'e aci9 9issociation constant (# /no*" should be Pioni0ationQ" but # don?t name them) The strength o3 a *ea/ acid depends on the degree o3 ioni0ation The larger the Na in terms o3 number (the greater the ioni0ation)" the stronger the acid (2ig" comple- table on pg BG.: Just loo/ at it) %alculating Na 3rom a pH uses t*o ideas: 7) )-n is 'er! 3ast" so pH is at equilibrium .) 1e can simpli3! based on small Na and ^H+_ 'alues E-: A 6 766M solution o3 H%$ has a pH o3 E . 1hat is the Na o3 the solution: (#%E" #%E 2ab!) H%$(aq) + H.((l) [ H+(aq) + #nitial 6 766 6 %hange 4+Equilibrium 6 7664Na W ^H+_ ^%$4_I ^H%$_ W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU %$4(aq) 6 +-

2UT - W ^H+_" and is directl! related to pH" so - W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU Then plug the 'alue 3or - bac/ into the Na 3ormula: Na W ^H+_ ^%$4_I ^H%$_ W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

E-ample: A 7 66 M solution o3 H; has . F6 K ioni0ation in *ater %alculate Na

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E-ample: Ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions based on the 3ollo*ing data: Na 3or H; W F E - 764D Na 3or H%.HC(. W 7 G - 764E Na 3or H%$ W D 6 - 76476 1hich has the a) highest h!dronium ion concentration b) highest h!dro-ide ion concentration c) highest pH d) highest p(H e) highest concentration o3 non4ioni0ed molecules 3) highest concentration o3 acid anions E-ample: The pH o3 a 6 77E M HL solution is 7 H.S calculate Na ^HC(+7_ W Antilog OpH ^HC(+7_ W Antilog O7 H. HL (aq) + H.((l) %oncentration #nitial %hange Equilibrium Na W 8roducts )eactants HC(+7(aq) + L47(aq) HL H.( 77E M ^HC(+7_ W L47 6

HC(+7 About 6

^HC(+_^ L47_ ^HL_

(don?t include *ater)

Na tells ho* 3ar the reaction goes Na W ^ ^ _^ _ _ Na W

Na>7 3a'ors products (stronger acid)

E-ample: %alculate the concentration o3 all species present at equilibrium 3or a 6 766 M solution o3 acetic acid (Na W 7 G6 - 764E) H%.HC(. (aq) + H.((l) HC(+7(aq) %oncentration H%.HC(. H.( #nitial 766 M %hange 4Equilibrium 766 O Na W 8roducts )eactants + %.HC(. 47(aq) HC(+7 About 6 +%.HC(. 47 6 +L

^HC(+_^ %.HC(. 47_ ^H%.HC(._ assume that - is *a! less than 766Xthus" discount the P-Q in the denominator

7 G6 - 764E W

^-_^-_ ^ 766 4 -_

^H%.HC(._ W ^%.HC(. 47_ W ^HC(+7_ W 47 +7 ^(H _ W N* I ^HC( _ J 3oni?ation . Stronger acids ha'e a higher percent ioni0ation (ho* much actuall! ioni0es in *ater)

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K ioni0ation W concentration ioni0ed - 766K (riginal concentration ;or an! acid" the K ioni0ed equals the concentration o3 H+" so K ioni0ation W ^H+_equilibrium - 766K ^HA_initial E-ample: %alculate the percent ioni0ation o3 6 766 M H; (Na W F E6 - 764D) ethod 2: H; (aq) + H.((l) HC(+7(aq) H.( + ;47(aq) HC(+7 About 6 +;47 6 +L

%oncentration #nitial %hange Equilibrium Na W

H; 766 M 4766 O

8roducts )eactants

^HC(+_^ ;47_ ^H;_ discount P-Q

F E6 - 764D W

^-_^-_ ^ 766 4 -_

^HC(+7_ W K W ( ^HC(+7_ I 6 766 M H; ) 766 ethod 3: $e* ;ormula: ^HC(+7_ W ~ (Na)(M) -W

K W ( ^HC(+7_ I 6 766 M H; ) 766

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E-: calculate the K ioni0ation 3or aqueous solutions o3 acetic acid 3or each Na W 7 FD-764E Since acetic acid is 'er! *ea/" *e can presume it is essentiall! non4ioni0ed This means that ^HA_ W conc gi'en 3or each $o*" do the P#%EQ table" set up the Na e-pression" and sol'e 3or K ioni0ation W ^H+_equilibrium - 766K so plug in using the ^H+_ and acid conc 'alues gi'en" then sol'e ^HA_initial (h >eah" don?t 3orget the balance9 eMuation so !ou can actuall! &( the Na correctl! a) 7 66M

b) 6 76M

c) 6 6766M

>ou should note that the K ioni0ation decreases as the conc o3 a *ea/ acid increases This *or/s di33erentl! than 3or a strong acidTTT (all strong AI2 completel! ioni0e" soX) Also" # highl! suggest !ou loo/ at and (and tr!) the e-amples gi'en in this chapter The! help

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%ol+(*otic )ci9s . Acids that can pro'ide more than one proton These must be considered to be bro/en do*n in step b! step 3ashion" because the Na 'alues are di33erent ;or most acids" N7 and N. are so 3ar apart" that N7 onl! needs to be considered E-ample: 1hat *ould be the total ^HC(+_ i3 766 M HC8(D ioni0es: Na 3or the 3irst protonation W F E - 76OC (Na. W B . - 764G" NaC W C B - 7647C):

Step 7: HC8(D(aq) + H.((l) HC( +7(aq) + H.8(D47(aq) (N" so are *e sic/ o3 #%E charts !et:: <ust use common sense and s/ip to the Na e-pression: Na W 8roducts ^HC(+_^ H.8(D47_ )eactants ^HC8(D_ F E6 - 764C W F E6 - 764C ^-_^-_ ^ 766 4 -_

can?t discount the e33ect P-Q has on 766" thus use quadratic equation F E6 - 764D 4 (F E6 - 764C)- W -.

-. ^ 766 4 -_

-. + (F E6 - 764C)- 4 F E6 - 764D W 6 - W 4 F E6 - 764C +I4 ~(F E6 - 764C). 4 D(7)( 4 F E6 - 764D ) .(7) - W 4 6C7D or 6.CH 4 6C7D is nonsenseXThus" the HC( +7(aq) has a concentration o3 2-39 < 10.2, Step .: Na W H.8(D47(aq) + H.((l) ^HC(+_^ H8(D4._ ^H.8(D47_ HC( +7(aq) + H8(D4.(aq)

The problem gi'es the Na " the ^H.8(D47_ *as Just calculated" " and the h!dronium *as calculated in the 3irst protonation 8lug the appropriate 'alues into the Na 3ormula: B . - 764G W ^ 6.CH + !_^!_ ^ 6.CH 4 !_ ^ 6.CH_ ^!_ ^ 6.CH_ can discount the e33ect o3 P!Q on 6.CH

! W Thus" the reaction in step 9. produces additional HC( +7(aq) that has a concentration o3


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Step C: Na W

H8(D4.(aq) + ^HC(+_^8(D4C_ ^H8(D4._


HC( +7(aq)


The problem gi'es the Na " the ^H8(D4._ *as Just calculated" and the h!dronium *as calculated in the 3irst protonation 8lug the appropriate 'alues into the Na 3ormula:

Thus" the reaction in step 9C produces additional HC( +7(aq) that has a concentration o3 TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT )ule o3 thumb: as long as N7 and N. di33er b! 76C or more" the acid can be treated as a monoprotic *ith acceptable estimated results (generall! o33 b! Just a bit" but gi'es a good estimate 3or our purposes)


Aea; Bases $ote: strong bases &($?T ha'e an equilibrium bIc the! Pgo to completionQ

The Nb 3or a *ea/ base *or/s Just li/e the Na 3or a *ea/ acid: onl! partl! dissociates" so Nb W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU*here 2H+ Just means Pthe rest o3 the base minus the (HQ" and 2 means base Nb al*a!s re3ers to a base reacting *ith *ater to 3orm (H4 and the corresponding conJugate acid So" there?s this *hole list o3 *ea/ bases" their Le*is dra*ings" and a bunch o3 other in3o in a table on pg BH7: Just loo/ through it Seriousl!" don?t e'en tr! to memori0e: the!?ll gi'e !ou this i3 !ou need it 2UT do tr! the e-amples (actuall! *rite them and *or/ through *ithout pea/ing" i3 !ou can)

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16-8 Relations'i( Bet:een 5a an9 5b

E'er! acidIbase has a corresponding conJugate baseIacid: strong gets *ea/" *ea/ gets strong There is also a quantitati'e relationship (concentrations) All goes bac/ to auto ioni0ation o3 *ater #3 Na W ^H+_ ^A4_I ^HA_ and Nb W ^2H+_ ^(H4_I ^2_

Then Na Nb W N* W ^H+_^(H4_ (a3ter e'er!thing ali/e on opposite sides has been cancelled) )eal e-ample: (loo/ing at net ionic onl!) H%.HC(. 4 %.HC(. + H.( %.HC(.4 H%.HC(. + + H+ (H4

2ottom line: 5a 5b D 5: 3or E=U#L#2)#UM (*ea/ AI2) A$& pNa pNb W pN* W 7D 6 y .Eo% So pNa W p (acid) pNb W p(base) and pN* W p(*ater)

() pH o3 an acid + pH o3 a base W pH o3 *ater (7D 6)

16-9 )ci9.Base %*o(e*ties of Salt Solutions

($#2" butX) Sol0ol+sis O the reaction o3 a substance *ith the sol'ent in *hich it is being dissol'ed 2+9*ol+sis O a reaction bet*een *ater and an ionic species in solution Most salts are strong electrol!tes" so the! complete dissociate AI2 properties are due to their cation R anion parts: can the! react *I *ater to generate H + and (H4 )n )nions )bilit+ to React :it' Aate* ;or: HL ;or: HL + H.( + H.( , H+ H+ + + + L4 (strong acid W one *a! *I UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) L4 (*ea/ acid W equilibrium R UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU) (H4 (.nd or Crd ioni0able H+ W equilibrium R UUUUUUUUUUUUUU) #3 Nb\Na the pH increases

;or: L4 + H.( HL #3 Na\Nb the pH decreases

The e33ect o3 adding the anion o3 an acid (A4) depends on the strength o3 an acid a) i3 HA is strong O no real e33ect b) i3 HA is *ea/ O solution becomes more basic

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) ationGs )bilit+ to React :it' Aate* The e33ect o3 adding the cation o3 a base (M+ W metal) depends on the strength o3 M(H a) Metals o3 @roup 7A and hea'ier @roup .A are cations o3 strong bases (that list o3 F) The! ha'e no e33ect on pH b) *ea/ bases O solution becomes more acidic (lo*er pH) c) 8ol! cations (basicall! $HD+) *ith 7 or more ioni0able H+ are conJugate acids o3 *ea/ bases and lo*er pH soX Salts ha'e PparentQ acids and bases Acid S 1 S 1 #3 Na\Nb then acidic + 2ase S S 1 1 #3 Nb\Na then basic , result predicted pH salt neutral base abo'e F acid belo* F depends on Na and Nb 'alues

16-10 Acid42ase 2eha'ior and %hemical Structure

>ou need to reall! read o'er this section e-tensi'el! to start to appreciate the richness o3 chemistr! and add to *hat # ha'e here: 1a!s to ma/e acids: a) direct combination o3 h!drogen and halogens H. + %l

b) acid anh!drides (nonmetal o-ides) + *ater !ield o-!acids %(. + H.(

c) some high o-idation state metal o-ides (normall! thought o3 as base anh!drides) are actuall! acid anh!drides that react *ith *ater to 3orm o-!acids (interesting point O *e can onl! ma/e them in solution 3orm O no pure 3orm e'er isolated)

d) %arbo-!lic acids O dra* and be 3amiliar *ith (be able to recogni0e) the carbo-!lic group This is done to death in (rganic %hem (.nd !r college chem)
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Acetic acid

$#2 O *a!s to ma/e bases a) basic anh!dride (lo* o-idation state metal o-ide) + *ater !ields aqueous base $a.( + H.(

b) metal + *ater !ields aqueous base + h!drogen gas Mg + H.(

c) metal h!dride + *ater !ields aqueous base + h!drogen gas NH + H.(

Bottom Line: Balance e0e*+t'in&NNNNN

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Salts sometimes ma/e solutions

solutions Ho*e'er" the! sometimes lead to and $a+7(aq) + : %.HC(.47(aq)

E-7: H!drol!sis o3 the salt o3 a $a%.HC(.(s) + H.((l)

The sodium in sodium acetate is 3rom the strong base Since is a strong base" there is no attraction o3 sodium ion 3or an! o3 the present H!dro-ide is present due to the sel3 ioni0ation o3 : H.((l) butX The acetate in sodium acetate is 3rom *ea/ So" H+7 (3rom the sel3 ioni0ation o3 *ater) is attracted to the H+7(aq) + %.HC(.47(aq) H%.HC(.(aq) ion: + H.((l)



$o*" since there is less " the sel34ioni0ation o3 *ater reaction *ill shi3t to the H.( *ill sel3 ioni0e creating more (*hich *ill also get ) and more The increase in ma/es the solution To calculate the pH o3 this t!pe o3 solution" use Nb calso /no* N* W (Na)(Nb)z

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E-ample: 1hat is the pH and K h!drol!sis o3 a 6 E66 M $a%$ solution: (3or H%$" Na W D 66- 76476) %$47 (aq) + H.((l) H%$(aq) + H.( (H 47(aq) H%$ 6 +(H 47 6 +-

%oncentration #nitial %hange Equilibrium Nb W $ote: 8roducts )eactants N* W NaNb

%$47 E66 M 4E66 O

^H%$_^ (H 47_ ^%$47_

7 6 - 7647D W (D 66- 76476) Nb Nb W assume that - is *a! less than E66Xthus" discount the P-Q in the denominator

^(H 47_ W ;ind p(H

p(H W 4 log ^(H47_ p(H W 7D O pH

p(H W

pH W

K h!drol!sis ( ^%$47_hydroly4ed I ^%$47_initial ) 766 W K

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E-ample: 1hat is the pH and K h!drol!sis 3or 6 E66 M $a%.HC(. Na 3or acetic acid W 7 G - 764E %.HC(.47 (aq) + H.((l) H%.HC(. (aq) H.( + (H 47(aq) H%.HC(. 6 +(H 47 6 +-

%oncentration #nitial %hange Equilibrium Nb W $ote: 8roducts )eactants N* W NaNb

%.HC(.47 E66 M 4E66 O

^H%.HC(._^ (H 47_ ^%.HC(.47_

7 6 - 7647D W (7 G - 764E) Nb Nb W assume that - is *a! less than E66Xthus" discount the P-Q in the denominator

