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Tarnish and Corrosion

Introduction Definitions Types of corrosion - Dry / Chemical corrosion - Wet / Elecrochemical corrosion o Galvanic corrosion - Electrogalvanism / Dissimilar metals o Heterogeneous surface composition o Stress corrosion o Concentration cell corrosion Corrosion of Dental !estorations o Dental "malgam o Stainless Steel o #o$el %etals o Silver points &rotection against Corrosion Clinical Significances of Galvanic Currents %inimi'ing Clinical Corrosion Conclusion
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Tarnish and Corrosion


Introduction: In most cases corrosion is undesira$le Ho)ever* in dental practice a limited amount of corrosion around the margins of dental amalgam restorations may $e $eneficial* since the corrosion products tend to seal the marginal gap and inhi$it the ingress of oral fluids and $acteria " common e+ample of corrosion is rusting of iron* a comple+ chemical reaction in )hich iron com$ines )ith o+ygen in air and )ater to form the hydrated o+ide ,e-./ -H-. This o+ide layer is porous* $ul0ier* )ea0er and more $rittle than the metal from )hich it formed 1oss of non-adherent o+ide e+poses a fresh underlying metal surface* )hich enhances continuation of the corrosion process .ne method to prevent this corrosion is to alloy iron )ith chromium forming stainless steel High no$le alloys used in dentistry are so sta$le chemically that they do not undergo significant corrosion in the oral environment2 the ma3or components of these alloys are gold* palladium* and platinum Silver is not considered no$le $y dental standards* since it )ill react )ith air* )ater and sulfur to form silver sulfide* a dar0 discoloration product %etals undergo chemical and electrochemical reactions )ith the environment resulting in dissolution and formation of chemical compounds Commonly 0no)n as the corrosion products* the chemical compounds may accelerate* retard or have no influence on the su$se4uent deterioration of the metal surface

" primary re4uisite of any metal used in the mouth is that it must not produce corrosion products that )ill $e harmful to the $ody Some metals )hich are completely safe in elemental state can form ha'ardous or even to+ic ions or compounds Several aspects of the oral environment are highly conducive to corrosion The mouth is )arm and moist* and is continually su$3ected to fluctuations in temperature Ingested foods and li4uids have )ide range of pH "cids are li$erated during $rea0do)n of foods* and the resulting de$ris often adheres tenaciously to the metallic restoration* providing a locali'ed condition that promotes accelerated reaction $et)een the corrosion products and the metal or the alloy 5ecause it has the least tendency to $ecome ioni'ed* gold resists chemical attac0 very )ell Thus* it )as natural that this most no$le metal )as employed early in modern dental history for the construction of dental appliances Tarnish and Corrosion:" differentiation should $e made $et)een tarnish and corrosion even though there is a definite technical difference It is difficult clinically to distinguish $et)een the t)o phenomenon and the terms are often used interchangea$ly in dental literature Tarnish6 - is surface discoloration or a slight loss or alteration of the surface finish or luster In the oral cavity tarnish often occurs from the formation of hard and soft deposits on the surface of the restoration Calculus is the principal hard deposit and its color varies from light yello) to $ro)n The soft deposits and pla4ues are films composed mainly of microorganisms and mucin stain or discoloration arises from pigment producing $acteria* drug

containing chemicals such as iron or mercury and a$sor$ed food de$ris Surface discoloration may also arise on a metal from the formation of thin films such as o+ides* sulfides or chlorides Such films may even $e protective ho)ever it is an early indication of corrosion Corrosion6 - is defined as a physiochemical interaction $et)een a metal and its environment to form metallic compound The resultant changes in the metal can lead to an impairment of its function and can also change the environment in )hich the metal is situated Corrosion is to all intents and purposes the reversal of the reactions employed in e+traction process ,re4uently* the corrosion products of a metal are very similar to the compound from )hich the metal )as originally e+tracted Eg6 Iron is e+tracted originally from iron o+ide* and rust is simply hydrated iron o+ide In specific sense* corrosion is not merely a surface deposit* $ut it is an actual deterioration of a metal $y reaction )ith its environment ,re4uently* especially )ith surfaces under stress or )ith intergranular impurities in the metal or )ith corrosion products that does not completely cover the su$strate metal2 the corrosion attac0 rate may actually increase )ith time In addition corrosion attac0 that is e+tremely locali'ed may cause rapid mechanical failure of a structure even though the actual loss of metal is very small This disintegration of the metal may occur through the action of moisture* atmosphere* acid* or al0aline solutions and other chemicals Tarnish is often the forerunner of corrosion

