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Fibonacci's sequence and hyperbolic trigonometric fuctions

Beslikas Athanasios
2014 A.U.TH



CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1

Section 1: .......... pg.1
Section 2: ............... pg.2

Definition of Hyperbolic Trigonometric fuctions
Composite Hyperbolic Trigonometric fuctions
CHAPTER 2
Section 1: ' ...............................pg.5
Section 2: .........
Definition of Fibonacci s sequence
The number ........................................................ pg6
Section 3: .....................................pg.6

Alternative representation of
CHAPTER 3
Section 1: ?...............................................pg.7
Section 2: .....................................
A proof or a hypothesis
Conclusions ...............................pg.12
Section 3: ...............................................................pg.13

REFERENCES
ABSTRACT
In the first Chapter, we will analyse the hyperbolic trigonometric functions , we
will give a brief definition of them, and we will close this unit with a strange
continued-fraction-based type of the infinite compoosition of the sech(arcsinh(x))
function. In the second Chapter we will make a phenomenically huge jump , and we
will speak about the Fibonacci sequence and the number . In the third chapter we
will present a new connection between these special sections of analysis.



CHAPTER 1

Let us define the trigonometric fuctions in the hyperbolic
plane. According to mathematicians and analysts of the 18 - 19th century

Section 1st :
there are trigonometric fuctions for the Hyperbolic Planes, similar to those
of the Euclidean plane and geometry. Like in normal trigonometric fuctions
Hyperbolic trigonometri

The hyperbolic sine is defined as follows: sinh( ) , x
2
: ar
x x
c fuctions occur after the solution of various differential
equations.
e e
x

= e
st
Definition 1
( )
( )
2
2
csinh(x)=ln x+ 1

The hyperbolic cosine is defined as follows: cosh(x)= , x
2
: arccosh(x)=ln x+ 1 , x 1

Th
x x
x
e e
x

+
+
e
>
nd
rd
Definition 2
Definition 3
sinh( )
e hyperbolic tangent and cotangent is defined as follows: tanh(x)=
cosh(x)
cosh(x)
for , and coth(x)= , x 0
sinh( )
1 1
(1): arctanh(x)= ln , |x|<1
2 1

x
x
x
x
x
e =
+ | |
|

\ .
1 1
(2): arccoth(x)= ln , |x|>1
2 1


1
The hyperbolic secant is defined as: sech(x)= , x
cosh( )
The hyperbolic cosecant is define
x
x
x
+ | |
|

\ .
e
th
Definition 4
2
2
1
d as: csch(x)= , x 0
sinh( )
1 1
(1): arcsech(x)=ln , 0<x 1
1 1
(2): arccsch(x)=ln , x 0
| |
x
x
x x
x
x x
=
| |

+ s |
|
\ .
| |
+
+ = |
|
\ .


CHAPTER 1

In order to reach into some conclusions in the 3rd chapter we will
need to compose some of the Hyperbolic trigonometric fuctions.

Section 2nd
2

|cosh(arcsinh(x))|= 1

2 2
We will now prove some easy "identifications" of those useful functions.
We assume that : cosh (x) - sinh (x)=1 , (1)
x +
1st Identification
2 2
2
2
: From (1) we have: cosh (arcsinh( )) 1
|cosh(arcsinh(x))|= 1 (2)

1
|sech(arcsinh(x)|=
1
: From (2) knowi
Proof x x
x
x
Proof
=
+
+
2nd Identification
2
1
ng that sech(x)= we have
cosh( )
1
that |sech(arcsinh(x)|= (3)
1
There are several similar "identifications" like those that we proved,
but in this article we wil
x
x +
l only need those two.
Knowing that the domain of sech(x) and arcsinh(x) is the set of Real Numbers
( ) we can infinitely compose those two fuctions. Let us assume that we compose

2
those two functions n-times. We will have:
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1+
1
To prove this statem
n compositions
h h h h x
x

=
+
+
+
+
ent we will need the help of
: Let us assume that ( ) sec (arcsin ( ))
We will compose ( ) with itself 1 time. (n=1)
Therefore, we have: (
Mathematical Induction
Proof f x h h x
f x
f
=
2
1
( )) sec (arcsin (sech(arcsinh( ))))
1
1
1
f x h h x
x
= =
+
+