^(H 47_ W ;ind p(H

p(H W 4 log ^(H47_ p(H W 7D O pH

p(H W

pH W

K h!drol!sis ( ^%.HC(.47_hydroly4ed I ^%.HC(.47_initial ) 766 W K

SoX pH 3or $a%$ is (it?s more basic) because the reaction o3 the c!anide ion *ith *ater (producing H%$ and h!dro-ide) happens to a e-tent then the acetate ion *ith *ater Another *a! to sa! this is acetic acid dissociates than H%$ so H%$ is a acid andX

``` T26 A6)56R T26 ) 3D %)R6$TB T26 STR4$86R B)S3 3TS S)LT S4L!T34$ A3LL B6

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'a(te* 17 )99itional )s(ects of )Mueous 6Muilib*ium 17-1 T'e ommon 3on 6ffect

#n li'ing s!stems and industrial processes" it is o3ten necessar! to /eep pH nearl! constant Maintaining a constant pH is di33icult *hen changing conditions result in the addition or subtraction o3 h!dronium and h!dro-ide ions due to changing concentrations o3 all sorts o3 ions Buffe* s+stems (*ea/ acid + salt o3 that acid or *ea/ base + salt o3 that base) tend to hold pH 3airl! stable O the! *or/ because o3 the common ion effect (more in 7F .) ommon ion effect O *hen a *ea/ electrol!te concentration is altered b! adding one o3 its ions 3rom another source" the ioni0ation o3 the *ea/ electrol!te is suppressed 1hen a *ea/ and strong electrol!te are both in solution *ith a common ion" the *ea/ one ioni?es#9issociates to a lesse* e<tent Fless &oes into solutionH E-ample: 1hat happens to the pH o3 an acetic acid solution i3 *e add sodium acetate (e-ample 3rom boo/" but a classic" soX) #oni0ation o3 acetic acid equation: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU &issociation o3 sodium acetate equation: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

)esult: *hen more acetate (3rom the salt compound) *as added" the equilibrium o3 the acid *as shi3ted to the le3t (reactant side) This means the solution became less acidic (higher ph) E-ample: %alculate the pH o3 a solution *hich is 6 .66 M ammonia and 6 766 M $HD%l Nb W 7 G6 - 764E $HD%l(aq) $HC(aq) , $HD+(aq) + %l4(aq) $HD+(aq) + (H4(aq)

7) set up an equation (3or the AI2)

This sho*s that the AI2 ions in'ol'ed are $HC"$HD+( mostl! 3rom the salt dissociation" so *e use its 'alue)" and (H4 The %l4 are spectators 3or AI2" so *e don?t use them at all .) &o an #%E chart #nitial %hange Equilibrium $HC(aq) $HD+(aq) + (H4(aq)

C) $o* *e set up the Nb e-pression Nb W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU and sol'e Since Nb is small" and *e are using a *ea/ base *ith a strong electrol!te salt" *e can presume that *ill be small compared to the starting concentrations So" Nb W D) ^(H4_ W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU and - W so p(H W UUUUUUUUUUU and pH W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

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17-2 Buffe*e9 Solutions

. basic /inds o3 bu33ers are usedO :ea; acid and salt o3 that acid () :ea; base and the salt o3 that base 2u33ers resist drastic changes in pH *hen small amounts of st*on& )#B a*e a99e9 to solutionA prime e-ample is blood chemistr!: blood is bu33eredS *e produce loads o3 an organic acid *hen *e e-ercise that gets into our bloodS *e don?t die because blood is bu33ered (isn?t chemistr! greatTTT) 2ecause a bu33er is made 3rom a *ea/ acid4base conJugate pair" the acid neutrali0es the (H4 and the base neutrali0es the H+ *ithout consuming each other #3 !ou chose correctl!" !ou can ma/e a bu33er o3 an! 'irtuall! an! pH Ho* does it *or/: (The details): the pH o3 a bu33er comes 3rom the Na o3 the *ea/ acid and the ratio o3 the concentrations o3 the conJugate AI2 pair" ^HL_I^L4_ 3or HL H+ + L4 2UT the L4 actuall! comes 3rom the ioni0ed salt (common ion) (&on?t stress" this is higher le'el stu33) 1or/s same *a!" but *ith Nb and (H4 3or bases e-) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing pairs can be mi-ed together to 3orm a bu33er solution: A) $HC" $HD%l 2) $a%.HC(." H%l %) )b(H" H2r &) N(H" H; Le %hAtelier?s 8rinciple can be used to sho* ho* bu33ers *or/: shi3ts occur as *e add ions to solution #3 the common ion is added" the equilibrium shi3ts to*ard the reactants (*ea/ AI2 is re3ormed" changing pH) #3 more o3 the AI2 ion (H+I(H4) is added" equilibrium also shi3ts to*ard the reactant side (again" a change in pH) %alculating the pH o3 a 2u33er 2en9e*son.2asselbalc' eMuation O used to calculate pH o3 bu33er solutions (sort o3 a short4cut 3rom other *a!) pH W pNa + log^base_I^acid_ and it?s on the A8 sheet (Just loo/s a bit di33erent" but it?s the same) Seriousl!: at the A8 thing # *ent to last !ear" the gu! *ho ga'e the tal/ actuall! laughed at the thought o3 using this ridiculous equation He said" Just do a N" li/e al*a!s # personall! li/e the equation" and it is eas! to use 1hate'er ma/es !ou happ!" Just be able to do this

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E-) %alculate the pH o3 a solution prepared b! dissol'ing 6 7E6 mol o3 ben0oic acid (H20) and 6 C66 mol o3 sodium ben0oate in *ater su33icient to !ield 7 66 L o3 solution The Na o3 ben0oic acid is B E6 -764E

e-) The Nb o3 ammonia is 7 FF a 764E The pH o3 a bu33er prepared b! combining E6 6 mL o3 7 66 M ammonia and E6 6 mL o3 7 66 M ammonium nitrate is UUUUUUUUUU


a) %alculate the pH o3 766 6 mL o3 6 766 M acetic acid (use the eas! 3ormula) Na W 7 G6 - 764E b) $o* add 7 BD g o3 sodium acetate (add a little #%E" use Na to 3ind h!dronium" 3ind the ne* pH) c) Simpli3! using the Henderson4Hasselbalch equation O onl! 3or *ea/ AI2 and salts (Just 3or 3un" and to pro'e $( )EAL &#;;E)E$%E)

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2u33er %apacit! and pH )ange Buffe* a(acit+ O amount o3 acid or base that can be added to the bu33er be3ore a signi3icant pH change occurs 8ic/ concentrations that are %L(SE to each other 3or the best capacit! e-) (3 the 3ollo*ing solutions" *hich has the greatest bu33ering capacit!: The least: 1h!: A) 6 G.7 M H; and 6 .7F M $a; 2) 6 G.7 M H; and 6 H6H M $a; %) 6 766 M H; and 6 .7F M $a; &) 6 7.7 M H; and 6 BBF M $a; (2 *an&e O range ( + ) o'er *hich the bu33er acts e33ecti'el! Usuall! no more than + 7 pH unit 2u33ers *or/ best *hen the *ea/ acid and conJugate base concentrations are about equal Same goes 3or a *ea/ base and conJugate acid This does not mean equal 'olumes" Just equal molarities (concentrations): called equimolar 1hen the conc o3 the acid and conJugate base are equimolar" the Henderson4Hasselbalch equation pH W pNa + log^salt ion_I^acid_ becomes simpl! pH W pNa The 2EST pH range is *ithin + 7 o3 the pNa (concentrations ha'e to be less than 76 times apart) E-: i3 *e mi- 7 6M $a; *ith 6 76M H;" do *e get a good bu33er: Simple: no math" reall! The concentration o3 the salt is 76 times greater than that o3 the *ea/ acid" so it *ould ma/e a poor bu33er The rule o3 76- applies Again: the closer to equal concentrations" the better the bu33er And pic/ an acid *ith a pNa close to the desired pH ;or a base" the pNb should be close to the desired p(H )99ition of St*on& )ci9s o* Bases to Buffe*s Mi-ing a strong acid (or base) *ith a *ea/ base (or acid) basicall! goes to completion Using a strong acid (or base) in a bu33er *ill consume all o3 the strong acid (or base) as long as the bu33er capacit! is not e-ceeded Adding a strong acid to a bu33er (*ea/ acid and it?s conJugate base or salt) uses up all o3 the conJugate base (L4) This results in more acid and less L4 (more acidic) Adding a strong base to the same bu33er" uses up all o3 the a'ailable acid This results in less acid and more L4 (more basic) @reat little graphicI3lo* chart bottom pg F.F

E-ample: 1hat mass o3 sodium acetate must be dissol'ed in 6 C66 L o3 6 .E6 M acetic acid to ma/e a bu33er at pH W E 76 (Na W 7 G - 764E)
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pH W pNa + log^base_I^acid_ W pNa + log^%.HC(.4_I ^H%.HC(._

E-ample: %alculate the concentration o3 h!dronium ion in a bu33er prepared b! mi-ing .66 6 mL o3 6 766 M $a; and 766 6 mL o3 6 6E66 M H; (Na W F . - 764D)

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17-3 Acid42ase Titrations

Adding an acid to a base (or base to acid) *ith /no*n 'olumes and one /no*n concentration to 3ind the other AI2 titrations either a) ;ind the equi'alence point O stoichiometricall! equi'alent amounts o3 A and 2 are present b) %reate a titration cur'e O using a pH meter" trac/ changes in pH 's 'olume o3 titrant (either A or 2) Shape o3 cur'e allo*s 3or determination o3 equi'alence point and Na(*ea/ acid) or Nb (*ea/ base) St*on& )ci9#St*on& Base Tit*ation u*0es O 1hat happens to the pH o3 E6 66 mL o3 6 766 M acetic acid as 6 766 M $a(H is added: #nitial pH W . F (&ra* 8g FCD 3igure 7F H) Adding Just . drops o3 $a(H (6 76mL) causes a C unit change in pH ('ertical range) A strong AIb is more dramatic (utside o3 equi'alence point" change is slo* (almost 3lat) An! indicator *ith a color change bet*een D476 is 3ine 3or this titration (most o3 them" actuall!) The equi'alence point 3or TH#S reaction is at E6mL (+ 6 76mL) going 3rom a pHWD 6 O 76 6

There *ill probabl! $(T be titration graphs on the test" but !ou should be able to PreadQ them Last note: adding a strong base to a strong acid loo/s the same" Just starts and ends opposite (3lip it to the bottom) %an calculate the pH o3 the solution at an! time b! simple math: e-) A .E 64mL sample o3 6 7E6 M h!dra0oic acid is titrated *ith a 6 7E6 M $a(H solution 1hat is the pH a3ter 7C C mL o3 base is added: The Na o3 h!dra0oic acid is 7 H a 764E 2oo/ uses all sorts o3 charts" etc ('er! con3using) 1e?ll use the Henderson4Hasselbalch equation: pH W pNa + log^base_I^acid_ reall!" Just plug in the 9?s and sol'e 3or pH

1ea/ AcidIStrong 2ase and 1ea/ 2aseIStrong Acid Titration %ur'es O 3nitial (2 I all about be&innin& aci9 concent*ation an9 (5 a 0alue5 Amanda ) %oopersmith .676


e-) A .E 64mL sample o3 6 7E6 M butanoic acid is titrated *ith a 6 7E6 M $a(H solution 1hat is the pH be3ore an! base is added: The Na o3 butanoic acid is 7 E a 764E Na W ^H+_^butanoic ion_I^butanoic acid_ W pH W 4log^H+_ W Befo*e eMui0alence (oint O again" use the Henderson4Hasselbalch equation e-) A .E 6 mL sample o3 6 7E6 M h!pochlorous acid is titrated *ith a 6 7E6 M $a(H solution 1hat is the pH a3ter .D 6 mL o3 base is added: The Na o3 h!pochlorous acid is C 6 a 764G &ind moles of acid5base present %6&716 titration: ^$a(H_ W (6 7E6M)(6 6.D6L) W 6 66CB6mol W ^h!pochlorous ion_ ^ h!pochlorous acid_ W (6 7E6M)(6 6.DL) W 6 66CFEmol Since *e added .EmL and .DmL" *e no* ha'e DHmL" so 3ind conc o3 each based on ne* 'olume and remember to change the mol o3 acid (original O base added W mol acid le3t): ^base_ W ^h!pochlorous ion_ W (6 66CB6mol)I(6 6DH6L) W 6 6FCEM ^acid_ W ^h!pochlorous acid_ W (6 66CFEmol O 6 66CB6)I(6 6DH6L) W 6 66C6BM Na W ^H+_^h!pochlorous ion_I^ h!pochlorous acid_ ,hen 71 pH W 4log^H+_ W pH W pNa + log^base_I^acid_ W

6Mui0alence (oint O al*a!s abo'e pH W F 6 due to *ea/ acidIstrong base (pushes equi'alence closer to base side) Use Nb W ^(H4_^Acid_I^acid anion_ and N* W NaNb W 7 6-7647D e-) Ho* man! milliliters o3 6 7.6 M $a(H are required to titrate E6 6 mL o3 6 6HHG M butanoic acid to the equi'alence point: The Na o3 butanoic acid is 7 E a 764E At the equi'alence point neutrali0ation has Just been completed Also" pH is determined b! the acid ion (anion o3 acid le3t in solution" *hich is a *ea/ base) since all o3 the H+ has been used *e e-pect the pH to be abo'e F 6 The initial number o3 moles o3 the acid *ill equal the number o3 moles o3 the acid anion ( again" the *ea/ base) at equi'alence $ormall!" *e *ould use the total 'olume at equi'alence to calculate the concentration o3 the acid anion (loads o3 3un mathT)

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Ho*e'er" common sense (and de3initions) sa!s that at the equi'alence point" the moles o3 acid and base are equal (equimolar) SoX ^base_('ol base) W ^acid_('ol acid) So" UUUUUUUmL *ere used to reach equi'alence (N" this loo/s eas!" but it *as actuall! di33icult (at least 3or me) # spent most o3 a da! tr!ing 'arious algebraic equations" and e'en do*n shi3ted into calculus" to 3igure this one out M! lesson" al*a!s go bac/ to basics (and /no* !our de3initions) *hen struggling # *as ma/iGng it *a! too hard 2! the *a!" # did get the correct ans*er *ith the calculus" i3 !ou *ant me to sho* !ou )fte* eMui0alence (oint Fall about t'e left o0e* baseH e-) A .E 6 mL sample o3 6 7E6 M h!pochlorous acid is titrated *ith a 6 7E6 M $a(H solution 1hat is the pH a3ter .B 6 mL o3 base is added: The Na o3 h!pochlorous acid is C 6 a 764G A3ter equi'alence" all o3 the acid has been used" so Just the le3t o'er (H4 counts So" .B 6mL o3 6 7E6M (H4 has been added W 6 66CH6mol Since *e had .E 6mL o3 6 7E6M acid W 6 66CFEmol acid" *e used 6 66CFE mol base 1e no* ha'e 6 66CH6mol O 6 66CFEmol W UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU mol le3t o3 (H4 ^(H4_ W p(H W 4log^(H4_ W UUUUUUUU pH W 7D 66 O p(H W UUUUUUUUUUUU

Aea; . st*on& cu*0es There are three main di33erences bet*een a strong4strong and a *ea/4strong titration cur'e: 7) The pH o3 a *ea/ is closer to neutral 3or the starting conditions .) The pH change at the rapid4rise ('ertical) portion o3 the cur'e is smaller C) The pH at the equi'alence point is $(T F 6 (higher 3or *ea/ acid" lo*er 3or *ea/ base: common sense) Also" because the pH range at equi'alence is smaller" the Na and Nb are smaller This also means that the pH range 3or indicators is smaller >ou ha'e to be 'er! care3ul o3 *hat !ou pic/ 3or an indicator: it MUST change color o'er the equi'alence pH range

17-4 Solubilit+ 6Muilib*ium

$ot all equilibrium problems are acidIbase" nor are the! all homogeneous 8recipitation reactions 3rom earlier ga'e us a basic qualitati'e (!esIno) idea o3 *hether a precipitant *ill 3orm 1e no* can do quantitati'e (lots o3 numbers) e-pressions to see ho* much the! precipitate

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2! the *a!" can !ou hear it::: PAl/ali metals and ammonium salts" *hate'er the! ma! beXQ T'e Solubilit+ %*o9uct onstantsB 5s( Saturated solution O one *here the sol'ent can hold no more solute This means that there is un4dissol'ed solute present The e-tent and amount o3 solute dissolution can be determined mathematicall! Al((H)C(s) [ Al+C(aq) +C (H4(aq) insoluble according to rules" 2UT #3 *e add 7 66 g o3 aluminum h!dro-ide to 7 66 L o3 *ater" *e 3ind that 6 666666..B g *ill dissol'e %alculate Nsp (solubilit! product constant: ho* much *ill go into solution) ;irst *rite Nsp e-pression" Nsp W ^product_I^reactant_ Nsp W ^Al+C_^(H4_I^Al((H)C_ Just li/e e'er! other N (equilibrium) e-pression 2UT: reactants 3or Nsp are AL1A>S solids" soX

con'ert g o3 compound (that actuall! dissol'ed" not *hat !ou start *ith) to moles o3 ions" plug" chug

Nsp W ^Al+C_^(H4_C

no solids and *e can use mol instead o3 M" as long as units match

This is a 'er! small Nsp That means 'irtuall! $o aluminum '+9*o<i9e 9issol0es )emember that the coe33icients in the balanced equation become the superscript in the e-pression And $( solids or pure liquids 2asicall!" the reactant" *hich is solid" doesn?t count So" $4 D6$4,3$)T4R The higher the Nsp" the more soluble" but be care3ulX Nsp is the equilibrium constant at equilibrium bet*een an ionic compound and its saturated solution *ith $4 !$3TS ,ola* solubilit+ (molIL) 9 o3 moles o3 the solute that dissol'e in 3orming a liter o3 saturated solution (unit is M or molIL) Solubilit! is o3ten e-pressed as grams o3 solute per liter o3 solution (gIL" and can be easil! con'erted to molar solubilit!) 1hat?s the point: Molar solubilit! Nsp but can use one to 3ind the other

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Molar solubilit! is Pnumber o3 molesQ 3ound in the solution 3or each species (units) Nsp is the Pe-tentQ to *hich an ionic compound *ill dissol'e (no units) %ompare barium sul3ate and sil'er chromate as 3ar as Nsp and molar solubilit! Nsp W 7 7 - 76 476 barium sul3ate molar solubilit! W 7 6E - 764E 47. Nsp W . D - 76 sil'er chromate molar solubilit! W G DC - 764E Higher o3 one does $(T impl! higher o3 the other: !ou ha'e to do the math (use molar solubilit! to calculate Nsp)TTT

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17-5 =acto*s T'at )ffect Solubilit+

Solubilit! is a33ected b! temperature and other dissol'ed particles (other solutes dissol'ed in solution) (ther dissol'ed particles can come 3rom: 7)8resence o3 common ions (*h! drin/ing 3ountains ha'e that gross crust! stu33 on them) .)pH o3 a solution (can get rid o3 the solid crust! stu33 b! changing the pH: called PcleanersQ) C)presence o3 comple- ions (some o3 the crust! stu33 needs to be scrubbed a*a!: it is Just not going an!*here chemicall! spea/ing) ommon.3on 6ffect ;or a s!stem in equilibrium (salt and its ions in balance)" the equilibrium can be shi3ted b! addition o3 a common ion 2asicall!" i3 *e ha'e a solution *ith something dissol'ed in it and *ant that to be a solid" *e add another ionic compound *ith ($E common ion to 3orce the *anted species out o3 solution (So clearT) ;or a solution o3 sil'er iodide: Ag#(s) [ Ag+7(aq) + #47(aq) 1e can add $a# to precipitate the sil'er but not the sodium #t shi3ts the equilibrium to the le3t (reactants)" allo*ing more Ag# to 3all out o3 solution A similar reaction is used to e-tract sil'er 3rom older L4)a!s A lot o3 *or/ 3or little return 2asicall!: the solubilit! o3 a lo* soluble salt is decreased b! a second solute *ith a common ion (. nd compound pushes 3irst out o3 solution) Ho*e'er: the .nd solute (added common ion) MUST ha'e a higher Nsp than the original #3 not" !ou?re Just adding a solid to the solution *ith no e33ect e-) #n *hich o3 the 3ollo*ing aqueous solutions *ould !ou e-pect Ag%l to ha'e the lo*est solubilit!: pure *ater 6 6.6 M 2a%l. 6 67E $a%l 6 6.6 Ag$(C 6 6.6 N%l

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Solubilit+ an9 (2 Solubilit+ of salts I memo*i?e I base9 on solubilit+ *ules I o' +ea'B ;no: t'em The starting pH o3 a solution *ill determine ho* much o3 a solute *ill be dissol'ed i3 the anion is basic (but not a strong base) E-: Al((H)C(s) [ Al+C(aq) +C (H4(aq) Nsp W ^Al+C_^(H4_C W (boo/ 'alue) 7 C - 764CC

According to Le%hAtelier?s principle" *e can get more reactant to dissol'e i3 *e remo'e a product Easier to remo'e is (H4 Easiest *a! to remo'e (H4: A&& A$ A%#& (H+ + (H4[ H.() So" adding an acid" or bu33ering the solution" *hen dissol'ing a lo* solubilit! salt *ill increase the solubilit! Also" the more basic the anion" the greater the e33ect o3 pH on solubilit! (2ased on p(HIpH calculations) 1h! lo*er pH and not higher: Salts all start *ith a metal H!drogen is $(T a metal" but all compounds starting *ith h!drogen are acids $o reason to ma/e more basic because salts are either neutral or on the basic side Last note: anions o3 strong acids (/no* the list:) are una33ected b! pH changes in terms o3 solubilit!

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!nit 12 Set ) 7) 1hat is the pH o3 a 6 67E6 M aqueous solution o3 barium h!dro-ide: A) 7. E 2) 7. . %) 7 G. &) 76 D E) 7 E. .) (3 the 3ollo*ing substances" an aqueous solution o3 UUUUUUUUUU *ill 3orm basic solutions A) $H D %l" %u($(C ). 2) N . %(C " $H D %l %) $a; onl! &) $a;" N . %(C E) $H D %l onl! C) A 6 7 M aqueous solution o3 UUUUUUUUUU *ill ha'e a pH o3 F 6 at .E 6 `% A) $a(%l 2) N%l %) $H D %l &) %a((Ac). E) N%l and $H D %l D) The pH o3 an aqueous solution at .E 6 `% is 76 BB 1hat is the molarit! o3 H + in this solution: A) . . a 76477 2) D B a 764D %) C C &) 7 7 a 7647C E) D B a 7676 E) %onsider a solution containing 6 766 M 3luoride ions and 6 7.B M h!drogen 3luoride The concentration o3 h!drogen 3luoride a3ter addition o3 E 66 mL o3 6 6766 M H%l to .E 6 mL o3 this solution is UUUUUUUUUU M A) 6 76F 2) 6 766 %) 6 7.B &) 6 66HFB E) 6 667HC B) A .E 6 mL sample o3 6 F.C M H%l( D is titrated *ith a 6 .F M N(H solution The HC( + concentration a3ter the addition o3 G6 6 mL o3 N(H is UUUUUUUUUU M A) 6 DD 2) 7 6 a 764F %) 6 F. &) . G a 7647C E) C B a 764.

F) A E6 6 mL sample o3 an aqueous H .S( D solution is titrated *ith a 6 CFE M $a(H solution The equi'alence point is reached *ith B. E mL o3 the base The concentration o3 H .S( D is UUUUUUUUUU M A) 6 .CD 2) 6 DBH %) 6 7E6 &) 6 C66 E) 6 HCG G) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing could be added to a solution o3 acetic acid to prepare a bu33er: A) sodium h!dro-ide 2) h!drochloric acid %) nitric acid &) more acetic acid E) $one o3 the abo'e can be added to an acetic acid solution to prepare a bu33er H) 1hich belo* best describe(s) the beha'ior o3 an amphoteric h!dro-ide in *ater: A) 1ith conc aq $a(H" its suspension dissol'es 2) 1ith conc aq H%l" its suspension dissol'es %) 1ith conc aq $a(H" its clear solution 3orms a precipitate &) 1ith conc aq H%l" its clear solution 3orms a precipitate E) 1ith both conc aq $a(H and conc aq H%l" its suspension dissol'es

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76) A .E 6 mL sample o3 a solution o3 a monoprotic acid is titrated *ith a 6 77E M $a(H solution The titration cur'e abo'e *as obtained 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing indicators *ould be best 3or this titration: A) meth!l red 2) bromoth!mol blue %) th!mol blue &) phenolphthalein E) bromocresol purple 77) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing substances is more li/el! to dissol'e in %HC(H : A) %%l D 2) Nr %) $ . &) %HC%H . (H E) H. 7.) The /inetic4molecular theor! predicts that pressure rises as the temperature o3 a gas increases because UUUUUUUUUU A) the a'erage /inetic energ! o3 the gas molecules decreases 2) the gas molecules collide more 3requentl! *ith the *all %) the gas molecules collide less 3requentl! *ith the *all &) the gas molecules collide more energeticall! *ith the *all E) both the gas molecules collide more 3requentl! *ith the *all and the gas molecules collide more energeticall! *ith the *all 7C) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing substances is more li/el! to dissol'e in ben0ene (%B H B ) : A) %HC%H . (H 2) $HC %) $a%l &) %%l D E) H2r 7D) The mole 3raction o3 urea (M1 W B6 6 gImol) in a solution prepared b! dissol'ing 7B g o3 urea in CH g o3 H . ( is UUUUUUUUUU A) 6 EG 2) 6 CF %) 6 7C &) 6 77 E) H 7

7E) The 'apor pressure o3 pure *ater at .E `% is .C G torr &etermine the 'apor pressure (torr) o3 *ater at .E `% abo'e a solution prepared b! dissol'ing CE g o3 urea (a non'olatile" non4electrol!te" M1 W B6 6 gImol) inFE g o3 *ater A) . H 2) C C %) .7 &) .F E) 6 GG 7B) Ammonium nitrate ($HD$(C) dissol'es readil! in *ater e'en though the dissolution is endothermic b! .B D /<Imol The solution process is spontaneous because UUUUUUUUUU A) the 'apor pressure o3 the *ater decreases upon addition o3 the solute 2) osmotic properties predict this beha'ior %) o3 the decrease in enthalp! upon addition o3 the solute &) o3 the increase in enthalp! upon dissolution o3 this strong electrol!te E) o3 the increase in disorder upon dissolution o3 this strong electrol!te

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7F) A sample o3 potassium nitrate (DH 6 g) is dissol'ed in 767 g o3 *ater at 766 `% *ith precautions ta/en to a'oid e'aporation o3 an! *ater The solution is cooled to C6 6 `% and a small amount o3 precipitate is obser'ed This solution is UUUUUUUUUU A) h!drated 2) placated %) saturated &) unsaturated E) supersaturated 7G) A solution is prepared b! dissol'ing 7E 6 g o3 $HC in .E6 g o3 *ater The densit! o3 the resulting solution is 6 HFD gImL The mole 3raction o3 $HC in the solution is UUUUUUUUUU A) 6 6BD6 2) 6 6EHF %) 6 HD6 &) 6 H.. E) 7B G 7H) The 3ree0ing point o3 ethanol (%. HE (H) is 477D B `% The molal 3ree0ing point depression constant 3or ethanol is . 66 `%Im 1hat is the 3ree0ing point (`%) o3 a solution prepared b! dissol'ing E6 6 g o3 gl!cerin (%C HG(C a nonelectrol!te) in .66 g o3 ethanol: A) 477E 2) 4E D. %) 47C. C &) 47.6 6 E) 477D B .6) A solution containing 76 6 g o3 an un/no*n liquid and H6 6 g *ater has a 3ree0ing point o3 4C CC `% @i'en N 3 W 7 GB`%Im 3or *ater" the molar mass o3 the un/no*n liquid is UUUUUUUU gImol A) BH 6 2) CCC %) B7H &) 7B7 E) B. 7 .7) A solution is prepared b! dissol'ing B 66 g o3 an un/no*n nonelectrol!te in enough *ater to ma/e 7 66 L o3 solution The osmotic pressure o3 this solution is 6 FE6 atm at .E 6 `% 1hat is the molecular *eight (gImol) o3 the un/no*n solute: A) 7B D 2) 7HE %) 776 &) C6 B E) E 7. a 764C

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..) %alculate the 3ree0ing point (6`%) o3 a 6 6EE66 m aqueous solution o3 $a$(C The molal 3ree0ing4point4depression constant o3 *ater is 7 GB `%Im A) 6 6.GB 2) 46 76.C %) 6 76.C &) 46 6EB.F E) 46 .6DB .C) An aqueous solution o3 a soluble compound (a nonelectrol!te) is prepared b! dissol'ing CC . g o3 the compound in su33icient *ater to 3orm .E6 mL o3 solution The solution has an osmotic pressure o3 7 . atm at .E 6 `% 1hat is the molar mass (gImL) o3 the compound: A) 7 6 a 76C 2) . F a 76C %) . C a 76 . &) B G a 76 . E) .G .D) &etermine the 3raction o3 ioni0ation o3 HL i3 a solution prepared b! dissol'ing 6 6.6 mol o3 HL in 77E g o3 *ater 3ree0es at 46 DF `% The molal 3ree0ing4point4depression constant o3 *ater is 7 GB `%Im A) 6 6DD 2) 6 C6 %) 6 DE &) 7 DE E) 6 CDG .E) A solution is prepared b! dissol'ing . B6 g o3 a strong electrol!te (3ormula *eight W 767 gImol) in enough *ater to ma/e 7 66 L o3 solution The osmotic pressure o3 the solution is 7 .E atm at .E 6 `% 1hat is the 'anwt Ho33 3actor (i) 3or the un/no*n solute: A) 6 2) 6 HH %) 7 HG &) . HG E) 6 BC6 .B) The dissolution o3 *ater in octane (%G H7G ) is pre'ented b! UUUUUUUUUU A) London dispersion 3orces bet*een octane molecules 2) h!drogen bonding bet*een *ater molecules %) dipole4dipole attraction bet*een octane molecules &) ion4dipole attraction bet*een *ater and octane molecules E) repulsion bet*een li/e4charged *ater and octane molecules .F) ;ormation o3 solutions *here the process is endothermic can be spontaneous pro'ided that UUUUUUUUUU A) the! are accompanied b! another process that is e-othermic 2) the! are accompanied b! an increase in order %) the! are accompanied b! an increase in disorder &) the sol'ent is a gas and the solute is a solid E) the sol'ent is *ater and the solute is a gas

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!nit 12 Set B
7) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing choices has the compounds correctl! arranged in order o3 increasing solubilit! in *ater: (least soluble to most soluble) A) %%l D q %H%lC q $a$(C 2) %HC(H q %H D q Li; %) %H D q $a$(C q %H%lC &) Li; q $a$(C q %H%lC E) %HC(H q %lD q %H%lC .) A solution contains .GK phosphoric acid b! mass This means that UUUUUUUUUU A) 7 mL o3 this solution contains .G g o3 phosphoric acid 2) 7 L o3 this solution has a mass o3 .G g %) 766 g o3 this solution contains .G g o3 phosphoric acid &) 7 L o3 this solution contains .G mL o3 phosphoric acid E) the densit! o3 this solution is . G gImL C) A solution contains 77K b! mass o3 sodium chloride This means that UUUUUUUUUU A) there are 77 g o3 sodium chloride in in 7 6 mL o3 this solution 2) 766 g o3 the solution contains 77 g o3 sodium chloride %) 766 mL o3 the solution contains 77 g o3 sodium chloride &) the densit! o3 the solution is 77 gImL E) the molalit! o3 the solution is 77 D) A 6 766 m solution o3 *hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing solutes *ill ha'e the lo*est 'apor pressure: A) N%l( D 2) %a(%l( D ) . %) Al(%l( D )C &) sucrose E) $a%l E) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing liquids *ill ha'e the lo*est 3ree0ing point: A) pure H . ( 2) aqueous glucose (6 B6 m) %) aqueous sucrose (6 B6 m) &) aqueous ;e#C (6 .D m) E) aqueous N; (6 E6 m) B) A 7 CE m aqueous solution o3 compound L had a boiling point o3 767 D`% 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing could be compound L: The boiling point ele'ation constant 3or *ater is 6 E.`%Im A) %HC%H . (H 2) %B H7. (B %) $a C 8(D &) N%l E) %a%l. F) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing solutes has a limiting 'anwt Ho33 3actor (i) o3 C *hen dissol'ed in *ater: A) N$(C 2) %HC(H %) %%l D &) $a .S( D E) sucrose G) A *ea/ electrol!te e-ists predominantl! as UUUUUUUUUU in solution A) atoms 2) ions %) molecules &) electrons E) an isotope

