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DRILLING

HYDRAULICS
Courtesy of
Baker Hughes

Goal of Drilling Hydraulics


Enhance Bit Performance
Lower Over-all Drilling Cost

Drilling Hydraulics
Bit Hydraulics
Clean the Bit And Hole Bottom
Cool the Bit
Annular Hydraulics
Lift Cuttings and Cavings
Limit Annular Pressure Drop
Limit Hole Erosion
Downhole Tool Hydraulics

How to achieve these Goals?

Evaluate
Communicate

Recommend

"Optimization"

Actual
Situation

Pump Pressure
Factors which Affect Pump Pressure
Flow Rate
Flow Area
Length of Circulation System
Fluid Properties

Flow Rate
Flow Rate (gpm)

Pressure Required (psi)

400

41

800

147 (3.6 times 41)

10 lb/gal mud 1000 ft of 5" XH 19.50 drill pipe

p =

0.1582 L

0.8

1.25

0.2

1.8
Friction loss for Bingham Plastic

Flow Area
Pipe Size

Flow Area (in.2) Pressure Required (psi)

5" XH 19.50 lb/ft

14.4 in.2

41

4-1/2" XH 16.60 lb/ft

11.5 in.2

67 (63% more)

400 gpm 10 lb/gal mud 1000 ft of 5" and 4-1/2" drill pipe

p =

0.8

0.1582 L

0.2

1.8
Friction loss for Bingham Plastic

1.25

Length of Circulation Loop


Length (ft)

Pressure Required (psi)

1000

41

2000

81 (twice as much)

400 gpm 10 lb/gal mud 5" XH 19.50 drill pipe

p =

0.1582 L

0.8

1.25

0.2

1.8
Friction loss for Bingham Plastic

Fluid Properties
Mud Weight (lb/gal)

Pressure Required (psi)

10

41

12

49 (20% more)

400 gpm 10 lb/gal mud 1000 ft of 5" XH 19.50 drill pipe

0.1582 L

p =

0.8

0.2

1.8
Friction loss for Bingham Plastic

1.25

Pump Pressure Distribution


Pressure (psi)
2,800
2,400

Available for bit

2,000

As flow rate increases, the


amount of pressure available
for the bit decreases

1,600
1,200
800

System Losses

400
0

100

200

300

400
500
Flow Rate (gpm)

600

700

800

900

Optimization of Hydraulic System


Reduce System Losses
Optimum Flow Rate
Large Flow Area
Optimum Lengths

Maximum
Hydraulic Energy
at the Bit

Low Mud Weight


Low Viscosity

Two Optimization Methods


Jet Impact Force Maximum force at bit
Hydraulic Horsepower Maximum energy at bit

Maximum Impact Force


IF (lb)

Jet impact force is maximized when momentum is maximized. This occurs


when the bit losses are 49% of the available pump pressure.
M=mv

Max. Impact Force

mass = q
velocity =

q
At

Fj=

F j = q p b

100

200

300

400
500
Flow Rate (gpm)

600

700

At
800

Jet Impact Force


2800

System

1456 psi - 52%

Maximum Force
at the Bit

1342 psi - 48%


Bit

900

Maximum HHP
Hydraulic Hp is maximized when
the energy dissipated at the bit is
maximized. This occurs when
65% of pump pressure is
dissipated at the bit.

Max. HHP

PH=

P H = p b q

100

200

300

HHP (hp)

q
At

400
500
Flow Rate (gpm)

600

700

800

Hydraulic Horsepower
2800

System

980 psi - 35%

Maximum Energy
at the Bit

1820 psi - 65%


Bit

900

Pressure used by the System


Pump Pressure (psi)
2,800

Design Pump Pressure


Bit Loss

2,400
2,000

Impact Force

1,600
1,200

HHP

System Losses

800

52%
35%

400
0

100

200

300

400
500
Flow Rate (gpm)

600

700

800

900

Pressure remaining for the Bit


Pump Pressure (psi)
2,800

Design Pump Pressure


Bit Loss

2,400

48%

2,000

65%

1,600

Impact Force

1,200

HHP
800

52%
35%

400
0

System Losses

100

200

300

400
500
Flow Rate (gpm)

600

700

800

900

Maximum HHP and Impact Force


Pressure loss through the bit (psi)

IF,HHP

2,800

Design Pump Pressure

Max. HHP

2,400

System Losses

Bit Loss

2,000
1,600
1,200

Max. Impact Force

800
400
0

100

200

300

400
500
Flow Rate (gpm)

600

700

800

900

Comparison at Maximum Conditions


120%

100%

93%

92%

100%

100%

80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Max. HHP
HHP

Max. Impact Force


Impact Force

Higher Flow Rate at Impact Force


Pressure loss through the bit (psi)
2,800

IF, HHP
Design Pump Pressure

Max. HHP

2,400
2,000

System Losses

Bit Loss

1,600
1,200

Max. Impact Force

800
400
0

20% Higher
0

100

200

300

400
500
Flow Rate (gpm)

600

700

800

900

Higher Pressure at Hydraulic Horsepower


Pressure at the bit (psi)

IF, HHP

2,800

Design Pump Pressure

Max. HHP

2,400

System Losses

35% Higher

2,000
1,600
1,200

Bit Loss

Max. Impact Force

800
400
0

100

200

300

400
500
600
Flow Rate (gpm)

700

800

900

Which one to use?

