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SAP Solution Manager 7.

0 EhP1

End-to-End Root Cause Analysis


User Guide End-to-End Workload Analysis
Version 2.0, December 2008

END-TO-END ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS


USER GUIDE END-TO-END WORKLOAD ANALYSIS

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END-TO-END ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS


USER GUIDE END-TO-END WORKLOAD ANALYSIS

Contents
1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 How to use this document .......................................................................................................... 4 1.2 Required Software Components................................................................................................. 4 2 Architectural Overview........................................................................................................................ 4 2.1 Goal and Concept ........................................................................................................................ 4 2.2 Extractor Framework ................................................................................................................... 5 2.2.1 Architecture............................................................................................................................ 5 2.2.2 Central BI Time Zone ............................................................................................................. 7 2.3 Workload Analysis Application................................................................................................... 8 3 Application in Detail .......................................................................................................................... 10 3.1 E2E Workload Analysis Overview ............................................................................................ 10 3.1.1 Key Performance Indicators ................................................................................................. 11 3.1.2 Time Profile.......................................................................................................................... 12 3.1.3 History.................................................................................................................................. 13 3.1.4 Scatter ................................................................................................................................. 15 3.2 System-specific Analysis .......................................................................................................... 15 3.2.1 Metric Data Display .............................................................................................................. 16 3.2.2 Navigation............................................................................................................................ 18 3.2.3 Condition.............................................................................................................................. 19 4 Glossary ............................................................................................................................................. 21

End-to-End Root Cause Analysis User Guide - End-to End Workload Analysis

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1.1

Introduction
How to use this document

The purpose of this document is to describe the architecture of the E2E Workload Analysis, to describe some restrictions and to help the users with problems during the setup, the use and the troubleshooting of E2E Workload Analysis in the Solution Manager Diagnostics.

1.2

Required Software Components

The latest mandatory Software Components are described in note 1274287. This note contains all required Support Packages and notes that have to be applied, which are a prerequisite for all E2E applications. If those prerequisites are not fulfilled completely, the E2E application might not work properly.

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2.1

Architectural Overview
Goal and Concept

This chapter gives a technical overview of the Workload Analysis and the underlying Extractor Framework.

The goal of the E2E Workload Analysis is to provide access to statistical performance data of different systems. You will be able to perform a cross-system correlation analysis based on the temporal behavior of performance metrics. Dedicated Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are calculated and displayed, allowing you to quickly gauge which system or Product Instance is the root cause of a potential performance problem.

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End-to-End Root Cause Analysis User Guide - End-to End Workload Analysis

In order to achieve this, statistical performance data has to be collected from various sources of different system types. Performance data is collected based on a Product Instance Perspective, which will give you access to data specific of the component in question, e.g. CRM or XI, ABAP or Java based systems. The technical infrastructure to collect the data is the Extractor Framework (EFWK). The Extractor Framework guarantees that the strong emphasis on the Product Instance Perspective is available for the E2E applications displaying the data enriched by additional information. Furthermore, the E2E Workload Analysis provides the full range of analytical tools available in SAP Business Intelligence (BI), as the statistical performance metrics are stored in dedicated Infocubes delivered by SAP. Thus, the Extractor Framework collects the performance data on an hourly basis from specific Extractors or Agents and stores it in the BI. The E2E Workload Analysis displays the data utilizing Web rendering technologies supplied by the BI. Please note that the same technological approach is chosen for both E2E Exception Analysis and E2E Change Analysis.

2.2

Extractor Framework

2.2.1 Architecture
The Extractor Framework (EFWK) collects data from different data sources - in general on an hourly basis; however, some data is collected on longer time scales - and performs an enrichment of the collected data based on the data maintained in the Landscape Model (transaction SMSY). All data transported by the EFWK has to incorporate core dimensions of the data model based on the Landscape Model in order to ensure that the data can be stored in a selfcontained manner. All E2E Applications run in the same context of the Landscape Model, which allows direct access to the data transported and enriched by the EFWK.