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H) 1hich ion(s) isIare spectator ions in the 3ormation o3 a precipitate o3 Ag%l 'ia combining aqueous solutions o3 %o%l . and Ag$(C : A) %o .+ and $(C 4 2) $(C 4 and %l4 %) %o .+ and Ag + &) %l4 E) $(C 4

76) Ho* man! moles o3 %o .+ are present in 6 .66 L o3 a 6 D66 M solution o3 %ol. : A) . 66 2) 6 E66 %) 6 7B6 &) 6 6G66 E) 6 6D66 77) A 7F E mL sample o3 an acetic acid (%HC%(. H) solution required .H B mL o3 6 .E6 M $a(H 3or neutrali0ation The concentration o3 acetic acid *as UUUUUUUUUU M A) 6 7E 2) 6 D. %) 7C6 &) B G E) 6 .7 7.) A .E E mL aliquot o3 H%l (aq) o3 un/no*n concentration *as titrated *ith 6 77C M $a(H (aq) #t too/ E7 . mL o3 the base to reach the endpoint o3 the titration The concentration (M) o3 the acid *as UUUUUUUUUU A) 7 6. 2) 6 77D %) 6 DED &) 6 77C E) 6 ..F 7C) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing is a correct e-pression 3or molarit!: A) mol soluteIL sol'ent 2) mol soluteImL sol'ent %) mmol soluteImL solution &) mol soluteI/g sol'ent E) rmol soluteIL solution 7D) A ten3old dilution o3 a sample solution can be obtained b! ta/ing UUUUUUUUUU A) 7 part sample and H parts sol'ent 2) 7 part sample and 76 parts sol'ent %) H parts sample and 7 part sol'ent &) 76 parts sample and 7 part sol'ent E) HH parts sample and 7 part sol'ent 7E) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing solutions *ill ha'e the greatest concentration o3 h!dro-ide ions: A) 6 766 M rubidium h!dro-ide 2) 6 766 M magnesium h!dro-ide %) 6 766 M ammonia &) 6 766 M ber!llium h!dro-ide E) 6 766 M h!drochloric acid 7B) 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing is a *ea/ acid: A) H$(C 2) H%l %) H#

&) H;

E) H%l( D

7F) A compound *as 3ound to be soluble in *ater #t *as also 3ound that addition o3 acid to an aqueous solution o3 this compound resulted in the 3ormation o3 carbon dio-ide 1hich one o3 the 3ollo*ing cations *ould 3orm a precipitate *hen added to an aqueous solution o3 this compound: A) $H D+ 2) N+ %) %rC+ &) )b + E) $a +

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7G) The balanced reaction bet*een aqueous nitric acid and aqueous strontium h!dro-ide is UUUUUUUUUU A) H$(C (aq) + Sr((H) . (aq) Sr($(C ) . (aq) + H . (g) 2) H$(C (aq) + Sr((H) . (aq) H . ( (l) + Sr($(C ) . (aq) %) H$(C (aq) + Sr((H) (aq) H . ( (l) + Sr$(C (aq) &) .H$(C (aq) + Sr((H) . (aq) .H . ( (l) + Sr($(C ) . (aq) E) .H$(C (aq) + Sr((H) . (aq) Sr($(C ) . (aq) + .H . (g) 7H) (3 the choices belo*" *hich *ould be the best 3or the lining o3 a tan/ intended 3or use in storage o3 h!drochloric acid: A) copper 2) 0inc %) nic/el &) iron E) tin

.6) >ou are gi'en t*o clear solutions o3 the same un/no*n monoprotic acid" but *ith di33erent concentrations 1hich statement is true: A) There is no chemical method designed to tell the t*o solutions apart 2) #t *ould ta/e more base solution (per milliliter o3 the un/no*n solution) to neutrali0e the more concentrated solution %) A smaller 'olume o3 the less concentrated solution contains the same number o3 moles o3 the acid compared to the more concentrated solution &) #3 the same 'olume o3 each sample *as ta/en" then more base solution *ould be required to neutrali0e the one *ith lo*er concentration E) The product o3 concentration and 'olume o3 the less concentrated solution equals the product o3 concentration and 'olume o3 the more concentrated solution .7) 1hich o3 the 3ollo*ing *ould require the largest 'olume o3 6 766 M sodium h!dro-ide solution 3or neutrali0ation: A) 76 6 mL o3 6 6E66 M phosphoric acid 2) .6 6 mL o3 6 6E66 M nitric acid %) E 6 mL o3 6 6766 M sul3uric acid &) 7E 6 mL o3 6 6E66 M h!drobromic acid E) 76 6 mL o3 6 6E66 M perchloric acid

..) 1hat is the pH o3 a bu33er solution that is 6 .EE M in h!pochlorous acid (H%l() and 6 CCC M in sodium h!pochlorite: The Na o3 h!pochlorous acid is C G7 a 764G A) 7C GG 2) B DB %) G DH &) F C6 E) F ED .C) A .E 6 mL sample o3 6 7E6 M nitrous acid is titrated *ith a 6 7E6 M $a(H solution 1hat is the pH at the equi'alence point: The Na o3 nitrous acid is D E6 a 764D A) 76 CE 2) 76 BE %) C CE &) F 66 E) G 77

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;or the reaction(This reaction applies to questions 7" ." andC) 7B H+ + . Mn(D74 + E %.(D.4 , . Mn.+ + G H.( + 76 %(.

7 1hat is the normalit! o3 an un/no*n H.%.(D solution i3 76 6 mL o3 the solution required C. 6 mL o3 6 76E M NMn( D to react *ith it completel!:

. A potassium permanganate solution *as standardi0ed against H.%.(D and 3ound to be 6 .C6 $ NMn( D %alculate the mass o3 NMn(D contained in .E6 mL o3 solution Also" calculate the molarit! o3 the solution

C E-plain using mathematical equations and *ords ho* to ma/e7666 6 mL o3 a 6 766 $ NMn( D solution using an unlimited amount o3 6 DGE $NMn( D solution" distilled *ater" and a 7666 mL 'olumetric 3las/

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Use the Solubilit! @raph 3rom the notes (there is also one in the M% section" both *or/) 7 F7 6 g o3 sodium chloride is added to 766 mL o3 *ater at 766 o% #s the solution saturated or unsaturated: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU #3 saturated" ho* man! grams o3 $a%l remain undissol'ed: UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU #3 unsaturated" ho* man! more grams o3 $a%l could be dissol'ed: UUUUUUUUUUU . )epeat problem 9 7 3or FG g o3 potassium nitrate in .66 cm C o3 *ater at E6 `%

)epeat 9 7 3or 7E grams o3 sodium nitrate in E6 mL o3 *ater at C6 % o

&escribe the 3ollo*ing solutions using the 3ollo*ing terms that appl!: unsaturated" saturated *ith no undissol'ed salt" saturated *ith undissol'ed salt A .6 g o3 sodium chloride in E6 mL o3 *ater at E6 % o

E g o3 N$(C in CE cmC o3 *ater at 76 %o

7.6 g o3 copper (##) sul3ate in C66 cmC o3 *ater at B6 %o

%alculate the 3ree0ing point o3 a solution containing . EE g o3 % BH7.(B dissol'ed in .E 66 g o3 *ater ( N3 W 7 GB %oIm )

%alculate the boiling point o3 a solution containing C .E g o3 H%.HC(. in E6 66 g o3 *ater (Nb W 6 E7. %oIm )

%alculate the boiling point o3 a solution containing E FE g o3 %H.( in FE 66 g o3 %CHB( (;or %CHB(" 28 W EB 66 %o" Nb W 7 F7 %oIm )

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!nit 12 4b1ecti0es
7 . C D E B F G H &etermine the common ion e33ect o3 a solubilit! equilibrium %alculate the percent ioni0ation and e33ect o3 solutions on bu33ers %alculate the pH and p(H o3 a *ea/ acidIbase based on the acidIbase equilibrium constant )elate the equilibrium quotient to the equilibrium constant 3or a reaction &escribe the steps and energ! changes in'ol'ed *hen a solute dissol'es in a sol'ent E-plain the 3actors that a33ect the rate o3 dissolution &e3ine and identi3! a suspension" solution" and colloid #nterpret a solubilit! graph and determine i3 a solution is unsaturated" saturated" or supersaturated &istinguish bet*een an electrol!te and a non4electrol!te

76 %alculate concentrations 3or solutions in molarit!" molalit!" and percent b! mass and 'olume 77 &e3ine and calculate %olligati'e properties o3 substances in solution 7. #denti3! substances as acids or bases" recogni0e properties" and be able to list strong 'ersus *ea/ acids and bases 7C 1rite a neutrali0ation reaction and recogni0e conJugate acidIbase pairs 7D &etermine h!dronium and h!dro-ide ion concentrations in solutions and translate the in3ormation to pH and p(H

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T'in&s To 5no: fo* t'e 6<am# )99itional $otes

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T'in&s To 5no: fo* t'e 6<am# )99itional $otes

5 Amanda ) %oopersmith .676


T'in&s To 5no: fo* t'e 6<am# )99itional $otes

5 Amanda ) %oopersmith .676


T'in&s To 5no: fo* t'e 6<am# )99itional $otes

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Labo*ato*+ 8ui9elines an9 Lab $oteboo; Rules

7 . C Using 2lue or 2lac/ in/ onl! (seriousl!" no gel pens" spar/l! pens" or colors other than blueIblac/ A$& $( 8E$%#L EVE)T) put +ou* name on the ;)($T %(VE) o3 the lab noteboo/ List ALL lab (a*tne*s on the lab %!R%4S6: *ritten in a %(M8LETE SE$TE$%E Usuall! this is ta/en 3rom the bac/ground or can be ta/en 3rom the title &( $(T %(8> THE 2A%N@)(U$& &( $(T use pronouns A$>1HE)E in the lab report ,)T6R3)LS: Fitems t'at a*e use9 t'en 9isca*9e9 li;e (i(ettesB :ei&' boatsB c'emicalsB etcH 6>!3%,6$T: Fitems t'at a*e *e.use9 li;e balanceB t'e*momete*B etcH- &o as a 'ertical list" not a hori0ontal (running) list %R4 6D!R6: This does not ha'e to be *ord 3or *ord" but should be clear enough 3or an!one to 3ollo* *ho has not seen the original procedure ;ull sentences are pre3erred >ou do not need an! bac/ground" sa3et! notes are optional An! additional dra*ings that ma! be help3ul should be included Data Tables should be either included in the procedure (i3 there are multiple ones)" or at the end i3 there is onl! one The data is completed in the lab boo/ as !ou do the e-periment" $4T on a separate sheet o3 paper Also" include an area 3or (2SE)VAT#($S (in3ormation that ma! gi'e hints about errors *hen doing the TR& section) ;inall!" there should be a T264RL )$D D3S !SS34$ section The requirements *ill 'ar! 3or each e-periment" but there generall! be some requirement 3or TR& Ma/e sure !ou lea'e enough room 3or the TR& (usuall! about M page to a 3ull page) 8lease go on to a ne* page instead o3 tr!ing to cro*d e'er!thing in on one sheet Some labs can be E4G pages long This section should be done in 8A)A@)A8H 3orm" not li/e ans*ering questions

8ene*al 3nfo: 7 Again" no pronouns A$>1HE)E in the lab report" EVE) . #t is acceptable (and smart) to lea'e lines bet*een procedure steps in case e-tra in3ormation is needed later Also" spread out the data table to be sure there is enough space C #3 !ou ma/e a mista/e" cross the mista/e out *ith ($E L#$E" &( $(T USE 1H#TE4(UTTT The scienti3ic 3ield requires that each cross4out be accompanied b! the date and initials o3 the e-perimenter This $(T optional in A8 D All numbers MUST HAVE correct signi3icant 3igures and units %hec/ e'er!thing be3ore turning it in This is *here most lab grade points are lost E #3 !ou ha'e alread! torn out the sheet and need to ma/e a change" place the !ello* sheet 2A%N under the *hite and *rite on the *hite sheet $( ()#@#$AL 1)#T#$@ ($ THE >ELL(1 SHEET" EVE) B Hand in the >ELL(1 sheets (stapled)" not the entire lab noteboo/" 3or grading The 1H#TE pages need to remain in !our lab noteboo/ (this is !our original data and proo3 !ou did the *or/ in case the pro3essor lost !our lab) Ma/e sure !ou include ALL !ello* sheets" e'en ones *ith massi'e mista/es Simpl! dra* a line across the page and start on a 3resh page" but include the !ello* page *ith the lab report # reali0e the labs (especiall! the data) *ill be mess! &ata is mess!: don?t tr! to ma/e it neat and clean #" li/e the ;&A" tend to loo/ more closel! at original data that is PtooQ per3ect

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Lab 1 A'at 3s t'e Relations'i( Bet:een t'e oncent*ation of a Solution an9 t'e )mount of T*ansmitte9 Li&'t T'*ou&' t'e SolutionO onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Measuring ho* much o3 *hich *a'elengths o3 light are absorbed b! a substance" and getting use3ul in3ormation about that substance 3rom the results" is the scienti3ic discipline o3 spectroscop! The 'isible spectrum is the onl! part o3 the electromagnetic spectrum that *e can access *ith the equipment 3ound in a t!pical high school chemistr! laborator! The basic principles o3 spectral anal!sis that students learn in school can also be applied to the more sophisticated instrumentation required to access the ultra'iolet" in3rared" and L4ra! regions 1hat students learn b! per3orming the lab *ill help them to understand more sophisticated instruments that the! ma! encounter at a college or uni'ersit! #n a 'isible spectrophotometer" students shine a beam o3 light into a solution containing the sample" and detect ho* much o3 it comes out o3 the other side o3 the solution 2! comparing the amount o3 light transmitted b! the pure sol'ent to the amount transmitted *hen the sample is dissol'ed in it" *e can calculate a quantit! called the absorbance. Spectrophotometers can report measurements as percent transmittance (KT) or directl! as absorbance #n this in'estigation" students *ill be guided to disco'er the relationship bet*een transmittance and concentration and ultimatel! the relationship bet*een transmittance" absorbance" and concentration o3 a solution Man! common sports drin/s contain blue 97 d!e Students *ill use the relationship bet*een transmittance" absorbance" and concentration (as *ell as their calibration line 3rom the pre4lab) to determine the concentration o3 this d!e in the sports drin/

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions

There is a stoc/ solution o3 the blue 97 (2rilliant 2lue) molecule dissol'ed in *ater *ith a /no*n concentration o3 UUUUUUUUUUUU ;igure 7 sho*s the one chemical species in the solution 3or *hich the transmittance *ill be measured

=i&u*e 1- =D] blue "1 FB*illiant BlueH molecule

The molecular mass o3 blue d!e is 793-0 &#mol

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This lab *ill e-plore ho* light" transmitted b! a solution" is related to the concentration o3 the solution The appropriate *a'elength to ta/e transmittance measurements using the S8E% .6 3or this d!e is BC6 nm Step 7: Ma/e dilutions as outlined in the 3ollo*ing table" and complete the data table using the Spec .6 Sample9 Stoc/ (mL) 1ater (mL) Molar %onc (M) K transmittance Transmittance as decimal 7 76 6 . G . C B D D D B E C F B . G F 7 H G 6 76 Step .: &etermine the relationship bet*een transmittance and molarit! o3 the solution This can be done b! graphing the data (%oncentration 'ersus transmittance as a decimal) The relationship bet*een transmittance and concentration is not linear Step C: #t *ould be bene3icial to get a straight line that goes through 0ero Scientists tr! to 3ind linear relationships because such relationships ma/e it easier to identi3! un/no*ns and predict outcomes o3 in'estigations #t is o3ten help3ul to ha'e the slope o3 the relationship bet*een the dependant and independent 'ariable be positi'e )e4graph the data using (OlogT 'ersus ^d!e_) and determine the slope o3 the line

@i'en a sample o3 the blue4colored sports drin/" use the s/ills and in3ormation gained in the pre4lab to design a data4collection and data anal!sis procedure to determine the concentration o3 blue 97 d!e in the sports drin/

Data ollection an9 om(utation

1- &etermine the molar concentration o3 blue 97 d!e in the sports drin/ Sho* all *or/ Olog T W slope ^d!e_ slope determined 3rom pre4lab graph 2- &etermine the mass o3 blue 97 d!e 3ound in E66 mL o3 the drin/ Sho* all *or/

)*&umentation an9 Documentation

#n the conclusion o3 lab" Justi3! the procedure chosen and an! possible sources o3 error in the dataIanal!sis 3or the blue sports drin/

%ost.lab )ssessment
Ans*er the questions that 3ollo* 1- The spectrophotometer reall! measures the percent o3 light that is transmitted through the solution The instrument then con'erts KT (transmittance) into absorbance b! using the equation (Absorbance W 4logT) #3 the absorbance o3 a sample is 6 GE" *hat is the percent o3 light transmitted through the colored sample at this collected *a'elength:

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Lab 2: 2o: an olo* Be !se9 to Dete*mine t'e ,ass J of o((e* in B*assO onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Spectrophotometr! is an e-tremel! important tool used in 3orensic science to determine the detailed chemical composition o3 e'idence obtained 3rom a crime scene #t can be used to determine the concentration o3 either a single chemical species in solution or e'en the concentration o3 a species *ithin a mi-ture o3 species in solution ;or e-ample" it can be used to determine the mass percent o3 copper in brass shell casings collected b! the crime scene in'estigator (%S#)" and then match the brass composition to a particular manu3acturer The students must determine *hich *a'elength o3 'isible light is most appropriate to pro'ide a ma-imum range o3 absorbance as the concentration 'aries The concentration o3 an un/no*n %u($( C). solution is then determined b! measuring its absorbance *ith the spectrophotometer 2! locating the absorbance o3 the un/no*n brass solution on the 'ertical a-is o3 the graph" the corresponding concentration can be 3ound on the hori0ontal a-is The concentration o3 the un/no*n can also be 3ound using the slope o3 the 2eer?s la* cur'e Then" students determine the procedure to prepare standard solutions *ith /no*n concentrations The steps required to complete the calculations are open to the student to design and e-ecute ;inall!" the students are as/ed to compare t*o di33erent methods o3 determining the mass percent o3 copper in brass and discuss the precision and accurac! o3 the results The mass percent o3 copper in brass can be determined b! 3irst reacting it *ith concentrated nitric acid that *ill dissol'e the 0inc and copper metals in the brass Zinc nitrate solution is colorless" but the copper (##) nitrate has a deep blue color The unbalanced ionic equation 3or the copper reaction is: %u(s) + $(C47(aq) , %u.+(aq) + $((g) in an acidic solution A second reaction occurs *hen the colorless $((g) reacts *ith o-!gen in the air to 3orm the obser'ed bro*n4 orange $(.(g) according to the equation: .$((g) + (.(g) , .$(.(g) The %u.+ ions in the un/no*n aqueous solution 3orm the comple- ion" ^%u(H.()B_.+" *hich causes the blue color This means that *hen *hite light (all *a'elengths) passes through the solution" the dominant emerging color is blue A spectrophotometer is used to anal!0e the color intensit! o3 the copper (##) nitrate solution that 3orms ;or this anal!sis" it *ill be necessar! to determine *hich color" *ith a speci3ic *a'elength" *ill be most strongl! absorbed b! the copper ions The concentration o3 the un/no*n brass solution *ill then be determined b! comparing its absorbance *ith that o3 solutions ha'ing /no*n concentrations o3 %u($(C).

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions %*oce9u*e

Step 7: &ata *ill be collected to determine the relationship bet*een *a'elength (lambda)" concentration" and absorbance This lab *ill be using the interaction o3 light *ith solutions to determine the concentration o3 an absorbing species Ho*e'er" it is important to identi3! *hat is doing the absorbing prior to determining the concentration o3 the absorbing species Such in3ormation can be gathered b! collecting absorbance data 3or a solution at 'arious *a'elengths Then" the /no*n concentration o3 the absorbing species can be used to calculate the mass percent o3 the absorbing species in the mi-ture or sample Step .: There are 3our di33erent salt solutions o3 the e-act same concentration Measure the absorbance 3or each solution at e'er! .6 nanometers (using the appropriate spectrophotometer or colorimeter) that can ta/e such measurements 3rom D66OF66 nm to generate a spectrum and to determine the best *a'elength at *hich to measure the absorbance o3 the t*o solutions

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Step C: Using the 3ollo*ing salt solutions: salt 7 { copper (##) sul3ate salt . { copper (##) nitrate salt C { 0inc nitrate salt D { iron (###) sul3ate 8lot the corresponding data 3or the di33erent salts 1hat is doing the absorbing { the metal ion or pol!atomic anion or both" and ho* do !ou /no*: Step D: 1h! do *e *ant to use a particular *a'elength *hen determining the absorption o3 a particular chemical species: #s it important to measure absorbance 3or all *a'elengths 3rom D66OF66 nm: %oncept: Bee*.Lambe*t la:" *hich states that the amount o3 light absorbed" A" is related to the concentration o3 the %u.+(aq)" c" b! the equation A W abc" *here PaQ is the molar absorpti'it! constant *hose 'alue depends upon the *a'elength used and substance in solution" and b is the thic/ness (or depth) o3 the sample The path length is al*a!s the same (usuall! 7cm) *hene'er *e do spectroscop! b! using the same si0e cu'ettes o'er and o'er Ho*e'er" the molar absorpti'it! changes because it is a 3unction o3 the *a'elength 2! changing *a'elengths" the molar absorpti'it! changes ;or e-ample" 3ocusing on the copper (##) nitrate spectrum" calculate the molar absorpti'it! constant at DB6 nm (AW6 66E)" ED6 nm (A W 6 6.6)" B66nm (A W 6 766) *ith bW7cm and c W 6 7M: Since the concentration o3 the solution did not change nor did the path length" the di33erent *a'elengths at *hich absorbance 'alues *ere collected must pla! a role in the di33erent molar absorpti'it! 'alues There3ore" it is easier to collect absorpti'it! 'alues 3or one and onl! one *a'elength in order to determine the concentration o3 a chemical species in solution (can?t change . 'ariables at once and get reliable data) Step E: 2ased on the connection bet*een *a'elength" molar absorpti'it!" concentration" and absorbance" use 2eer?s la* to 3igure out the concentration (in molarit!) o3 copper in brass and then use stoichiometr! to calculate the percent b! mass copper in brass

Data ollection an9 om(utation

7- Measure the mass o3 a 7O. gram sample o3 brass to 6 667 g 8lace the sample in a small bea/er The brass sample should ha'e a mass o3 7O. grams to ensure that the concentration o3 the solution 3alls *ithin a range that can be measured b! the spectrophotometer" and that there is an e-cess o3 nitric acid a'ailable to dissol'e it completel! .- Assuming !our brass sample is 766 percent copper b! mass" calculate the minimum 'olume o3 concentrated 7E G H$(C(aq) that needs to be added to react completel! *ith the brass (The reaction produces a solution o3 copper (##) nitrate" along *ith nitrogen mono-ide gas and *ater ) !n9e* t'e fume 'oo9" ha'e !our teacher add appro-imatel! . mL more than this 'olume o3 7E G H$(C(aq) so that the acid is in e-cess" and then !our teacher *ill co'er the bea/er *ith a *atch glass C A3ter the metal dissol'es completel!" add E6 mL o3 distilled *ater to the bea/er (again" !our teacher *ill per3orm this part o3 the in'estigation since adding *ater to concentrated acid is potentiall! e-plosi'e) Then !ou *ill remo'e the bea/er 3rom the 3ume hood and trans3er the solution to a 766 mL 'olumetric 3las/ )inse the bea/er COD times *ith E mL o3 distilled *ater and add the *ashings to the 3las/ &ilute to a 3inal 'olume o3 766 6 mL The e-cess nitric acid *ill dissol'e the 0inc and copper metals in the brass D (btain 76 6 mL o3 6 D66 M %u($(C). (aq) stoc/ solution in a 76 mL graduated c!linder &etermine *hat 'olume is required to ma/e 76 66 mL o3 6 .66 M %u($(C). (aq) Use a 'olumetric pipette to trans3er this 'olume o3 the stoc/ solution into a clean test tube Then add a su33icient amount o3 distilled *ater to reach 76 66 mL Thoroughl! mi- the solution )epeat the dilution process to ma/e 76 6 mL each o3 three more additional dilute solutions that are 6 766 M" 6 6E66 M" and 6 6.E6 M" respecti'el!
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E 2ased upon the results o3 the pre4lab e-perimentation" set the *a'elength o3 the S8E% .6 to that *hich is strongl! absorbed b! the blue4colored %u.+ solutions #deall!" the ma-imum absorbance 'alue should be 6 7" and *ill need to be the starting point 3or a *a'elength bet*een B664BBE6 nm Since absorbance is a logarithmic 3unction o3 the percent transmittance" the instrument is in a nonlinear region to measure the light passing through *hen the absorbance 'alue is at a range o3 74. 1hen selecting a *a'elength 3or measurement" /eep in mind that a *a'elength at ma-imum absorbance pro'ides ma-imum sensiti'it!" but the smallest concentration range" *hile a *a'elength *ith a smaller absorbance *ould pro'ide less sensiti'it!" but a larger concentration range to be measured in the e-periment B- %alibrate the S8E% .6 to read 6K transmittance *ith no cu'ette in the instrument" and 766K transmittance *ith a blan/ inside (cu'ette 3illed *ith distilled *ater) F- Empt! the *ater 3rom the Pblan/Q cu'ette Using the most dilute %u($(C).standard solution" rinse the cu'ette t*ice *ith 74mL amounts and then 3ill it CID 3ull 1ipe the outside *ith a tissue" place it in the S8E% .6" and close the lid )ead and record the absorbance 'alue &iscard the cu'ette contents bac/ into the original test tube G- %ontinue testing the other solutions" *or/ing up in concentration ;inall!" determine the absorbance 'alue o3 the un/no*n %u($(C). solution 3rom !our brass sample Using the absorbance and concentration 'alues 3or the 3i'e standard solutions" prepare a graph o3 the absorbance (>) 'ersus the concentration (L) 'alues &ra* a best4 3it straight line 3or !our data and calculate the slope and !4intercept 3or 2eer?s plot Then determine the concentration o3 !our un/no*n brass solution H A 'isual comparison should also be done using the standards prepared 'ersus the un/no*n sample To determine the concentration (molarit!) o3 an un/no*n solution" place it in a test tube on top o3 a piece o3 *hite paper" ne-t to a test tube 3illed *ith a solution o3 /no*n concentration (molarit!) 1hile 'isuall! comparing the color intensit! o3 each tube" use a pipette to remo'e liquid 3rom the more concentrated solution until the intensities appear to be the same At this point" the 3ollo*ing relationship applies: F,ola*it+1H FDe(t'1H D F,ola*it+2HFDe(t'2H

Data ollection an9 om(utation

Ans*er the questions that 3ollo* 7 8repare a data table to record all o3 !our measured data and calculated 'alues . Sho* the calculations used to prepare the %u($(C). (a*) *ith /no*n molarities b! diluting the 6 D66 M %u($(C).(a*) standard solution C &etermine the molarit! o3 the %u($(C).(a*) 3ound in 766 6 mL o3 the brass solution using the S8E% .6 Support !our ans*ers *ith the appropriate calculations

%ost.lab )ssessment
This lab in'ol'es se'eral /e! s/ills and concepts that are part o3 the A8 %hemistr! curriculum" ma/ing it ideall! suited 3or a 3ormal lab report as a post4lab assessment Special emphasis should be made on the t*o methods o3 anal!sis used to determine the molarit! o3 the brass solution (Spec .6 's 'isual comparison)" and the student?s comparison o3 the precision and probable accurac! o3 the class a'erage 'alues 3or the mass percent o3 copper in brass

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Lab 3: A'at ,a;es 2a*9 Aate* 2a*9O onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Si- samples o3 *ater *ill be anal!0ed 3or their quantities o3 *ater hardness through principles o3 metal ion precipitation and separation The samples *ill then be ran/ed in order o3 increasing *ater hardness