CHAPTER 1

We now assume that the sentence is true for k-times
of composition (n=k)
So now we have:
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (... h h h h
Section 2nd :
2
1
( )...)))) (1)
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1+
1
We will proof this sentence for n=k+1 times of composition.
Assuming that (1) is true, we compose ( ) with it
n k
x
x
f x
=
=
+
+
+
+
( )
1
2
1
self another one time
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1+
1 sec (arcsin ( )
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
n k
n k
h h h h x
h h x
h h h h x
= +
= +
=
+
+
+
+

2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1+
1
1
1
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1+
1
1
1
n k
x
h h h h x
x
= +
=
+
+
+
| |
+
|
+
\ .
=
+
+
+
| |
+
|
+
\ .


CHAPTER 1
Section 2nd:
Now that we finished this easy proof , more questions emerge
about how many times we can compose some real fuctions.
We accept that we can compose n - times the sech(arcsinh(x)
Because the domain of both fuctions is the set of Real Numbers (R)
Looking closely, we compose the exponantial function with the
Natural Logarithmic fuction. Many will claim that the composition will
have a triteness conclusion, because the exponantial and logarithmic function
"kill" each other. But
CONJECTURE:
We can comp
in this case, the composition happens n - times so we
do not have the ability to know when those two functions will "kill" one
another.
ose functions which domains is the -set times

INFINITE
Assuming that this hypothesis is true, we must assume also that there will be
several specific values that a function of this type can take.
If we look closely to the fuctions composed before, and make the graphs we
will make the conclusion that the function has a different graph for n= 2k times
of compositions than for n= 2k +1 times. Now we are ready to proceed in the
next chapter.


CHAPTER2

Many will scratch their heads because of the huge jump that we did
from the last chapter.
In this first section of the 2nd Chapte
Section 1:
n n-1 n-2
r of this article, we will define
the Fibonacci sequence, a well known sequence to most of the people.

The Fibonacci sequence is defined as follows : F = F +F
Definition
n
,
where F is the n - th number of this sequence.
So after this short definition we will show you some of this special
sequence's numbers :
1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,
n n+k
144,233,377,610,987..., F , F ,...
It is clear that this sequence does not converges, or converges to infinity.
There are several identifications about this sequence, and also this sequence
is related to most of mathematical areas, from analysis , to linear algebra.
For example, let us assume the Pascal triangle :
1
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
1 4 6 4 1
1 5 10 10 5 1
1 6 15 20 15 6 1
N O
If we start to sum up the diagonals of this special
n-1
2
n
k=0
triangle, we will always get
numbers that belong to the Fibonacci sequence. Mathematically we have :
n - k - 1
F =
k
| |
|
\ .
| |
|
\ .

k+2 k+1
k+1 k
(1)
For the matrix and linear algebra lovers there is this beautiful formula :
F F 1 1
= .
F 1 0 F
But how can we kno
| | | | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
2 2
w if a positive integer is a Fibonacci number?
Binet's Theorem
Let assume x a positive integer. If and only if one or both of 5x +4 or 5x - 4 is a perfect
square then and only then x is a Fibonacci number.


CHAPTER 2

The number .
The number is one special number for mathematics. This
special number is the secret of beauty in our planet. Bu
Section 2 :
1

lim (1).
is an irra
n
n
n
t in
this small paper we will not analyse this aspect of .
First of all, number is defined like this :
F
F

+

=
2
1,2
tional number, and an algebraic one.
Let us assume the following Polynomial Function:
( ) 1
1 5
The roots of this polynomial is :
2
So this time we
P x x x
x
=

=
1 5 1 5
have that = and = .
2 2
is also known as the "Golden Ratio".

.
The first is the representation of
Alternative representations of
+
Section 3
2
as a continued fraction.
1
=1+ (1)
1
1
1
1
1
1


: From section 2 we know that :
1 1
1 0 1 0 1 .

Proposition 1
Proof


+
+
+
= = = +
If we put into itself we get the this simple and beautiful continued
fraction (1).

