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SOCIAL INNOVATION: Theoretical and methodological approach Mónica Edwards-Schachter, Phd - moed@ingenio.upv.es

SOCIAL INNOVATION:

Theoretical and methodological

approach

Mónica Edwards-Schachter, Phd - moed@ingenio.upv.es INGENIO (CSIC-UPV)

DIMENSIONES DE LA INNOVACION SOCIAL

Workshop del equipo de investigación PRACTIS 2 (CSIC-CCHS) Madrid, 16-17 de febrero de 2012

DE LA INNOVACION SOCIAL Workshop del equipo de investigación PRACTIS 2 (CSIC-CCHS) Madrid, 16-17 de febrero
Plan Social Innovation (SI) as research topic Exploring theoretical perspectives and definitions of SI How

Plan

Social Innovation (SI) as research topicPlan Exploring theoretical perspectives and definitions of SI How is SI defined/interpreted by different disciplines?

Exploring theoretical perspectives and definitions of SI How is SI defined/interpreted by different disciplines?Plan Social Innovation (SI) as research topic Research question: What SI is? Methodological approach 1: Content

Research question: What SI is?SI How is SI defined/interpreted by different disciplines? Methodological approach 1: Content Analysis and discourses

Methodological approach 1: Content Analysis and discourses on SIby different disciplines? Research question: What SI is? Methodological approach 2 (Annex) - Bibliometric analysis 2

Methodological approach 2 (Annex) - Bibliometric analysisdifferent disciplines? Research question: What SI is? Methodological approach 1: Content Analysis and discourses on SI

approach 1: Content Analysis and discourses on SI Methodological approach 2 (Annex) - Bibliometric analysis 2
3
3
What SI is?  Outstanding paradigm? In Kuhnian sense, a new accepted scientific realisation /’

What SI is?

Outstanding paradigm?

In Kuhnian sense, a new accepted scientific realisation/’constructionwhich explains a particular phenomenon

New disciplinar field?

‘New natureof innovation

(and more innovation measurement problems)?

 New disciplinar field?  ‘New nature ’ of innovation (and more innovation measurement problems) ?
INNOVACIÓN SI SI SI SI SI SI TECHNOLOGY T ECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT SI?

INNOVACIÓN

INNOVACIÓN SI SI SI SI SI SI TECHNOLOGY T ECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT SI?
SI SI SI SI SI SI
SI
SI
SI
SI
SI
SI
TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY
INNOVACIÓN SI SI SI SI SI SI TECHNOLOGY T ECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT SI?

TECHNOLOGY

DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT SI?
DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT
SI?
Hidden INNOVATION 6
Hidden INNOVATION
Hidden INNOVATION
Hidden INNOVATION 6
INNOVACIÓN Aproximaciones? Non-technological and technological innovation: strange bedfellows?

INNOVACIÓN

INNOVACIÓN Aproximaciones? Non-technological and technological innovation: strange bedfellows?
Aproximaciones?
Aproximaciones?

Non-technological and technological

innovation: strange bedfellows?

INNOVACIÓN Aproximaciones? Non-technological and technological innovation: strange bedfellows?
The SOCIAL side of technological innovation The TECHNOLOGICAL side of Social Innovation ≠ SOCIAL IMPACT

The SOCIAL side of

technological

innovation

The

TECHNOLOGICAL

side of Social

Innovation

SOCIAL IMPACT

OF TECHNOLOGICAL & NON- TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION

IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL & NON- TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION ≠ DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION (TECHNOLOGICAL & NON-

DIFFUSION OF

INNOVATION

(TECHNOLOGICAL & NON- TECHNOLOGICAL)

TECHNOLOGICAL & NON- TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION ≠ DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION (TECHNOLOGICAL & NON- TECHNOLOGICAL) 8
Social Innovation?
Social
Innovation?
Social Innovation?
Are all technologies social? 10

Are all technologies social?

Are all technologies social? 10
SI: beyond buzz words (evidences …) Economy of solidarity already generated a million jobs in

SI: beyond buzz words (evidences …)

Economy of solidarity already generated a million jobs in the country

Télam. National News Agency of Argentina. Nov. 14, 2011.