7 The 3ollo*ing relate to the interacti'e simulation" a 8hET simulation designed b! the Uni'ersit! o3 %olorado @o to http:IIphet colorado eduIenIsimulationIsoluble4salts to open the interacti'e simulation %lic/ )un $o* A3ter obtaining access to the simulation" note the three tabs at the top: Table Salt" Slightl! Soluble Salts" and &esign a Salt a Under the Table Salt tab" sha/e the salt sha/er &escribe *hat happens to the solid table salt" $a%l b %lic/ )eset All Sha/e the salt sha/er until some o3 the particles are designated as 2ound Ho* man! sodium ions are designated as &issol'ed: Ho* man! sodium ions are designated as 2ound: Use the simulation to describe *hat bound means c %lic/ the Slightl! Soluble Salts tab Using the pull4do*n menu" select Mercur!(##) 2romide Slo*l! sha/e the salt sha/er until some o3 the ions are designated as 2ound Ho* man! sha/es did it ta/e: %ompare ho* this mercur!(##) bromide is di33erent 3rom table salt d Sha/e a large amount o3 mercur!(##) bromide into the container Ho* do the number o3 dissol'ed ions change as more mercur!(##) bromide is added to the container: e Slo*l! drain some o3 the mi-ture out o3 the container and stop 1here do the dissol'ed ions go as the solution is drained: 1hat else do !ou notice as the mi-ture is drained: #3 the mi-ture le3t the container through a long pipe as it *as drained" ho* might problems arise inside the pipe: 3 Ho* might the simulation loo/ di33erent i3 the mercur!(##) bromide *as created 3rom t*o salts" such as mercur!(##) nitrate and sodium bromide" rather than added directl!: g 8redict an appropriate e-perimental method to collect the bound mercur!(##) bromide . 1atch: http:II*** !outube comI*atch:'W>cZS$caHH$GR3eatureW!outubeUgdataUpla!er A3ter *atching the 'ideo" describe *hat !ou belie'e to be Phard *ater Q C 1atch the 3ollo*ing animation (hit the one-t? button at the bottom o3 the page to get to the animation): http:IIbcs *h3reeman comIchemcomEeIcontentIcatU676IUnit7UMediaI%%UEeUU7USec& s*3 A3ter *atching this animation" e-plain ho* soap scum 3orms 1hat ions contribute to the 3ormation o3 soap scum: D- &escribe some *a!s that *ater can be so3tened Some help3ul sites include" but are not limited to: http.55www.chem2.com5C85hardwater.html or http.55www.ag.ndsu.edu5pubs5h3o*ual5watsys5ae29:2w.htm E- A reaction occurs bet*een solutions o3 strontium bromide and sil'er nitrate" as sho*n in the equation belo*: Sr2r. (a*) + Ag$(C (a*) , Sr($(C). (a*) + Ag2r (s) a- #3 C DH7 grams o3 the precipitate is 3ormed" ho* man! moles o3 strontium bromide *ere reacted: b- #3 DE B7 mL o3 strontium bromide *ere reacted in 8art a" *hat is the molarit! o3 the strontium bromide solution that *as used:

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c #n collecting the precipitate" *h! *ould it be inappropriate to heat the reacted mi-ture and e'aporate o33 the *ater: B 2elo* is a table o3 solubilit! product constant (Nsp) 'alues %onsider ho* the 'alues in this table ma! help in deciding ho* to remo'e one o3 these ions b! selecti'e precipitation >ou *ill be assigned one o3 the 3ollo*ing cations: Mg.+" %a.+" ;e.+ Ho* *ould !ou remo'e the ion 3rom hard *ater: #nclude *hich anion !ou *ould use to remo'e the cation and e-plain *h! !ou chose that anion Table 1- 5s( 7alues fo* Salts ,&2P 3on Ksp 7alue Mg%(C C E a 76OG Mg%.(D 7 6 a 76OG Mg;. B E a 76OH Mg((H). 7 G a 76O77 a2P 3on %a%(C %a%.(D %a;. %a((H). Ksp 7alue . G a 76OH D 6 a 76OH D 6 a 76O77 E 6 a 76OB =e2P 3on ;e%(C ;e%.(D ;e;. ;e((H). Ksp 7alue C . a 76O77 C . a 76OF . D a 76OB G 6 a 76O7B

$ote: Solubilit! product constants are e-tremel! di33icult to obtain e-perimentall! because o3 the necessit! to identi3! all chemical species and processes present in the chemical s!stem used to obtain their 'alues Literature ;sp 'alues ma! disagree *idel!" e'en b! se'eral orders o3 magnitude

Students should determine the un/no*n quantit! o3 cation" as mg o3 cation carbonate per L o3 solution" in a *ater sample b! designing their o*n procedure The procedure" materials list" and data and obser'ation table *ill be recorded in the noteboo/ <int. # control test using a (3g539m=) solution of sodium carbonate mixed with a (3g539m=) solution of cation chloride will create a precipitant. ,he precipitant will be remo-ed from solution" dried" and massed to determine the extent of the precipitation. Students should consider *hat data is needed to obtain the concentration o3 the cation 8resent a detailed" step4b!4 step procedure" a list o3 materials needed" and a data table 3or measurements and obser'ations Ne! 3eatures" such as quantities needed and *hen measurements are recorded" should indicate ho* the sodium carbonate solution *ill be used in e-cess" as *ell as ho* o3ten and 3or ho* long the precipitate *ill be dried

Data ollection an9 om(utation

7 Ho* man! grams o3 each precipitate *ere collected: . 1hat is the hardness" in mgIL o3 cation carbonate" o3 each *ater sample: C Use the masses o3 sodium carbonate and cation chloride to predict the mass o3 cation carbonate that *ill 3orm in !our e-periment D #3 one more gram o3 sodium carbonate *as used" ho* *ould it a33ect the amount o3 cation carbonate that !ou calculated *ould 3orm: Students ma! *ish to test the ans*er b! running the procedure again E 1hich mass o3 the precipitate" the 3irst or second" better represents the amount o3 dr! precipitate collected: B #s the mass !ou measured close to the e-pected mass !ou calculated based on stoichiometr! in =uestion 7: 1hat ma! be the reason(s) 3or an! di33erences: F 1ould the mass o3 precipitate that !ou measured be larger or smaller i3 !ou did not *ash the precipitate be3ore dr!ing it: G #3 the precipitate *as *eighed *ithout dr!ing" *ould !ou belie'e that !ou had started *ith . grams o3 cation chloride: E-plain

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H &o !ou 3eel that the second *eighing o3 !our precipitate *as dr!: 1hat e-perimental changes could be made to impro'e this portion o3 the procedure:

%ost lab >uestions

7 E-cess $a.S(D (aq) is added to a D. EC mL sample o3 2a($(C). (aq) a 1hat is the 3ormula o3 the precipitate: b #3 C 6DB g o3 precipitate *ere 3ormed" *hat *as the molarit! o3 the 2a($( C). (aq): . A E 666 g mi-ture contains strontium nitrate and potassium bromide E-cess lead(##) nitrate solution is added to precipitate out 6 FG.. grams o3 8b2r . (s) a 1hat is the percent b! mass o3 potassium bromide in the mi-ture: b 1hat is the percent b! mass o3 strontium nitrate in the mi-ture:

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Lab 4: 2o: ,uc' )ci9 3s in =*uit Ruices an9 Soft D*in;sO onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
8erhaps !ou ha'e *ondered ho* doctors determine the ratios 3or #V drips during surger! or hospital sta!s Through the stud! o3 chemistr! !ou *ill learn doctors use a titration to calculate speci3ic ratios o3 di33erent substances using 'olume measurements A similar process occurs *hen someone uses a machine to monitor blood glucose le'els" to anal!0e urine samples" or to conduct a pregnanc! test 8harmacists use titrations *hen compounding drugs" *hich allo*s them to more precisel! match a person?s drug prescription to their bod! *eight" si0e" or medical condition 1hile !ou ma! thin/ titrations are common practice onl! in the chemistr! lab or medical communit!" !ou should understand that titrations ha'e great practical use ;ood scientists use them *hen testing 3or le'els o3 salt" sugar" and 'itamins in di33erent 3oods" and 3or deciding i3 *ine and cheese are read! 3or consumption (thers use titrations to test 3or *ater qualit! or hardness and in neutrali0ing the 3ree 3att! acids in *aste 'egetable oil be3ore re3ining it as biodiesel #n all cases" !ou should /no* titrations are used to quantitati'el! anal!0e the un/no*n concentration o3 a solution or the amount o3 a substance b! comparing it to a solution o3 /no*n concentration

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions

Ans*er the 3ollo*ing: 7 1rite the complete and net ionic chemical equations 3or the reaction o3 a solution o3 sodium h!dro-ide ($a(H) *ith h!drochloric acid (H%l) . Ho* man! mL o3 6 7 H%l are required to react completel! *ith E mL o3 6 7 $a(H:

C #3 equal molar amounts o3 $a(H and H%l are mi-ed" *hen the reaction is complete *hat *ill be the chemical species in the resulting solution: D 1hat *ill be the pH o3 the mi-ture in question C" acidic" neutral" or basic: E-plain E 1rite the complete chemical equation 3or the reaction o3 a 6 7 solution o3 $a(H solution o3 acetic acid (%HC%((H) *ith a 6 7

B Ho* man! mL o3 the 6 7 $a(H solution *ill required to react completel! *ith E L o3 a 6 7 M acetic acid (%HC%((H) solution: E-plain F 1hen the reaction is complete *hat *ill be the pH (acidic" neutral" basic) o3 the solution in question B: E-plain G Ho* is it possible to determine *hen an acid4base reaction is complete *hen the concentration o3 one o3 the reactants is un/no*n: H Using the table belo*" e-plain ho* indicators are chosen and used during titrations 3n9icato* (2 *an&e olo* 'an&e Meth!l orange C 7OD D (range to !ello* Meth!l red D .OB . )ed to !ello* 2romth!mol blue B 6OF B >ello* to green4blue 8henolphthalein G CO76 6 %olorless to pin/ Th!mol blue 7 .O. G )ed to !ello*

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The titration o3 the acid concentration o3 3ruit Juices and so3t drin/s *ill be per3ormed Using a standardi0ed solution o3 sodium h!dro-ide ($a(H)" 'arious indicators" and a 'ariet! o3 laborator! equipment" de'elop a plan to test the pH le'els in the samples using titration 7 (utline a tentati'e procedure in !our lab noteboo/ 2e sure to clearl! identi3! *hich pieces o3 equipment (listed in the MaterialsIEquipment section) !ou plan to use during !our in'estigation . Ma/e a simple s/etch sho*ing ho* !ou plan to set up !our equipment" labeling the 3ollo*ing: anal!te" titrant" buret" Erlenme!er 3las/ Sho* *here the indicator solution *ill be added" and comment on !our choice o3 indicator: 1h! did !ou choose this one and not another: C As !ou conduct !our e-periment" /eep detailed *ritten records 2e sure to list all steps ta/en as !ou per3orm !our e-periment" and all measurements and obser'ations made during the e-periment D 1hen complete" graph pH 'ersus 'olume o3 base added 3or all be'erages tested Ma/e a note o3 *here the indicator chosen changes color E 1rite the balanced chemical equation 3or the reaction bet*een sodium h!dro-ide and the primar! acid in the 3ruit Juices or carbonated be'erages !our lab team selected #3 !ou identi3ied di33erent acids in the drin/s" *rite balanced chemical equations that represent each

Data ollection an9 om(utation

%reate a data table and ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions:: 7 %alculate the acid concentration(s) o3 the 3ruit Juice or sodas !ou tested" being sure to sho* all *or/ *ith units . %alculate the pH o3 the 3ruit Juices or sodas !ou tested 1rite this in3ormation on the board so !ou can pool class data C @raph pH 'ersus 'olume o3 titrant ($a(H) added #n general" as 'olume o3 titrant increases" *hat happens to pH: 1h! does this occur:

%ost.lab )ssessment
7 Suppose a 3ello* student chose to measure solution 'olumes using the bea/ers or graduated c!linders pro'ided 1hat e33ect *ould this ha'e had on the calculated acid concentration: Ho* might this a33ect the number o3 signi3icant 3igures in !our 3inal ans*er: E-plain !our ans*ers . A 3ello* student rinsed the buret *ith *ater" but neglected to rinse the buret *ith titrant be3ore conducting the e-periment 1hat e33ect *ould this ha'e on the calculated acid concentration in the Juices or sodas: 1h!: C 1hat step *ould be necessar! to determine the endpoint *hen titrating a dar/ cola *ith a standard sodium h!dro-ide solution" and *h! did this step matter:

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Lab 5: Stic;+ >uestion: 2o: Do Lou Se(a*ate ,olecules T'at )*e )tt*acte9 to 4ne )not'e*O onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Students are *or/ing 3or a crime lab and a chemical residue has been turned in 3or anal!sis To identi3! the chemicals in the residue" the! *ill need to separate them 3rom the mi-ture and identi3! them indi'iduall! Another lab technologist has made an attempt to separate the molecules but *as not as success3ul as the boss *ould li/e There *as onl! one molecule separated 3rom the mi-ture" but the boss suspects that there are at least three di33erent molecules Science is o3ten a process" *here a method is tried and then modi3ied 3or a second attempt The student?s Job *ill be to propose a modi3ication and attempt to impro'e the separation attained

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions

Sodium bitartate

Sodium bicarbonate

%ornstarch pol!mer

=i&u*e 1- om(onents of ba;in& (o:9e*

7 1h! does the *ater creep up the paper: E-plain this . #n !our /itchen" there is a mi-ture that is usuall! listed as a single ingredient in recipes: ba/ing po*der Using the common names 3or the chemicals" ba/ing po*der is actuall! a mi-ture o3 sodium bicarbonate" cream o3 tartar (sodium bitartate)" and cornstarch (see ;igure 7) Loo/ing at the three molecules in ;igure 7" ho* are the! similar and ho* are the! di33erent: 1hat are the interactions o3 each *ith *ater: The 3ollo*ing simulation includes questions and animations that can be manipulated addressing all t!pes o3 intermolecular attractions 1hen doing the simulation" ma/e sure to ta/e snapshots and ans*er all the questions (n the 3inal page" there is a button: P%reate a report o3 m! *or/Q that *ill include all *ord ans*ers and snapshots This computer simulation can be 3ound at the %oncord %onsortium at http:IIm* concord orgImodelerI (Select oMore? at the bottom o3 Selected %urriculum Modules section and then" 3rom the chemistr! column" select P#ntermolecular attractions Q)

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Ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions: 7 Ho* can molecules attract each other *hen the! are in a mi-ture: 8redict ho* ethanol *ould interact *ith those molecules: be speci3ic . 1hat does the )3 'alue describe on a microscopic le'el: 1h! is this important: C #3 the molecule had a 'er! high a33init! 3or the stationar! phase" ho* *ould this a33ect the )3 'alue: E-plain D 1hat role does the mobile phase pla! in the distance a molecule tra'els in chromatograph!: 1hat does the mobile phase describe:

Using . di33erent sol'ents" *rite a step4b!4step procedure and design a data table to record data 3or the separation o3 3ood coloring There are 3i'e sol'ents listed as a'ailable 3or students to use in their e-periment" including chromatograph! sol'ent (he-aneIether mi-)" acetone" ethanol" .4propanol" and distilled *ater Each group *ill recei'e a ma-imum o3 .6 mL o3 each sol'ent to be used 3or multiple trials This is the e-ploration phase o3 the learning c!cle" during *hich students *ill collect data and identi3! trends >ou are not limited in the number o3 sol'ents that can be tested or the number o3 trials" Just the total 'olume a'ailable per pair Neep a detailed *ritten record o3 the in'estigation" including a step4b!4step procedure" a list o3 materials used" and all data and calculations

)ed D6

2lue 7

Yellow 5 Figure 2. Molecular structure of food dyes

Ethanol Hexane




Figure 3. Molecular structure of typical solvents

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>ou *ill design an e-periment that tests the sol'ents (3rom ;igure C) that !ou belie'e *ill pro'ide the best separation o3 the 3ood d!es (3rom ;igure .) in the mi-ture pro'ided 8ropose the best sol'ent 3or separation o3 the mi-ture and also e'aluate the use o3 the sol'ent in terms o3 PgreennessQ (en'ironmentall! sa3e)

Data ollection an9 om(utation

7 1h! did !ou select the sol'ents that !ou tested: &id !our data support !our h!pothesis or dispro'e !our h!pothesis: . 1hat e-planations can !ou pro'ide 3or !our separation o3 the three molecules: Ho* *as the choice o3 the sol'ent connected to the separation process: C 1hat part o3 the chromatograph! setup did the molecules interact *ith" stationar! or mobile phase: Ho* *ould !ou e-plain this interaction using intermolecular 3orces: D &ra* a picture o3 ho* the chromatograph! *or/ed E-plain !our picture using the 3ollo*ing terms: stationar! phase" mobile phase" and intermolecular 3orces E E'aluate *hich sol'ent is the one *ith the best Pgreen chemistr!Q rating (using the internet or prior /no*ledge) 1hat intermolecular 3orces *ould this sol'ent 3orm *ith the three molecules in the mi-ture: B 1hich molecule spent the most time in the stationar! phase and *h!: F %alculate the )3 'alues 3or each chromatograph! trial that !ou completed and include it in the data table

%ost.lab )ssessment
%arrots contain 'arious natural colors such as red" !ello*" and green 7 &etermine the relati'e )3 'alue 3or carrots based on the abo'e data and obser'ations . %an paper chromatograph! be used to 3ull! separate the colored components in carrots" or is a more comples!stem more ideall! suited: 1h!:

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Lab 6: A'atGs in T'at BottleO onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation

There is a problem in the chemical storeroom The high humidit! in the storeroom caused the labels on some o3 the chemical bottles to 3all o33 The labels are l!ing all o'er the shel'es and it is !our Job" as a chemistr! intern" to design a method that *ill help identi3! the chemicals so the labels can be put onto the correct bottles (&($?T Taste An!thing" EVE)TTT) There are at least 3our unlabeled bottles that represent at least one o3 each t!pe o3 bond The unlabeled chemicals are all solids but ma! be ionic compounds" nonpolar or polar co'alent compounds" or metals #3 the t!pe o3 substance" or" e'en better" the identit! can be determined" disposal *ill be less costl! to the school (nce the properties o3 the un/no*n compounds are determined" students *ill be gi'en in3ormation that can help identi3! the name o3 each chemical *ithin the unlabeled bottles

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions

Table 1- %*o(e*ties an9 Bon9 T+(es of Soli9 om(oun9s
om ( o u n 9 N%l Sucros e (% 7. H .. ( 77 ) #odine Zinc 4bs e * 0 a t i o n F ol o*# s t a t e H ,% F H

Sol u b ili t + in 25 o :at e * FL#$H

T+( e F s H of el e m e n t F s H

T+( e of bo n 9


;ill in the abo'e chart *ith trial e-perimentation o3 the listed chemicals 2ased on the chart" e-plain the di33erences in each based on bonding properties: a Melting point (intramolecular 3orces) b Solubilit! in *ater (intermolecular 3orces) c 3ill in the 3ollo*ing based on bonding properties
om ( o u n 9 $a l B*o m o b e n ? e ne F 6 2 5 B*H 2e< a n e 3*on Rela ti 0 e ,% F H

Sol u b ili t + in 25 o :at e * FL#$H

T+( e F s H of el e m e n t F s H

T+( e of bo n 9

%*oce9u*e De0elo(ment
@i'en si- /no*n compounds" choose at least 3our di33erent tests to stud! ph!sical and chemical properties o3 each o3 the gi'en substances 2ased on results de'elop a s!stem that *ill help determine *hether an un/no*n solid is ionic" co'alent (polar or nonpolar)" or metallic using these tests 8ossible tests include: color" solubilit! in *ater" conducti'it! o3 the solid" conducti'it! in *ater" pH o3 the solution in *ater" solubilit! in ethanol" solubilit! in he-anes" highIlo* melting point (order o3 melting i3 qualitati'e" or quantitati'e 'alue)" reaction *ith 6 7 H%l" reaction *ith 6 7 $a(H" and magnetism 1rite a detailed procedure to carr! out the tests %reate a data table to record results #3 the students are un3amiliar *ith ho* to measure a melting point" see the 3ollo*ing site 3or a tutorial *ith 'ideos on ho* to determine a melting point *ith a capillar! tube: http.55www.uwplatt.edu5chemep5chem5chemscape5labdocs5catofp5measurea5meltpnt5meltemp5meltemp.htm

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$ote: The lab *ill be run on a small scale using a *ell plate Use small quantities o3 a solid that can be trans3erred *ith a *ooden splint %reate a chartIdata table that *ill be used 3or each test to di33erentiate the 'arious compounds 2ased on the in3ormation" de'elop a procedural 3lo*chart to identi3! an un/no*n compound

The /no*ledge acquired in the 8rocedure &e'elopment section 3or /no*n compounds *ill no* be applied in order to determine the identit! o3 . un/no*n solids Students should create a data table to record results

%ost.lab )ssessment
7 #3 the solid is ionic" e-plain *h! !ou cannot ma/e the general statement that Pall ionic compounds are soluble in *ater Q 1hat e'idence 3rom the in'estigation supports !our conclusions: . 1h! *as it necessar! to use distilled *ater and not tap *ater: C Metal o-ides dissol'ed in *ater sho* a pH in *hat range: #n contrast to these metal o-ides" do nonmetal o-ides produce the same pH range: D 1a- is a saturated h!drocarbon" a co'alent compound 1a- is not soluble in *ater !et sugar is also a co'alent compound and is soluble in *ater Loo/ at the structure o3 both compounds" or use !our /no*ledge o3 chemistr!" and e-plain *hat could Justi3! these results

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Lab 7: !sin& t'e %*inci(le T'at 6ac' Substance 2as !niMue %*o(e*ties to %u*if+ a ,i<tu*e: )n 6<(e*iment )((l+in& 8*een 'emist*+ to %u*ification ent*al 'allen&e
#n this laborator! acti'it!" the student *ill be a chemist *ho has been as/ed to participate in the peer4re'ie* process b! an editor o3 a Journal on green chemistr! that has recei'ed three di33erent manuscripts (lab *rite4ups) that report on the same process o3 separating t*o substances ;irst" students *ill design their o*n procedure to do the e-periment o3 separating t*o substances using green chemistr! principles Second" the students *ill recei'e one o3 the manuscripts submitted to the a3orementioned Journal The students *ill assess the qualit! o3 the lab report and *rite a re'ie* o3 it to submit to the editor

onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation

1hat some chemists do is design chemicals and chemical processes These practices in'ol'e a 3e* main principles (ne o3 these principles is that pure substances ha'e unique properties that can be used to distinguish them 3rom one another A second principle is that chemists consider the bene3its and ris/s o3 di33erent options *hen deciding *hich is the best chemical process These t*o principles 3orm the 3ocus o3 this e-periment

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions#Simulations %a*t 3:

Step 7: 8oint out that there are t*o guiding principles o3 chemistr! pertaining to this lab: 7) each substance has unique properties" *hich enables chemists to distinguish it 3rom other substances" and .) chemists consider bene3its and ris/s in ma/ing decisions about chemical processes @reen chemistr! is a set o3 guidelines used b! chemists to address sustainabilit! *hen appl!ing both o3 these principles 1e *ill 3ocus on one particular principle o3 green chemistr! that is rele'ant to this lab Ha'e students re'ie* the 7. 8rinciples o3 @reen %hemistr! at http.55www.epa.go-5sciencematters5>une39225principles.htm/rinciples of )reen Chemistry 1- %reate no *aste 2- $othing should be le3t o'er 3- $o to-icit! 4- @reen products ha'e to *or/ as *ell as non4green products 5- @et rid o3 all nonessential additi'es 6- )educe energ! usage 7- Use rene*able materials 8- @et rid o3 as man! steps as possible 9- Ma/e use o3 a reusable method to speed up a reaction 10- Use materials that brea/ do*n in the en'ironment (biodegradable) 11- %hec/ e'er!thing !ou do against the other principles 12- Sa3et! 3irst Step .: &iscuss 8rinciple . *ith students in more detail: /rinciple 3 is called the atom econom! principle: The less that is le3t o'er" the better #n the most ideal case" all o3 the starting materials are con'erted into the desired product and there is nothing le3t o'er #n order to compare processes in terms o3 ho* much is le3t o'er" a calculation can be made o3 atom econom! that compares the mass o3 the desired product (K !ield) Step C: Ha'e students ans*er questions 7OD belo*" and then discuss ans*ers as a *hole class 1- Select one o3 the principles o3 green chemistr! E-plain in !our o*n *ords ho* this principle shi3ts chemistr! to*ard more en'ironmentall! conscious practices Ho* is this rele'ant to considering the bene3its and ris/s *hen ma/ing decisions about *hich o3 t*o (or more) possible chemical processes is better: 2- The 3ollo*ing t*o reactions are possible methods 3or re3ining copper in the 3inal step o3 a smelting process" i e " getting pure copper (%u) 3rom copper ores 3ound in roc/s %alculate the theoretical atom econom! 3or each reaction a- . %u( (s) + % (s) , . %u (s) + %(. (g)
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b- %u( (s) + %( (g) , %u (s) + %(. (g) 3- Use !our calculations 3rom the pre'ious question (i e " .a and .b) to ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions a- 1hich one o3 the methods 3or re3ining copper ore is greener according to the atom econom! principle o3 green chemistr!: b- 1h! is a calculation o3 atom econom! help3ul in comparing t*o chemical reactions to determine *hich one is greener: #n other *ords" *hat does atom econom! tell !ou about PgreennessQ: c- 1hat is another possible consideration 3rom the principles o3 green chemistr! that could tell !ou more about comparing the PgreennessQ o3 these t*o reactions: 4- 8eer re'ie* is a critical component o3 ho* scientists communicate *hat the! ha'e learned and contribute ne* /no*ledge 1hat is peer re'ie*: 1h! do !ou thin/ that scientists belie'e it is important 3or published *or/ to be peer4re'ie*ed prior to publication: 1h! is peer re'ie* an important part o3 a process o3 chemists considering bene3its and ris/s: 1h! might peer re'ie* be important in chemists reporting results o3 a chemical process:

%a*t 33:
Ha'e the students access the 3ollo*ing simulation and ans*er the questions belo* to strengthen their understanding o3 percent !ield: http.55group.chem.iastate.edu5)reenbowe5sections5pro>ectfolder5percenttutorial.htm The simulation lin/ed here steps students through calculating the number o3 *aters o3 h!dration in copper (##) sul3ate pentah!drate

%a*t 33 >uestions:
1- 1hat is a substance: 1hat is a mi-ture: Ho* are the! related: 2- 1hat are the general characteristics o3 substances chemists use to separate mi-tures into indi'idual substances: 3- Ho* are the t*o *a!s o3 measuring the e33icienc! o3 a reaction the same: Ho* do the! di33er:

6<(lanation to St*en&t'en Stu9ent !n9e*stan9in&

(ne can characteri0e a maJor practice o3 chemists as har'esting materials 3rom nature" separating the indi'idual substances *ithin them" and putting the pure substances in bottles so that the! can ma/e ne* substances out o3 them The practice o3 designing chemicals is 3undamental to all o3 the sciences that build on /no*ledge o3 chemistr! 8harmacists and medical biochemists create" puri3!" and test the sa3et! o3 medicines Anal!tical chemists use and design instruments to detect the presence and properties o3 indi'idual substances 2ioorganic chemists design ne* chemicals 3or speci3ic purposes and in'ent and compare the s!nthetic processes to ma/e them %hemical engineers manage chemical process industries to produce use3ul products on larger scales and minimi0e harm 2ut e'en 3or those students *ho don?t pursue a career in science" understanding some o3 the basic principles o3 chemistr! is rele'ant to e'er!one?s li3e Students can use *a!s o3 thin/ing as a chemist to ma/e educated decisions The! *ill use chemistr! principles as the! thin/ about the sa3et! o3 products the! bu! and *hich ones are less li/el! to cause harm" energ! reduction in their homes" *hich containers are sa3est 3or coo/ing or storing 3ood" and ho* to dispose o3 all sorts o3 things in the home and o33ice" such as cleaning agents" unused medicines" and batteries This e-periment in'ol'es a maJor practice o3 chemists: separating substances in a mi-ture b! ta/ing ad'antage o3 properties o3 the substances that are unique to each one #n this case" students *ill rel! on the substances? chemical reacti'it! upon heating as the propert! that di33ers bet*een them ;rom antiquit!" t*o 'er! important substances in societ! ha'e been obtained 3rom a salt mi-ture called natron $atron has been har'ested 3or thousands o3 !ears 3rom dr! la/e beds #n ancient Eg!pt" and still toda!" natron is blended *ith oil and used as soap $atron primaril! consists o3 t*o substances" sodium carbonate ($a .%(C) and sodium bicarbonate ($aH%(C) Each o3 these substances" *hen separated" also has important uses Sodium carbonate is used in the