= 1 1 1 1 ... (2)
We will not need to pr
+ + + +
Proposition 2


2
ove this last proposition. It can be proved very easily
by takin the square root of . Now we are ready to proceed in Chapter 3

CHAPTER 3

In the first chapter we proved that:
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
1
1
1
1
1
1

1+
n compositions
h h h h x

=
+
+
+
Section 1:
2
2
1
2
1 2
(1)
1
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...)))) ,where n ,
and is the n-th term of Fibonacci sequen
n compositions
n n
n n
n
x
F x F
h h h h x
F x F
F

+
+ +
+
+
= e
+
Proposition
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
ce

For n=1 we have:
1 1 1 1
sech(arcsinh(sech(arcsinh(x))))=
2 2 1
2
1
1
1
1
Therefore , the proposition is
Proof
Mathematical Induction :
x
x x
x
x
x
x
+
= = =
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
2
1
1
true for n=1.
The proposition is true for n=k:
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
k compositions
k k
k
Hypothesis of Mathematical induction :
F x F
h h h h x
F

+
+
+
=
2
2
( 1)
1 2
1 2
We will prove the proposition for n=k+1 times of composition:
1
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
1
1
k
k compositions
k k
k
x F
F F
x
h h h h x
F F
x
+
+
+
+
+
| |
+
|
+
\ .
=
| |
+
|
+
\ .
2
2
1 ( 1)
2
2
1 2
2
( 1)
(1 )
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
(1 )
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
k
k k k compositions
k k
k compositions
F x F
x
h h h h x
F F x
x
h h h h x
+
+ +
+ +
+

+ +
+
=
+ +
+
2
1 2
2
2 3
=

k k
k k
F x F
F x F
+ +
+ +
+
+

CHAPTER 3
CONJECTURE 2nd
It is true that:
1
limsec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))

n compositions
n
n
h h h h F
Possi

=
Section 1:
2
1
2
1 2

We know that (1) is true so we have that:
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...(x)...)))) .
We create a new set that
n compositions
n n
n n
ble Proof
F x F
h h h h
F x F

+
+ +
+
=
+
{ }
has as elements only values of Fibonacci sequence:
A= 1,1, 2, 3, 5, 8,13, 21... .
Because our function is a composition of two functions with the as domain
the values of A
_
can be used for our function. So can take values from A.
To get the result we want we assume that when we compose n-times sech(arcsinh(x))
we give the n-th value of the A-set,
x
x
3
1
2
1 2
or alternatively, when we compose
n-times the function with itself. So we have:
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...)))) .

n
n compositions
n n
n
n n n
x F
F F
h h h h F
F F F

+
+ +
=
+
=
+
3
2 1
2
1 2
3
2 1
2
1 2
We know assume a new sequence, the :
. We will find where converges:
lim = lim (1)
The fact that is a s
n
n n
n n
n n n
n n
n
n n
n n n
n
a
F F
a a
F F F
F F
a
F F F
F
+
+ +
+

+ +
+
=
+
+
+
2 3
1 2 1
trictly increasing sequence means that
(2) so is a clogged sequence.
Also, from fundamental theorems of calculus, we know that:
When a sequence is d
n n n n n n
F F F F F a
+ + +
+ > +
2
0 1 2
2
0 1 2
3 3
2 1
2 2
1 2 1 1
efined as follows:
...
then lim
...
1
So (1) becomes: lim = lim lim =lim =
for
n
m m
n n n
n
k k
n n n n
n
n n n n
n n n n n n
a a n a n a n a
a a
b b n b n b n b
F F F F
a
F F F F F F

+

+ + + +
+ + + +
= =
+ + + +
+
=
+
2 2
3
1
2
1 2
1
every n . So lim lim . Therefore we have
1
lim limsec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...))))
(proof is incompl
n n
n n
n compositions
n n
n
n n
n n n
a a
F F
h h h h F
F F F

+

+ +
= =
+
= =
+
ete)




CHAPTER 3

So now we "proved" that:
1
limsec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...)))) or alternatively:
lim
n compositions
n
n
n
h h h h F

