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Arrest is presumed to be false if MEMORANDUM OF POINTS AND AUTHORITIES 1 Arrest is presumed to be false!

offi"er #as t#e burde$ of proof

T#e o$l% t#i$& t#e plai$tiff $eeds to plead a$d to pro'e if alle&i$& false arrest( is eit#er )1* t#at t#e defe$da$t made a$ arrest or impriso$me$t( or )+* t#at t#e defe$da$t affirmati'el% i$sti&ated( e$"oura&ed( i$"ited( or "aused t#e arrest or impriso$me$t Burlington v. Josephson, 153 Fed.2d 372,276 (1946). ,#e$ t#e plai$tiff #as s#o-$ t#at #e -as arrested( impriso$ed or restrai$ed of #is libert% b% t#e defe$da$t( "t#e la- presumes it to be u$la-ful." People v. McGrew, 20 Pac. 92 (1888); Knight v. Baker, 133 P. 544(1926). "T#e burde$ is upo$ t#e defe$da$t to s#o- t#at t#e arrest -as b% aut#orit% of la- " McAleer v. Good, 65 Atl. 934, 935 (1907); Mackie v. Ambassador, 11 P.2d 6 (1932). "A$% arrest made -it#out a -arra$t( if "#alle$&ed b% t#e defe$da$t( is presumpti'el% i$'alid...the burde !" u#$ the "tate" t$ %u"t!&' !t a" auth$r!(ed b' "tatute, a d a" $t )!$lat!)e $& c$ "t!tut!$ al #r$)!"!$ ". State v. Mastrian, 171 *.+.2d 695 (1969); Butler v. State, 212 ,$.2d 577 (-!"" 1968) "As i$ t#e "ase of ille&al arrests( t#e offi"er must .eep -it#i$ t#e la- at #is peril." Thiede v. Scandia, 217 -! . 231, 14 *.+.2d 400 (1944). + Must s#o- -arra$t upo$ re/uest

"He must s#o- it to t#e a""used( if re/uested to do so." Smith v. State, 208 ,.2d 747 (-!""., 1968). "If dema$ded( #e must produ"e t#e -arra$t a$d read it to t#e a""used( t#at #e ma% .$o- b% -#at aut#orit% a$d for -#at "ause #e is depri'ed of #is libert%." ,tate v. Shaw, 89 ,... 322 (1916). "A$ a""used perso$( if #e dema$ds it( is e$titled to #a'e t#e -arra$t for #is arrest s#o-$ to #im at t#e time of arrest." 42 /.0.A. 682, 51 /.0.A. 211, rosswhite v. Barnes, 124 ,... 242, 245 (1924). "A spe"ial deput% is bou$d to s#o- #is -arra$t if re/uested to do so( a$d if #e omit( t#e part% a&ai$st -#om t#e -arra$t issues ma% resist a$ arrest( a$d t#e -arra$t u$der su"# "ir"umsta$"es is $o prote"tio$ a&ai$st a$ a"tio$ for a$ assault( batter% a$d false impriso$me$t." !rost v. Thomas, 24 +e dell1" 0e#. (*.2.) 418, 419 (1840). 3It is doubtless t#e dut% of a$ offi"er -#o e0e"utes a -arra$t of arrest to state t#e $ature a$d substa$"e of t#e pro"ess -#i"# &i'es #im t#e aut#orit% #e professes to e0er"ise( a$d( if it is dema$ded( to e0#ibit #is -arra$t( t#at t#e part% arrested ma% #a'e $o e0"use for resista$"e. Shovlon v. om., 106 Pa. 369, 5 A4. 5r!4. 0e#. 41 (1884) 3It -as t#e dut% of a$ offi"er -#o attempts to ma.e a$ arrest to e0#ibit t#e -arra$t if #e #as o$e. Jones v. State, 114 6a. 79, 39 ,... 861 (1901)

,arra$t must be 'alid

A "o$stable 2ustif%i$& a$ impriso$me$t u$der a -arra$t must s#o- t#at t#e -arra$t o$ its fa"e is

le&al( a$d t#at t#e ma&istrate #ad 2urisdi"tio$ of t#e sub2e"t3matter. 51 /.0.A. 197, Poulk v. Slocum, 3 7lac8&$rd" (9 d). 421. )Mea$i$&( %ou s#ould also dema$d a "op% of t#e affida'it &i'i$& t#e 2ud&e probable "ause to issue t#e -arra$t All -arra$ts must issue upo$ submissio$ of a$ affida'it of probable "ause * 3A -arra$t is re&arded as i$suffi"ie$t a$d t#us 'oid if( o$ its fa"e( it fails to state fa"ts suffi"ie$t to "o$stitute a "rime. "harton#s rim. Proc., 12th .d., )$l. 1, #. 152 (1974). 4 No rubber3stamp 5si&$ature6

3T#e U$ited States Supreme 7ourt stressed t#e $eed for 8i$di'iduali9ed re'ie-: to a'oid t#e issua$"e of 8rubber stamp: -arra$ts. State v. Paulick, 277 -! . 140, 151 *.+.2d 596 (1967). ; False arrest is assault a$d batter% "A$ ille&al arrest is a$ assault a$d batter% T#e perso$ so attempted to be restrai$ed of #is libert% #as t#e same ri&#t( a$d o$l% t#e same ri&#t( to use for"e i$ defe$di$& #imself as #e -ould #a'e i$ repelli$& a$% ot#er assault a$d batter%. State v. $obinson, 72 Atl.2d 262 (1950). "A$ arrest -it#out -arra$t is a trespass( a$ u$la-ful assault upo$ t#e perso$ -#ere o$e is about to be u$la-full% depri'ed of #is libert% #e ma% resist t#e a&&ressio$s of t#e offe$der( -#et#er of a pri'ate "iti9e$ or a publi" offi"er( to t#e e0te$t of ta.i$& t#e life of t#e assaila$t( if t#at be $e"essar% to preser'e #is o-$ life( or pre'e$t i$fli"tio$ upo$ #im of some &reat bodil% #arm. State v. Gum, 69 ,... 464 (1910).

