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SULFUR INDUSTRY

  • - Sulfur is one of the most important elements used in various types of experiments. Just like any other element, it can be derived into various compounds such as, carbon disulfide (CS²), sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH), sulfur chloride and sulfuric acid. Sulfur Products are used in numerous applications in the chemical, textile, photo, rubber, mining, agriculture, paper, construction and cosmetic industries.

USES OF SULFUR

  • - About 90% of sulfur produced or extracted is used to make sulfur dioxide.

  • - Majority of the acid is used for the production of phosphate fertilizers.

  • - Sulfur, in its free element state can also be used as a soil nutrient.

  • - Sulfur is beginning to be used as a component of infrastructure band structural materials. *adding sulfur pellets to asphalt can make roads more durable from the temperature drop. *sulfur can also be added to concrete making the concrete easier to paint.

MANUFACTURE OF SULFUR

  • - majority of sulfur comes from natural gas and oil.

  • - sulfur also has to be removed if the natural gas or oil is to be used as fuels.

*(sulfur being a very dangerous pollutant.)

The organic sulfur compounds are converted to hydrogen sulfide by reduction with hydrogen. For example:

SULFUR INDUSTRY - Sulfur is one of the most important elements used in various types ofHydrogen sulfide gas is separated from other gases present by dissolving it in an aqueous solution of an organic base, such as, for example, 2- aminoethanol (monoethanolamine). Although this is a complex process, the following equation shows the overall reaction: " id="pdf-obj-0-33" src="pdf-obj-0-33.jpg">

Hydrogen sulfide gas is separated from other gases present by dissolving it in an aqueous solution of an organic base, such as, for example, 2- aminoethanol (monoethanolamine). Although this is a complex process, the following equation shows the overall reaction:

Figure 1 Much natural gas and oil contain large quantities of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfur
Figure 1 Much natural gas and oil contain large quantities of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfur
Figure 1
Much natural gas
and oil contain large
quantities of hydrogen
sulfide and organic sulfur
compounds which must be
removed to produce gas and
oil which can be used as
fuels. They are converted
into elemental sulfur which
is heated so that it becomes
molten and then piped into
large moulds where it
solidifies. It is stored in the
open until it is used to
make sulfuric acid. This
photo shows sulfur
recovered in the immense Lacq field in southwestern France where the gas is
very 'sour', containing 16% hydrogen sulfide.

Heating the solution of the salt liberates pure hydrogen sulfide and regenerates the amine. Hydrogen sulfide is then burned with a limited amount of air to give sulfur dioxide, sulfur and water vapour, and unreacted hydrogen sulfide:

Figure 1 Much natural gas and oil contain large quantities of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfur

The sulfur is condensed and separated. The remaining gases are passed over a catalyst bed of alumina to convert more hydrogen sulfide to sulfur:

Figure 1 Much natural gas and oil contain large quantities of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfur

These two stages are repeated in three separate cycles to achieve over 95% recovery of sulfur.

CLAUS PROCESS - The Claus process is the most significant gas <a href=desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide. First patented in 1883 by the scientist Carl Friedrich Claus, the Claus process has become the industry standard. - Gases with an H S content of over 25% are suitable for the recovery of sulfur in straight-through Claus plants - In fact, the vast majority of the 64,000,000 metric tons of sulfur produced worldwide in 2005 was byproduct sulfur from refineries and other hydrocarbon processing plants. " id="pdf-obj-2-2" src="pdf-obj-2-2.jpg">

CLAUS PROCESS

  • - The Claus process is the most significant gas desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide. First patented in 1883 by the scientist Carl Friedrich Claus, the Claus process has become the industry standard.

  • - Gases with an H 2 S content of over 25% are suitable for the recovery of sulfur in straight-through Claus plants

  • - In fact, the vast majority of the 64,000,000 metric tons of sulfur produced worldwide in 2005 was byproduct sulfur from refineries and other hydrocarbon processing plants.

CLAUS PROCESS - The Claus process is the most significant gas <a href=desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide. First patented in 1883 by the scientist Carl Friedrich Claus, the Claus process has become the industry standard. - Gases with an H S content of over 25% are suitable for the recovery of sulfur in straight-through Claus plants - In fact, the vast majority of the 64,000,000 metric tons of sulfur produced worldwide in 2005 was byproduct sulfur from refineries and other hydrocarbon processing plants. " id="pdf-obj-2-27" src="pdf-obj-2-27.jpg">

Figure 2. The common flowchart for sulfur production.(Claus process)

HEALTH BENEFITS

  • - Sulfur has elements that can eliminate acne, so it is included in their treatments. Medications for dandruff, pityriasis versicolor rosacea and warts have this ingredient. Seborrheic dermatitis and scabies can be treated with this element. Sulfur is effective because of its keratolytic, antibacterial and anti-fungal properties. Combining alcohol and sulfur can be used to treat acne and other skin disorders.

  • - Solutions with sulfur can be used to accelerate the healing of wounds.

  • - Sulfur can be used to treat hemorrhoids, arthritis, hypothyroidism and homeopathy.

SOURCES: