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CHEF125 Notes H-Bond occurs Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces




In the form of A-B - - - A For example, O-H - - - O-H - - - O-H etc. The three dashes (- - -) represents H-Bond. 4. Dipole-Ion Attractions Basically polar molecules surrounds an ion because they are simply attracted to each other xD. 5. Ion-Ion Attractions Ion attracted to ion. Stronger charges = Stronger attractions Order of Strength of Intermolecular Forces (Strongest to Weakest) 1. Ion Ion 2. Ion Dipole 3. Hydrogen Bonding 4. Dipole Dipole 5. Dispersion Forces Attractive Forces and Solubility Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents. Nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents. Polar solutes do not dissolve in nonpolar solvents and vice versa. Polar group (Hydrophilic) OH, CHO, CO, COOH, NH2, Cl Nonpolar group (Hydrophobic) CH, CC Dissolve = Miscible (Homogenous) Does not dissolve = Immiscible (Heterogeneous) Surface Tension Tendency of liquids to minimize their surface area of water They form spherical droplets just below the surface Surface tension = The energy required to increase the surface area at a given amount of temperature
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Intermolecular Attractions Strength of IA Type of state The stronger the attractive forces are, the higher the boiling point of the liquid and the melting point of the solid. Factors of Intermolecular Attractions 1. Dispersion Forces (London Forces) Temporary Charges due to fluctuation in the electron distribution in atoms and molecular Temporary Dipole Results in induction of dipole in neighbouring molecules Factors: a. Molar Mass Larger molar mass = more electrons = increased polarizibility = stronger attractions b. Shape of Molecule More surface contact = more electrons contact = larger induced dipole = stronger attractions 2. Dipole-Dipole Attractions Between polar molecules with permanent dipole. Larger dipole moment = stronger attractions 3. Hydrogen Bonding Only for O-H, N-H, and F-H Stronger than dipole-dipole. Bonding with O, N, and F exposes the nucleus of H, causing electrons from other molecules to be attracted to the nucleus of H Hence

CHEF125 Notes
Factors: a. Intermolecular Forces Higher intermolecular forces = Higher surface tension Attractions between molecules become harder to break. b. Temperature Higher temperature = Lower surface tension The increased kinetic energy of molecules makes the attractions weaker between them, hence become easier to break. Viscosity The resistance of a liquid to flow 1 poise = 1 P = 1 g/cm*s Factors: a. Intermolecular Forces Stronger attractions = Higher viscosity Molecules cannot move easily through themselves b. Shape More spherical = Lower viscosity Less surface contact between molecules signifies weaker intermolecular attractions. c. Temperature Higher temperature = Lower viscosity Increased kinetic energy will make the molecules easier to move among themselves. Capillary Action 1 The ability of a liquid to flow up a thin tube against the influence of gravity 2 The result of two forces working in conjunction: Cohesive Intermolecular forces Adhesive Molecules of liquid and the walls of the tube Also determines the meniscus in tube. Upward Hemisphere: Cohesive > Adhesive Downward Hemisphere: Adhesive > Cohesive