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End-to-End Root Cause Analysis User Guide - End-to End Workload Analysis

Technically, the data enrichment comprises of a set of IDs (the so-called PPMS-IDs), which uniquely identify any SAP Product Instance delivered to customers. The Data Extraction and the status tracking are also based on these IDs. Another data enrichment feature implemented in the EFWK allows storing characteristics that are longer than 60 characters in BI. To achieve this, the EFWK generates Hash IDs for characteristics that have been marked to contain more than 60 characters. These Hash IDs are stored in BI and in an external hash table. When the WebTemplate is rendered, a method is executed that replaces at rendering time the Hash ID contained in BI by the Long name stored in the hash table. This process is transparent to the user. For the data collected, a central status tracking is available in order to control data retrieval and storage in the persistence layer (BI). This prevents data gaps (up to a certain degree, depending on the configuration), and identical data records being written to the persistence layer more than once. The smallest technical entity collecting the data is an Extractor, which gathers the data either directly from the managed system by means of an RFC call (ABAP Extractor) or indirectly by retrieving the data from an intermediate layer such as Wily Introscope Enterprise Manager. The EFWK offers an API for the Setup Wizard of the Solution Manager Diagnostics (SMD) which activates all relevant extractors based on how the system was modeled in transaction SMSY. Thus, for a CRM system, only the extractors relevant for CRM are activated. The extractors are started in dialog work processes by a Resource Manager which is responsible for the control of the resource consumption of all periodic or ad hoc data retrieval processes in the Solution Manager. The primary goal of the Resource Manager is to start extractors observing configurable constraints on the consumed resources both in the managed and the managing system. The Resource Manager itself is executed once a minute as a background process. The critical resource is the number of the dialog work processes that are available for the Extractor Framework. For each extractor started, the Resource Manager will increase the resource counter of both the local resource pool (dialog work processes) and the remote resource pool (the RFC destination to the managed system), unless the resource cap has been exceeded.

Both local and remote Resource Caps can be configured centrally, which allows a specific resource management per system. Managed systems can be protected up to allowing only one extractor to be running at any given time, which implies a strict system based serialization. Alternatively, concurrency of extractors in the managed system can be increased by raising the associated resource cap to values larger than 1.

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End-to-End Root Cause Analysis User Guide - End-to End Workload Analysis

2.2.2 Central BI Time Zone


During the setup of the Solution Manager Diagnostics you have to decide in which time zone the data is written into BI. This is essential, as you can only take advantage of the aggregation capabilities in BI if you use one homogenous Time Zone for displaying all data, coming from different managed systems - which may be in any Time Zone.

Technically, the EFWK communicates with all Extractors on different managed systems in the global time zone UTC. Data is requested from these systems in UTC in order to achieve a homogenous communication. Before writing the data into BI, all time stamps supplied by the extractors in UTC are mapped to the Time Zone selected for BI. This can be either the System Time Zone of the Solution Manager or another Time Zone of your choice. Thus, you have to be aware that data is always displayed in the Time Zone in which the data is written into BI, regardless of the time zone of the managed system the data is originating from.

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End-to-End Root Cause Analysis User Guide - End-to End Workload Analysis

2.3

Workload Analysis Application

Technically, the E2E Workload Analysis comprises of a framework which allows you to select the analyzed timeframe as well as either an Overview or the product specific data. The product specific data is based on a Product Instance perspective. The application displays all Product Instances for the selected systems. Technically, data in the Overview is retrieved using MDX queries and making use of an internal caching mechanism for these.

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End-to-End Root Cause Analysis User Guide - End-to End Workload Analysis In contrast to this, the display of Product specific data is rendered using BEx Web Templates:

The BEx Web Templates allow the Drilldown functionality of the BI to be used, as far as it is available for the underlying BEx Query. Each Tab Strip contains one or several "Views", which span the Product Instance specific perspective. Technically, each View is associated with a Web Template.

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In combination with the housekeeping concept of the EFWK, the E2E WA application allows you to choose between two different temporal granularities, Hour and Day. In general, the smallest available time resolution is changed when switching between two different granularities, i.e. it is not possible to drill down into an hourly resolution for the Day granularity.

Please note that if the granularity Day is selected, data of at least three days will have to be selected.

Application in Detail

This section describes how to use the E2E Workload Analysis in detail. It starts with the description of the Overview Tab Strip.

3.1

E2E Workload Analysis Overview

The central entry point for the workload analysis is the Overview Tab Strip of the E2E WA application. This section of the application has two parts: the left-hand side contains the graphical display of the time-dependent parameters. On the right-hand side, selected KPI values for all chosen systems and Product Instances are displayed. Please note that these values are calculated for the timeframe chosen in the application.

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In the "View" section of the overview, the type of metric data to be displayed can be selected. Primarily, Dialog and Background performance metrics have to be distinguished, as their respective response times can be quite different. For certain background processes, an average response time of an hour or more is possible. However, for any dialog process in which a user is actively waiting for a response, such a response time is unacceptable. For this reason, parameters of the different Metric Data types are displayed separately to allow a better comparison.

