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Lord Northcliffe and Sir Arthur Pearson -ProjectAlfred Harmsworth (Lord Northcliffe)

Alfred Harmsworth, the son of an English barrister, was born in Chapelizod near Dublin, on 15th July, 18 5! An indifferent s"holar he was edu"ated at #t John$s %ood, a small, pri&ate day s"hool in 'ondon! He de&eloped an interest in (ournalism when he began editing the s"hool magazine! After lea&ing s"hool, Harmsworth found wor) with Youth, an illustrated magazine for boys, owned by the Illustrated London News! *n 188 he was employed by Edward *liffe to edit his magazine, Bicycling News! +he great publishing su""ess at the time was Tit-Bits, a magazine that was selling ,--,--"opies a month! *n 1888 Harmsworth de"ided to (oin with his brother, Harold Harmsworth, to publish a similar type of magazine "alled Answers to Correspondents! He told his readers that e&ery .uestion sent in would be answered by post, and the answers of those of general interest would be published in the magazine! Answers to Correspondents was a great su""ess and within four years he was selling o&er a million "opies a wee)! *n 18,/, he de"ided to be"ome in&ol&ed in newspaper publishing! +he Evening News was nearly ban)rupt when pur"hased by Harmsworth %ith the help of 0ennedy Jones, he dramati"ally "hanged the paper! Harmsworth de"ided to start a new paper based on the style of newspapers published in the 1#A! +his way, the Daily Mail appeared for the first time on /th 2ay, 18, , the eight page newspaper "ost only halfpenny!! +he Daily Mail was the first newspaper in 3ritain that "atered for a new reading publi" that needed something simpler, shorter and more readable than those that had pre&iously been a&ailable! 4ne new inno&ation was the banner headline that went right a"ross the page! Considerable spa"e was gi&en to sport and human interest stories! *t was also the first newspaper to in"lude a woman$s se"tion that dealt with issues su"h as fashions and "oo)ery! +he Daily Mail was an immediate su""ess and "ir"ulation .ui")ly a"hie&ed 5--,---! %ith the strong interest in the 3oer %ar in 18,, sales went to o&er a million! Harmsworth en"ouraged people to buy the Daily Mail for nationalisti" reasons ma)ing it "lear to his readers that his newspaper stood 5for the power, the suprema"y and the greatness of the 3ritish Empire5! Harmsworth used his newspapers to promote in&entions su"h as the telephone, ele"tri" light, photography, motor"y"les, motor "ars and air"raft! He was so passionate about "ars that Harmsworth prohibited the editor of the Daily Mail from reporting details of automobile a""idents! *n 1,-6 Harmsworth produ"ed the first newspaper, The Daily Mirror, aimed at women! 4n its first day, the "ir"ulation of the Daily Mirror was 78 ,---! Howe&er, sales dropped dramati"ally after the initial laun"h and by January, 1,-/, "ir"ulation was down!

Harmsworth de"ided to "hange his original plan! +he editor, 2ary Howarth, was repla"ed by Hamilton 9yfe, who "hanged it to a pi"ture paper for men as well as women! %ithin a month sales had in"reased se&enfold! *n August 1,-5, the Daily Mirror began to pioneer the idea of the 5e:"lusi&e5! +he first e:ample was the 5e:"lusi&e5 inter&iew with 'ord 2into, the new ;i"eroy of *ndia! *n 1,-5 <orth"liffe obtained the unday !"server and three years later he pur"hased The Ti#es! <orth"liffe was determined to ma)e the Daily Mail the offi"ial newspaper of the 3ritish Army! E&ery day 1-,--- "opies of the paper were deli&ered to the %estern 9ront by military motor "ars! He also had the re&olutionary idea of using front=line soldiers as news sour"es! *n August 1,1/ he announ"ed a s"heme where he would pay soldiers for arti"les written about their e:perien"es! After the war, <orth"liffe retained his interest in new te"hnology! He began a "ampaign to promote wireless "ommuni"ation by arranging for the Daily Mail to sponsor the world$s first wireless "on"ert! *n an editorial <orth"liffe argued> 54n"e before the Daily 2ail stirred the national imagination to realise the &ital importan"e of flying! *t has now ta)en the lead in pri&ate wireless e:periments with the ob(e"t of "ulti&ating national re"epti&ity for the new s"ien"e and of bringing minds in train for a"hie&ements to "ome!5 <orth"liffe$s health deteriorated rapidly in 1,71! He was suffering from strepto"o""us, an infe"tion of the bloodstream, that damages the &al&es of the heart and "auses )idney malfun"tion! Alfred Harmsworth, 'ord <orth"liffe, died in August, 1,77! *n his will he left three months$ salary to ea"h of his si: thousand employees!