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manu3acture o3 glass" as a *ater so3tener *hen doing laundr!" as an additi'e in communit! s*imming pools to raise pH" and as an additi'e in 3oods Sodium bicarbonate has man! uses" ranging 3rom coo/ing and medical uses" to cleaning" pesticide" and 3ire e-tinguishing uses E'er! process that a chemist uses in'ol'es some /ind o3 trans3ormation and has an e33icienc! o3 that trans3ormation associated *ith it There are man! *a!s to measure and report e33icienc! { t*o o3 these are discussed here ;or the 3irst" the e33icienc! o3 a chemical process can be interpreted in terms o3 its 3inancial cost or in terms o3 its bene3it or detriment to the en'ironment 1hen considering 3inancial cost" one might compare the amount o3 the desired product that is actuall! produced and the amount that could be produced in the ideal situation *here all o3 the starting materials are used up and con'erted to use3ul products 8ercent !ield is such a calculation" as the ratio o3 the t*o 'alues 8ercent >ield W (Actual >ield4Theoretical >ield)766K Theoretical >ield 6Muation 1

The number is usuall! reported as a percentage (out o3 766K) instead o3 as a decimal" in order to ma/e comparison to the ideal situation easier 8ercent !ield is a *a! o3 comparing actual runs in the laborator! o3 a chemical process" *hen stri'ing 3or a ma-imum !ield #3 the percent !ield is closer to 766K" then ma-imum 3inancial 'alue is deri'ed because starting materials (*hich might be e-pensi'e) are ma-imall! used" and the end product is ma-imall! produced #n a second *a! o3 measuring and reporting e33icienc! o3 a process" considering en'ironmental health" one might instead tr! to minimi0e undesired products such as *astes or b!products that are an ine'itable outcome o3 a chemical process Atom econom! is such a calculation" comparing the theoretical !ield o3 the desired product and the total theoretical !ield o3 all products as a ratio 8ercent Atom Econom! W (Mass o3 desired product produced)766K Mass o3 all products produced 6Muation 2

Various di33erent chemical processes ha'e di33erent atom economies" because the desired product can range 3rom being the onl! substance produced to being onl! one o3 se'eral substances that result 3rom the reaction #3 the atom econom! is closer to 766K" then the amount o3 desired product is ma-imi0ed Thus" di33erent chemical processes can be compared to each other in terms o3 *hich one is more e33icient in resulting in the desired product The process *ith the largest atom econom! is the one that most cleanl! produces the substance that is the goal o3 the process #n modern societ!" *here *e no* recogni0e that disposing o3 un*anted b!products is e-pensi'e and potentiall! harm3ul" this method o3 comparing chemical processes pro'ides a 'er! use3ul tool in ma/ing decisions

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8ro'ided *ith the mi-ture o3 $aH%(C and $a.%(C" determine the relati'e amounts o3 $aH%(C and $a.%(C in a mi-ture o3 the t*o substances using the 7. principles o3 green chemistr! and stoichiometr! Heat the mi-ture 7O. times 3or around E minutes each 2e sure to de'ise a procedure to collect data 3or determining the relati'e amounts o3 each compound in the mi-ture

Data ollection an9 om(utation

2e sure to record data and obser'ations as !ou carr! out the 'eri3ication e-periments in an organi0ed manner There are t*o 'er! important principles o3 chemistr! that the students should be thin/ing about throughout the entire lab: (7) each substance has unique properties" *hich enables chemists to distinguish it 3rom other substances" and (.) chemists consider bene3its and ris/s in ma/ing decisions about chemical processes @reen chemistr! is a set o3 guidelines used b! chemists *hen appl!ing both o3 these principles and the second principle o3 green chemistr! (the atom econom! principle) uses both o3 these

)*&umentation an9 Documentation

As a complication to this situation" the 'er! same in'estigation the students ha'e per3ormed has been conducted b! three other scientists" *ho ha'e all submitted lab reports to the same Journal >ou *ill pro'ide the students *ith one o3 the three lab reports (at the end o3 this lab) and require the students to peer4re'ie* the lab and report on its strengths and *ea/nesses The students *ill pro'ide a *ritten re'ie* to the editor (*ho is !ou" the teacher)

3nst*uctions fo* t'e *e0ie:e*

The Journal to *hich the lab reports ha'e been submitted is a green chemistr! Journal The signature o3 this Journal is that all chemical reactions reported on are assessed 3or their Pgreenness Q There3ore" !ou *ill calculate the atom econom! o3 the reaction to contribute to the Journal?s collection o3 chemical processes" and !ou must assess the PgreennessQ o3 the chemical reaction in at least one other *a!" according to one o3 the other principles o3 green chemistr! All scientists in each group recei'e a cop! o3 the same lab report There are three di33erent lab reports" each one *ritten b! a scientist *ho conducted a similar in'estigation using the same chemical sample !ou *ill use" *ith a report o3 the results o3 the in'estigation Scientists in !our group *ill recei'e onl! one o3 the three lab reports" and all scientists in !our group *ill recei'e the same lab report Each lab report has some in3ormation that is reported *ell" according to con'entions that scientists ha'e agreed upon" and some in3ormation that is reported poorl! #n summar!" !our Job as a scientist *ho has been as/ed to participate in the peer4re'ie* process is to assess the qualit! o3 the lab report !ou are re'ie*ing" and to *rite a re'ie* o3 the lab report and submit it to the editor There are three main things !ou are assessing: 1- 1hat is the qualit! o3 the science in the lab report: 2- 1hat is the qualit! o3 the reporting the scientist did in the lab report: 3- Ho* green is the chemical reaction that is reported on: Students *ill use the re'ie* criteria and response belo* to pro'ide suggestions 3or the author o3 the lab report on ho* to impro'e it The students should *rite in complete sentences The! ma! use second person (e g " P>ou should do more o3 XQ) or third person (e g " PThe author should do more o3 XQ)" but remind the student to be consistent *ith *hiche'er one the! choose

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Be su*e to inclu9e: Lab report number re'ie*ed" date that re'ie* *as submitted" and the name o3 re'ie*er: Re0ie:e* *ite*ia an9 Res(onse F9o as t'*ee se(a*ate ('*a&*a('sH 1- A'at is t'e Mualit+ of t'e science in t'e lab *e(o*tO a 1as the in'estigation conducted *ell: b 1ere su33icient trials run to instill con3idence in the results reported: c #s there e'idence that the data *ere collected care3ull!: d Are the e-planations o3 chemistr! in the lab report correct: e Are the calculations done correctl!: 3 &oes the report account 3or an! problems in the in'estigation: 2- A'at is t'e Mualit+ of t'e *e(o*tin& t'e scientist 9i9 in t'e lab *e(o*tO a &oes the lab report communicate the in'estigation e33ecti'el!: b #s the procedure detailed enough that it can be repeated to 'eri3! the results: c 1ere the materials and equipment speci3ied su33icientl!: d Are the calculations presented clearl!: e Are an! o3 the sections o3 the lab report *ea/" and ho* can the! be strengthened: (;or e-ample: #s the procedure clear: Are the data reported e33ecti'el!:) 3- 2o: &*een is t'e c'emical (*ocess t'at is *e(o*te9O a 1hat is the atom econom! o3 the chemical reaction: To calculate this" !ou must identi3! the desired product Sho* !our calculation b 8ro'ide an argument based on a di33erent principle o3 green chemistr! 3or or against the PgreennessQ o3 the chemical process reported in the lab report

%ost.lab )ssessment
Epsom salts is a strong la-ati'e used b! 'eterinarians to treat animals" and soa/ing s*ollen 3eet or s/in *ith a rash in a *arm solution o3 Epsom salts is also sometimes prescribed b! doctors to relie'e s*elling or itchiness Epsom salts is a h!drate" *hich means that a speci3ic ratio o3 *ater molecules per unit o3 salt 3ormula regularl! repeats in the cr!stalline structure o3 Epsom salts The 3ormula 3or Epsom salts can be *ritten as MgS( DxH.(" *here the ratio o3 *ater molecules per unit o3 salt 3ormula is x:7 1hen h!drated Epsom salts is heated to at least .E6`%" all o3 the *aters o3 h!dration are lost" according to the reaction: MgS(DxH.( (s) , MgS(D (s) + x H.( (g) a 1hen C BDG g o3 Epsom salts *ere heated to constant mass at .E6`%" 7 FG. g o3 MgS( D po*der remained 1hat is the 'alue o3 x: b #3 anh!drous MgS(D is the desired product" *hat is the atom econom! o3 this reaction:

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Lab 8: 2o: an Ae Dete*mine t'e )ctual %e*centa&e of 2242 in a D*u&sto*e Bottle of 2+9*o&en %e*o<i9eO ent*al 'allen&e
This lab has t*o maJor tas/s The 3irst tas/ is to standardi0e the concentration o3 a NMn(D solution This tas/ is necessar! in order to complete the second tas/" *hich is to e'aluate ho* close commercial H.(.solutions are to their labeled concentrations

onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation

%ontainer labels pro'ide detailed in3ormation about the contents present in a gi'en container 1ho determines that in3ormation: Are there mechanisms ta/en b! manu3acturers to 'eri3! the in3ormation present on those labels: Also" *hat happens *hen container seals are bro/en: 1ill this ha'e an e33ect on the contents present in the container: These are questions students *ill address in this lab

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions#Simulations %a*t 3

The pre4lab assessment is designed to be completed b! students independentl! or in small groups #t *ill prepare them 3or de'eloping their o*n procedure" anal!0ing their data" and per3orming lab calculations A3ter students complete the pre4lab assessment" their indi'idual or small group responses should be discussed *ith the entire class 7 1hat measuring de'ices are used to obtain precise measurements o3 'olumes: 1hat measuring de'ices are used to obtain appro-imate measurements o3 'olumes: . 1rite a balanced hal34reaction 3or the reduction o3 permanganate ions in acidic solution 1hat are the o-idation states o3 manganese in this reaction: C 1rite a balanced hal34reaction 3or the o-idation o3 h!drogen pero-ide 1hat are the o-idation states o3 o-!gen in this reaction: D 1hat is the balanced reaction 3or the reduction o3 permanganate ions b! h!drogen pero-ide: Ho* man! electrons are trans3erred in this reaction: E 1rite a balanced hal34reaction 3or the o-idation o3 iron (##) ions B 1rite a balanced hal34reaction 3or the reduction o3 permanganate ions b! iron (##) ions Ho* man! electrons are trans3erred in this reaction: F 2esides iron (##) ions and h!drogen pero-ide" *hat are one or t*o other species that could be used to reduce permanganate ions: G A sample o3 o-alic acid" H.%.(D" *as anal!0ed using a standardi0ed solution o3 NMn(D .E 6 mL o3 o-alic acid is titrated a3ter heating 7. C6 mL o3 a 6 6..B M NMn(D *as added to the sample *hen a 3aint pin/ color *as obser'ed The balanced equation 3or this reaction is sho*n belo*: B H+ (a*) + . Mn(D O(a*) + E H.%.(D (a*) , 76 %(.(g) +G H.((l) + .Mn.+ (a*) a 1hat is the ratio o3 Mn(D O ions to H.%.(D molecules in this reaction: b Ho* man! moles o3 Mn(D O ions reacted *ith the gi'en amount o3 o-alic acid solution: c Ho* man! moles o3 H.%.(D*ere present: d 1hat *as the molarit! o3 the o-alic acid solution: e 1hat does the 3aint pin/ color indicate about the reaction:

%a*t 33
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This animation *ill help students see the importance o3 ta/ing care in adding the minimum amount o3 titrant to the anal!te being e-amined #t *ill also gi'e them an opportunit! to practice stoichiometric calculations used in the e-periment The P)edo- Titration in Acidic MediumQ is animated at the 3ollo*ing *ebsite: http.55group.chem.iastate.edu5)reenbowe5sections5pro>ectfolder5flashfiles5redox'ew5redox.html )espond to the 3ollo*ing questions using NMn(D as the o-idi0ing agent and ;e.+ as the reducing agent: 7 #n !our o*n *ords" *hat are the ph!sical and chemical changes that *ill occur in the s!stem as the titration is per3ormed: . Ho* much 6 6. mass: NMn(D solution should be needed i3 the solutions tested ha'e a composition o3 CK H.(.b!

&e'elop a procedure that *ill allo* 3or determination o3 the concentration o3 the NMn(D solutionS collect qualitati'e and quantitati'e data that *ill allo* 3or determination o3 the concentration o3 the NMn(D solutionS and determine the concentration o3 the NMn(D solution &o this using: 76 mL o3 NMn(D solution that is added in small portions to a E to 7E mL sample o3 an acidi3ied 6 766 ;e.+ solutionS 76 mL or less o3 B H.S(D solution is to be added in order to acidi3! the solutionS and an! o3 the equipment made a'ailable 3or the lab to collect their data Neep in mind this is an o-idationOreduction titration (method used to determine the e-act concentration or amount o3 a reactant that is used to consume another reactant) b! using a titrant (standardi0ed solution o3 one reactant) to anal!0e an anal!te (reactant o3 un/no*n quantit! or concentration) #denti3! the titrant and anal!te in 8art A o3 the e-periment

All o3 the NMn(D standardi0ation testing is to be completed be3ore begining the anal!sis o3 the H.(.solutions Students ma! *ish to use the procedure de'eloped to standardi0e the NMn(D solution *hile designing the procedure to anal!0e the H.(.solutions Each *ill be gi'en t*o di33erent H.(.solutions to titrate Students should share their data *ith each other to obtain additional data 3or the 'arious H.(.solutions and to compare their results

Data ollection an9 om(utation

7 %alculate the moles o3 NMn(D solution needed to react *ith all o3 the 6 766 each trial . %alculate the molarit! o3 the NMn(D solution 3or each trial C %alculate the a'erage molarit! o3 the NMn(D solution D %alculate the moles and mass o3 H.(.titrated 3or each trial E #3 the densit! o3 the H.(.solution titrated *as 7 66 gImL" calculate the percentage o3 H.(.in solution in each trial B %alculate the a'erage percentage o3 the H.(. solution ;e($HD).(S(D). solution 3or

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Lab 9: an t'e 3n9i0i9ual om(onents of >uic; )c'e Relief Be !se9 to Resol0e onsume* om(laintsO onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Man! drugs are s!nthesi0ed in batches and are 3requentl! made at di33erent ph!sical locations 8harmaceutical companies assign a unique number to each batch o3 a drug that is produced This number is re3erred to as a lot number and allo*s manu3acturers to trac/ an! problems that ma! arise *ith a pharmaceutical product The ;ood and &rug Administration (;&A) requires 3ood and drug manu3acturers to report products that pose a potential ris/ 3or the public #n $o'ember .677" $o'artis (T% issued a 'oluntar! recall on certain lots o3 select si0es o3 E-cedrin" $o&o0" 2u33erin" and @as4L (http.55www.no-artis(otc.com5index.html). This recall *as described as precautionar! due to potential manu3acturing errors that resulted in products containing Pstra! tablets" capsules" or caplets 3rom other products Q Most commerciall! a'ailable pain relie'ers are mi-tures that contain a number o3 di33erent substances To isolate the components o3 the tablets" students *ill need to ta/e ad'antage o3 the di33erences in chemical and ph!sical properties o3 each component 8h!sical properties can be obser'ed *ithout changing the identit! or composition o3 a substance E-amples include solubilit!" boiling point" color" and densit! %hemical properties" on the other hand" describe the *a! a substance ma! change" or react" to 3orm other substances ;or e-ample" acidic or basic substances can be con'erted to *ater4soluble salts This *ill allo* separation 3rom *ater insoluble substances in a mi-ture The =uic/ Ache )elie3 label lists sucrose as the binder and acetaminophen as the acti'e ingredient The students must separate the components o3 a sample o3 =uic/ Ache )elie3 The label on =uic/ Ache )elie3 lists the 3ollo*ing percentages: 7EK binder" GEK acetaminophen ;or e-perimental purposes" a range o3 7.KO7GK binder and G.KOGGK acetaminophen are su33icient to consider the label reasonabl! accurate 2ased on the students? e-perimental results" the! must calculate the percent b! mass o3 each component 3ound in their sample o3 =uic/ Ache )elie3 The! *ill then be able to determine the correct percentages and report the detailed e-perimental method" results" conclusions" and an! sources o3 e-perimental error

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions#Simulations

Ste( 1: To 3acilitate sa3et! and assist in designing an e33icient procedure" !ou should de'elop a Table o3 %hemicals that lists the ph!sical properties o3 the chemicals in'ol'ed in the e-periment ;or each compound" include the compound?s name" molecular 3ormula" molecular mass" and potential ha0ards The *ebsites http.55www.msdsonline.com5msds(search5 and http.55www.msds.com5 pro'ide re3erences o3 MS&S in3ormation needed to design the table 2e sure to address the 3ollo*ing questions: 7 1hat does each component ha'e in common: . 1hat are their di33erences: C 1hat sa3et! practices must be used *hen *or/ing *ith these substances: Ste( 2: As part o3 the e-perimental design" !ou *ill need to include a liquidOliquid e-traction This 'ideo clip sho*s the basics o3 using a separator! 3unnel and ho* to per3orm liquidOliquid e-tractions: http.55www.wonderhowto.com5how(to5-ideo5how(to(do(a(li*uid(li*uidextraction(in(the(chemistry(lab( 3?@A225-iew5 &etermine i3 !ou *ould be able to separate the components using t*o liquids in the same container: Ste( 3: This 'ideo clip sho*s the basics o3 using an anh!drous reagent to remo'e *ater 3rom an organic solution: http.55www.wonderhowto.com5how(to5-ideo5how(to(dry(an(organicsolution(in(the(chemistry(lab(3?@A935-iew5 #s there a *a! to remo'e *ater 3rom a liquid sol'ent: Ste( 4: 2e able to: a E-plain the di33erence(s) bet*een intramolecular and intermolecular 3orces

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b 8ro'ide 3i'e e-amples o3 e'idence o3 a chemical reaction c &escribe the ph!sical propert! that *ill help !ou determine *hich la!er in the separator! 3unnel is the aqueous la!er (containing sodium h!drogen carbonate) and *hich is the organic la!er (containing eth!l acetate) d A student *as gi'en a E 66 gram sample o3 a mi-ture containing three substances" A" 2" and % Using the ph!sical and chemical properties o3 each component" the student reco'ered . E7 grams o3 substance A" 7 CB grams o3 substance 2" and 6 HG grams o3 substance % %alculate the percent composition o3 A" 2" and % %alculate the percent reco'er!

>ou can *or/ in pairs to in'estigate the properties o3 each o3 the components and design an e-perimental procedure to separate the components o3 =uic/ Ache )elie3 Use the reagents pro'ided and in3ormation 3rom the rele'ant MS&S" and e-perimentall! determine the ph!sical and chemical characteristics o3 sucrose" acetaminophen" and aspirin (acet!lsalic!lic acid) &etermine the 3ollo*ing characteristics o3 each component: solubilit! in *ater and organic sol'ents" acidic properties" and reacti'it! *ith sodium bicarbonate and h!drochloric acid The properties o3 each component are: Suc*ose is insoluble in most organic sol'ents such as eth!l acetate" dichloromethane" and he-ane )cetamino('en and aspirin are soluble in eth!l acetate and relati'el! insoluble in *ater )s(i*in *ill react *ith sodium bicarbonate to 3orm a sodium salt" sodium acet!lsalic!late The ionic sodium salt is *ater soluble )cetamino('en does not react *ith sodium bicarbonate to 3orm a sodium salt So9ium acet+lsalic+late can react *ith h!drochloric acid to re3orm *ater insoluble aspirin &esign an e-periment to separate each component o3 =uic/ Ache )elie3 (utline the stages in'ol'ed in the e-periment ;or each stage" relate *hat?s happening chemicall! to *hat is happening e-perimentall! The method should be complete enough to allo* 3or isolation o3 each component in !our sample o3 =uic/ Ache )elie3 #nclude proper chemical names" sequencing o3 steps" times" amounts" required precision" concentrations o3 solutions" etc ;lo*charts are recommended" or this section can be presented in t*o columns

Data ollection an9 om(utation

%alculate the percent b! mass o3 each component b! di'iding the sum o3 the masses o3 all reco'ered components b! the mass o3 the =uic/ Ache )elie3 that the! started *ith multiplied b! 766 Also" ans*er each o3 the 3ollo*ing in 3ull sentences: 7 %learl! state the goal(s) o3 the e-perimentS . &iscuss the outcome o3 the e-periment and *hether the goal(s) *ere achie'edS C 8ro'ide e-perimental e'idence that support !our conclusionsS D E-plain an! potential sources o3 e-perimental errorS and E Suggest methods 3or additional anal!sis

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Lab 10: 2o: Lon& Aill T'at ,a*ble Statue LastO onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Man! historic buildings and monuments are made 3rom limestone or marble Limestone and marble are minerals that contain large amounts o3 calcium carbonate" %a%( C Since the industrial re'olution" air pollutants (chie3l! in the 3orm o3 o-ides o3 sul3ur and nitrogen) ha'e been absorbed into the atmosphere" leading to the production o3 rain*ater that has become signi3icantl! more acidic This acid rain *ill react *ith the limestone buildings" eroding the stone and causing much dis3igurement and damage

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions#Simulations %a*t 3: %*e.lab >uestions

The pre4lab guiding questions are designed to be completed as !ou thin/ about the central challenge and the conte-t o3 the in'estigation The! *ill help ensure that !ou are 3amiliar *ith the 'ocabular! and help !ou to per3orm the necessar! calculations as !ou prepare to create !our o*n procedures 7 List the 3actors that !ou thin/ ma! a33ect the speed at *hich calcium carbonate *ill react *ith acid (The h!drochloric acid *ill be a'ailable to !ou in 'ar!ing concentrations" and the calcium carbonate *ill be a'ailable in Pchun/sQ o3 'ar!ing si0e >ou *ill ha'e access to a heat source ) . #3 a chemical reaction produces a gas" suggest a *a! o3 monitoring the production o3 that gas as the reaction proceeds C &iscuss ho* increasing the sur3ace area o3 a solid might in3luence the rate o3 a chemical reaction D &iscuss ho* the speed o3 a chemical reaction is measured b! considering some macro aspect o3 the reaction { i e " something that can be obser'ed { and e-pressing that obser'ation as a 3unction o3 time C &ecisions about *hich change to obser'e are important" and *ill 'ar! *ith each unique situationIreaction &ecide *hich 3actor(s) isIare the most important and *h! 3or this chemical reaction

%a*t 33: Simulations

Various 1eb4based animations can be used to illustrate di33erent aspects o3 the theor! behind reaction /inetics 7 Can be used to in-estigate the affect of different catalysts. Tom @reenbo*e" #o*a State" decomposition o3 h!drogen pero-ide: http.55group.chem.iastate.edu5)reenbowe5sections5pro>ectfolder5flashfiles5 kinetics35rxn1ate92.html . Can be used to in-estigate temperature -ariations. Tom @reenbo*e" #o*a State" o-idation o3 iodide ions: http.55group.chem.iastate.edu5)reenbowe5sections5pro>ectfolder5flashfiles5 kinetics35kinetics.html C Can be used to simulate molecule mo-ement as a function of temperature. Uni'ersit! o3 %olorado at 2oulder" 8hET simulation: http.55phet.colorado.edu5en5simulation5reactions(and(rates D Can be used to in-estigate more sophisticated treatment of orders and rate constants. &a'id $ 2lauch" &a'idson %ollege: http.55www.chm.da-idson.edu5-ce5kinetics5%romate%romide1eaction.html

6<(lanation to St*en&t'en Stu9ent !n9e*stan9in&

The rate o3 a chemical reaction is e-plained b! collision theor! %ollision theor! can be condensed into three large ideas that appl! to the rate o3 all chemical reactions *here t*o or more molecules" atoms" or ions come together
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7 1hen substances are brought together in chemical reactions" the particles that ma/e up those substances collide *ith one another The collisions that occur bet*een the particles are the 3irst criteria 3or a reaction to ta/e place #n potential reactions *here t*o or more molecules" atoms" or ions come together *ithout those collisions" no actual reaction is possible . The collisions that ta/e place ha'e to occur *ith a certain minimum energ! That minimum energ! is called the acti'ation energ! #3 the particles collide *ith insu33icient energ! { i e " *ith an energ! less than the acti'ation energ! { no reaction occurs and the particles simpl! bounce o33 one another *ithout producing an! products %ollisions that do not result in a reaction are called Punsuccess3ul Q C The collisions must occur *ith the correct orientation { i e " the particles must come together in a certain speci3ic" ph!sical *a! in *hich the atoms Pline upQ *ith one another" allo*ing a reaction to occur ;or a collision to be Psuccess3ulQ{ i e " 3or a collision to result in a chemical reaction *here reactants turn into products { the particles o3 the reactants must 3ul3ill each o3 the three conditions o3 collision theor!

%*actice :it' 3nst*umentation an9 %*oce9u*e

1rite a testable question to address ho* certain conditions a33ect the rate o3 reaction bet*een h!drochloric acid and calcium carbonate The acid *ill be pro'ided in aqueous solution and the calcium carbonate *ill come in the 3orm o3 marble or limestone chips o3 'arious si0es A3ter obser'ing the reaction o3 calcium carbonate *ith h!drochloric acid (or marble statue *ith acid rain)" identi3! a 'ariet! o3 'ariables that could a33ect the rate o3 this reaction 1rite a testable research question using the 3ormat belo*: To *hat e-tent does A a33ect 2: (*here A is the independent 'ariable and 2 is the dependent 'ariable) Understand that each o3 the 'ariables must be measurable Also be sure to identi3! *hat data needs to be collected and ho* to collect it to ensure that the 'ariables are measureable Additionall!" /eep in mind: 7 1hich 'ariable *ill !ou measure throughout the e-periment (the dependent or independent): . 1h! are !ou measuring *hat !ou are measuring: C 1hat 3actors o3 the e-perimental setup are !ou going to hold constant: D 1hat is the ultimate goal o3 the data collection:

Since !ou ma! not ha'e much e-perience *ith the speed at *hich such reactions ma! ta/e place" !ou ma! *ant to randoml! mi- h!drochloric acid solutions and marble chips so !ou can get a sense o3 the relati'e speed o3 the reactions" and perhaps get some ideas about *hat !ou might be able to measure and obser'e #t might be use3ul to ha'e the reaction 'essel placed on an electronic balance as !ou ma/e these initial obser'ations

(nce !ou de'elop one to t*o research questions to gather data 3or" design e-periments 3or each o3 the questions to collect data that *ill allo* !ou to dra* conclusions about the e33ect o3 those 'ariables on the rate o3 this reaction The chemical reaction that *ill be studied is the reaction o3 h!drochloric acid *ith calcium carbonate" summari0ed b! the equation belo* .H%l(a*) + %a%(C(s) , %a%l.(a*) + %(. (g) + H.((l)

7 >ou *ill need to monitor some aspect o3 the reactions in order to 3ind a rate o3 reaction ;or e-ample" !ou ma! consider monitoring some change associated *ith the h!drochloric acid or marble chips (the reactants) or some change in the carbon dio-ide" *ater" or calcium chloride (the products) . #n each e-perimental design" !ou should consider the potential role o3 3actors that the! identi3ied earlier in the 8ractice section that might a33ect the rate o3 the reaction ;ormulate a h!pothesis 3or the 3actors identi3ied and
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design an e-periment that helps collect data to support or re3ute the h!potheses Accordingl!" consider the general principles behind e-perimental design" such as *hat constitutes a P3air test"Q *hich 'ariables can be manipulated and changed" and practical considerations including time constraints C (nce the initial e-perimental designs ha'e been carried out and data collected" consider impro'ements to the procedures and per3orm the in'estigations once more 1or/ in pairs *ith each group doing a slightl! di33erent e-periment 8lace the data on the board and tr! to identi3! a pattern in the data