Shallow
Larger Diameter Hole

Deeper
Smaller Diameter Hole

% of Maximum HHP

Jet Impact Force


20% Higher Flow Rates

Hydraulic Horsepower
14% Higher Jet Exit Velocities
35% Higher Pressures

90% of Maximum HHP

120%
100%

90%
80%
60%
40%

65%
20%
0%

0.2

0.4
0.6
Fraction of Surface Pressure across Bit

0.8

Optimization of Hydraulic System


Choose equipment to keep system losses at minimum
for the anticipated range of flow rates and depth
Select Optimization Method - Impact Force or Hydraulic
Horsepower
Determine optimum flow rate
Adjust flow rate to meet requirements or limits
Determine TFA

Rules of Thumb
Flow Rate
Flow rate should be maintained at 30 to 60 gpm per inch of bit diameter
Hydraulic Hp
Aim at 2.5 to 5 hydraulic Hp per square inch of bit diameter.
Bit Pressure drop
Design for 48% to 65% Pressure drop across bit
If system losses are greater than 48% of pump pressure then optimize for
jet velocity.
Jet Velocity
Maintain jet velocity above 250 feet per second

Flowrate Limits
Annulus
Hole Erosion
Hole Cleaning
Loss of Circulation
Downhole Tools
PDM
Turbine
MWD
Pump
SPM
Liner Size
Cuttings Analysis
Erosion vs. chip formation

Roller Cone
Bit Hydraulics

Three Major Mechanisms


of Bit Hydraulics

Remove the drilled-up particles to the surface


Clean the cones and cutting structures
Remove the layer of filter cake and crushed
material from the borehole bottom

Factors Which Determine Which


Mechanism will become the Dominant
Problem
n

Formation

Borehole Bottom Condition

Hydraulic and Mechanical Operating Parameters

Properties of Drilling Fluid

Hydraulic Mechanism Needed


to Improve Mechanical Efficiency of
Roller Cone Bit

High ROP

* Remove the drilled-up particles to the surface


* Clean the Cones and Cutting Structures

APPROXIMATELY 20 TO 30 FT/HR
Low ROP

* Remove the layer of filter cake and crushed


material from the borehole bottom

Development of the Crushed Zone


As the cutting element penetrates into a formation, the formation directly below the
element is crushed and compacted.

Crushed Formation

The process continues, forming a pocket of crushed, permeable material until the
stress level is sufficiently high to propagate cracks and generate major chips.

As the high stress is released, the large chips are removed leaving behind a
pocket of crushed formation.

Uniform Layer of Fines

MUD PRESSURE
WELL
BORE

FILTER CAKE
PERMEABLE
CRUSHED ZONE

FORMATION

IMPERMEABLE FORMATION

Improve Bottomhole Cleaning by


Intensifying Jet Velocity and
Pressure on Bottom

Jet Flow
POTENTIAL CORE
100% EXIT VELOCITY AND PRESSURE

TURBULENCE
CREATED BY ENTRAINING
SURROUNDING FLUID

Velocity and Pressure on Bottom


is Increased by
Increasing Nozzle Diameter
Decreasing Distance Off Bottom

Asymmetrical Nozzle Arrangement


The larger size nozzle has an effect on the jet flow due
to the larger potential core delivering more of the available
power to the bottom before it dissipates into the
surrounding fluid.

2D

Larger
Potential
Core

Nozzle Distance Off Bottom


The nozzle distance off bottom has an effect
on the jet flow due to the jet having less distance
available to entrain the surrounding fluid and
dissipate the available power.

Potential Core

2X

Increase the Jet Action by


Concentrating the Available Power

3 Identical Size Nozzles

Asymmetrical Arrangement
1 Large Nozzle with 2 Smaller Nozzles

Measure of Jet Intensity

X/D Ratio

Velocity

Pressure

7.7
10

100%
77%

100%
59%

15

51%

26%

20

38%

15%

X/D Ratio Needed to Produce


Desired Hydraulic Mechanism

X/D Ratio
7.7-15

High Flow Rates for Bit Cleaning


and Dispersing Shale - High ROP
APPROXIMATELY 20 TO 30 FT/HR

Less Than 7.7

High Velocities for Bottom Scouring


Low ROP

Hydraulic Mechanism Needed


to Improve Mechanical
Efficiency of Roller Cone Bit

Increasing Increasing
Hydrostatic
Hydraulic
Horsepower Pressure

High Flow Rates for Bit Cleaning and


Dispersing Shale High ROP
APPROXIMATELY 20 TO 30 FT/HR
High Velocities for Bottom-Scouring
Low ROP

PDC Bit Hydraulics

Junk Slot Area

Face Volume

Nozzle Orientation

FLOW
VECTOR
OFFSET
OFFSET

TILT

Ports
Ports are used when space limitations prevent
the use of nozzles.
Ports help to distribute hydraulic energy to
areas of the bit that may not be adequately
covered by nozzles.
Ports provide a larger potential TFA in high flow
rate or low standpipe pressure applications.
Ports can be specified in any equivalent nozzle
size.

Reverse Impinging Hydraulics


Remove bit body material so
cuttings have no surface to stick
to.
Impact the chip from the rear
stressing it across the weakest
axis.
Provide large open face volume
and smooth transition to
annulus.

Chipmaster Hydraulic Concept

Original Concept

Refined Version

Notes:
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