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Audio Circuit Denmark

LYNX Power Amplifier v3.0
Quick Assembly Guide v.1.0 Last updated 08.06.2008

Content 1. Introduction and Specifications 2. Circuit Description 3. Component List 4. SOA protection calculation 5. PCB assembly 6. Pre-Test 7. Final assembly and test 8. Schematic and PCB layout 9. Basic wiring 10. Power Supply suggestion
The LYNX Power Amplifier is intended as a non-commercial diy-project, and it is therefore builders responsibility to assure that assembly and wiring are made correct, and that suitable components are used. Audio Circuit Denmark can therefore under no circumstances be held responsible for any incorrect information or documentation, damages to persons and material, loss of money or what so ever.

LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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1. Introductions and Specifications

Introduction This project had only one goal, and that was to upgrade the old v2.2 layout and create a rock-solid and powerful sonic Power Amplifier like those used in recording studios. However, if you are fond of the deceased mighty and "muscular" Power Amps from Phase Linear, SAE, GAS and Dynaco etc. you may be intrigued by this project as the result is very close to those. Components Components shown in the schematics are only suggestions. The circuit had shown good characteristics and had produced a clear sound, when build with low cost components. So with this circuit you have the possibility to either build a low cost dynamic Power Amplifier or a Studio Class Power Amplifier. Technical Specifications: With the use of a heavy Power Supply combined with a large Capacitor Bank, the LYNX Power Amplifier are able to deliver loud and clear sound, and have shown capable of handling loads down to 2 Ohms without any instability. Specifications rated at +/- 55 Volt DC Supply Voltage with 2x22.000 uF capacitor bank: Output Power: 150 Watts pr. Channel into 8 Ohms 275 Watts pr. Channel into 4 Ohms 400 Watts pr. Channel into 2 Ohms

The Amplifier can run with supply voltages from +/-30 to +/-60 Volts DC with minor changes of some resistor values.

2. Circuit Description
The input signal from a Preamp or a Volume Control is applied to the Inverting Input (Pin 2) of the U101 Opamp through a low-pass filter (R101 and C101), while the feedback signal (determent by R120 and R121) is applied to the Non-Inverting Input (Pin 3) of the U101 Opamp. U101 makes the first low Voltage Gain, and provide low output impedance to the Voltage Amplifier stage Q101 and Q103 (Positive Voltage Amplification) and Q102 and Q104 (Negative Voltage Amplification). The signal is then feed to the Current Gain Stages, which are build-up as Three Deep Darlington (TDD) circuits, each consisting of one Pre-Driver (Q106 and Q107), one High Power Driver (Q110 and Q111) and the Output Transistors (Q112 to Q119). The Bias circuit consists of Q105, C104 (frequency compensation), R113, R115 and a Potentiometer R114, which allows the Bias to be adjusted. The +/-15 VDC Supply to U101 are provided by R122, ZD101 and C107 (Positive Supply) and R123, ZD102 and C108 (Negative Supply). A Current Limiting Circuit (R124 to R127, C105 and C106, D103 to D106 and Q108 to Q109) is fitted to protect the output stage from delivering higher Currents than the SOA specify. The use of C105 and C106 allows high Current peaks (dynamic peaks) on the output without limiting the output Current. Only if the current flow continues above "Safety Level" the capacitors are charged and Q108/Q109 limits the output current by lowering the signal to the Pre-Drivers. If you are afraid of DC-Voltages on the input (from the outputs of your other equipment) you can add a 1uF to 2.2uF film capacitor to the input in series with R101.

LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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3. Component List
Resistors: 0.6W: Size 7.5x2.5 mm, Pad distance on PCB: 10 mm 2.0W: Size 12x4 mm, Pad distance on PCB: 16 mm 5.0W: Size 17x6 mm, Pad distance on PCB: 22 mm

R101 R102 R103, 104, 107, 108 R105, 106 R109, 110 R111, 112 R113 R115 R116, 117 R118, 119 R120 R121 R122, 123 R124, 125 R126, 127 R128 to 135 R136, 137 R138 to 145 R114 C101 C102, 103 C105, 106 C104, 107, 108, 112, 113, 114, 115 C109 C110 C111 U101

1K, 0.6W 100K, 0.6W 1K, 0.6W 13K, 0.6W 3.3K, 0.6W 330R, 2W 1K8, 0.6W 210R, 0.6W 180R, 0.6W 33R, 2W 10K, 0.6W 390R, 0.6W (see next page) 2W (see chap. 4) 0.6W 100R, 0.6W 0R22 to 0R47, 5W 10R, 5W 0 to 10R, 0.6W 5K potentiometer 330pF 33pF 22uF, 50V 100nF, 63/100VDC 100pF 470uF, 16V 100nF, 150V OPA627



1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1-5% 1-5% 1-5% 1% 1-5% 1-5%