Co-ops, mutual associations, producer associations; that

heterogeneous group of economic entities formed by the union of people more than by the contribution of capital and which is normally labeled social economy, has created over a million jobs in Argentina.

[…] social economy currently produces 10% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

without INNOVATION?

in Argentina. […] social economy currently produces 10% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) without INNOVATION?
Emergence of SI research organizations and initiatives Year Organization 1986 Centre de Recherché sur les

Emergence of SI research organizations and initiatives

Year

Organization

1986

Centre de Recherché sur les Innovations Socials (CRISES), Canada

1990

Zentrum für Soziale Innovation (ZSI), Austria

2000

Center for Social Innovation de Stanford, US

2000

Instituto de Innovacion Social de ESADE, Spain

2004

‘Centre for Social Innovation’, social enterprise, Toronto, Canada

2005

The ‘Young Foundation‘, London , UK

2005

‘Social Innovation Japan’, NGO, Tokyo

2006

Netherlands Centre for Social Innovation’, Rotterdam

2006

‘New Zealand Social Innovation Investment Group’ (key group of philanthropists, grant-givers, and community leaders), and ‘New Zealand Centre for Social Innovation’ (Foundation), Auckland

grant- givers, and community leaders), and ‘New Zealand Centre for Social Innovation’ (Foundation), Auckland 12
Emergence of SI research organizations and initiatives Year Organization 2007 ’Social Innovation Generation’

Emergence of SI research organizations and initiatives

Year

Organization

2007

’Social Innovation Generation’ (SiG), Kitchener/Ont., Canada;

2008

‘Business Panel on future EU innovation policy’, focused on SI

2009

President Obama announces the setting up of an ‘Office of Social Innovation’ in the White House

2009

‘Australian Centre for Social Innovation’, state-financed, Adelaide

2010

‘Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship Research Centre’ at the Massey University Palmerston North, New Zealand

2010

Waterloo Institute for Social Innovation and Resilience (WISIR), Canada

2010

Empowering people, driving change: Social innovation in the European Union’; a report written by Agnès Hubert et al. from the Bureau of European Policy Advisers (BEPA)

2011

Vienna Declaration (draft), Challenge Social Innovation Conference, September 2011.

Policy Advisers (BEPA) 2011 Vienna Declaration (draft), Challenge Social Innovation Conference, September 2011. 13
‘A new nature of innovation is emerging. In order to formulate appropriate innovation policy encompassing

‘A new nature of innovation is emerging. In order

to formulate appropriate innovation

policy encompassing a new nature of innovation, it is important to understand how the nature of innovation is changing’

OECD Report (2009). ‘New Nature of Innovation

changing’ OECD Report (2009). ‘New Nature of Innovation ’ http://www.newnatureofinnovation.org/full_report.pdf 14
‘ Innovation is no longer mainly about science and technology. Firms can innovate in other

Innovation is no longer mainly about science and technology.

Firms can innovate in other ways.

Co-creation, user involvement, environmental and societal challenges increasingly drive innovation today. Collaborative, global networking and new public

private partnerships are becoming crucial elements in

companies’ innovation process

OECD Report (2009). ‘New Nature of Innovation

becoming crucial elements in companies’ innovation process ’ OECD Report (2009). ‘New Nature of Innovation ’
But …  The term has overlapping meanings  SI concept is often used interchangeably

But …

The term has overlapping meanings

SI

concept is often used interchangeably with a number

of different topics including innovation activities in the non-profit sector,

social entrepreneurship,

social economy and social enterprise,

Corporate Social Responsibility

… etc.