The film that is deposited and produces tarnish in time form or accumulate elements or compounds that chemically attac0 the metallic surface ,or e+ample6 eggs and certain other foods contain significant amount of sulfur 8arious sulfides such as hydrogen and ammonium sulfides corrode silver* copper and mercury* and similar metals present in dental alloy and amalgam In addition )ater* o+ygen and chloride ions are present in the saliva and contri$ute to corrosion attac0 8arious acids such as phosphoric* acitic and lactic acids are present at times at proper concentration and pH these can lead to corrosion The oral environment is an aggressive environment %aterials may dissolve in the )ater that is present or release solu$le components They may discolor or $rea0 do)n due to a$sorption of su$stances from the )ater or they may undergo tarnish and corrosion "ll of these possi$ilities can adversely affect the chemical sta$ility of the materials and limit their dura$ility The products released may have an adverse effect- on the $iological environment $oth locally and systemically %etals undergo chemical reactions )ith non-metallic elements in the environment to produce chemical compounds* commonly 0no)n as Corrosion products These compounds may accelerate* retard or have no influence on the su$se4uent deterioration of the metal surface .ne of the primary re4uisites of any metals that are to $e used in the mouth is that it must not produce corrosion products that )ill $e harmful to the $ody It is unfortunate that the oral environment is very conducive to the formation of corrosion products The mouth is moist and continually su$3ected to fluctuations in temperature The food and li4uids ingested have a
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)ide range of pH "cids are li$erated during the $rea0do)n of foodstuffs This food de$ris often adheres to tenaciously to the metallic restorations thus providing a locali'ed condition that is e+tremely conducive to an accelerated reaction $et)een the corrosion products and metal or alloys "ll of these environmental factors contri$ute to the degrading process 0no)n as Corrosion Types of Corrosion6 There are t)o general types of corrosion reactions6 a: Chemical or dry corrosion $: Electrochemical or )et corrosion Chemical ;Dry: Corrosion6 In this type of corrosion there is a direct com$ination of metallic and nonmetallic elements to yields a chemical compound through a process such as o+idation* halogenation* or sulfuri'ation reactions " good e+ample is the discoloration of silver $y sulfur* )here silver-sulfide forms $y corrosion reaction It can also $e a corrosion product of dental gold alloys that contain silver This mode of corrosion is also referred as Dry Corrosion* since it occurs in the a$sence of )ater or another fluid electrolyte Electrochemical ;Wet: Corrosion6 Chemical corrosion is seldom isolated and is invaria$ly accompanied $y Electrochemical Corrosion, )hich is also 0no)n as Wet Corrosion, since it re4uires the presence of )ater or some other fluid electrolyte This mode of corrosion is much more important for dental restorations than dry corrosion Types of Electrochemical corrosion6 a: Galvanic corrosion < Electrogalvanism / Dissimilar metals
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$: Heterogeneous surface composition c: Stress corrosion d: Concentration cell corrosion The starting point for discussion of electrochemical corrosion is the electrochemical cell Such a cell is composed of three essential components* namely the Anode, Cathode and Electrolyte. "n apparatus is employed to measure the voltage and current $et)een the t)o electrodes In this e+ample the dental amalgam restoration can $e the anode and a gold alloy restoration can represent the cathode* and the saliva may act li0e the electrolyte The anode is the surface or sites on a surface )here positive ions are formed ;i e the metal surface that is undergoing oxidation and is corroding: )ith the production of free electrons6 M0 M+ + e "t the cathode or cathodic sites* a reduction reaction must occur that )ill consume the free electrons produced at anode M+ + e M0 The electrolyte supplies the ions needed at the cathode and carries a)ay the corrosion products at the anode The e+ternal circuit serves as the conduction path to carry electrons from the anode to the cathode If a voltmeter is place into the circuit instead of an ammeter* an electric potential difference may $e measured It should $e pointed out that this simple electrolytic cell is in principle of a $attery Since the flo) of electrons in the e+ternal circuit is capa$le of lighting a $ul$ in a flashlight
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It is also capa$le of producing a physiological sensation in the tooth i e pain In order for electrolytic corrosion to $e an ongoing process the production of electrons $y o+idation reaction at the anode must $e e+actly $alanced $y the consumption of electrons in the reduction reaction at the cathode #ormally* a single anode reaction is $alanced $y any num$er of cathode reactions Hence* the cathode is considered to $e primary driving force in electrolytic corrosion The $asis for any discussion of electrochemical corrosion of dental alloys is the electromotive series of the metals* )hich classifies the metals $y their e4uili$rium values of electrode potential* there$y arranging them in the order of their dissolution tendencies in )ater Each of these standard half-cell potentials may $e considered as the voltage of an electrochemical cell in )hich one electrode is the hydrogen electrode designated ar$itrarily as 'ero potential* and the other electrode is the element of interest The sign of the electrode potential in Electromotive Series indicates the polarity in such a cell* and metals )ith more positive potential have a lo)er tendency to dissolve in a4ueous environments This is very important consideration in determining the rate of corrosion and can $e used to reduce or eliminate corrosion If any t)o metals are immersed in an electrolyte and are connected $y an electrical conductor* an electric couple is formed in such condition metal )ith the lo)est electrode potential goes into the solution The strength and direction of the current thus depends primarily on the electrode potential of the individual metals