=
Section 1:
2
cos (arcsin (sec (arcsin (...( )...)))) .
Maybe we have a real connection between two great mathematical constants,
e and .
(1)

n compositions
n
h h h h F

=

So in this brief section we tried to prove some very important formulas
between , the Fibonacci sequence and the Hyperbolic Trigonometric
Functions.
There are many key elements that we did not take care of, so this part of the article
has to be examined thoroughly from high level mathematicians and analysts.
In this part of the

( )
article we will examine what happens with the integration of this
"special" function.
First we must prove that this function is integratable.
f x
Proposition
2
1
2
2
1
sech (arcsinh(sech(...(x)...))) is integratable in and its integral is
the following:
arctan
sech (arcsinh(sech(...(x)...))) dx
n compositions
n
n
n
n
F
x
F
F
x
F

+
+
+
=
| |
|
\ .
=
}
1 1 2
2
2 1
2
1 2


We know that ( ) sech (arcsinh(sech(...(x)...))) (1)
From (1) we know that ( ) is integrateble as
n n n
n compositions
n n
n n
F F F
Proof
F x F
f x
F x F
f x
+ + +

+
+ +
+
= =
+
a composition of integratable
functions.





1
2
2
1 1 1 2
CHAPTER 3

arctan
sec (arcsin (...( )...)) (1)
To calculate this integral we will u
n
n compositions
n
n
n n n n
F
x
F
F
h h x dx x
F F F F
+

+
+ + + +
| |
|
\ .
=
}
Section 1:
2
2
2
se mathematical induction:
For n=1:
2
arctan
2
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin (x))))
2 2
so the proposition is true for n=1.

x
x
h h h h dx dx x c
x
Hypothesis of Mathe
| |
|
+
\ .
= = +
+
} }
1
2
2
1 1 1 2
The proposition is true for n=k:
arctan
sec (arcsin (...( )...)) (2)
We will pr
k
k compositions
k
k
k k k k
matical Induction
F
x
F
F
h h x dx x c
F F F F
+

+
+ + + +
| |
|
\ .
= +
}
( 1)
2
2 1 2
1 1 2
2 3
ove the proposition for n=k+1:

sec (arcsin (...( )...)) so by considering F , ...
integer constants, w
k compositions
k k
k k
k k
F x F
h h x dx dx F
F x F
+
+ +
+ +
+ +
+
=
+
} }
1
2
2
1 1 1 2
e easily have proved (1) for every n .
arctan
So we finally have: sec (arcsin (...( )...))


n
n compositions
n
n
n n n n
F
x
F
F
h h x dx x
F F F F
+

+
+ + + +
e
| |
|
\ .
=
}
Proposition
2
1
2
2
We assume that: g(x)= sec (arcsin (...( )...))
1
Then: ( ) arcsin
for n=2k
and: ( ) arcsin
n compositions
n n
n n
n
h h x
F F
g x dx iE i h
F F
F
g x dx iE i h

+
+
+
| | | |
+
= | |
| |
\ . \ .
=
}
}
( )
2
1
2
2
2
1

for n=2k+1
k , 1.
with E being the Elliptic integral of the second kind with parameter m=k



n
n n
F
F F
i
x m
+
| | | |
+
| |
| |
\ . \ .
e =
2
2
CHAPTER 3

We will use once again the .
For n=1 times of composition we have:
1
sec (arcsin (sec (arcsin ( )))) dx
mathematical induction
x
h h h h x
x
+
=
Section 1
2
arcsin 2
2 2
So for n=1 composition the statement is true.