(Moulaert et al, 2005; Mulgan et al., 2007; Rodríguez & Alvarado, 2008; Andrew & Klein, 2010; Howaldt & Shwartz, 2010).

al, 2005; Mulgan et al., 2007; Rodríguez & Alvarado, 2008; Andrew & Klein, 2010; Howaldt &
B. Lévesque F. Moulaert D. Harrison S. Conger J. Howaldt G. Mulgan SOCIAL A. Hubert
B. Lévesque
B. Lévesque
B. Lévesque F. Moulaert D. Harrison S. Conger J. Howaldt G. Mulgan SOCIAL A. Hubert innovation

F. Moulaert

D. Harrison

S. Conger

J. Howaldt
J. Howaldt
B. Lévesque F. Moulaert D. Harrison S. Conger J. Howaldt G. Mulgan SOCIAL A. Hubert innovation
B. Lévesque F. Moulaert D. Harrison S. Conger J. Howaldt G. Mulgan SOCIAL A. Hubert innovation

G. Mulgan

SOCIAL

A. Hubert

D. Harrison S. Conger J. Howaldt G. Mulgan SOCIAL A. Hubert innovation A. Gurrutxaga J. Echeverría

innovation

S. Conger J. Howaldt G. Mulgan SOCIAL A. Hubert innovation A. Gurrutxaga J. Echeverría J. Hochgerner

A. Gurrutxaga

Howaldt G. Mulgan SOCIAL A. Hubert innovation A. Gurrutxaga J. Echeverría J. Hochgerner A. Rodríguez &

J. Echeverría

J. Hochgerner

A. Rodríguez & Alvarado

17

1818

1818 SI as research topic  Within or outside of the innovation studies field?  Opportunity

SI as research topic

Within or outside of the innovation studies field?

Opportunity for developing an integral theory (or theoretical framework) of socio-technical innovation?

(or theoretical framework) of socio-technical innovation? Google scholar search.‘innovation’ about 2.280.000 (
(or theoretical framework) of socio-technical innovation? Google scholar search.‘innovation’ about 2.280.000 (

Google scholar search.‘innovation’ about 2.280.000 (0.17 s)

Google scholar ‘social & innovation

about

18.000 (0.23 s)

about 2.280.000 ( 0.17 s) Google scholar ‘social & innovation ’ about 18.000 ( 0.23 s)
SI as research topic: Within or outside the innovation studies field?  The introduction of

SI as research topic:

Within or outside the innovation studies field?

The introduction of the social to innovation and viceversa, as well as of innovation to the socialhas been considered from multiple research perspectives, embracing social science and economic literatures, as well as in the socio-political practice

Brooks (1982) has analyzed the social dimensions of invention and

innovation. When distinguishing between "pure social inventions and innovations, socio-technical system innovations, and pure technical innovations" he cautions that "there are no entirely pure types"

system innovations, and pure technical innovations" he cautions that "there are no entirely pure types" 19
Sociology Social inventions as sources of social change ( Weber, 1920, William F. Ogburn, 1922;
Sociology Social inventions as sources of social change ( Weber, 1920, William F. Ogburn, 1922;

Sociology Social inventions as sources of social change

( Weber, 1920, William F.

Ogburn, 1922; Chapin, 1928; Chambon et al.,

1982)

William F. Ogburn, 1922; Chapin, 1928; Chambon et al., 1982) Economics (& sociology?) Schumpeter Social

Economics (& sociology?) Schumpeter

Social entrepreneurship

The social market? What the market is? (Gault, Globelics, 2011, Where indicators are going?)

entrepreneurship The social market? What the market is? (Gault, Globelics, 2011, Where indicators are going?) 20
 “Schumpeter underscores the necessity of social innovation occurring in tandem in both the economic

“Schumpeter underscores the necessity of social

innovation occurring in tandem in both the

economic arena as well as in culture, politics and a society's way of life in order to guarantee the

economic efficacy of technical innovations”

(Howaldt & Schwarz , 2010: p. 9) .