The position of any of the elements in the electromotive series is dependent not only on the inherent solution tendencies $ut also on the effective concentration of ions of that element that are present in the environment as the ionic concentration increases in the environment* the tendency for that element to dissolve decreases The E%, series provides information only a$out )hether a given corrosion reaction can occur In actual situation* it predicts neither the occurrence nor the rate of corrosion The increase in the metal content in the environment may eventually prevent further corrosion %etal sometimes cease corroding merely $ecause their immediate environment have $ecome saturated )ith ions of the metals Such a situation does not occur in a dental restoration $ecause the dissolving ions are removed $y foods* fluids* and tooth $rushing Thus* the corrosion continues &rovided that an electrolyte is present* many types of electrochemical corrosion are possi$le and all may occur to some e+tent in oral cavity $ecause )ith its salts is a )ea0 electrolyte The electrochemical properties of saliva depend on the composition* concentration of its components* pH* surface tension* and $uffering capacity "ll these factors may influence the strength of any electrolyte and thus the magnitude of the resulting corrosion process "n anodic reaction* then is one that produces electrons* )here as a cathodic process consumes electrons* this process can $e used for electroplating or electro deposition in )hich the material to $e coated is made of an electrolytic cell and the anode is made of the metal to $e deposited onto the cathode The electrolyte serves to transport ions from anode to cathode Galvanic corrosion / Dissimilar metals6-