Data ollection an9 om(utation

Ans*er the questions listed belo* a3ter completing the procedure 7 List the measurements that !ou too/ during the e-periments . %onsider ho* the data or measurements should be recorded and presented to illustrate !our 3indings and then place such data representation in a central location in the lab 3or the purpose o3 engaging in *hole4group discussion about the 'ariables that a33ect the rate o3 reaction bet*een h!drochloric acid and calcium carbonate C Use the data !ou ha'e collected to comment on !our original h!pothesis Much o3 the acid rain produced is 3rom the presence o3 sul3uric acid in rain*ater %ountries *ith coal4burning po*er plants release sul3ur dio-ide as a b!product o3 burning the coal Such sul3ur dio-ide gas combines *ith *ater and o-!gen in the atmosphere to produce sul3uric acid .S(. (g) + (. (g) ,.S(C (g) S(C (g) + H.( (l) ,H.S(D (a*) #3 this acid rain pours do*n on marble or limestone statues" such a reaction is represented belo*: H.S(D + %a%(C,%aS(D + %(. + H.(

%ost.lab )ssessment
An e-periment *as carried out in order to in'estigate the rate o3 reaction bet*een magnesium and dilute h!drochloric acid 6 6F g o3 magnesium ribbon *as reacted *ith e-cess dilute acid The 'olume o3 gas produced e'er! E 66 seconds *as recorded Seconds Volume o3 @as %ollected (mL)
6 E 76 7E .6 .E C6 CE D6 DE 6 7G CD DF EF BC BF BH F6 F6

a b c d e

8lot a graph o3 these results 1hen is the reaction 3astest: Ho* can !ou use the graph to determine *hen the reaction is the 3astest: Ho* long does it ta/e 3or the 6 6Fg o3 magnesium to react completel! *ith the dilute h!drochloric acid: Suggest t*o other 3actors that *ould alter the rate o3 this reaction 1rite a chemical reaction 3or this process

Lab 11: A'at is t'e Rate La: of t'e =a9in& of *+stal 7iolet !sin& Bee*Gs La:O onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
#3 !ou?re ma/ing something" !ou might thin/ ma/ing it to last *ould al*a!s be a good thing 2ut *hat i3 !ou?re ma/ing a pesticide *ith /no*n detrimental impacts on human health: Then !ou ma! onl! *ant it to sta! intact 3or a 3e* da!s a3ter it has been applied to crops be3ore it decomposes into *hat o3ten are less harm3ul products #3 its molecules sta! intact 3or too long" the pesticide can persist in the en'ironment and build up in drin/ing *ater #n .666" o'er .6 million /ilograms o3 the pesticide 7"C4dichloropropene (7"C4&) *ere applied to crops in the United States Scientists in'estigated the rate o3 decomposition o3 7"C4& in acidic" basic" and neutral solutions as *ell as
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in soil ;or each case" the! generated plots o3 the amount o3 intact 7"C4& persisting 'ersus time and 3ound that the reaction could be characteri0ed as pseudo 3irst4order Nno*ing the order o3 the reaction allo*ed them to determine the hal34li3e o3 intact 7"C4& #n acidic media" the! 3ound that the hal34li3e 3or the decomposition o3 7"C4& *as about eight da!s" but in the presence o3 e-cess $a(H the hal34li3e *as reduced to about 3our da!s E-perimentall! determined data li/e this is 'ital to the abilit! o3 societ! to use chemicals *isel! in impro'ing 3ood production" *hile not endangering the end consumers or the people *ho *or/ *ith the chemicals during the gro*ing process The 2eer?s la* (de'eloped #n'estigation .) emplo!ed the use o3 a spectrophotometer to obtain a calibration cur'e that *as used to con'ert ra* absorption data 3rom a spectrophotometer to molar concentration o3 a chemical in solution #n this in'estigation" students *ill 3irst use a spectrophotometer to generate a calibration cur'e 3or a chemical (%V) and then use the spectrophotometer to 3ollo* the change in the concentration o3 %V as it reacts *ith $a(H 2! recording these changes through time and anal!0ing them graphicall!" !ou *ill be able to obtain the rate la* o3 the reaction" *hich ma! be used to predict the beha'ior o3 the s!stem under different e-perimental conditions *ithout doing the actual e-periments

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions#Simulations

Ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions on de'eloping a procedure 3or accomplishing the central challenge o3 this lab %a*t 3: 8ui9in& >uestions These questions are designed to guide" but not dictate" !our de'elopment o3 the appropriate e-perimental protocol 2! ans*ering them" !ou *ill de'elop a procedure to accomplish the goal o3 determining the rate la* 3or the reaction bet*een cr!stal 'iolet and sodium h!dro-ide =uestions 7 and . relate to the 2eer?s la* calibration cur'e 3rom 8art 7 o3 the procedure" *hile the remaining questions relate to 8art ." the reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H Though some questions rel! on in3ormation 3ound in the 3ollo*ing E-planation section and in their chemistr! te-tboo/" !ou *ill also need to emplo! critical reasoning s/ills to address man! o3 the questions 7 Ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions about the selection o3 a *a'elength 3or !our e-periment a 2ased on the absorption spectrum o3 .E r cr!stal 'iolet in ;igure 7 and ta/ing into account the considerations that 3ollo*" *hat *a'elength should !ou use 3or the 2eer?s la* calibration cur'e and subsequent reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H: 8lease e-plain !our ans*er $ote that b! using a spectrophotometer" there are man! *a'elengths a'ailable T*o main 3actors to consider" *or/ing in opposition to each other" are sensiti'it! and range These instruments are t!picall! not sensiti'e enough to reliabl! measure absorbance 'alues much abo'e 7 6 absorbance units >et the absorbance at the chosen *a'elength should be high enough that it can 'ar! o'er a *ide range o3 'alues during the reaction b Simulate the instrument readings !ou *ill get in 8art 7 o3 the e-periment b! doing the 3ollo*ing: Trace ;igure 7 onto !our o*n paper &ra* a 'ertical line at the *a'elength !ou ha'e chosen" intersecting the absorbance cur'e at that *a'elength 1here !our 'ertical line intersects the absorbance cur'e is the absorbance 'alue !our instrument should read 3or the stoc/ .E r %V solution Neeping in mind 2eer?s la* 3rom Equation 7" and being mind3ul that the *a'elength and path length are 3i-ed" dra* L?s on !our 'ertical line *here !ou e-pect the absorbance 'alues *ill be 3or the diluted solutions !ou prepare in =uestion . Use appropriate ratios o3 concentrations to determine *here on the 'ertical line to ma/e !our mar/s . A calibration cur'e requires the preparation o3 a set o3 /no*n concentrations o3 %V" *hich are usuall! prepared b! diluting a stoc/ solution *hose concentration is /no*n &escribe ho* to prepare 76 mL o3 a E4" 764" 7E4" and .64 r %V solution using a .E r %V stoc/ solution C &uring the reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H" do !ou e-pect the spectrophotometer?s absorbance reading to change: Ho* do !ou e-pect it to change i3 such a change is anticipated (i e " increase" decrease" or no change) as the reaction proceeds: E-plain !our reasoning D Ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions 3or a reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H in these t*o scenarios: a solution *ith a 7:7 $a(H:%V mole ratio and a solution similar to *hat !ou *ill be using *ith a 7666:7 $a(H:%V mole ratio
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a Using !our prior /no*ledge o3 reaction stoichiometr!" *hat is the 3inal percentage o3 each reactant remaining i3 each reaction *ent to completion: Sho* *or/ and reasoning to Justi3! !our ans*er b 2ased on this result" describe ho* one gets Equations C and D 3rom Equation . in the E-planation section E Using the /inetics chapter in !our te-tboo/ and *ebsites li/e P%hemical Ninetics O #ntegrated rate la*sQ http.55www.chm.da-idson.edu5-ce5kinetics5Integrated1ate=aws.html " describe the graphical anal!sis that can be done to determine the order (considering onl! 6th" 7st" or .nd order) and the 'alue o3 the pseudo4rate constant" /Y" o3 a chemical reaction 3rom concentration data collected through time B 2ased on !our ans*er to =uestions COE" design an e-periment 3or the reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H and describe the subsequent data anal!sis to accomplish the %entral %hallenge" the determination o3 the 'alue o3 (i) *" the order *ith respect to %V and (ii) /Y" the pseudo4rate constant 3ound in the rate la* in Equation C ;or simplicit!" use 76 mL 3or the combined 'olume o3 %V and $a(H because it is a bit more than enough to 3ill cu'ettes appropriatel! 8art ##: Simulations As the pre'ious lab on /inetics (#n'estigation 76) in this manual addressed" there are a number o3 animations and simulations that illustrate the 3actors that in3luence the rate o3 a reaction co'ered in Learning (bJecti'e D 7 Ho*e'er" there are 3e* animations or simulations that directl! address the Learning (bJecti'e D . 3or this lab (ne simulation addressing components o3 L ( D ." P%hemical Ninetics: #ntegrated )ate La*s"Q is 3ound to*ard the bottom o3 &a'idson %ollege?s 1eb page: http.55www.chm.da-idson.edu5-ce5kinetics5Integrated1ate=aws.html The te-t to*ard the bottom o3 that page describes a chemical reaction *hose progress can be trac/ed *ith a simulated stopped 3lo* e-periment #t produces a graph o3 concentration 'ersus time that students can see trans3ormed to natural log o3 concentration and reciprocal concentration to chec/ i3 the reaction is 6th" 7st" or . nd order

6<(lanation to St*en&t'en Stu9ent !n9e*stan9in&

As seen in #n'estigation ." 2eer?s la* is gi'en b! Equation 7 here Absorbance W absorpti'it! constant a path length a concentration 6Muation 1 ;or a 3i-ed concentration o3 solute and a 3i-ed path length (e g " 3i-ed cu'ette *idth)" the amount o3 light absorbed b! a solution 'aries directl! *ith the absorpti'it! constant o3 the solute ;igure 7 belo* sho*s the 'isible light absorbance spectrum o3 %V 3or a 3i-ed" .E rM" concentration o3 %V and a 3i-ed" 7 6 cm" path length 2ecause concentration and path length are both /ept constant" ;igure 7 re'eals ho* the absorpti'it! constant 3or %V 'aries *ith the *a'elength o3 light passing through the solution ;igure 7 *as generated b! a spectrophotometer A colorimeter is an instrument *hich" li/e a spectrophotometer" measures ho* much light is absorbed *hen passed through a sample but does so 3or onl! a 3e*" predetermined *a'elengths o3 light set b! the manu3acturer #3 *e still /eep the path length 3i-ed" but no* choose onl! one particular *a'elength o3 light to pass through the solution" thereb! 3i-ing the absorpti'it! constant" students can then obser'e ho* the absorbance o3 light at that *a'elength changes as the! change the concentration o3 %V Under these conditions" 2eer?s la* describes a straight4line relationship 3or a graph o3 absorbance 'ersus solute concentration *hose slope is simpl! the product o3 the molar absorpti'it! constant and path length #n the reaction o3 %V and sodium h!dro-ide (see ;igure .)" the d!e?s color *ill 3ade as it reacts *ith sodium h!dro-ide A colorimeter (or spectrophotometer) *ill be used to 3ollo* the disappearance through time o3 %V b! measuring the absorbance o3 a solution o3 %V during its reaction *ith $a(H The ra* absorbance measurements 3rom the colorimeter (or spectrophotometer) can be trans3ormed to molar concentration o3 %V 'ia the use o3 a 2eer?s la* calibration cur'e The net ionic equation 3or the reaction can be *ritten as %V+ (aq) + (HO(aq) , %V(H (aq)
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rate W / ^%V+_* ^(HO_0 6Muation 2 *here / is the rate constant *hile * and 0 are the order o3 the reaction *ith respect to %V+ and (H4" respecti'el! Under certain e-perimental conditions (see pre4lab =uestion D)" the rate la* in Equation . simpli3ies to the 3ollo*ing equation: rate W /Y ^%V+_* 6Muation 3 1here /Y W / ^(HO_0 6Muation 4 and /Y is the pseudo4rate constant Equation C is re3erred to as the pseudo4rate la*" since it is an appro-imation to Equation ." the actual rate la*" and signi3icantl! simpli3ies the anal!sis A di33erential rate la* describes the rate o3 a chemical reaction as a 3unction o3 the concentration o3 the reactants" *hile an integrated rate la* describes the concentration o3 a reactant as a 3unction o3 timeS both t!pes o3 rate la*s are related to each other b! the use o3 calculus Equation C is a di33erential rate la*" in *hich a graphical anal!sis o3 the corresponding integrated rate la* can be used to determine the 'alue o3 the parameters in Equation C using least4squares linear regression anal!sis The degree or e-tent o3 linear 3it ma! be e'aluated using the coe33icient o3 determination (or square o3 the correlation coe33icient)" i e " it ma! be used to identi3! the graph that has a linear relationship ;igure C sho*s concentration data plotted 'ersus time 3or three different h!pothetical chemical reactions ;rom plots li/e these and /no*ledge o3 integrated rate la*s 3ound in !our te-t or at online resources" one can determine the e-ponents in the rate la* equation All reactions ha'e the same numerical 'alue 3or their initial reactant concentration and the rate constant

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%*oce9u*e: T'e ollection of 6<(e*imental

Data to 8ene*ate a alib*ation u*0e Use !our ans*ers to pre4lab =uestion 7 to select a *a'elength 3or use in 8art 7 to generate a 2eer?s la* calibration cur'e relating ra* absorbance 'alues to %V concentration and in 8art . to trac/ absorbance during the reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H Use !our ans*er to pre4lab =uestion . to guide !our preparation o3 solutions that can be used to correlate absorbance *ith %V concentration b! generating a 2eer?s la* calibration cur'e Ma/e sure !ou use an appropriate blan/ to 0ero out the spectrometer be3ore ta/ing absorbance measurements

3n0esti&ation : &etermine the rate la* 3or the reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H
%*oce9u*e The pre4lab questions guide !ou to consider di33erent 3actors in'ol'ed in designing an e-periment to address the %entral %hallenge" the determination o3 the rate la* gi'en in Equation ." rate W / ^%V+_* ^(H4_0" 3or the reaction bet*een %V and $a(H 8re4lab =uestion D addresses the issue o3 ho* to ensure that Equation C (rate W /Y ^%V+_*) is a 'alid appro-imation to Equation . The anal!sis described in pre4lab =uestion B requires that !ou /no* the concentration o3 %V throughout the course o3 the reaction The concentration o3 %V can be obtained 3rom ra* absorbance data b! appl!ing the 2eer?s la* calibration cur'e 3ormula !ou obtained during the 8ractice 8re4lab =uestion B as/s !ou to design an e-periment to determine the 'alue o3 * and /Y 3ound in Equations C and D 2oth * and /Y can be determined b! ma/ing appropriate plots o3 !our data 3rom the reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H and chec/ing 3or linear relationships Use !our ans*er to pre4lab =uestion G to decide during the e-periment *hen to stop collecting absorbance data to get the clearest distinction bet*een 6th4" 7st4" and .nd4order reactions during !our post4lab graphical anal!sis T!pical cu'ette si0es range 3rom about D mL to about B mL Ma/ing 76 mL o3 solution and pouring it into the cu'ette is one approach students can tr! ;or the 3irst reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H" a blan/ could be made 3rom B 66 mL distilled *ater + D 66 mL 6 .66 $a(H This has e'er!thing but the %V" to 0ero the absorbance reading Then to per3orm the actual reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H" students *ould combine B 66 mL .E 6 rM %V *ith D 66 mL o3 6 .66 $a(H Students should quic/l! trans3er the reacting solution to the calorimeter and collect the absorbance 'ersus time data 3or the 3ading o3 cr!stal 'iolet The period o3 time 3or data collection o3 absorbance through time should ta/e 76 minutes or 3e*er to progress 3ar enough 2ecause students can?t actuall! see the %V 3ade *hile it is in the instrument" !ou ma! *ant to ha'e students record obser'ations o3 *hat happens to the e-cess reactant mi-ture ;or the optional determination o3 / and 0 in'ol'ing a reaction o3 %V *ith a di33erent concentration o3 $a(H" i3 students choose to use hal3 the pre'ious concentration (6 766 $a(H) then the! can simpl! per3orm the dilution b! combining the same B 66 mL .E 6 rM %V *ith a ne* . 66 mL o3 distilled *ater and . 66 mL o3 6 .66 $a(H The combination o3 . 66 mL o3 distilled *ater and . 66 mL o3 6 .66 $a(H e33ecti'el! produces D 66 mL o3 a 6 766 $a(H solution that is the same 'olume but hal3 the concentration o3 the 6 .66 $a(H solution used pre'iousl! $ote that the blan/ 3or this scenario *ould need to be di33erent 3rom be3ore { G 66 mL o3 distilled *ater *ith . 66 mL o3 6 .66 $a(H

Data ollection an9 om(utation

The success3ul completion o3 this laborator! in'estigation in'ol'es !our appropriate use o3 mathematics to anal!0e the e-perimental data to obtain the rate la* o3 a chemical reaction The pre4lab questions are designed to guide !ou in the anal!sis o3 the data &ata4anal!sis so3t*are ma! be used to conduct the appropriate graphical anal!sis and an! data trans3ormations prior to !our graphical anal!sis To determine /Y and *" !ou should ha'e done the 3ollo*ing:

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%ollected t*o sets o3 data absorbance 'ersus ^%V_ 3or the 2eer?s la* calibration cur'e absorbance 'ersus time 3or the reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H Mathematicall! trans3ormed three sets o3 data absorbance 'ersus time to ^%V_ 'ersus time using the equation o3 the best43it line 3or the 2eer?s la* calibration 3ormula According to 2eer?s la*" A W abc *here" 3or this e-periment" A W absorbance o3 %V" a W the 'alue o3 the molar absorpti'it! constant 3or %V at the chosen *a'elength" b W the path length (7 cm 3or a standard cu'ette)" and c W ^%V_ The best43it line o3 absorbance 'ersus concentration *ill ha'e a slope equal to aYb that can be used to trans3orm absorbance data to concentration data 'ia c W AI(ab) or c W AIslope ^%V_ 'ersus time to ln(^%V_) 'ersus time ^%V_ 'ersus time to 7I^%V_ 'ersus time @enerated 3i'e plots" 3our o3 *hich are 3it to the equation o3 a straight line absorbance 'ersus ^%V_ 3it to the equation o3 a straight line 3or the 2eer?s la* calibration absorbance 'ersus time" the ra* data 3rom the reaction o3 %V *ith $a(H" not 3it to a straight line ^%V_ 'ersus time 3it to the equation o3 a straight line { i3 linear" reaction is 6th order *ith respect to %V ln(^%V_) 'ersus time 3it to the equation o3 a straight line { i3 linear" reaction is 7 st order This plot should be linear since the accepted ans*er is that the reaction is 7st order *ith respect to %V ^Thompson and Ting .66D_ So * should equal 7 The slope equals O/Y 7I^%V_ 'ersus time 3it to the equation o3 a straight line { i3 linear" reaction is .nd order *ith respect to %V

)*&umentation an9 Documentation

<usti3! the selection o3 the e-perimental protocol and the subsequent data anal!sis to determine the rate la* o3 this chemical reaction

%ost.lab )ssessment
8repare and submit a lab report according to outlined guidelines" ensuring the reports include appropriate graphs and data anal!sis to support the ans*er to the %entral %hallenge %learl! support *ith e'idence 3rom the 'alues obtained 3or * and /Y

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Lab 12: T'e 2an9 Aa*me* Desi&n 'allen&e: A'e*e Does t'e 2eat ome =*omO onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Ha'e !our 3ingers e'er been so cold the! 3elt numb: 1ouldn?t it be great i3 !ou could generate heat to *arm !our hands up an!time !ou *ant to: That?s e-actl! *hat a Phand *armerQ does Hand *armers are small pac/ets that people put inside glo'es or mittens on cold da!s to /eep their 3ingers *arm The! are 'er! popular *ith people *ho *or/ outside in *inter or engage in *inter sports (ne t!pe o3 hand *armer contains *ater in one section o3 the pac/et and a soluble substance in another section 1hen the pac/et is squee0ed the *ater and the soluble substance are mi-ed" the solid dissol'es and the pac/et becomes *arm #n this e-periment" students *ill learn ho* a hand *armer *or/s and use chemistr! to design an e33ecti'e" sa3e" en'ironmentall! benign" and ine-pensi'e hand *armer

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions#Simulations

The 3ollo*ing animation and associated questions are not required 3or students to per3orm the lab but can be used to strengthen students? mental models o3 the particulate nature or matter An animation sho*ing the dissolution o3 an ionic compound on the particulate le'el can be 3ound on the *ebsite %hemistr! E-periment Simulations and %onceptual %omputer Animations: http.55group.chem.iastate.edu5)reenbowe5sections5pro>ectfolder5flashfiles5thermochem5solution0alt.html The goal o3 this pre4lab and discussion is 3or students to identi3! the particulate4le'el changes that occur *hen an ionic salt dissol'es in *ater" to understand that energ! must be added to separate the cations and anions in the solid salt and energ! is released during the 3ormation o3 the *aterOion h!dration spheres" and to recogni0e that the magnitude o3 the energ! changes 3or these t*o parts o3 the dissolution process depends on the identit! o3 the cations and anions in the salt Students should *or/ *ith their lab partners to ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions 7 &escribe the changes !ou obser'e in the animation" including changes in the bonds and particulate attractions and changes in the amount o3 disorder in the s!stem . 1hen sodium chloride is dissol'ed in *ater" the temperature o3 the resulting solution is lo*er than the temperature o3 the *ater be3ore the salt dissol'es Ho* can this result be e-plained based on the bond brea/ing and bond ma/ing that is occurring: C 1h! do some salts" such as sodium chloride" dissol'e spontaneousl! e'en though the process is endothermic o'erall: D 1hen some ionic salts are dissol'ed in *ater" the temperature o3 the resulting solution is higher than the temperature o3 the *ater be3ore the salt dissol'es 1hat do !ou thin/ determines *hether the resulting solution is cooler or *armer than the starting *ater:

6<(lanation to St*en&t'en Stu9ent !n9e*stan9in&

2rea/ing bonds and particulate attractions absorb energ! 3rom the surroundings" *hile 3orming ne* bonds and particulate attractions release energ! to the surroundings 1hen an ionic solid dissol'es in *ater" ionic bonds bet*een cations and anions in the ionic solid and h!drogen bonds bet*een *ater molecules are bro/en" and ne* attractions bet*een *ater molecules and anions and *ater molecules and cations are 3ormed The amount o3 energ! required to brea/ these bonds and 3orm ne* ones depends on the chemical properties o3 the particular anions and cations There3ore" *hen some ionic solids dissol'e" more energ! is required to brea/ the cationOanion bonds than is released in 3orming the ne* *aterOion attractions" and the o'erall process absorbs energ! in the 3orm o3 heat 1hen other ionic compounds dissol'e" the con'erse is true" and the bond ma/ing releases more energ! than the bond brea/ing absorbs" and there3ore the process o'erall releases heat 1hen heat is absorbed" the enthalp! change" *" is endothermic" and the enthalp! change is positi'e 1hen heat is released" the change is e-othermic" and the 'alue o3 * is negati'e The entrop! change o3 solution 3ormation is al*a!s positi'e" regardless o3 *hether it is endothermic or e-othermic" because solutions are much more disordered than are the pure solute and sol'ent 3rom *hich the! are made This positi'e entrop! change is thermod!namicall! 3a'orable
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8art 7 (%alorimetr! 8ractice) Assemble !our calorimeter on a magnetic stirrer Measure out e-actl! 766 6 mL *ater in a graduated c!linder and pour into !our calorimeter Measure and record the temperature o3 the *ater Add a stir bar and turn on the stirrer so the *ater is stirring *ithout splashing Measure E 66 g magnesium sul3ate anh!drate solid into a *eigh dish 1hile monitoring the temperature o3 the *ater" quic/l! add all o3 the magnesium sul3ate to the calorimeter )ecord the highest temperature reached &ilute the resulting solution *ith *ater and dispose o3 it per !our teacher?s instructions )epeat the e-periment ;or each trial 3ind the temperature change o3 the *ater per gram o3 magnesium sul3ate" and a'erage this 'alue 3or the t*o trials %hec/ to ma/e sure that !our a'erage temperature change is *ithin 76K o3 the e-pected 'alue (bet*een F 6`%OG E`%) #3 it is not" repeat the e-periment" measuring and monitoring the temperature care3ull! and ensuring that all o3 the solid is dissol'ed" and rechec/ !our results *ith !our instructor 8art . (%alorimeter %alibration 8rocedure) 8lace a 766 6 mL sample o3 *ater in a clean" dr! 7E6 mL bea/er Heat *ith occasional stirring to appro-imatel! E6`% )emo'e the bea/er 3rom the hot plate and place on the lab bench Mean*hile" place e-actl! 766 6 mL o3 cool *ater (appro-imatel! .6`%) in the clean" dr! calorimeter Measure the temperature o3 the hot *ater and the cold *ater and record" then immediatel! pour the entire hot *ater sample into the calorimeter and quic/l! put on the co'er 1ait 7E seconds then ta/e a temperature reading )epeat this determination t*ice

&esign and e-ecute an e-perimental procedure to determine *hich o3 three ionic compounds is most suitable 3or use in a hand *armer )e'ie* the criteria 3or an ideal hand *armer 3rom the %entral %hallenge ;or each solid students need to consider sa3et!" cost" and en'ironmental impact as *ell as the amount o3 heat released or absorbed %*oce9u*e Use the 3ollo*ing steps to design the procedure 3or this in'estigation: 7 Sa3et! and En'ironmental #mpact: (btain the MS&S 3or !our three solids 3rom !our teacher )e'ie* each one" ma/ing notes about sa3et! concerns" necessar! precautions" and disposal . %ost: )an/ the solids !ou are gi'en 3rom least to most e-pensi'e C Heat o3 Solution: 1or/ *ith !our group to design a procedure to compare the solids in terms o3 the heat released or absorbed *hen the! dissol'e and include *hat materials and equipment !ou *ill use >ou must include the sa3et! precautions !ou *ill ta/e #mportant procedure tips: 7 2e sure to /eep detailed records o3 the amounts o3 substances used and the starting and ending temperature as !ou *ill need it later to determine the amount o3 solid to use in !our hand *armer . >ou *ill recei'e a ma-imum o3 76 g o3 each solid 3or this part

Data ollection an9 om(utation

#n this e-periment" !ou *ill collect data that *ill allo* !ou to calculate the change o3 enthalp! o3 dissolution (also called the Pheat o3 solution"Q *ith s!mbol f<soln" and units o3 /<Imol solute) occurring in aqueous solution The data necessar! to calculate the heat o3 solution can be obtained using a calorimeter %alorimeter %onstant &etermination: According to the la* o3 conser'ation o3 energ!" energ! cannot be created or destro!ed" onl! changed 3rom one 3orm to another or trans3erred 3rom one s!stem to another The temperature change obser'ed *hen *ater or an! substance changes temperature can be a result o3 a trans3er o3 energ! 3rom the substance to the surroundings (in *hich case the temperature o3 the substance decreases) or the surroundings to the substance (in *hich case the *ater trans3ers some o3 its thermal energ! to the cool *ater The la* o3 conser'ation o3 energ! dictates that the amount o3 thermal energ! lost (or the enthalp! change) b! the hot *ater" *hot" is equal to the enthalp! change o3 the cool *ater" *cold" but opposite in sign" so *hot W O *cold The enthalp! change 3or an! substance is directl! related to the mass o3 substance" mS the speci3ic heat