3E'er% perso$ #as t#e ri&#t to resist a$ u$la-ful arrest a$d( i$ pre'e$ti$& su"# ille&al restrai$t of #is libert%( #e ma% use su"# for"e as ma% be $e"essar%. olumbus v. %olmes, 152 *...2d 306 (1958). < No #a$d"uffs )sorr%( OSHA* 5=ut a "o$stable "a$$ot 2ustif% #a$d"uffi$& a priso$er u$less #e #as attempted to es"ape( or u$less it be $e"essar% i$ order to pre'e$t #is doi$& so 6 51 /.0.A. 216. 3T#e #a$d"uffi$& -as utterl% u$la-ful 6 &sborn v. 'eitch 1 F$"ter : F! . ; 0e# 317. > ?o immediatel% to a ma&istrate )$o p#oto&rap#s( $o fi$&erpri$ti$&* 5T#e o$e arresti$& #as 5a dut% to immediatel% see. a ma&istrate(6 a$d failure to do so 5ma.es a "ase of false impriso$me$t. %eath v. Bo(d, 175 ,.+.2d. 217 (1943); Brock v. Stimson, 108 -a"". 520 (1871). "To detai$ t#e perso$ arrested i$ "ustod% for a$% purpose ot#er t#a$ t#at of ta.i$& #im before a ma&istrate is ille&al. Kominsk( v. )urand, 12 Atl.2d. 654 (1940). "A$% u$due dela% is u$la-ful a$d -ro$&ful( a$d re$ders t#e offi"er #imself a$d all perso$s aidi$& a$d abetti$& t#erei$ -ro$&doers from t#e be&i$$i$& . *lvestad v. )olphin, 278 Pac. 684 (1929). "T#e ta.i$& of t#e plai$tiff:s pi"ture before "o$'i"tio$ -as a$ ille&al a"t. %awkins v. Kuhne, 137 *2 ,u## 1090, 153 A## <!) 216 (1912). "T#e po-er to arrest does $ot "o$fer upo$ t#e arresti$& offi"er t#e po-er to detai$ a priso$er for

ot#er purposes. Geldon v. !innegan, 252 *.+. 372 (1934). "7ompulsor% fi$&erpri$ti$& before "o$'i"tio$ is a$ u$la-ful e$"roa"#me$t @a$dA i$'ol'es pro#ibited "ompulsor% self3i$"rimi$atio$. People v. %elvern, 215 *.2. ,u##. 417 (1926) Summar% A =arra t 4u"t be !""ued a d be "!; ed ( $ rubber "ta4#) b' a %ud;e =h$ ha" %ur!"d!ct!$ ; 4u"t "tate the &act" "h$=! ; %ur!"d!ct!$ ; 4u"t be ba"ed u#$ #r$bable cau"e; 4u"t a4e the $&&e "e c$44!tted; 4u"t c$ ta! a a&&!da)!t (u der $ath) b' the accu"er, "tat! ; F90,> ?A*< &act" c$ "t!tut! ; a cr!4e; 4u"t a4e the #art' t$ be arre"ted, $r de"cr!be h!4 "u&&!c!e tl' t$ !de t!&' h!4; 4u"t $&&er the =arra t a d the a&&!da)!t &$r ! "#ect!$ u#$ re@ue"t; *$ ha dcu&&"; 4u"t ta8e 4e !44ed!atel' be&$re a 4a;!"trate, a d h$ld 4e &$r $ $ther #ur#$"e ( $ #h$t$;ra#h", $ &! ;er#r! t! ;); 2$u are re"#$ "!ble &$r e)er'th! ; that ha##e " t$ 4e e)e !& '$u rel! @u!"h cu"t$d' t$ a a""!; ; A la=&ul arre"t !" a""ault, batter' : tre"#a""; >here !" $ !44u !t' ! a &al"e arre"t ca"e; 6$$d &a!th !" $t a de&e "e t$ "u"ta! &al"e arre"t. /a"tl' . . . 9& the =arra t "tate" a" cau"e t$ !""ue, a 4ere c!)!lB"tatut$r' ! &ract!$ $t r!"! ; t$ the le)el $& a ca#!tal cr!4e . . . the $&&!cer 4u"t #r$duce t!tle t$ '$ur b!$l$;!cal #r$#ert'Bb$d', be&$re "a!d $&&!cer ca 4a8e the arre"t a d ta8e #$""e""!$ $& the b!$l$;!cal #r$#ert'. 2$u d$ $t b' acc$44$dat!$ , acce#t the $&&er $& arre"t &$r a ' "tatut$r' ! &ract!$ u le"" the "tatute de&! e" a ca#!tal cr!4e a d #r$bable cau"e eC!"t".

*D>.E >he arre"t! ; $&&!cer that th!" ! &$r4at!$ ha" bee #re"e ted t$, ha" b$th a c!)!l a d le;al dut' t$ bec$4e ! &$r4ed =!th the 4ater!al ! c$r#$rated here! be&$re a arre"t !" deter4! ed t$ ha)e cau"e t$ be 4ade.

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