"n important type of electrochemical corrosion occurs )hen com$inations of dissimilar metals are in direct physical contact Here the dental reference is to t)o ad3acent restorations )here the metal surfaces have different compositions The alloy com$inations that may produce galvanic corrosion or electrogalvanism through the flo) of galvanic currents may or may not $e in intermittent contact The effect of galvanic shoc0 is )ell 0no)n in dentistry ,or e+ample* assume that a dental amalgam restoration is placed on the occlusal surface of a lo)er tooth directly opposing a gold inlay in an upper tooth 5ecause $oth restorations are )et )ith saliva* an electrical circuit e+ists* )ith a difference in potential $et)een the dissimilar restorations When the t)o restorations are $rought into contact* there is a sudden short-circuiting through the t)o alloys* )hich may result in the patient e+periencing a sharp pain When the teeth are not in contact* there is still an electrical circuit associated )ith the difference in potential or electromotive force $et)een the t)o restorations The saliva forms the electrolyte* and the hard and soft tissues can constitute the e+ternal circuit* although the electrical resistance of the e+ternal circuit is considera$le in comparison )ith that )hich e+ists )hen the t)o restorations are $rought into contact The current generated is inversely related to the electrical resistance of the metal The electric currents measured under these conditions $et)een a gold cro)n and an amalgam restoration in the same mouth* $ut not in contact* appear to $e appro+imately A 9 to ( microampere ;u": )ith a corresponding difference of appro+imately 9AA millivolts ;m8: " current is present even in a single isolated metallic restoration* although it is less intense In this situation the electrochemical cell is generated as a electrical potential
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differences created $y the t)o electrolytes6 saliva and tissue fluids The term Btissue fluidsB is used to denote the dentinal fluid* soft tissue fluids and $lood that provide the means for completing the e+ternal circuit "lthough the magnitude of these currents usually diminishes some)hat as the restoration ages* it remains indefinitely at the appro+imate value cited Coating )ith a varnish tends to eliminate galvanic shoc0 Heterogeneous Surface Composition6"nother type of galvanic corrosion is associated )ith the heterogeneous com the surfaces of dental alloys E+amples include the eutectic alloys and peritectic alloys The reason for the previous statement that the corrosion resistance of multiphase alloys is generally less than that of a single-phase solid solution should no) $e evident ,or e+ample* )hen an alloy containing a t)o-phase eutectic microstructural constituent is immersed in an electrolyte* the lamellae of the phase )ith the lo)er electrode potential are attac0ed* and corrosion results #ominally pure metals* )hich do not contain significant 4uantities of impurities or secondary microstructural phases acting as miniature electrodes )ith different potentials* corrode at much slo)er rates than alloys Stress corrosion6Since the imposition of stress increases the internal energy of an alloy* either through the elastic displacements of atoms or the creation of microstrain fields associated )ith dislocations the tendency to undergo corrosion )ill $e increased The deleterious effects of stress and corrosion* called stress corrosion* are most
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li0ely to occur during fatigue or cyclic loading in the oral environment Small surface irregularities* such as notches or pits* act as sites of stress concentration so that ordinary fatigue failure occurs at nominal stresses $elo) the normal elastic limit of the alloy Concentration Cell Corrosion6"n important type of electrochemical corrosion is called concentration cell corrosion* )hich occurs )henever there are variations in the electrolytes or in the composition of the given electrolyte )ithin the system ,or e+ample* there are often accumulations of food de$ris in the interpro+imal areas $et)een the teeth* particularly if oral hygiene is poor This de$ris then produces an electrolyte in that area* )hich is different from the electrolyte that is produced $y normal saliva at the occlusal surface Elertrochemical corrosion of the alloy surface underneath the layer of food de$ris )ill ta0e place in this situation " similar type of attac0 may occur from differences in the o+ygen concentration $et)een parts of the same restoration* )ith the greatest attac0 at the areas containing the least o+ygen Irregularities* such as pits* on restorations provide important e+amples of this phenomenon The region at the $ottom of such concavity has a much lo)er o+ygen concentration than that at the surface of the restoration* $ecause the pit )ill $e typically $e covered )ith food de$ris and mucin The alloy at the $ottom of the pit $ecomes the anode* and the alloy surface around the rim of the pit $ecomes the cathode Conse4uently* metal atoms at the $ase of the pit ioni'e and go into solution* causing the pit to deepen The rate of such corrosion may $e very rapid* since the area of the anodic region is much smaller than that of the cathodic region and there must $e a $alance of charge transport in $oth regions
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Conse4uently* failure may occur much more rapidly than )hat )ould $e anticipated from uniform surface attac0 ,or this reason* all metallic dental restorative materials should $e polished "n important category of concentration cell corrosion is crevice corrosion* in )hich preferential attac0 occurs at the crevices in dental prostheses or at the margins $et)een the tooth structure and restorations $ecause of changes in electrolyte and o+ygen concentration caused $y the presence of food de$ris and other deposits Corrosion of dental restorations6It is apparent from this discussion that the oral environment and dental structures present comple+ conditions that can promote corrosion and discoloration The varia$les of diet $acterial activity drugs* smo0ing and oral hygiene ha$its un4uestiona$ly account for a great portion of the differences in corrosion often noted in different patient in )hom the same dental alloy* handled in the same manner* has $een employed "malgam6 5oth lo) copper* and high copper dental amalgams undergo* t)o 0inds of corrosion* i e chemical corrosion and electrochemical corrosion Chemical corrosion occurs most nota$ly on the occlusal surface and produces a $lac0 "g S tarnish film This reaction is limited to the surface and does not compromise any properties* e+cept for esthetics These amalgams )ith very high copper also are capa$le of producing a copper o+ide film $ut that is relatively uncommon Electro chemical corrosion is an important mechanism of amalgam corrosion has the potential to occur virtually any )here on or )ith in a set dental amalgam* electrochemical corrosion occurs )hen ever chemically different sites act as an anode and
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cathode This re4uires that the sites $e connected $y an electrical circuit in the presence of the electrolyte* typically saliva The anode corrodes2 producing solu$le and insolu$le reaction produces If a dental amalgam is in direct contact )ith the ad3acent metallic restorations such as a gold cro)n The dental amalgam is the anode in the circuit This is called galvanic corrosion i e macroscopically different electrode site It may also occur )hen an area is covered $y food de$ris* calculus etc This area has a locally lo)ered o+ygen and/or high hydrogen ion concentration ma0ing it $ehave more anodically and corrode - Crac0s and cervices produce similar conditions and preferentially corrode - !egions )ith in a dental amalgam that are under stress also display or greater propensity for corrosion i e stress corrosion Corrosion of ne)ly placed amalgam restorations occurs )ithin the interface $et)een tooth and restoration The space $et)een the tooth and alloy permits microlea0age of electrolyte i e due to percolation and concentration cell occurs