1% Cermet, Bourns WIMA FKP 2 WIMA FKP 2 VISHAY MKT 370/470 WIMA FKP 2 Panasonic EHG Epcos Equivalent WxL: 2.5x7.2 mm WxL: 2.5x7.2 mm Dia:8mm, P:3.5mm WxL: 2.5x7.2 mm WxL: 2.5x7.2 mm Equivalent WxL: 5x14 mm OPA134 10-24 turns 5mm pin spacing 5mm pin spacing Non-Polarity 5mm pin spacing 5mm pin spacing 5mm pin spacing 10mm pin spacing Low DC-Offset opamp

Q101, 108 Q102, 109 Q103, 107 Q104, 105, 106 Q110 Q111 Q112, 114, 116, 118 Q113, 115, 117, 119 D101 to 106 D107, 108 L101 ZD101, ZD102 J101, 102 Misc. FS101, FS102 Fuses 8-pin DIL socket for U101 Spacers M3 (malefemale)

MPSA42* MPSA92* MJE350 MJE340 MJE15032** MJE15033** MJL21194 MJL21193 1N4148 BAV21 2uH, 20A 15V Zener, 1W 2-pin row

OnSemi OnSemi OnSemi OnSemi OnSemi OnSemi OnSemi OnSemi

Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent

MJE15030 MJE15031

16mm pad spacing 8mm pad distance 2.5mm pin spacing

See pics next page See chapter 4 1 4

For fuses 5x20mm 5x20mm Length 8-10mm

* Watch out. Some old versions (not On Semi) had a different pin layout. Check the manufacturer datasheet ** Beware of fakes (I had to scrap more than 100 transistors bought from a cheap supplier as the blew up in this amp)

LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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R122/R123 calculation This is how you calculate R122 and R123 (2W Zener resistors) @ Iz=20mA (Rail VoltageZV)/0.02A=R (example with +/-55VDC Rail Voltage: (55-15)/0.02 = 40/0.02=2000R = 2K How to make L101 Take app. 15 to 20 cm. of solid 1.5-2 mm thick insulated copper wire. Carefully wrap the wire 10 times around a round object app. 8-10 mm in diameter (e.g. a pencil). Make sure the windings are tight and pressed together. Then carefully bend the ends to fit the 16mm hole distance on the PCB. Cut the ends, and carefully remove 5mm of the insulating at each end. Now carefully pull the coil of the object. PCB pin-layout for transistors
TO-92 TO-126 TO-220AB TO-3PBL

1=E 2=B 3=C Q101, 102, 108, 109 Q103 to 107

1=B 2=C 3=E Q110, 111

1=B 2=C 3=E Q112 to 119

PCB Pin-layout for R114 Bias trimmer (Bourns are shown)

Pin configuration for Opamp

Pin 1, 5 and 8 has no connection on PCB

Fuse holder for 5x20mm fuse (both types can be fitted on the PCB)

5mm pin spacing (RS Components)

22.5mm pin spacing (Farnell)

Important correction to PCB silk screen!

Q106 This should have stated Q107 This should have stated



No that this is only a correction to the silk screen. PCB tracks are correct and match the MJE340/350 transistors.

LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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4. SOA protection calculation

How to calculate R124 and R125 Below is shown the SOA (Safe Operating Area) for the MJL21193/94. If you are using other output devices, please use the SOA protection curve for those in the calculations.

Below you see the protection circuit and the R124 and 125 to be calculated

To calculate the protection circuit you need to decide what Rail Voltages you will use for the output stage. Also you have to decide the value of resistors R128 to R136 (0.22R to 0.47R). Following example is the calculation for +/-50VDC Rail Voltage and the value 0.22R for R128 to R136. In the SOA curve we can see that at 50V the MJLs can handle 4A for 1 sec (red lines) @25Co. Knowing the value of R128 to R136 (0.22R) we can calculate the Voltage across these at 4A. Using Ohms Law (IxR=V) 4Ax0.22R = 0.88V. As Q108 will turn on at Vbe at app. 0.6V, the current across R126 at 0.6V will always be 6mA. Now the Voltage across R124 can be calculated: 0.88V-0.6V=0.28V. Knowing that the Current through R124 and R126 must be the same (not taking Base Current of Q108 into consideration), the Current through R124 is 0.006A (6mA) at 0.28V. Using V/I=R we get 0.28V/0.006A= 46.7R (to be on the safe side and to take into mind that Voltage and Current can be up to 45 degrees out of phase, select a resistor value lower than 46.7R e.g. 39R). As the MJLs are rough devices, you may be extra careful when using other output devices. Select fuses according to the above calculation. In the above shown case the suitable value would be 16AT (app. 3.5A for each of the four output devices = 14A and then a little extra) Read more on SOA on Elliott Sound Products great site: http://sound.westhost.com/soa.htm LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk Page 5

5. PCB assembly
Components should easily be soldered in if you use following order: 1. Start with all 0.6W resistors according to the Component List Always measure the resistance of each resistor before attaching it to the PCB! 2. Zener diodes ZD101 and ZD102 and all diodes D101 to D108 Raise Zeners app. 5 mm from the PCB, as they get warm 4. Opamp U101. Be careful to inset the opamp correctly. Note that pin 1 is marked on the silk screen and by a square pad on the PCB 5. Transistors Q101, Q102, Q108 and Q109. 6. Capacitors (all) 7. 2W and 5W resistors (all) and potentiometer R114 Raise resistors app. 5-10 mm from the PCB as they can get warm 8. Transistors Q103, Q104, Q106 and Q107 9. L1, fuse holders and Terminal blocks (if used) 10. Now fit the four M3 spacers with the flat end down at each corner of the pcb.