Beneath the Graphical Display Area, the user can chose between different standardized diagram types. Furthermore, different parameters for the different systems can be selected. By clicking the blue Information button , a description of the different diagram types is displayed.

3.1.1 Key Performance Indicators


The KPI area on the right-hand side allows the comparison of different parameters specific to the analyzed system. Here, parameters of different units are directly compared, e.g. the Average Response Time in milliseconds is compared with the number of HTTP Sessions per hour. KPI and the unit chosen are defined primarily from the perspective of the Product Instance analyzed.

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Typically, the KPI have to be interpreted in the technical context of the E2E scenario: In the case displayed here, the system F16 (Enterprise Portal, Java) is used as a primary UI rendering layer, while the system HNI (ECC Server, ABAP) is used as a backend. Thus, depending on the implementation technology used in Java, one would compare the Average iView or the WebDynpro response time in the Java system with the Average RFC response time in the ABAP backend. In the E2E Workload Analysis in general, cross-component correlation has to be done based primarily on time, as direct correlation identifiers used in the E2E Trace Analysis are not available on the statistical level of data used in E2E WA. Thus, one has to bear in mind that cross-component correlations may be reduced due to the system wide averages that have to be compared. In the example above, one cannot distinguish if the RFC response time is directly and exclusively correlated to the response time of the Java system, as RFC calls from other systems can contribute to the average displayed here.

3.1.2 Time Profile


For the Graphical Display, the standard Display Type is the "Time Profile". Here, regardless of the timeframe chosen for display, the aggregated Day Profile is always displayed. For example: If last week has been chosen for display, the graph - which always ranges from 0:00 to 23:00 on the x-axis - displays the average hourly values for the last week.

The intention of this kind of display is to allow a quick identification of the workload peaks which are directly correlated to typical working hours of the system. Unless the users of the monitored system operate globally, one would expect a pronounced daily pattern exhibiting peaks during the day and relatively low load at night.

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The Time Profile is available for both the Average Response Time and the Accumulated Response Time. For a performance analysis, one would typically scan for parameters that have both high Average Response Times as well as large Accumulated Response Times. Large Accumulated Response Times have the largest overall impact on the performance of a system. These two parameters are directly proportional:

Accumulated Response Time = Average Response Time Number of Executions

Please note that Average Response Time for the metric data type Dialog is always displayed in milliseconds, whereas Accumulated Response Time is always displayed in seconds.

3.1.3 History
In contrast to the Time Profile, the diagram type History displays the data un-aggregated as time series. Thus, the x-axis always directly reflects the timeframe selected at the start of the application.

Here, standard IGS rendering technology is used to display the data, with which you might be familiar from the other applications in Solution Manager Diagnostics. For time series, a two layered x-axis is displayed, where the next higher level of temporal granularity is displayed below the initial one. This pairing depends on the timeframe selected for display. In the example above, the time frame spans two weeks. Thus, the Calendar Day of the selected timeframe is displayed on top of the Calendar Week.

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In the example above, parameters were de-selected in order to emphasize the strong correlation between the parameters "F16 SAP J2EE ENGINE 7.00: WebDynpro" and "HNI SAP BASIS 7.00: RFC". Obviously, both parameters exhibit an almost linear increase in the Average Response Time in milliseconds, which stops on day 27 in calendar week 48.

Displaying the same diagram type for Accumulated Response Time in seconds may give a clearer indication of the overall impact of the analyzed situation. Although comparable in Average Response Time, in this case parameters for WebDynpro show a larger impact. However, it should be noted that cluster scalability factors have to be taken into account for Accumulated Response Times if the impact on the system is to be assessed.

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In the example above, both WebDynpro and RFC Accumulated Response Time exhibit the same temporal behavior during the phase of strong correlation. The larger values for RFC can at least partially be explained by the baseline load observed for RFC after the 27st day.

3.1.4 Scatter
The Scatter Diagram Type displays the data with the Average Response Time on the x-axis and the Accumulated Response Time on the y-axis. Similar to the Time Profile, data points will be displayed as hourly average values for the chosen timeframe. In interpreting the diagram, one can structure the displayed area roughly in for quadrants, distinguishing between low and high Average Response Times on the x-axis and low and high Accumulated Response Times. Then, the top right quadrant with both high Average Response Time and high Accumulated Response Time can be regarded as a Critical Quadrant. Values in here have the strongest impact on the system they were measured on.

