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Results table

Food

1. Starch iodine test

2. Benedicts test for reducing sugar

3. Biuret test for protein

4. Emulsion test for lipids

1.Egg white

2.Bread

3.Vegetable oil

4.Apple

5.Sweet 6.Milk

7.Sweet biscuit

8.Cheese

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Chemical Food Testing


Aim
To identify if starch, sugar, protein and fat are present in 8 different types of food.

Introduction
Food tests enable you to find out what kind of food types a food contains. FOOD TESTS:

FOOD TYPE STARCH

TESTING REAGENT Iodine solution

RESULT

+ = black

= yellow/ brown

REDUCING SUGAR e.g. glucose

Benedicts solution

+ = orange/ red +/- = yellow/ green

Biuret reagent

= blue

+ = purple
PROTEIN

= blue

+ = cloudy white
FATS Ethanol & water

- = colourless

(+ = positive; +/- = slightly positive; = negative)

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2. Benedicts test for reducing sugar e.g. glucose Method


1. With a marker label 8 test tubes with numbers 1-8 2. Add 1 cm3 of food to each test tube 3. Add 1 cm3 of distilled water 4. Add enough Benedicts solution to cover the food & water. 5. Place 4 test tubes in a beaker (x2) with water 6. Place the beakers on a hot plate for about 3 minutes 7.Observe the colour change and record your results on the results table orange/red indicates presence of reducing sugar; yellow/ green concentration of reducing sugar low; blue no reducing sugar present

Diagram

Benedicts solution

Hot plate

Safety
HAZARD Benedicts solution Irritant Burning CONTROL MEASURES Wear a lab coat & goggles Wash hands & skin if it spills Dont touch hot plate & dont put your head over it

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3. Biuret test for protein Method


1. With a marker label 8 test tubes with numbers 1-8 2. Place 1 cm3 of food to each test tube 3. Add 1 cm3 of distilled water 4. Slowly, drip 1 cm3 of Biuret reagent 5. Wait 3-5 minutes 6. Observe the colour change and record your results on the results table purple indicates presence of protein; blue no protein present

Diagram

Biuret reagent

Safety

HAZARD Biuret solution Irritant

CONTROL MEASURES Wear a lab coat & goggles Wash hands & skin if it spills

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4. Emulsion test for lipids Method


1. With a marker label 8 test tubes with numbers 1A-8A & other 8 test tubes with numbers 1B8B 2. Place 1 cm3 of food to each test tube labelled A 3. Add 2 cm3 of ethanol 4. Shake test tubes 1A-8A 5. Pour 1 cm3 of liquid (not food) gently into test tubes labelled B 6. Add some distilled water & shake again 7. Observe and record your results on the results table cloudy white indicates presence of lipids; colourless no lipids present

Diagram

Ethanol

Test tubes A

Distilled water

Test tubes B

Safety
HAZARD Ethanol Flammable Irritant CONTROL MEASURES Wear goggles

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Conclusion
Egg white - tested negative for starch, slightly positive for reducing sugar and positive for protein & lipids. Egg white has protein, lipids & a small amount of reducing sugar. It does not have starch. Bread - tested negative for protein & lipids, slightly positive for reducing sugar and positive for starch. Bread has starch & a small amount of reducing sugar. It does not have protein & lipids. Vegetable oil - tested negative for starch & protein, slightly positive for reducing sugar and positive for lipids. Vegetable oil has lipids & traces of reducing sugar. It does not have starch & protein. Apple - tested negative for starch, protein & lipids and positive for reducing sugar. Apple has reducing sugar. It does not have starch, protein & lipids. Sweet - tested negative for starch, protein & lipids and slightly positive for reducing sugar. Sweet has traces reducing sugar. It does not have starch, protein & lipids. Milk - tested negative for starch, slightly positive for reducing sugar and positive for protein & lipids. Milk has protein, lipids & a small amount of reducing sugar. It does not have starch. Sweet biscuit - tested negative for protein, slightly positive for reducing sugar & positive for starch & lipids. Sweet has starch, traces of reducing sugar & lipids. It does not have protein. Cheese - tested negative for starch & for reducing sugar and positive for protein & lipids. Cheese has protein & lipids. It does not have starch & reducing sugar.

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1. Starch iodine test Method


1. Number 1-8 on a spotting tile 2. Place a sample of each food in each spot 3. Add 2 drops of iodine solution to each sample 4. Observe the colour change and record the results on the results table black indicates presence of starch; yellow/brown no starch present

Diagram

Iodine solution Spotting tile

Safety

HAZARD Iodine solution Harmful

CONTROL MEASURES Wear a lab coat & goggles Wash hands & skin if it spills

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