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capacit! (a substance4speci3ic constant)" cS and the temperature change" f, The relationship is e-pressed mathematicall! in the equation * W mcf, The speci3ic heat capacit! o3 *ater is D 7GD <Io%`g Ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions 7a %alculate the enthalp! change o3 the cool *ater using the equation *hot W mhotcf,hot Assume that the densit! o3 *ater is e-actl! 7 gImL #s this an endothermic or e-othermic process: E-plain 7b %alculate the enthalp! change o3 hot *ater using the equation *cold W mcoldcf,cold Assume that the densit! o3 *ater is e-actl! 7gImL #s this an endothermic or e-othermic process: E-plain 7c These amounts are not equal because the calorimeter (the co33ee cups) absorbs some o3 the thermal energ! trans3erred b! the hot *ater Thus under the real conditions obser'ed in the laborator! the la* o3 conser'ation o3 energ! equation becomes *hot W O(*cold + *cal)" *here *cal is the enthalp! change o3 the calorimeter Use this equation to calculate the enthalp! change o3 the calorimeter 7d The calorimeter constant" C" is the heat absorbed b! the calorimeter per degree o3 temperature change" C W *calIf,cal Assuming the starting temperature o3 the calorimeter is the same as the cold *ater" calculate the calorimeter constant in units o3 Joules per degree %elsius . The solid and *ater" considered together" ha'e a certain amount o3 internal energ! as a 3unction o3 the bonds that e-ist in the solid and in the *ater The solution that is produced as a result o3 the dissol'ing has a di33erent amount o3 internal energ! than the solid and *ater did because the arrangement o3 particles and the bonds and attractions bet*een the particles in the solution are di33erent bonds and particulate attractions than the arrangement o3 particles and the bonds and attractions bet*een the particles in the solid and *ater The di33erence in energ!" *soln" is the reason 3or the di33erence in the thermal energ! o3 the t*o s!stems (solid and pure *ater 'ersus solution)" *ith s!mbol *rxn <ust as *ith the hot and cold *ater in the calorimeter constant determination" *soln and *rxn are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign" *rxn W O*soln And Just as in that case o3 the cold and hot *ater mi-ing" the calorimeter *ill also e-perience an enthalp! change during the solution 3ormation process To account 3or this enthalp! change" the relationship is adJusted to *soln W O(*rxn + Cf,) *here C is the calorimeter constant determined abo'e This di33erence in thermal energ! o3 the s!stem be3ore and a3ter solution 3ormation" *soln" can be calculated using the relationship *rxn W mcf," *here m is the total mass o3 the solution and c is the speci3ic heat capacit! o3 the solution and f, is the temperature change o3 the solution #t is important to note that *e *ill assume that the heat capacit! o3 the solutions is the same as pure *ater but in realit! the solutions do not ha'e e-actl! the same heat capacit!" and this assumption a33ects the accurac! o3 this determination Using this in3ormation" calculate *soln and *rxn 3or all three solids !ou tested 3or !our hand *armer C 2! con'ention" scientists report enthalp! changes 3or dissolution (and man! other processes) in units o3 /iloJoules per mole o3 solute dissol'ed Using !our 'alues o3 *soln" calculate the enthalp! in units o3 /iloJoules per mole This quantit! has the s!mbol f<soln D 2ased on the cost in3ormation pro'ided" and !our e-perimental *or/ and calculations" select *hich chemical !ou belie'e *ill ma/e the most cost4e33ecti'e hand *armer The hand *armer !ou are designing needs to increase in temperature b! .6`% %alculate the amount o3 the compound !ou selected that *ould be required 3or a hand *armer that meets this requirement

)*&umentation an9 Documentation

1rite a paragraph in *hich !ou describe all o3 the 3actors !ou considered as *ell as e-plain !our rationale 3or choosing one chemical and not each o3 the other chemicals studied in this e-periment >our paragraph should start *ith a claim sentence that clearl! states !our choice and the amount o3 substance to use The claim should be 3ollo*ed b! e'idence 3rom !our e-periment and cost and sa3et! anal!sis The paragraph should conclude *ith reasoning" e-plaining ho* !our e'idence supports !our claim

%ost.lab )ssessment
7 Are the dissol'ing processes !ou carried out endothermic or e-othermic or neither: E-plain !our thin/ing
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. &issol'ing ionic compounds in'ol'es the separation o3 the solid ionic compound into cations and anions in *ater This process can be represented b! an equation sho*ing the solid as a reactant and the aqueous ions as products The heat o3 reaction" f<soln" is *ritten a3ter the products" t!picall! in units o3 /<Imol E-ample: Sodium h!dro-ide dissol'es e-othermicall!" releasing DD . /iloJoules per mole dissol'ed This process is represented as $a(H(s) , $a+ (aq) + (HO (aq)" f <soln W ODD ./<Imol 1rite an equation to represent the dissol'ing process 3or each salt !ou studied #nclude !our calculated heat o3 reaction as in the e-ample C %hanges in matter are generall! classi3ied as ph!sical or chemical" based on *hether ne* substances are 3ormed through the process &oes dissol'ing represent a ph!sical change" a chemical change" or an intermediate change: E-plain !our reasoning" including e'idence 3rom the animation !ou 'ie*ed D Share !our calculated 'alues o3 f<soln *ith !our classmates and obtain their 'alues a &etermine the class a'erage 'alue and standard de'iation 3or each solid b ;ind the published 'alue o3 f<`soln 3or each solid and determine the K error in the class a'erage 'alue E 1hat possible sources o3 error could a33ect the accurac! o3 !our calculated 'alue o3 the amount o3 solid in !our hand *armer: List at least t*o and *hat e33ect the! *ould ha'e on the temperature change

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Lab 13 : an Ae ,a;e t'e olo*s of t'e Rainbo:O )n )((lication of Le '[telie*Gs %*inci(le onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Until no*" most o3 the reactions studied ha'e been assumed to go to completion #n these reactions" a color change *as obser'ed" a precipitate 3ormed" or a gas e'ol'ed *ith bubbling or 3i00ing These reactions had been carried out under conditions that 3a'or product 3ormation #n 3act" though" 3or man! chemical changes" under the correct conditions" the reaction does not go all the *a! to completionS rather" chemists sa! that an equilibrium state is reached" *ith some amounts o3 all reactants and products present in 'ar!ing amounts (ne equilibrium s!stem that is constantl! being stressed b! changes in reaction conditions is responsible 3or the transport o3 o-!gen and carbon dio-ide in our bodies The o-!gen" (." is in equilibrium *ith the o-!genated (Hb(.) and deo-!genated (Hb) 3orms o3 hemoglobin" the iron4containing molecule in the blood that PcarriesQ o-!gen to our cells and carbon dio-ide bac/ to the lungs The equilibrium can be represented as: Hb + (. [ Hb(. #n the lungs" the pressure o3 the o-!gen is relati'el! high" so the reaction conditions" the Pequilibrium"Q is said to 3a'or the 3ormation o3 Hb(. there The o-!gen rich blood then lea'es the lungs and is carried to the cells o3 the bod! (nce the o-!genated hemoglobin reaches the cells *here it is needed" the pressure o3 o-!gen is much lo*er and the equilibrium no longer 3a'ors Hb(." but rather the re'erse (Hb) Thus" as a result o3 these ne* reaction conditions" the o-!gen is PreleasedQ into the cell as the equilibrium is said to no* 3a'or the reactants At the same time" the pressure o3 carbon dio-ide is ele'ated in the cell and so the %(. molecule binds to the Hb molecule in an equilibrium similar to that responsible 3or o-!gen transport 1hen the blood reaches the lungs again" the carbon dio-ide is PreleasedQ 3rom the hemoglobin as the pressure o3 %( . is no* lo*er and the reactants (Hb and %(.) are no* 3a'ored

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions#Simulations

8rior to the lab it *ould be use3ul to *atch the 3ollo*ing three animations ans*er the questions posed Animation 7: %obalt %hloride Equilibrium http.55group.chem.iastate.edu5)reenbowe5sections5pro>ectfolder5animations5CoCl3e*uilBA.html 7 Ho* does adding the %l4 ions to the cobalt comple- ion change the reaction conditions: . Ho* does adding *ater to the blue comple- ion change the reaction conditions: C 1h! do these changes in conditions cause reactions to occur: 8ro'ide equations to illustrate ho* these changes in reaction conditions alter the position o3 the equilibrium Animation .: $(. I$.(D Equilibrium http.55group.chem.iastate.edu5)reenbowe5sections5pro>ectfolder5animations5no3n3oCe*uilBA.html 7 Each time the animation stops count the number o3 $(. and $.(D molecules present 1hat do !ou obser'e: . A3ter *atching the animation panels that include the !ello* arro*s" describe *hat is happening simultaneousl! to /eep the number o3 each t!pe o3 molecule constant C E-plain ho* this animation illustrates the d!namic nature o3 equilibrium Animation C: 2romine @asILiquid Equilibrium http.55group.chem.iastate.edu5)reenbowe5sections5pro>ectfolder5animations5e*uil-p%r3BA.html 7 1hen the animation stops" count the number o3 2r. (l)and 2r. (g) molecules present 1hat do !ou obser'e: . #s this a chemical equilibrium or a ph!sical equilibrium: C Ho* *ould !ou design an e-periment to determine i3 this animation is an accurate representation o3 *hat actuall! occurs:

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6<(lanation to St*en&t'en Stu9ent !n9e*stan9in&

#n the introduction" the equilibrium s!stem that is responsible 3or the transport o3 o-!gen and carbon dio-ide in !our bodies *as introduced A related equilibrium in'ol'es carbon mono-ide" a colorless" odorless gas that is produced b! incomplete combustion and is poisonous to li'ing organisms %arbon mono-ide (%() reacts *ith hemoglobin in an equilibrium similar to that o3 o-!gen: Hb + %( [ Hb%( The reason that carbon mono-ide is so poisonous is that the a33init! bet*een hemoglobin and carbon mono-ide is appro-imatel! .66 times stronger than the a33init! bet*een hemoglobin and o-!gen so hemoglobin binds more strongl! to carbon mono-ide This means that a carbon mono-ide poisoning 'ictim *ill be star'ed o3 o-!gen because carbon mono-ide rather than o-!gen is being transported in the blood 2ecause the a33init! bet*een carbon mono-ide and hemoglobin is so strong" lo* concentrations o3 carbon mono-ide can be harm3ul #n the United States" the (ccupational Sa3et! and Health Administration ((HSA) limits long4term *or/place e-posure le'els to less than E6 ppm a'eraged o'er an G4hour period and i3 a le'el o3 766 ppm is reached emplo!ees must be e'acuated 3rom the area as it is unsa3e The s!mptoms include headaches and dro*siness at lo*er e-posure le'els" and unconsciousness andIor death *ith le'els in e-cess o3 7666 ppm 3or an hour Treatment 3or carbon mono-ide poisoning in'ol'es the administration o3 o-!gen at high pressures" *hich increases the amount o3 o-!genated hemoglobin (Hb(.) in the bloodstream %hemical equilibrium means that there are 3or*ard and re'erse reactions occurring simultaneousl! at equal rates This means that the amounts o3 both the reactants and the products remain constant $o net change in amount occurs To the outside obser'er it loo/s as i3 nothing is happening because on the macroscopic scale" no properties o3 the reaction s!stem change Equilibrium s!stems can be described mathematicall! using the concentrations o3 solutions or pressures o3 gases in the mass action e-pression The equilibrium constant is the mathematical result o3 these calculations This equilibrium constant?s speci3ic 'alue is dependent upon the temperature at *hich the reaction occurs ;or the generali0ed reaction: aA(a*) + b2(a*) [ c%(a*) + d&(a*)

Nc W

^%_c^&_d ^A_a^2_b

*here ;c is the equilibrium constant" and ^ _ denotes the concentration o3 each substance The onl! substances included in the e-pression are those that ha'e a concentration { that is" substances that are pure (solids or liquids) are not included in the e-pression The sol'ent" *ater" is also omitted 3rom the e-pression 3or dilute solutions as the concentration o3 *ater does not change appreciabl!

Students ha'e been as/ed b! the chemistr! department to design a displa! 3or the department?s sho*case illustrating the use o3 Le %hAtelier?s principle to produce the colors o3 the rainbo* At a minimum" the! must ha'e red" orange" !ello*" green" blue" and 'iolet As students /no*" the stresses that can be applied include adding or remo'ing a reactant or product" increasing or lo*ering the temperature o3 the s!stem" and increasing or lo*ering the pressure on a gas sample b! adJusting the 'olume The students? goal is to use as man! di33erent stresses as possible in producing their displa!

8ossible equilibrium s!stems 3or !our use are described belo* >ou *ill need to in'estigate some or all o3 them and ma/e predictions Nno* that in some cases the applied stress ma! simpl! rein3orce the current color o3 the equilibrium s!stem and thus produce no obser'able changes #n most cases !ou *ill prepare a Pstoc/Q solution and then di'ide it up into 7Ca766 mm or 76aFE mm test tubes to stud! the e33ects o3 !our stresses 2e sure to use small quantities o3 reagents" add these reagents drop4*ise *ith stirring" and use hot plates andIor *ater baths to heat !our samples should !ou *ish 2e sure to /eep detailed *ritten records" including a step4b!4step procedure" a list o3 materials used" all data" and obser'ations >ou need to clearl! indicate the reactant and product species in each s!stem" the stressor !ou applied" and the resulting color As this is an equilibrium lab it *ould be a good idea to thin/ about each set in terms o3 reactants and products

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(nce !ou ha'e completed all !our in'estigations and decided *hich reactions and stresses !ou *ill use to prepare !our displa!" !ou *ill be as/ed to produce the rainbo* displa! 3or !our teacher

%ossible 6Muilib*ia
An Acid42ase #ndicator Equilibrium Acid4base indicators are large organic molecules that can gain and lose h!drogen ions to 3orm substances that ha'e di33erent colors The reaction o3 the indicator bromoth!mol blue (2T2) is *ell /no*n #n'estigate its beha'ior in *ater *ith dilute acid and base To create the equilibrium s!stem" add 7 mL o3 2T2 to .E mL o3 *ater #n'estigate the shi3ts that can be obser'ed b! appl!ing a stress to small amounts o3 this solution in the test tubes pro'ided >ou ha'e 6 76 $a(H(a*)" 6 76 H%l(a*)" and 6 76 $a%l(a*) 3or !our use Some %omple- #on Equilibria An equilibrium s!stem can be 3ormed in solution *ith iron(###) chloride and potassium thioc!anate The ion that 3orms 3rom their combination is the ;eS%$.+ ion To create the equilibrium mi-ture" add about .6 mL o3 6 76 NS%$ solution into a bea/er and then add .6 mL o3 distilled *ater and E drops o3 6 .6 ;e($(C) C solution #n'estigate the shi3ts that can be obser'ed b! appl!ing a stress to small amounts o3 this solution in the test tubes pro'ided >ou ha'e 6 76 N$(C (a*)" solid ;e%lC" solid NS%$" and a sodium phosphate" either $a.H8(D" $aH.8(D" or $aC8(D 3or !our use An equilibrium s!stem can be 3ormed in a solution *ith copper (##) sul3ate and ammonia To create the equilibrium mi-ture" ta/e .E mL 6 .E %uS(D and add concentrated $HC drop*ise to obser'e the production o3 a precipitate %ontinue adding the ammonia until the precipitate disappears #n'estigate the shi3ts that can be obser'ed b! appl!ing a stress to small amounts o3 this solution in the test tubes pro'ided >ou ha'e H%l(a*) and !our original reagents An equilibrium s!stem can be 3ormed in a solution *ith copper (##) chloride in *ater The copper ion bonds to si*ater molecules to 3orm the h!drated comple- ion" ^%u(H.()B_.+(a*) *hile the %l4 ion remains in solution To create the equilibrium mi-ture" add about . grams o3 copper (##) chloride to .E mL o3 *ater #n'estigate the shi3ts that can be obser'ed b! appl!ing a stress to small amounts o3 this solution in the test tubes pro'ided >ou ha'e concentrated H%l (caution) and *ater H!drated %obalt %omple- #ons in Alcohol Solution Equilibrium %aution { Ethanol is 3lammable Turn o33 all 3lames To create the equilibrium mi-ture" add . grams o3 cobalt (##) chloride he-ah!drate to .E mL o3 HEK ethanol in a 766 mL bea/er There is a small amount o3 *ater dissol'ed in the ethanol The equilibrium reaction is endothermic ^%o(H.()B_.+(alc) + D %lO(alc) + Heat [ ^%o%lD_.O(alc) + B H.((alc) (alc) W dissol'ed in alcohol #n'estigate the shi3ts that can be obser'ed b! appl!ing a stress to small amounts o3 this solution in the test tubes pro'ided >ou ha'e solid $a%l" *ater" acetone and Ag$(C(aq) >ou also ha'e an ice and hot *ater bath Soda 1ater and Meth!l )ed #ndicator Equilibrium To create the equilibrium mi-ture" place .6 mL o3 cold soda *ater in a bea/er and add 7 mL o3 meth!l red indicator &ra* 76 ml o3 the mi-ture up into a large s!ringe *ith a Luer Loc/ 'al'e #n'ert the s!ringe and depress the piston to e-pel gas and then close the stopcoc/ on the Luer Loc/ 'al'e #n'estigate the shi3t produced b! pulling bac/ on the piston and holding it >ou can put a small nail through the hole in the piston to /eep it e-tended %(.(g) [ %(. (aq) + H.((l) [ H.%(C(aq) [ H%(CO(aq) + HC(+(aq) [ %(C.O(aq) + HC(+(aq)

Data ollection an9 om(utation

7 ;or each equilibrium s!stem studied" identi3! the reactants" products" and the result o3 each change o3 conditions %learl! indicate the t!pe o3 stress each change o3 conditions imposed" the color produced" and the reasons 3or !our assertions >ou need to clearl! e-plain ho* the applied stress resulted in the obser'ed color Use

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Le %hAtelier?s principle in !our e-planations" but do not simpl! quote it as a substitute 3or a proper chemical e-planation . #n an equilibrium s!stem all the chemical species are present" but some are in greater concentration than others #n each s!stem" list the chemical species responsible 3or color o3 an! /ind in order o3 increasing concentration

%ost.lab )ssessment
7 A student obtained a test tube *ith a suspension o3 *hite" slightl! soluble calcium h!dro-ide in *ater This s!stem *as at equilibrium as represented b! the 3ollo*ing equation: %a((H).(s) [ %a.+(a*) + . (HO(a*) a 1rite the equilibrium constant e-pression 3or this reaction b 1hat *ould !ou e-pect to obser'e i3 h!drochloric acid" H%l(aq)" is added: E-plain !our ans*er using Le %hAtelier?s principle c 1hat *ould !ou e-pect to obser'e i3 calcium nitrate *ere added: E-plain !our ans*er using Le %hAtelier?s principle d 1hen the solution *as placed in an ice bath and cooled" it *as obser'ed that more solid calcium h!dro-ide *as produced 2ased on this obser'ation *ould !ou e-pect the reaction to be e-othermic or endothermic: E-plain !our ans*er using Le %hAtelier?s principle #3 the solution *ere placed in a hot *ater bath and heated" *hat *ould !ou e-pect to obser'e: E-plain !our ans*er using Le %hAtelier?s principle . The 3ollo*ing questions concern this equilibrium s!stem: 2r.(l) + %l.(g) [ . 2r%l(g) f<W +.H D /<Imol Ho* *ill the 3ollo*ing 3actors in3luence the equilibrium listed abo'e: #ndicate *hether the s!stem *ill shi3t le3t" right" or remain unchanged and gi'e a short e-planation 3or !our choice Simpl! citing Le %hAtelier?s principle is not an adequate ans*erS rather" e-plain *h! the s!stem does or does not respond to the stress using !our /no*ledge o3 the collision theor! and chemical /inetics #n all cases" the listed change is the onl! change: all other 'ariables (8" V" or T) remain constant a #ncreasing the temperature b #ncreasing the pressure in the 3las/ b! adding Ar c #ncreasing the 'olume o3 the 3las/ d Adding 2r.(l) e )emo'ing %l. (g) 3 Adding 2r%l(g) g Adding a catal!st C #ndicating &rierite is a material used in the laborator! to remo'e *ater 'apor 3rom gases and as a dessicating agent 1hen purchased" it is blue in color and it changes to pin/ upon absorbing moisture #ndicating &rierite can be regenerated and used o'er and o'er again 8ropose a method o3 regenerating &rierite quic/l!" e33icientl!" and at lo* cost E-plain ho* !our method *ill *or/" using Le %hAtelier?s principle

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Lab 14: 2o: Do t'e St*uctu*e an9 t'e 3nitial oncent*ation of an )ci9 an9 a Base 3nfluence t'e (2 of t'e Resultant Solution Du*in& a Tit*ationO onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Man! 3oods taste as the! do based on the relati'e pH All 3oods" be'erages" pharmaceuticals" bio3uels" *ater in aquariums" drain cleaners" sur3ace cleaners" and 'itamins contain acids or bases" or a mi-ture o3 acids and bases The amount o3 acid" base" and the pH o3 solutions and solids must be maintained at an optimal le'el #3 a solution is too acidic" some base can be added to react *ith some o3 the acid ;or e-ample" h!drochloric acid reacts *ith sodium h!dro-ide to produce sodium chloride and *ater H%l(a*) + $a(H(a*) , $a%l(a*) + H.((l) 2! care3ull! controlling the amount o3 base added *hile doing an acid4base titration" and /no*ing *hen to stop adding base b! using an indicator or a pH meter" one can determine the amount o3 acid present in the substance The 3ood industr! uses titrations to determine the amount o3 sugar" 3ree 3att! acid content" and the concentration o3 'itamin % or E present in products

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions#Simulations %a*t 3: >uestions

7 @i'en E6 mL o3 6 76 H%l and E6 mL o3 6 76 neutrali0e each solution be the same" more" or less: . 1ill the pH at the equi'alence point o3 E6 mL 6 76 equi'alence points 3or E6 mL o3 6 76 acetic acid: acetic acid" *ill the amount o3 6 76 $a(H required to

H%l be the same" more" or less as the pH at the

C 1hat are some structural 3eatures that might help us classi3! an acid as a strong acid or *ea/ acid:

%a*t 33: Simulation

An animation simulation o3 di33erent t!pes o3 titrations has been pro'ided 3or students to complete" but it is not required to do the e-periment The *ebsite %hemistr! E-periment Simulations and %onceptual %omputer Animations includes an animation entitled P&etermination o3 the Molarit! o3 an Acid or 2ase Solution"Q 3ound here. http.55group.chem.iastate.edu5)reenbowe5sections5pro>ectfolder5flashfiles5stoichiometry5aDbDphtitr.html This animation sho*s macro and micro le'els o3 *hat is happening in a titration" and the students are allo*ed to choose amounts o3 acids and bases and see di33erent cur'es and calculations pertaining to titrations Sho*ing an animation and ha'ing the students determine the relati'e concentrations o3 each species as the titration progresses *ill help 3acilitate student understanding

6<(lanation to St*en&t'en Stu9ent !n9e*stan9in&

E'er!one has tastes and te-tures o3 3ood the! pre3er Taste and te-ture are o3ten lin/ed to the acidit! or al/alinit! o3 a 3ood or be'erage detected b! the tongue" *hich has sensors 3or di33erent tastes A sour" acidic lemon has a di33erent taste compared to a drin/ o3 green tea or herbal tea" *hich are al/aline Acids and bases are unique compounds that pla! an important role in in3luencing the pH o3 a solution %hemists use se'eral de3initions to help classi3! compounds as an acid or a base S'ante Arrhenius de3ined acids as compounds containing the h!drogen ion" H+" and bases as compounds containing the h!dro-ide ion (H4 2r}nsted4Lo*r! acids are de3ined as proton donors in a reaction and bases are proton acceptors in a reaction The proton re3erred to is an H + ion A h!drogen atom has one proton and one electron and *hen the electron is remo'ed to 3orm an H+ ion" onl! a proton remains #t is not possible though 3or a single H+ ion to e-ist in *ater The H+ combines *ith a *ater molecule to 3orm the h!dronium ion" HC(+ The pH o3 an aqueous solution is a measure o3 the amount o3 h!dronium ion ^HC(+_ species *hich is also simpl! represented as the h!drogen ion H+ in the solutionS pH W Olog^H+_ Acids and bases can be considered *ea/ or strong b! the amount o3 ioni0ation occurring in solution Strong acids *ill ioni0e nearl! 766 percent into ions *hile *ea/ acids *ill ioni0e onl! a small percentage ;or e-ample the strong acid H2r *ill ioni0e almost completel! into H+ and 2rO" *hile the *ea/ acid %HC%((H *ill remain
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primaril! %HC%((H e'en though some %HC%((O and H+ 3orm >(U 2ETTE) N$(1 THE ST)($@ A%#&SI2ASEST E'en though some @roup . h!dro-ides are onl! slightl! soluble" the amount dissol'ing ioni0es completel! #n acid4base titrations" the titrant in the buret is the chemical solution added to the chemical solution in the 3las/ or bea/er called the titrate The obJecti'e o3 this e-periment is to determine the concentration or molarit! o3 a solution b! doing a titration (3ten in titrations" the base is added to the acid 1hen the moles o3 acid (reall! the moles o3 H+ released) present are equal to the moles o3 base added (or H+ consumed)" the reaction has reached the equi'alent point The calculation o3 the un/no*n molarit! in'ol'es 3inding the moles o3 acid and the moles o3 base #3 the /no*n molarit! is that o3 the base then the base molarit! times its 'olume in liters times the number o3 h!dro-ides in its 3ormula *ill equal the total moles o3 h!dro-ide present: base a Bbase a 9(H4 ions in the 3ormula W moles (H4 This *ill be equal to the total moles o3 acid present at equi'alence The total moles o3 acid is then set equal to the molarit! o3 the acid times the 'olume o3 the acid used in liters times the number o3 h!drogen ions in the acid: moles acid W acid a Bacida 9H+ ions in the 3ormula The equi'alence point can be determined b! graphical means or b! using an indicator An indicator is a solution containing an organic compound" either a *ea/ acid or *ea/ base" *hich e-hibits a di33erent color in certain pH ranges A common indicator used in reactions o3 strong acids and strong bases is phenolphthalein *hich is clear in acidic solutions and pin/ in basic solutions %hoosing the right indicator is important since the indicator color change is supposed to indicate the equi'alence point #3 the equi'alence should be at a pH o3 G the indicator needs to change color around pH W G &one this *a!" the titration stops at the indicator change point *hich is called the end point This method does not monitor the pH throughout the titration A titration cur'e cannot be made using a single acid4base indicator (uni'ersal indicator" a mi-ture o3 multiple indicators *ould *or/) #3 a graph is made o3 ho* the pH changes as the titrant is added" this is called a titration cur'e

Acids and bases can be tested in se'eral *a!s (ne *a! is Just to test to see i3 it is an acid or base using litmus paper or pH H!drion 8aper Step 7: Test an acid and a base *ith litmus paper &oes the litmus test pro'ide !ou an! quantitati'e data about the substance: 1hat does the pH H!drion 8aper test indicate that the litmus paper test did not: Step .: Measure E 6 mL o3 acid and E 6 mL o3 base 8our them together 1hat can !ou tell is happening *ith the acid and base Just b! obser'ing the reaction at this point: Step C: &o Step . again" but this time add 7 drop o3 the indicator phenolphthalein to the acid and slo*l! pour the base into the acid 1hen !ou see a color change" test the pH 8our the rest o3 the base into the acid and test the pH again %ompare the t*o trials Ho* *as the data di33erent bet*een the trials: Man! e-perimental procedures require e-act concentrations" and" to get this t!pe o3 quantitati'e data" !ou need to ta/e more e-act measurements A titration produces this t!pe o3 data #n titration" there *ill be t*o solutions" an acid and a base A solution *hose molarit! is /no*n is called a titrant" and this titrant is added to another solution until the chemical reaction is complete 8our a measured 'olume (such as .E mL) o3 the un/no*n solution to be titrated into an Erlenme!er 3las/ )inse a buret *ith the titrant" and then pour the titrant into a buret held up b! a ring stand The buret is set up o'er the Erlenme!er 3las/ so the titrant can be slo*l! added to the un/no*n solution to be titrated Monitor the pH throughout the reaction *ith either a pH meter or a probe %ontinue the titration until the pH remains constant a3ter a steep change in pH Ma/e a graph o3 the data (pH 'ersus titrant added in mL) ;rom the equi'alence point on the graph" determine the amount o3 titrant added to reach equi'alence