&ercolation6 .ne of the conse4uences of thermal e+pansion and contraction difference $et)een a restorative material and ad3acent tooth structure During electrochemical corrosion of lo) copper dental amalgam the Sn -Hg phase is o+idi'ed to Sn - . and or Sn - . C( The o+ychloride species is solu$le The o+ide precipitates as crystals and tends to fill up the spaces occupied $y the original Sn Hg phase "long the margins of the amalgam* Sn Electrochemical
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corrosion of Sn - Hg does not release free mercury into the oral environment !ather mercury immediately reacts )ith the locally availa$le "g and Sn from residual amalgam alloy and is reconsumed to form more reaction products The ceramic employed in composite material as resin forcing fillers* and as inlay and cro)ns are corroded $y saliva In the composites* )ater is a$sor$ed $y the resin and comes into contact )ith the filler %etallic ions pass from the glass and the accumulation of corrosion products causes stress crac0ing in the resin* long term immersion studies have sho)n dramatic decreases in strength of conventional composites Glasses containing $arium* strontium or 'inc salts to confer radio opacity are more vulnera$le than alumino silicate com$ination Ho)ever* the microfine materials are more resistant to corrosion $ecause the filler particles are surrounded $y heat cured resin that e+hi$its a lo)er )ater upta0e The clinical dura$ility of the microfine is greater than )ould $e e+pected from simple mechanical properties tests and this illustrates another pro$lem in predicting clinical performance Their performance clinically is very similar to the more highly filled composite resins Stainless steel6 Steel is an iron $ased alloys that usually contain less than ( -C car$on When (- C to /AC chromium is added to steel the alloy is commonly called stainless steel These steels resist tarnish and corrosion primarily $ecause of the passivating effect of chromium ,or passivation to occur a thin* transparent* $ut tough and impervious o+ide layer of Cr-./ forms on the surface of the alloy )hen it is su$3ected to an o+idi'ing atmosphere such as room air This protective o+ide layer prevents further tarnish and corrosion* if the o+ide layer is ruptured $y mechanical or chemical means* a temporary loss of protection
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against corrosion )ill occur Ho)ever the passivating o+ide layer eventually forms again in an o+idi'ing environment #o$el %etals6 High gold alloys contain a high percentage of no$el metal elements and thus have an inherent resistance to corrosion $ecause of their lo) reactivity to o+ygen in the atmosphere Elements in some $ase metal alloys have a high affinity for o+ygen $ut the o+ide film formed can serve as a protective layer against further o+idation and corrosion This formation of protective film $y a reactive su$stance is called passivation* and metals are )ell 0no)n for their passivation potential are aluminium* chromium and titanium The most corrosion resistant of these is titanium* )hich is used for surgical implants* partial denture frame)or0s and most recently for cro)ns and $ridges ,or alloys to $e protected from corrosion they must certain a minimum of I-C chromium Thus $ase metal alloys are resistant to tarnish and corrosion $ecause not of there lo) reactivity $ut $ecause of there passivity )hen produced $y a chromium o+ide layer Silver points6 Dsed for endodontic filings also undergo corrosion* it may corrode $y o+idation reaction to form surface compound on the point of silver amine surface anihydrate This has cytoto+ic effect on tissue "lthough deformation $y cutting and trimming the silver points could cause the initiation of some corrosion noted It )as necessary to have some sulfur present to react )ith the silver to form the cytoto+ic product Sulfur is present in amino acids heparin* thiamine and other compounds in $lood* cementum* $one and saliva Therefore corrosive product pro$a$ly resulted from an inade4uate apical seal of the canal

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&!.TECTI.# "G"I#ST C.!!.SI.#6 It has $een suggested that for dental casting a coating of a no$le mental may $e applied to the surface of a second metal for instance a $ase metal Ho)ever the no$le metal is soft and )hen its surface $ecomes scratched or pitted to such a depth that the $ase metal is e+posed to the environment* the $ase metal )ill $e corroded at a rapid rate This occurs for three reasons6 a: " surface defects is created that could set up a concentration cell $: - dissimilar metals are in direct contract thus production a galvanic cell c: There is an unfavora$le anode-cathode surface area ratio Thus rapid corrosion is e+cepted )here the coating has $een scratched When paint or other types of inorganic or organic coating are used for protection any pit or scratch in the protection layer may lead to the rapid corrosion of the $ase metal In case of t)o dissimilar metals paint or other non conductive film can $e used to advantage if it is applied to the no$ler of the t)o metals The corrosion rate of the more active metal is reduced $ecause of the surface area for reduction reaction has $een decreased* a scratch in this type of coating does not lead to rapid attac0 on the active metal %etallic and non-metallic coating have $een attempted on dental gold alloys They )ere ineffective $ecause they )ere too thin and did not adhere to underlying metal