Now you are ready to fit the Bias transistor Q105 and the Drivers Q110 and Q111. Bend the legs 90 degrees as shown below and fit the transistors from the solder side. Now place the pcb on the four spacers on a flat clean surface (or use the heatsink you intend to use), and adjust the transistor placement so that the back of the transistors are laying flat on the surface. Start by only soldering the middle legs (on component side), and then carefully align the transistors before soldering the remaining legs (also on component side). Q105 Bias transistor Q110/111 Driver transistors

Check and double-check all solderings!

LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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6. Pre-test
You can now make a pre-test without the output devices attached. Note! Depending on Rail Voltages the driver transistors Q110 and Q111 can get very hot or even blow up if not fitted with heat sinks ! Connect a regulated +/-30 to 60 Volt DC-Supply to the +DC and DC terminals labelled Supply to Voltage Amp. Positive Supply to the +DC terminal and Negative Supply to the DC terminal, using a 0.5 to 1A fuse in each supply line. Connect the Power Supply GND to both the Supply GND and the Input GND terminal.

Connect a DC Volt Meter between tp A (at R118) and tp C (at R119) Positive input to tp A. Power up the supply and watch the reading of the Meter. Carefully adjust the R114 Bias potentiometer. If the Voltage reading changes and you can adjust the reading to app. 1.4V, then everything seems to be in order. Measure between tp B (at R118) and Gnd. The reading should be lower than 50mV (DC Offset). If not, make quick measurement across each Zener diode to confirm that the +/-15V to the Opamp are present. Then disconnect power and check for bad soldering etc.

7. Final assembly and test

If your pre-test result was ok, then fit the output devices Q112 to Q119 the same way as described above. Now attach the complete assembled PCB to the heat sink. IMPORTANT! REMEMBER TO USE INSULATING PADS AND HEAT CONDUCTING PASTE BETWEEN ALL TRANSISTORS IN CONTACT WITH THE HEATSINK!

Image here
After fitting the PCB, use a Ohm Meter to check that none of the Bias, Driver and Output transistors has connection to the heat sink.

LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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Final test
Connect Power wires to both the Supply to Voltage Amp and the Supply to Output Stage. Remember to connect the Input Gnd to Power Gnd. Connect the Voltage Meter Gnd to Power Gnd, and power up the amp.

Measure the Voltage across R128 (tp E and tp F) and adjust the Bias trimmer R114 according following to set Bias to 50mA: If R128=0.22R: 10mV, if R128=0.33R: 16mV and if R128=0.47R: 23mV Then measure across R129 (tp G and tp H). The readings should be app. the same. Check the readings and adjust the Bias trimmer to the above for every 5 min. for 30 minutes. After 30 min. the Bias should have stabilized and only measure small variations. If you have an oscilloscope and a function generator, then apply a low level signal (e.g. 100 mV/1kHz sine wave) across the Input terminals and observe the output at either tp F or tp H. As the amplifier has a gain of app. 25, you should now see a clear 2.5V sine wave. If you observe any crossover distortion, then adjust the Bias trimmer R114 until distortion disappears. Slowly raise the Input Signal level until the amplifier clips, while checking for abnormal signal handling or oscillation on the output.

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LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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8. Schematic and PCB layout

LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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Silk Screen

Top Copper

Bottom Copper

LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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9. Basic wiring
Here shown with one common Ground point (Start Ground)

Red: Black: Blue

+DC Ground -DC

For those in countries using Safety Ground, I think a 10R/5W resistor from Common Ground point to Safety Ground should do it, however as we do not use this in Denmark Im not sure You can read more on Elliott Sound Products: http://sound.westhost.com/psu-wiring.htm

10. Power Supply suggestion

Recommended Specification
Rail Voltages: Transformer rating: Capacitor Bank: +/-30 to 60 Volt DC with common ground 300 to 500 Watts per channel min. 2x15.000uF with 2x100nF parallel

Below is shown an example of a simple Power Supply for the LYNX Power Amp

AC Main

To Amplifier

Read more on Elliott Sound Products: http://sound.westhost.com/power-supplies.htm

Thanks to Rod Elliott for his permission to link to his very informative site: http://sound.westhost.com

LYNX v3.0 Power Amplifier by Jan Dupont, Audio Circuit Denmark www.audio-circuit.dk

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