But …

The presence of SI in innovation research literature is still scarce and marginal …

, 2010: p. 9) . But …  The presence of SI in innovation research literature
  Definition Author ‘ practices 
 more 
 or 
 least 
 directly 
 allow
 

Definition

Author

practices more or least directly allow to an individual

Chambon et al.(1982, p. 8)

-or

a

group- of taking in charge of

a social need or a set

of social needs – which are not satisfied’

‘concern conceptual, process or product change organizational

OECD LEED

change and changes in financing, and can deal with new relationships with stakeholders and territories’

Forum on social innovation (2000)

By SI, we mean new organizational and institutional forms, new ways of doing things, new social practices, new mechanisms, new approaches and new concepts that give rise to concrete achievements and improvements

CRISES (2004)

“SI is the development and application of new or improved

 

activities, initiatives, services, processes, or products designed to address social and economic challenges faced by individuals

Goldenberg (2004, p.1)

and communities”.

 
address social and economic challenges faced by individuals Goldenberg (2004, p.1) and communities”.   22
Definition Author “refers to new forms of social relations , including institutional and organizational innovations,

Definition

Author

“refers to new forms of social relations, including institutional and organizational innovations, new forms of production and consumption, and new relationships between economic and social

development”.

Neamtan and Downing

(2005, p. 12)

‘refers to innovative activities and services

that

are

motivated by the goal of meeting a social need and that are predominantly diffused through organizations whose

primary purposes are social’

Mulgan

(2006b, p. 8)

‘social innovations are changes in the cultural, normative or regulative structures of the society which enhance its collective

power resources and improve its economic and social performance’

Heiscala

(2007, p. 59)

‘Social innovations are new concepts and measures for solving social challenges that are accepted and utilized by social groups affected’

ZSI (2008, p. 2)

measures for solving social challenges that are accepted and utilized by social groups affected’ ZSI (2008,
‘ innovations that are social in both their ends and their means. Specifically, we define

innovations that are social in both their ends and their means. Specifically, we define SIs as new ideas (products, services and models) that simultaneously meet social needs (more effectively

 

than alternatives) and create new social relationships or

Hubbert (2010)

collaborations. They are innovations that are not only good for society but also enhance society’s capacity to act’

‘social innovation can be broadly described as the development of new concepts, strategies and tools that support groups in achieving the objective of improved well-being

Dawson and Daniel

(2010, p. 10)

innovations that are social both in their ends and in their means’. Specifically, social innovations are defined as new ideas (products, services and models) that simultaneously meet social needs and create new social relationships or collaborations. In other

Murray et al. (2010, p. 3)

words, they are innovations that are both good for society and

enhance society’s capacity to act"

SI: An approach for a new nature (and new measurement problems) of innovation ? 

SI: An approach for a new nature (and new measurement problems) of innovation ?

A recent report of The Young Foundation (2010, p. 10) identifies four drivers of future innovation:

1)

Co-creating value with customers and tapping knowledge about users;

2)

Global knowledge sourcing and collaborative networks;

3)

Global challenges as a driver of innovation;

4)

Public sector challenges as a driver of innovation

3) Global challenges as a driver of innovation; 4) Public sector challenges as a driver of
What SI is? • detection of social needs (opposite to detection of non-socially relevant needs

What SI is?

detection of social needs (opposite to detection of non-socially relevant needs )

principal social aims of improvement well-being, particularly of disfavored and marginalized populations and with purposes to obtain both profit and non-profit benefits, including social value

generation and quality of life improvement (justice)

model of ‘placed-based innovation’ contextualized and path- dependent- for the innovation activities

active role of the users/people and creation of new social relationships and co-generation of innovation products, processes, social practices and norms in socio-cultural contexts

•
social practices and norms in socio-cultural contexts • civic active participation/collaboration in decision-making

civic active participation/collaboration in decision-making

and local governance processes

socio-cultural contexts • civic active participation/collaboration in decision-making and local governance processes 26
Re-orienting the user-producer interaction concept • the kind of interactive learning that interconnects users and

Re-orienting the user-producer interaction concept

the kind of interactive learning that interconnects users and

producers in processes aiming at new products may have a major impact on economic performance of the economy

(Lundvall, 2005. Interactive learning, social capital and

economic performance)

Only market?

The ‘social’ market?

Or the previousquestion: What market is?

and economic performance) Only market? The ‘social’ market? Or the ‘ previous ’ question: What market
SI and Quality of Life In particular SI should aim at identifying and delivering new

SI and Quality of Life

In particular SI should aim at identifying and delivering new services that improve the QL of individuals and communities by addressing:

Social demands that are traditionally not addressed by the

market or existing institutions and are directed towards vulnerable groups in society.