The statement is true for n=2k+1 times (odd numbe
dx iE i h x c
Hypothesis of mathematical induction
| | | |
+ | |
| |
+
\ . \ .
} }
2 1 compositions
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 2 2 1
r of compositions):
1
sec (arcsin (...( )...)) arcsin
We will prove that the statement is true for n=
n k
k k
k k
F F
h h x dx iE i h x c
F F
= +
+ +
+ +
| | | |
+
= + | |
| |
\ . \ .
}
2 3 compositions
2 2
2 3 2 4 2 3 2 3
2 2
2 4 2 5 2 4 2 3
2k+3 times (odd number of compositions
We have:
1
sec (arcsin (...( )...)) arcsin
n k
k k k k
k k k k
F x F F F
h h x dx dx iE i h x
F x F F F
= +
+ + + +
+ + + +
| |
+ +
= =
|
|
+
\ .
} }
And the proof is complete for every n=2k+1 (odd number)
We prove with the same way for n=2k
So now if we assume g(x)=sech(arcsinh(sech(arcsinh(...(x)...))))
n c
| |
|
|
\ .
2
1
2
2
then we have:
1
( ) arcsin +c with (+) for n=2k times of composition
and (-) for n=2k+1 times of composition.

ompositions
n n
n n
F F
g x dx iE i h x
F F
+
+
| | | |
+
= | |
| |
\ . \ .
}
2 2
2
1
2
2 2 2 2
2 ln 1 ln 1
So now if we calculate this we have:
1 2
arcsin
2

n n
n n
e e e e e e e e
elliptic integral
F F dx
iE i h x c
F F
e e
dx
+
| | | |
| | | |
| |
+ + + + +
| |
| |
+ + + + \ . \ .
\ . \ .
| | | |
+
= + | |
| |
\ . \ .
+

}
2 1 1
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
sin ln 1
2
2
2 2 2 2
ln 1 ln 1 0
1
1
= -
1
assuming that: t=sin and by replacing we hav
n n
n n
F F
n
i x x
F F
n
e e e e e e e e
F
t
F
i dt
t
e e
+ +
+ +
| | | |
| + + |
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
| | | |
| |
+ + + +
| |
| |
+ + + + \ . \ .
\ . \ .
| | +

|
\ .

+
} }
1
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
ln 1 ln 1 2
e:
1 2
1 sin
With n=number of compositions of g(x)=sech(arcsinh(x)) with itself.

n
n
F
x
F
n
n k
e e e e e e e e
F dx
d
F
e e
t
u u
+
+
| | | |
| | | |
| |
+ + + +
| |
| |
+ + + + \ . \ .
\ . \ .
| | +
=
|
\ .
+
} }


CHAPTER 3
There are many gaps that we have to fill to prove the 1st proposition but
we can generalise our analysis about this function for every func
Section 2


tion that
contains two variables, one is taking values from a sequence and one from
from the domain of the function's variable.
Let us assume a conv
Theorem 1.1
2
i) :
ii) ( )
iii) lim
:
: with
( , ) ( ( ), )

n
n
n
n
ergable sequence :
g
g n a
a l
Let us assume now a continuous function f with
f
f a x f g n x

=
= e

=
( )
0

lim ( , ) lim , = ( , )

We stabilise . We suppose that without loss of generality.
So we have:
( ,
n n
n n
n
Then it is true that :
f a x f a x f l x
Proof :
x x x
f a x

=
= e
0
) ,where is a new sequence. We will find where :
Case 1: does not converges. In this case lim ( , )
Case 2: converges: Then easily we say that =
n n n
n n
n
n n
b b b converges
b f a x
b b h

=
-
-
( )
( )
0 0
0 0
( ) where is an image of .
So we have lim (lim )= ( ). So now that we can say that :
lim , (lim ) ( , ) ( ). So:
lim ( , ) lim , =
n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
a h a
b h a h l
f a x h a f l x h l
f a x f a x f



=

=
( ) 0
( , ) or lim ( , ) lim , = ( , )
:
:
:
n n
n n
l x f a x f a x f l x
Total convergance theorem of sequential functions
To find the total convergance of f functions with
f

=
Theorem 1.2


2
,

( , ) ( ( ), )
lim ( , ) n.

n
n
n x
and
f a x f g n x we calculate the following limit :
f a x k or depending on the functio

=
= e




REFERENCES
Michael Spivak, "Calculus", Fourth edition,Publish or Perish ,Inc..................................................
Calvin C. Clawson. "The Beauty and Magic of Numbers"...............................................................
. " ", ...........
Wolfram Math World.......................................................................................................................
Wolfram Aplha Calculating And Plotting Functions.........................................................................