1rite a procedure to test their question using an acid4base titration method T*o o3 the 3our samples gi'en to each group *ill ha'e the molarit! identi3ied and t*o *ill not A3ter titrations are complete" use the data to ma/e a graph All maJor points should be identi3ied on the cur'es #3 a sample includes a *ea/ acid andIor base" percent ioni0ation needs to be calculated" ;a andIor ;b needs to be calculated" and the percent error o3 the calculated ;a or ;b to the accepted 'alue should be calculated
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3n.lab Discussion >uestions

a 1hat is happening at the particulate le'el during a titration o3 a *ea/ acid *ith a strong base: #nitiall! the *ea/ acid establishes an equilibrium s!stem HL(a*) + H.((l) [L4(a*) + HC(+ ;or a titration o3 a *ea/ acid HL" *ith a strong base" the h!dro-ide ion reacts *ith the h!dronium ion (HO(a*) + HC(+ [.H.( at the 3irst le'el area ^LO_ is 'er! close to the ^HL_" the pH is changes slightl! as it is acting as a bu33er region b 1hat is happening at the particulate le'el *hen there is a steep part o3 the titration cur'e: c Ho* can the steep part o3 the cur'e be used in calculations: d &oes the steep part tell !ou an!thing about the endpoint or the equi'alence point: E-plain e Using one o3 !our pH cur'es" predict and e-plain *hat the shape o3 the pH cur'e *ill loo/ li/e i3 the e-periment *as repeated *ith a lo*er concentration o3 anal!te

Data ollection an9 om(utation

7 %ompletion o3 data table(s) the! ha'e prepared . &ra*n titration cur'es 3or each titration per3ormed" labeled appropriatel! C &etermination o3 the percent error o3 ;a andIor ;b i3 appropriate A3ter completing the data collection and dra*ing their titration cur'es" groups *ill then pool data and compare the titration cur'es Using this data" the! should then tr! to ans*er the question o3 the lab: Ho* do the structure and the initial concentration o3 an acid and a base in3luence the pH o3 the resultant solution during a titration:

)*&umentation an9 Documentation

2e prepared to ans*er each o3 the 3ollo*ing: 7 Ho* does the structure o3 an acid a33ect the shape o3 the titration cur'e: . Ho* can a pH titration cur'e be used to help classi3! the resultant solution at the endpoint" as acidic" basic" or neutral: C Ho* do the structure and the initial concentration o3 an acid and a base in3luence pH o3 the resultant solution during a titration: D Ho* *ill the shape o3 the pH cur'e change i3 the e-periment is repeated *ith a lo*er concentration o3 anal!te (i e " compare 6 76 to 6 6676 ): >ou MST ans*er the 3ollo*ing in the *rite4up 7 Ho* do the process and the titration cur'es dra*n 'ar! i3 the acids or bases are *ea/ or strong: <usti3! !our ans*er . 1hat *ould a titration cur'e loo/ li/e i3 an indicator *ere used to /no* *hen to stop the titration: C %ommercials about antacids are on tele'ision all the time Ho* *ould !ou go about in'estigating bases li/e antacids" *hich are solid: D Ho* *ould !ou in'estigate *hich antacid neutrali0es the most acid or is the most cost4e33ecti'e: E &oes it matter *hether !ou start *ith pure acid or pure base as the titrate: &oes it matter i3 !ou add *ater during the course o3 the titration: 1h! or *h! not:

%ost.lab )ssessment
As/ students to ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions 7 E-plain ho* rinsing the buret *ith *ater instead o3 the titrant be3ore starting the in'estigation *ill a33ect the calculated un/no*n molarit! o3 the titrate
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. E-plain *h! there is a steep slope in a section o3 the titration cur'e and e-plain ho* it can be used in calculations C 1hat t!pes o3 data needs to be collected to per3orm molarit! calculations o3 the un/no*n: D &oes the presence o3 *ea/ or strong acids and *ea/ or strong bases ma/e a di33erence to *hen the equi'alence point occurs: <usti3! !our ans*er E E-plain ho* to determine the ;a o3 an acid and the ;b o3 a base 3rom a titration cur'e

B >our car?s batter! blo*s up" spra!ing sul3uric acid all o'er the engine?s hoses and !oursel3 E-plain ho* !ou might neutrali0e the acid using a'ailable household chemicals F #nclude possible equations to help e-plain *h! ta/ing an antacid is recommended *hen a person has heartburn 3rom consuming too man! acidic 3oods or has acid re3lu-

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Lab 15: To A'at 6<tent Do ommon 2ouse'ol9 %*o9ucts 2a0e Buffe*in& )cti0it+O onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Man! o3 the chemicals *e come in contact *ith on a regular basis" particularl! 3oods" contain compounds that act as bu33ers Some common bu33ers in 3oods include citrate" carbonate" phosphate" and tartrate The dissol'ed carbon dio-ide in carbonated be'erages 3orms carbonate and most sodas also contain citric acid and citrate Some e-amples include lemonOlime sodas (such as Sprite" F4Up" and Sierra Mist)" ginger ale" and root beer %olas" such as %oca4%ola and 8epsi4%ola" contain phosphoric acid (#n 3act" 8epsi4%ola contains both phosphoric and citric acids" *hereas %oca4%ola does not contain citric acid )

The obJecti'e o3 this e-periment is 3or students to in'estigate a set o3 teacher pro'ided household substances to determine *hich o3 them e-hibit bu33ering acti'it! The choice o3 speci3ic test materials and procedure is le3t up to the students Each person *ill be gi'en . products to test >ou *ill need to determine *hether or not the assigned substance has bu33ering acti'it! b! titrating and plotting the pH 'ersus amount o3 titrant added #3 a substance sho*s bu33ering acti'it!" !ou *ill determine the p ;a o3 the substance 3rom their titration cur'e and use the gi'en p;a table belo* to predict *hat the bu33ering ingredient ma! be Students should prepare a range o3 dilutions o3 their test materials and per3orm a Pquic/ and dirt!Q titration 8lateaus on the graph indicate probable bu33ering acti'it! ;rom the plot" !ou *ill decide *hether or not each o3 the assigned substances tested acts as a bu33er #3 bu33ering acti'it! is obser'ed" identi3! *hich common bu33er s!stem ma! be present in the substances" based on correlating the hal34equi'alence point on the graph *ith the table o3 p;a 'alues 2e a*are that !our data ma! not be as straight3or*ard as !ou are used to seeing *ith a bu33er made 3rom a monoprotic pure substance

The e-pected procedure 3or liquid test materials *ill be 3or students to: 7 8repare Pquic/ and dirt!Q dilutions o3 undiluted" 7:76 and 7:766 o3 the test substances . 8er3orm a rough titration (lea'ing the stopcoc/ open and obser'ing the reading on a pH meter until the pH rises sharpl! a3ter the bu33ering region" i3 an!) to estimate the amount o3 titrant needed 3or each dilution C %hoose a dilution that gi'es good results D (nce a dilution is chosen" re4titrate care3ull! and plot the results The e-pected procedure 3or solid test materials *ill be 3or students to: 7 @uess that the molar mass o3 the bu33ering compounds the! are li/el! to 3ind is probabl! bet*een about E6 gImol and C66 gImol" based on the 3ollo*ing: =uinine: C.D gImol %itric acid: 7H. gImol Tartartic acid: 7E6 gImol 8hosphoric acid: HG gImol Sul3uric acid: HG gImol %arbonic acid: B. gImol Acetic acid: B6 gImol #soprop!l alcohol: B6 gImol . 2ased on the e-pected molar mass" a 6 7 solution *ould be bet*een E gIL and C6 gIL There3ore" i3 the bu33ering ingredient (i3 an!) is a signi3icant proportion o3 the mi-ture" a solution o3 76O7E gIL should be in the correct ballpar/ C 8er3orm a Pquic/ and dirt!Q titration as described abo'e 3or liquids
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D AdJust the concentration o3 the test substance i3 needed" re4titrate care3ull!" and plot the results

Data ollection an9 om(utation

Students *ill need to collect and plot data sho*ing pH as a 3unction o3 the amount o3 titrant added 3or each substance ;or test materials that act as bu33ers" students should 3ind a narro* region o3 about 7. pH units o'er *hich the amount o3 titrant needed to change the pH increased substantiall! ;or test materials that do not e-hibit bu33ering capacit!" students should obser'e a stead! increase in pH as titrant is added #3 the students? samples e-hibited bu33er acti'it!" the! should determine *hich bu33er *as li/el! present b! comparing their results (their estimated p;a 'alues 3rom their graphs) *ith the 3ollo*ing table o3 p;a 'alues 3or common acids: Table 7 p;a Values 3or %ommon Acids Acid %GHG(C (meth!l sal!cilate) $HD+ (ammonium ion) H.%(C (carbonic) %BHG(F (citric acid) %.6H.D$.(. (quinine) %.HD(. (acetic acid) %DHB(B (tartaric acid) %FHB(. (ben0oic acid) HC8(D (phosphoric) H.S(D (sul3uric) p;a7 HG H. BD C7 E7 DG C. D. .. 7. p;a. CG 76 . DG HG DG F. .6 7. B p;aC


#n general" i3 a substance contains onl! one ingredient that has bu33ering acti'it!" the titration cur'e 3or the substance *ill resemble the cur'e 3or that ingredient ;or e-ample" the titration cur'e 3or a phosphate4based dish*asher detergent *ould loo/ similar to the cur'e 3or phosphoric acid (;igure H Titration cur'es 3or NH.8(D and phosphate4based dish*asher detergent) 3rom PA Modi3ied 8rocedure 3or the &etermination o3 8hosphorus in &etergents"Q http:II*** ec gc caIlcpe4cepaIde3ault asp:langWEnRnWHEFG6F7F47Ro33setWHRtocWsho* (En'ironment %anada" .676) Ho*e'er" 3or substances that contain more than one ingredient that has bu33ering acti'it!" the cur'es *ill be more comple- and ma! not be easil! interpreted 2ecause the range o3 substances a'ailable 3or students to test is limited onl! b! !our imagination" it is not practical to present titration cur'es 3or e'er! substance !ou might choose

)*&umentation an9 Documentation

Students should prepare graphs o3 pH 'ersus amount o3 titrant added @roups should state *hether or not each o3 their test materials acted as bu33ers" supporting their conclusions *ith their data ;or each substance that acts as a bu33er" !our students should attempt to identi3! li/el! candidates based on the p;a table abo'e" and should *rite the appropriate neutrali0ation equation(s) Most students *ill probabl! *rite molecular 3ormulas rather than structural 3ormulas 3or their neutrali0ation equations

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Lab 16: T'e %*e(a*ation an9 Testin& of an 6ffecti0e Buffe*: 2o: Do om(onents 3nfluence a Buffe*Gs (2 an9 a(acit+O onte<t fo* T'is 3n0esti&ation
Man! important biochemical reactions occur onl! o'er a small range in pH Li'ing organisms dependent upon these reactions rel! on chemical s!stems called bu33ers to maintain a relati'el! constant pH *hen acids or bases are added to their en'ironment The compan! contracting the students? chemistr! class aims to produce a 'ariet! o3 bacteria designed to destro! harm3ul li'ing agents The bacteria must be gro*n in a medium *ith a pH similar to that o3 the en'ironment the! *ill be 3unctioning in This medium must be able to maintain a pH *ithin plus or minus one unit o3 the target pH 3or the bacteria it *ill support *hen strong acid or base is added The students? Job *ill be to produce a bu33er 3or such a medium As bu33ers must neutrali0e both acids and bases" the! must contain both a base and an acid The question is" ho* do *e pre'ent the acid and base in the bu33er 3rom simpl! neutrali0ing one another" thus rendering the bu33er useless: Students must also consider ho* much acid and base their bu33er should be able to neutrali0e 2u33ers are most e33ecti'e *hen the! ha'e been produced so the! ma! neutrali0e a reasonable amount o3 either acid or base The quantit! o3 acid or base that ma! be added to a bu33er *hile maintaining a relati'el! constant pH is a 3unction o3 the bu33er?s capacit!

%*e.lab 8ui9in& >uestions#Simulations

7 Ho* does a bu33er solution resist a change in pH: . 1h! *ould H%l and $a(H be a poor choice 3or an acid4base pair to ma/e a bu33er: C @o to the animation at: http.55introchem.chem.okstate.edu5$CIC=#5p<buffer39.html. %reate a Pbu33er solutionQ using equal 'olumes (766 mL each) o3 6 76 nitric acid and 6 76 sodium nitrate #nsert the probes and record the pH in the table belo* )emo'e the probes Then go to 8art ## o3 the simulation and add 3irst 6 667 moles o3 H%l and then the same amount o3 $a(H )ecord the pH in %omplete the 3irst three lines o3 the table )ema/e the Pbu33ersQ using the same 'olumes o3 7 6 components (increased molarit! b! 76L) Add the same 6 667 moles o3 H%l and $a(H to the PstrongerQ bu33ers %omplete the middle o3 the table ;inall!" repeat the process" adding 6 677 moles (additional 76L more) o3 strong acid and base %omplete the last three lines o3 the table %ompleted table sho*n here: Acid42ase 8air pH o3 Pbu33erQ pH *ith 6 667 pH *ith 6 667 mol mol H%l added $a(H added H$(C and $a$(C 7 C6 7 .E 7 CD H%.HC(. and $a%.HC(. D FD D BE D GC $HD%l and $HC H .E H 7B H CD #ncrease molarit! 76L H$(C and $a$(C H%.HC(. and $a%.HC(. $HD%l and $HC Acid42ase 8air H$(C and $a$(C H%.HC(. and $a%.HC(. $HD%l and $HC a 1rite a general chemical equation to represent the equilibrium that e-ists in an aqueous s!stem o3 the *ea/ acid HA as it ioni0es in *ater Assume the *ea/ acid to be H%.HC(. (6 76 )" *ith a ;a 'alue o3 7 G a76OE 1hat is the pH: 1hat does the addition o3 $a% .HC(. do to the equilibrium !ou Just represented: Use these
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6 C6 D FD H .E pH o3 Pbu33erQ

6 .H D FC H .D pH *ith 6 677 mol H%l added

6 C6 D FE H .B pH *ith 6 677 mol $a(H added


chemical principles to e-plain *h! the 3irst pH recorded 3rom the simulation is so much larger than !our calculated 'alue 3or pure 6 76 M acetic acid b Ho* do the p;a 'alues 3or acetic acid and ammonium ion (;a W E B a 76O76) compare to the pH 'alues 3or the 3irst t*o bu33ers in the simulation: E-plain this phenomenon c 1h! don?t the pH 'alues change *hen the component concentrations are increased: D 1rite a general net ionic equation to sho* ho* a bu33er containing an acid" HA" and the salt o3 its conJugate base" $aA" *ould respond to the addition o3 each o3 the 3ollo*ing a The strong acid" H%l b The strong base" $a(H E 1h! are the pH changes so noticeable *ith the last t*o additions o3 strong acid and base in the simulation: B 1hich o3 the t*o concentration combinations *ould be most effecti-e 3or an! bu33er !ou might design:

6<(lanation to St*en&t'en Stu9ent !n9e*stan9in&

A bu33er is a solution designed to resist the changes in pH that occur *hen small amounts o3 acid or base are added Man! important chemical reactions occur onl! o'er a small pH range #3 it *ere not 3or the presence o3 bu33er s!stems in the blood o3 human beings" the inta/e o3 a small glass o3 orange Juice could lead to a dangerous condition called acidosis that *ould lead to sei0ures" loss o3 consciousness" coma" and e'entuall! death %learl! bu33ers are 'er! important A conJugate acid4base pair is a set o3 t*o species that di33er 3rom one another b! one easil! remo'able h!drogen ion (a proton) Should the members o3 a conJugate pair neutrali0e one another" the! *ill simpl! re3orm the same species" hence there is no neutrali0ation #t is critical that both members o3 the conJugate pair are *ea/ as the conJugate o3 a strong species *ill be so *ea/ it *ill be essentiall! neutral and could not e33ecti'el! neutrali0e an! added acid or base A good e-ample o3 a conJugate pair 3or a bu33er *ould be h!dro3luoric acid (H;) and 3luoride ion (;4)" as H; can neutrali0e added base: H;(a*) + (HO(a*) [;O(a*) + H.((l) and ;O can neutrali0e added acid: ;O(a*) + HC(+(a*) [H;(a*) + H.((l) #t is also important to remember that *e cannot simpl! obtain an independent anion (or cation) 3rom our stoc/room shel3 )ather *e require a soluble salt as the source o3 the required ion #n the case o3 our sample H;I;4 bu33er" *e might combine h!dro3luoric acid *ith some sodium 3luoride salt #n this e-periment" !ou *ill combine di33erent pairs o3 chemicals in an e33ort to create a bu33er o3 a particular pH Since bu33ers contain *ea/ acids" it is possible to calculate the pH as !ou *ould 3or an! *ea/ acid" using the ;a e-pression" *ith one signi3icant di33erence: There is some common ion (actuall! the conJugate base o3 the *ea/ acid) in the solution %onsequentl!" use the general *ea/ acid equation: HA(a*) + H.((l) [HC(+(a*) + AO(a*) produces the e-pression ;a W^HC(+ _^A4 _I^HA_ As there is alread! conJugate base" A4" present in the solution" *hen equilibrium concentrations are inserted into the e-pression" the ^HC(+_ *ill not be equal to the ^A4_ 2u33ers are most e33ecti'e *hen the! are equall! prepared to neutrali0e acids or bases ;or this to be true" the ^HA_ should appro-imatel! equal the ^AO_ E-amining the e-pression 3or the general bu33er equation abo'e" *e see that such a circumstance *ould result in the ;a o3 the conJugate acid in the bu33er being equal to the ^HC(+_ The negati'e logarithmic 3orm o3 this equation indicates that the p;a is equal to the pH o3 the bu33er #n summar!" *hen ^HA_ W ^AO_: ;a W ^HC(+_ and p;a W pH
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The e33ecti'eness o3 a bu33er { that is" its abilit! to neutrali0e added base or acid { is called the bu33er?s capacit! (nce students ha'e determined the best pair o3 chemicals to create a bu33er ha'ing the pH the! ha'e been assigned" the! *ill prepare their bu33er and test its capacit! ;inall!" the! *ill design an alternate procedure that *ill result in a bu33er *ith a similar pH and capacit!

%*actice :it' 3nst*umentation an9 %*oce9u*e

7 )inse a buret *ith 76 mL or so o3 6 .6 H%l ;ill the buret and clamp it to the utilit! stand )epeat this process *ith a second buret and the 6 .6 $a(H . Set up and calibrate !our pH meter according to !our teacher?s instructions C 8lace E6 6 mL o3 *ater into each o3 t*o 7E6 mL bea/ers Lo*er the pH meter?s electrode or probe into one o3 the bea/ers &etermine the pH )ecord this 'alue neatl! in a prepared table in !our lab noteboo/ D )un in as close as possible to 7 66 mL o3 H%l solution" stirring the solution in the bea/er thoroughl! &o not use the electrode to stir )ecord the ne* pH 'alue E )epeat Steps C and D *ith the second bea/er" adding 7 66 mL o3 the $a(H solution B ;inall!" sa3el! discard the solutions and 3ill the t*o bea/ers *ith E6 6 mL each o3 the bu33er )epeat Steps COE using the bu33er solutions instead o3 the *ater @i'e an e-planation 3or *hat !ou?'e obser'ed

8ro'ide each o3 !our students *ith a card that indicates their mission Students should consider the list o3 materials a'ailable and h!pothesi0e ho* best to 3ul3ill their mission b! using the materials The list includes a number o3 chemicals that are not required 3or students to complete their tas/

Using the short bac/ground in3ormation belo*" 3ollo* the procedure listed The compan! contracting !our class has requested that each group prepare a 766 mL sample o3 their bu33er and test it in the hope that it 3alls *ithin 6 E o3 the target pH stated on the PMission %ardQ and that a E6 mL sample can maintain a relati'el! constant pH (*ithin one pH unit o3 the initial 'alue) *ith the addition o3 up to .6 mL o3 6 .6 H%l or $a(H 7 $eatl! record !our h!pothesis in an P#3 *e combine X then our bu33er *ill XQ 3ormat The procedure" including the masses and 'olumes o3 all materials used" should be neatl! recorded in !our lab noteboo/ Use a data table 3or all quantitati'e 'alues 2e sure to sho* all supporting calculations in an adJacent column or section o3 !our lab report Ha'e !our teacher chec/ !our h!pothesis be3ore !ou begin to create !our bu33er and test it . Test !our h!pothesis ;irst chec/ !our target pH b! placing E6 6 mL o3 !our bu33er into a .E6 mL bea/er and lo*ering the pH meter?s electrode or probe into the sample )ecord the initial pH in the 3irst line o3 a table *ith columns headed PVolume o3 Acid AddedQ and PpH Q C Each must 3ollo* the same procedure 3or capacit! testing Measure a second E6 6 mL portion o3 !our bu33er 1h! might !our total 'olume o3 bu33er slightl! e-ceed 766 mL: All measurements in'ol'e some degree o3 uncertainl! As the compan! is allo*ing !ou to be *ithin plus or minus 6 E units o3 !our target pH" do !ou thin/ a slight increase in 'olume is signi3icant in this case: D The purpose o3 this step is to generate data to produce as smooth a cur'e as possible" adding smaller amounts o3 acid *hen the pH changes noticeabl! 2egin !our capacit! testing b! using the buret 3rom the 8ractice *ith #nstrumentation and 8rocedure section to add about E 66 mL (record the actual ongoing 'olume precisel!) increments o3 6 .6 H%l to !our bu33er Use !our table to record the pH a3ter each addition (3ollo*ed b! thorough stirring) (nce about 76 66 mL o3 acid has been added" change to appro-imatel! . 66 mL increments until !ou reach a total 'olume o3 around 7B 66 mL o3 acid added $o* add the acid in appro-imatel! 7 66 mL increments until !ou?'e reached a total 'olume o3 near C6 66 mL o3 acid added >ou ma! no* increase the 'olume o3 each

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increment to about . 66 mL until !ou reach a total o3 D6 66 mL added The last couple o3 increments ma! be about E 66 mL each E )epeat !our capacit! testing 3or base addition b! 3ollo*ing the same procedure *ith the addition o3 6 .6 $a(H to !our second E6 6 mL sample o3 bu33er The 'olumes added should 3ollo* the same pattern as be3ore" but base is being added These precise 'olumes and pH 'alues ma! be recorded in t*o ne* columns added to the data table !ou?'e alread! prepared B T*o graphs *ill be plotted" one o3 PpH 's Volume o3 Acid Added to a 2u33erQ and one o3 PpH 's Volume o3 2ase Added to a 2u33er Q F All student data and graphs *ill be displa!ed >ou *ill share and compare !our results *ith those o3 !our classmates >ou *ill then argue *ith e'idence *hether !ou?'e completed !our assignment or need to rel! on the product o3 another group 2e sure to gi'e credit *here it is due and cite the source o3 an! ideas or in3ormation !ou?'e borro*ed

%ost.lab )ssessment
Students should ans*er the 3ollo*ing questions a3ter completing their procedure 7 Suppose" during preparation" an additional 76 mL o3 distilled *ater *as added to !our bu33er b! mista/e a 1hat e33ect *ould this ha'e on !our bu33er?s pH: E-plain b 1ould this a33ect !our bu33er?s capacit!: E-plain . @i'en a solution o3 h!droc!anic acid (H%$)" *hat additional reagent or reagents isIare needed to prepare a bu33er 3rom the h!droc!anic acid solution: a E-plain ho* this bu33er solution resists a change in pH *hen moderate amounts o3 strong acid are added Use a chemical equation in !our e-planation b E-plain ho* this bu33er solution resists a change in pH *hen moderate amounts o3 strong base are added Again" pro'ide an equation *ith !our e-planation C A bu33er solution contains 6 .6 moles o3 methanoic acid" H%((H" and 6 C6 moles o3 sodium methanoate" $a%((H" in 7 66 L o3 the bu33er The acid ioni0ation constant" ;a" o3 methanoic acid is 7 G a 76OD a %alculate the pH o3 this solution b %ompare the capacit! o3 this bu33er to neutrali0e added acid to its capacit! to neutrali0e added base E-plain !our ans*er completel! c #3 6 76 moles o3 H%l gas solution *ere bubbled through a liter o3 the bu33er" *hat *ould happen to the pH: Ho* *ould this addition a33ect the bu33er?s capacit! to neutrali0e added acid and base in the 3uture: Ans*er the question 3ull!" including equations and calculations *here necessar!

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E-am #n3ormation
The A8 %hemistr! E-am consists o3 t*o sections: multiple choice and 3ree response 2oth sections include questions that assess the students? understanding o3 the big ideas" enduring understandings" and essential /no*ledge" and ho* the! can be applied through the science practices These ma! include questions on the use o3 modeling to e-plain chemistr! principles" the use o3 mathematical processes to e-plain concepts" ma/ing predictions and Justi3!ing phenomena" e-perimental design" and manipulation and interpretation o3 data The e-am is C hours long and includes both a H64minute multiple4choice section and a H64minute 3ree4 response section The multiple4choice section accounts 3or hal3 o3 each student?s e-am grade" and the 3ree4 response section accounts 3or the other hal3

Section >uestion T+(e $umbe* of >uestions Timin&

# ## Multiple %hoice B6 Long ;ree )esponse C Short ;ree )esponse D H6 minutes H6 minutes

Section # consists o3 B6 multiple4choice questions" either as discrete questions or question sets" that represent the /no*ledge and science practices outlined in the A8 %hemistr! curriculum 3rame*or/" *hich students should understand and be able to appl! =uestion sets are a ne* t!pe o3 question: The! pro'ide a stimulus or a set o3 data and a series o3 related questions Section ## contains t*o t!pes o3 3ree4response questions (short and long)" and each student *ill ha'e a total o3 H6 minutes to complete all o3 the questions Section ## o3 the e-am *ill contain questions pertaining to e-perimental design" anal!sis o3 authentic lab data and obser'ations to identi3! patterns or e-plain phenomena" creating or anal!0ing atomic and molecular 'ie*s to e-plain obser'ations" articulating and then translating bet*een representations" and 3ollo*ing a logicalIanal!tical path*a! to sol'e a problem Students *ill be allo*ed to use a scienti3ic calculator on the entire 3ree4response section o3 the e-am Additionall!" students *ill be supplied *ith a periodic table o3 the elements and a 3ormula and constants chart to use on both the multiple4choice and 3ree4response sections o3 the e-am

The polic! regarding the use o3 calculators on the A8 %hemistr! E-am *as de'eloped to address the rapid e-pansion o3 the capabilities o3 scienti3ic calculators" *hich include not onl! programming and graphing 3unctions but also the a'ailabilit! o3 stored equations and other data ;or the section o3 the e-am during *hich calculators are permitted" students should be allo*ed to use the calculators to *hich the! are accustomed" e-cept as noted belo* Y (n the other hand" the! should not ha'e access to in3ormation in their calculators that is not a'ailable to other students" i3 that in3ormation is needed to ans*er the questions T'e*efo*eB calculato*s a*e not (e*mitte9 on t'e multi(le.c'oice section of t'e )% 'emist*+ 6<amThe purpose o3 the multiple4choice section is to assess the breadth o3 students? /no*ledge and understanding o3 the basic concepts o3 chemistr! The multiple4choice questions emphasi0e conceptual understanding as *ell as qualitati'e and simple quantitati'e applications o3 principles Man! chemical and ph!sical principles and relationships are quantitati'e b! nature and can be e-pressed as equations Nno*ledge o3 the underl!ing basic de3initions and principles" e-pressed as equations" is a part o3 the content o3 chemistr! that should be learned b! chemistr! students and *ill be assessed in the multiple4choice section Ho*e'er" an! numeric calculations that require use o3 these equations in the multiple4choice section *ill be limited to simple arithmetic so that the! can be done quic/l!" either mentall! or *ith paper and pencil Also" in some questions the ans*er choices di33er b! se'eral orders o3 magnitude so that the questions can be ans*ered b! estimation Students should be encouraged to de'elop their s/ills in estimating ans*ers and in recogni0ing ans*ers that are ph!sicall! unreasonable or unli/el! %alculators (*ith the e-ceptions pre'iousl! noted) *ill be allo*ed onl! during the 3ree4response section o3 the e-am `)n+ (*o&*ammable o* &*a('in& calculato* ma+ be use9-

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