In a linear response time regime, the Average Response Time itself should not depend on the number of executions (i.e. the number of users) directly. Thus, in a strictly linear regime, data points should be scattered around a roughly constant average response time as a line parallel to the y-axis. If a high load situation drives the system to a non-linear behavior, one would expect a deviation from this and a convergence of the data points to the Critical Quadrant, where the scattered points are no longer parallel to the y-axis. Please note that in the example above, lines to define the critical quadrant were included for the arguments sake. At which values exactly your Parameters change from low to high values strongly depends on the specific situation. As stated above, for the Accumulated Response Time in particular, cluster scalability factors such as the number of available work processes have to be taken into account. However, the analysis above should give you some understanding of which pattern of scattered data points can be regarded as critical.

3.2

System-specific Analysis

This section describes in general which analytical tools are available for the user under the System Tab Strip, without explaining the details for each kind of system (product instance). Furthermore, only some basic features of the BI are covered here. Please refer to SAP NetWeaver BI documentation for more details.

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3.2.1 Metric Data Display Drilldown


Primarily, data is displayed in tables which will allow using all BI specific navigation capabilities such as drilling down into characteristic values. To achieve this, right-click on a characteristic value. Note that characteristic values are displayed with a dark blue background.

In the context menu, navigate to "Drilldown" and select the characteristic value in which you wish to drill down, for example "Node Name". After this, you can expand the node by clicking on the white triangle.

You can remove the drill down again by right-clicking on the characteristic and selecting "Remove Drilldown" from the context menu.

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Keeping Filter Values


If a specific characteristic value is selected, it can be set as a filter criterion by right-clicking and selecting "Keep Filter Value".

In the example above, all node names would be filtered to be "SERVER0". The filtered characteristic is then removed from display.

Enhanced Menu
Right-Clicking and selecting the option "Enhanced Menu" will give access to some additional features.

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The Enhanced Menu contains an option to export the currently visible table as a Microsoft Excel document, for example.

3.2.2 Navigation
The navigation web element provides additional and more comprehensive control over the way the table generated by the BI is displayed. By clicking on the white triangle the navigation element can be expanded.

This view allows to: 1. Take characteristics and key figures into drilldown in rows: 2. Take characteristics and key figures into drilldown in columns: 3. Specify filter criteria on characteristics and key figures: 4. Remove filter criteria:

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Filter criteria are specified to the left of the waste bin underneath the name of the characteristic or key figure. Characteristics that are currently in drill down can be identified by the symbol drilldown by clicking on this icon. . They can be removed from the

3.2.3 Condition
The condition web element allows generating or disabling top lists. Views that are named "Top " such as "Top iViews" contain a predefined condition, limiting and sorting the table to the top 20.

The condition section contains a line for each condition applied. An existing condition can be de-activated by clicking on "Deactivate". By right-clicking on an existing condition, it can be displayed:

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End-to-End Root Cause Analysis User Guide - End-to End Workload Analysis The displayed screen allows verifying and modifying the existing condition.

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Glossary

Accumulated Response Time


The Accumulated Response Time per selected or displayed time interval represents the total of the response time of all performance metrics of this kind. The Accumulated Response Time is equal to the Average Response Time multiplied by the number of executions.

Average Response Time


The Average Response Time is calculated per selected or displayed time interval as an arithmetic mean of all measured performance metrics of this kind.

Background Performance Metrics


Performance Metrics of processes that are not in direct interaction with users, e.g. running as ABAP Batch process.

BEx Queries
Data of a BI system can be analyzed by defining BEx queries for InfoProviders in the BEx Query Designer. Analyzing data based on such multidimensional data sources (OLAP reporting) makes it possible to analyze multiple dimensions simultaneously.

BEx Web Templates


BEx Queries can be displayed with web based rendering technology through BEx WebTemplates which allow you generic access to OLAP based navigation techniques.

Dialog Performance Metrics


Defined as a Performance Metric based on a process which is in direct interaction (dialog) with an end user.

Extractor Framework
Extracts the statistical data required in the E2E Workload Analysis and other E2E applications. Technically, it is implemented as ABAP dialog work processes for each system.

Granularity
In the E2E Workload Analysis, data of two different granularities can be selected for display. The granularity defines the smallest available time resolution in the data displayed.

Infocube
An Infocube is a self-contained data-set in BI that can be analyzed by BEx queries.

Landscape Model
The way your SAP system is modeled in transaction SMSY is referred to as a Landscape Model. It associates your systems to Product Instances such as CRM, XI or EP.

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MDX queries
Allow direct, programmatic access to the content of the Infocubes. Technically, MDX is a generic, multidimensional query language which is used for objects stored in BI.

View
A View in the context of the E2E Workload Analysis is directly associated with a BEx Web Template and is represented in the application as a button underneath the tab strips for Overview and Systems.

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