Properties and Structure of Solids Crystal Lattice During cooling, the particles in liquid arrange in a way that the maximum intermolecular forces are achieved, hence the energy is minimized. Result: Crystal Lattice Unit Cell 1 Shows the pattern of the arrangement of a crystal lattice 2 The basic repeating structural unit of a crystalline solid Repeated over and over again Each particle in unit cell = lattice point Types of unit cells: a. Cubic b. Tetragonal c. Orthorhombic d. Monoclinic e. Hexagonal f. Rhombohedra g. Triclinic Coordination Number: The number of atoms that are in direct contact with each other. Higher coordination number = Stronger attractive forces. Cubic Unit Cell 1. Simple Cubic 1 atom (4 x 1/8 part of atoms) Coordination number = 6 2. Body-Centered Cubic 2 atoms (4 x 1/8 + 1 whole atom) Coordination number = 8 3. Face-Centered Cubic 4 atoms (4 x 1/8 + 6 x 1/2 part of atoms) Coordination number = 12 Volume of unit cell =
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CHEF125 Notes
Classification of Crystalline Solids 1. Molecular solids CO2, H2O, C12H22O11 2. Ionic Solids NaCl, CaCl2, MgO 3. Atomic solids a. Nonbonding b. Metallic atomic solids Sea of mobile electrons c. Network covalent atomic solids Diamond, Graphite Covalent bonds are very strong = Very high boiling and melting points Solubility The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent Varied by temperature and pressure Given by grams of solute that will dissolve in 100g of H2O Gases are always soluble in each other Two liquids are miscible if both liquids are mutually soluble Chemists Rule of Thumb Like dissolves Like A chemical will dissolve in a solvent if it has a similar structure to the solvent Similar structures of solute and solvent = Attraction of solute to solvent particles Solution Equilibrium Rate of dissociation = Rate of crystallisation Solubility Limit Unsaturated Solvent > Solute Saturated Solvent = Solute Supersaturated Solvent < Solute Temperature Dependence of Solubility of Solids in Water For most solids, Higher Temperature = Higher Solubility When HSolution is endothermic Solubility Curves: Unsaturated Under the line Saturated On the line Supersaturated Above the line Temperature Dependence of Solubility of Gases in Water Gases have low solubility in water due to their nonpolar property. When reacted with water, the solubility increases (high) For all gases, Higher Temperature = Lower Solubility HSolution=Exothermic because no QSolute-Solute
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Solutions Homogenous Mixtures: Composition may vary from one sample to another and they may appear to be one substance, though really contains multiple materials. They are usually called solutions. Solvent: Keeps its state after mixing Solute: Changes state after mixing If both are solvents, the solvent with higher concentration is the solvent and the latter will be solute. Intermolecular Forces and the Solution Process Process: 1. Overcome solute-solute bonds Endothermic 2. Overcome some of solvent-solvent bonds Endothermic 3. Making of new solute-solvent bonds Exothermic Relative Interactions and Solution Formation (Q1 = Solute-Solute (+Q), Q2 = Solvent-Solvent (+Q), Q3 = Solute-Solvent (-Q))

Q3 Q3 Q3

> = <

Q1 + Q2 Q1 + Q2 Q1 + Q2

Formation Formation
May form

CHEF125 Notes
Pressure Dependence of Solubility of Gases in Water Larger partial pressure of a gas in contact with the liquid = Higher solubility of gas in the liquid Henrys Law Solubility of Gas = Henrys Constant * Partial Pressure of Gas Vapour Pressure of Solutions Vapour pressure of solvent < Vapour pressure of pure solvent In the cases of a non-volatile solute is mixed, When the solvent is impure, some solute particles replace the solvent molecules at the surface Rate of condensation > Rate of vaporization Causing less solvent particles being produced as vapours When dynamic equilibrium is achieved, Rate of condensation = Rate of vaporization With less vapour solvent particles but more liquid solvent particles. Raoults Law 2. Molality Because XA < 1 all the time, PA < POA all the time 3. Parts Solute in Parts Solution N percent of A implies N grams of A in a 100g solution Can be described by mass or volume 4. Percent Concentration Vapour Pressure Lowering Where A is the solvent and B is the solute Raoults Law for Volatile Solutes Both molecules will be found in the vapour phase during evaporation of the solution. For an ideal solution, And,

Concentrations Quantitative descriptions of concentration of solutions are: 1. Molarity

5. Parts per Million Concentration

6. Parts per Billion Concentration

7. Mole Fraction


Colligative Properties Properties changes depending only on the number of solute particles regardless of their identity

Other Colligative Properties Related to Vapour Pressure Lowering occurs at all temperatures Implications include: 1. Increased boiling point 2. Decreased freezing point

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CHEF125 Notes
Freezing Point Depression Where is called the freezing point depression constant, and is the molality of the solution Note that: Effect of vant Hoff Factors to Some Equations 1. Vapour Pressure Where A is solvent and B is solute. In this case, the moles of solute is affected by vant Hoff factors 2. Vapour Pressure Lowering Boiling Point Elevation Where is called the boiling point elevation constant, and is the molality of the solution Osmosis Flow of solvent from a solution of low concentration into a solution of high concentration Separated by a semi-permeable membrane Osmotic Pressure Amount of pressure needed to keep osmotic flow from taking place, Where vant Hoff Factors Theoretical: The ratio of moles of solute particles to moles of formula units dissolved 1 mol NaCl produces 1 mol of Na+ and Clrespectively. Hence, 3. Freezing Point Depression Because,

4. Boiling Point Elevation

Experimental: The ratio is lower than the theoretical due to some ion pairing in the dissolved particles. (Hence reduced number of moles)

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