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Certain metals develop a thin highly protective film $y reaction )ith the environment such metal is said to $e passive Eg6 Chromium &assivating metals are not )ithout dra)$ac0s Tensile stresses and certain ions such as chloride can disrupt the protective film and rapid corrosion may ensure Chromium passivated metals can $e suscepti$le to stress corrosion and pitting corrosion ,or this reason patients are advised not to use household $leach for cleaning !&DEs or remova$le ortho appliances "ntirust / chemical corrosion inhi$itors used in autoclave to prevent corrosion are dicyclohe+ylamimonium nitrate C1I#IC"1 SIG#I,IC"#CE ., G"18"#IC CD!!E#TS6"s long as metallic dental restoration materials are employed there seems to $e little possi$ility that the galvanic currents can $e eliminated The cement $ase itself although it is a good thermal insulator* has little effect in minimi'ing the current that is carried into the tooth and through the pulp "lthough the post operative pain caused $y galvanic shoc0 is not a common occurrence in the dental office It can $e a real source of discomfort to an occasional patient Such post operative pain usually occurs immediately after insertion of a ne) restoration and generally is gradually su$sides and disappears in a fe) days It is li0ely that the physiologic condition of the tooth is the primary factor responsi$le for the pain resulting from this current flo) .nce the tooth has recovered from the in3ury of preparing the cavity and has returned to a more normal physiological condition the current flo) then produces no response

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&ractically the $est method of reducing the galvanic shoc0 is $y painting an e+ternal varnish on the surface of the restoration It seems that the conservative procedure )ould $e to avoid situation that might o$viously produce on e+aggerated condition 5y the insertion of an amalgam restoration directly in contact )ith gold cro)ns seems to $e contraindicated although it is often done %ercury released from the corroding amalgam ;anode: certainly interacts )ith gold alloy and )ea0ens it " discoloration of $oth restorations )ill pro$a$ly occur %inimi'ation of clinical corrosion6 Dsing the principles 3ust discussed a num$er of general rule may $e formulated to minimi'e corrosion in the clinical situation The dental student or dentist applying thus rules to his particular situation can no dou$t increase the list ( "l)ays avoid restoring teeth in opposition )ith the mi+ed metals* )here even practical* avoid using mi+ed metals )ithin the same mouth* since the restored tooth is open to the $iological system through the dentinal tu$ules* an electrical connection through the e+tra cellular fluid is esta$lished for mi+ed metals even if they are not in opposition The associated galvanism is of course accelerated if mi+ed metals are placed in opposition - Dse an appropriate insulating $ase )hen seating a metallic restoration Electrical contact )ith the e+tra cellular fluid may $e minimi'ed or eliminated $y using an insulating $ase such as copal varnish for amalgam or a cement $ase for gold casting / "void conditions conducive to pla4ue $uild up in selected areas of metallic restorations Esta$lishment of areas of pla4ue )ill lead to decreased pH and o+ygen tension in areas covered $y pla4ue "s indicated in the previous section* $oth of these manifestations )ill enhance corrosion phenomena
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7 "s a logical conse4uence of the a$ove all appliances should $e designed as smooth and shelf cleansing as possi$le in order to decrease pla4ue $uild up and retention "malgam restorations in particular should $e routinely polished 9 Copper chromium partial denture clasps should $e either cast integrally )ith the frame )or0 or else spot )elded Soldering clasp )ith either a gold or silver solder is to $e avoided since it is produces a galvanic mi+ed metal couple Silver solders )hich may contain up to 9AC Cu and Fn may $e 4uic0ly corroded )hen coupled )ith Co - Cr alloys %any commercial cleansers )ill attac0 such a solder 3oint =: $e alert to the development of ne) dental materials technology in supplying improved corrosion resistant materials Conclusion6 It is apparent that the oral environment and the oral structures present various situations that promote discoloration and corrosion The varia$les of diet* $acterial activity* drugs* smo0ing* and oral hygiene ha$its produce different rates of corrosion in different patients

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