Sir Arthur Pearson, 1st Baronet

#ir Cyril Arthur ?earson, 1st 3aronet, @7/ 9ebruary 18 A , De"ember 1,71B was a 3ritish newspaper magnate and publisher! He founded the Daily E:press, a daily national middle mar)et tabloid newspaper in the 1nited 0ingdom! ?earson was born in the &illage of %oo)ey, #omerset! He graduated the prestigious %in"hester College in Hampshire! His first (ob was as a (ournalist wor)ing for the 'ondon= based publisher Ceorge <ewnes on +it=3its magazine! %ithin his first year he had impressed <ewnes enough for him to ma)e him his prin"ipal assistant! *n 18,-, after si: years of wor)ing for <ewnes, ?earson left to form his own publishing business and within three wee)s had "reated the periodi"al (ournal D$earson%s &ee'lyE, the first issue of whi"h sold a .uarter of a million "opies! *n 18,8, he pur"hased the DMorning (erald), and in 1,-- merged it into his new "reation, the halfpenny DDaily E*pressE! +he DE*press) was a departure from the papers of its time and "reated an immediate impa"t by "arrying news instead of only ad&ertisements on its front page! He was also su""essful in establishing papers in pro&in"ial lo"ations su"h as the

3irmingham DDaily +a,ette)! He "ame into dire"t "ompetition with the DDaily MailE and in the resulting "ommer"ial fight almost too) "ontrol of D The Ti#esE, being nominated as its manager, but the deal fell through! *n 18,8, ?earson founded +he D-oyal Maga,ineE, a monthly literary magazine whi"h remained in publi"ation until 1,6,! *n 1,-- ?earson despat"hed the e:plorer and ad&enturer Hes)ethHes)eth=?ri"hard to ?atagonia to in&estigate dramati" reports of a giant hairy mammal inhabiting the forests! During this same period, ?earson was also a"ti&e as a writer, and wrote a number of tourist guides to lo"ations in 3ritain and Europe! *n 1,-/ he pur"hased the struggling DThe tandard) and its sister paper the DEvening tandard) from the Johnstone family! He merged the E&ening #tandard with his #t James$s Cazette and "hanged the Conser&ati&e stan"e of both papers into a pro='iberal one, but was unsu""essful in arresting the slide in sales and in 1,1- sold them to the 2? #ir Da&ison Dalziel and #ir Ale:ander Henderson! 3eginning to lose his sight due to glau"oma despite a 1,-8 operation, ?earson was progressi&ely for"ed from 1,1- onwards to relin.uish his newspaper interestsF after losing his sight ?earson sold the title in 1,1 to #ir 2a: Ait)en, the future 'ord 3ea&erbroo)! +hrough the 3ritish and 9oreign 3lind Asso"iation, ?earson published his D $earson%s Easy DictionaryE in 3raille form in 1,17! 'ater "ompletely blind, ?earson was made president of the <ational *nstitution for the 3lind in 1,1/! *n 1,15, he founded #t Dunstan$s Home for soldiers blinded by gas atta") or trauma during the 9irst %orld %ar! *ts goal, radi"al for the times, was to pro&ide &o"ational training rather than "harity for in&alided ser&i"emen, and thus to enable them to "arry out independent and produ"ti&e li&es! ?earson$s dedi"ation to this wor) led to him re"ei&ing a 3aronet"y on 17 July 1,1 , whereupon he too) the title ?earson, 1st 3aronet of #t Dunstan$s, 'ondon! He re"ei&ed in 1,18 the C3E @+he 2ost E:"ellent 4rder of the 3ritish Empire, an order of "hi&alryB! *n 1,1,, ?earson wrote the boo) D.ictory over "lindness/ how it was won "y the #en o0 t1 Dunstan%s!DHe founded the Creater 'ondon 9und for the 3lind in 1,71, funded by the establishment of its annual $Ceranium Day$ appeal! ?earson died on , De"ember 1,71 when he drowned in his bath after )no")ing himself un"ons"ious in a fall! He was buried in Hampstead Cemetery after a ser&i"e to whi"h the Cabinet, the 3ritish and <orwegian royal families, and many institutes for the blind all sent offi"ial representati&es! Baciu Loredana Barbu !d!lina "ru#a $, anul $$$