Societal challenges in which the boundary between ‘social’ and

‘economic’ blurs, and which are directed towards society as a whole.

The need to reform society in the direction of a more

participative arena where empowerment and learning are sources and outcomes of well-being (Hubert, 2010).

of a more participative arena where empowerment and learning are sources and outcomes of well-being (Hubert,

29

Example: Cvida Case-study

CVida Vilareal is an association of multiple actors

in the city of Vilareal

(Castellon, Spain) .

Goals

The improvement of

people’s quality of life and

the creation of employment.

The city as a local social innovation space.

LOCAL COMPANIES AND AUTHORITIES LOCAL RESOURCES •Innovation opportunities •Improvement opportunities
LOCAL COMPANIES
AND AUTHORITIES
LOCAL
RESOURCES
•Innovation opportunities
•Improvement opportunities
•Governance support
ITC
PEOPLE
SYSTEM
NEEDS
Quality of life
PEOPLE
opportunities •Improvement opportunities •Governance support ITC PEOPLE SYSTEM NEEDS Quality of life PEOPLE
The Association for Quality of Life Care (CVida) was founded in 2006 with the support

The Association for Quality of Life Care (CVida) was founded in 2006 with the support of Valencian Government with the following purposes:

The design and implementation of local programmes for

improving local economic (sustainable) development and

people quality of life

The organization of activities using a Living Lab methodology under the concept of the city + people as a ‘SI

space’

The empowerment of citizen participation and decision- making in local governance

The improvement professional development, generation of

employment opportunities and social entrepreneurship,

focusing in the interrelationship between users and producers and adopting quality and socially responsible business practices

in the interrelationship between users and producers and adopting quality and socially responsible business practices 30
CONCLUSIONS & FINAL COMMENTS  Social Innovation is a multi-faceted concept which can be placed

CONCLUSIONS & FINAL COMMENTS

Social Innovation is a multi-faceted concept which can be placed at the intersection of spontaneous and rationally organized movements at the micro, meso or macro levels of society (bottom-up) … and which is contributing to change of social practices and the building of innovation systems

Further research on SI will be important in order to increase our

understanding of the concept and theoretical interrelationships between technological, non-technological and social

innovation (and the development of appropriate measurement

methodologies and instruments).

Part of innovation studies … or a new discipline?

of appropriate measurement methodologies and instruments).  Part of innovation studies … or a new discipline?
Characteristics of SI Aims & Focus global challenges as driver (and search of opportunities) of

Characteristics of SI

Aims & Focus

global challenges as driver (and search of opportunities) of innovation social profit & value generation …… vs ‘onlyprofits (market)

attention to ‘real needs

Vs satisfactors generation

SOCIETY

‘SOCIAL’ MARKET?

VERSUS MARKET?

Process

Co-creating innovation (and value) with customers and tapping knowledge about users; Global knowledge sourcing and collaborative networks; Public sector challenges as a driver of innovation

about users; Global knowledge sourcing and collaborative networks; Public sector challenges as a driver of innovation
FINAL COMMENTS …  In Cvida initiative, our principal purpose is to explore the transformational

FINAL COMMENTS …

In Cvida initiative, our principal purpose is to explore the

transformational potential of mechanisms of the process of

collective action and urban governance practices, promoting both the intentional cross-sector fertilization and a system-

building or “scaffolding” endeavour that accomplishes the

mechanisms of social innovation.

We are also exploring the development of indicators, considering in-puts, process and out-puts

social innovation.  We are also exploring the development of indicators, considering in-puts, process and out-puts
Source: Moulaert et al. (2005) 34
Source: Moulaert et al. (2005) 34

Source: Moulaert et al. (2005)

Source: Moulaert et al. (2005) 34
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1958 1963 1968 1971 1973 1975

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1958 1963 1968 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993
1958
1963
1968
1971
1973
1975
1977
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1981
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1985
1987
1989
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
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2011

Business1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 Computer Science, Information Systems Economics Education

Computer Science, Information Systems1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 Business Economics Education & Educational Research Environmental

Economics2009 2011 Business Computer Science, Information Systems Education & Educational Research Environmental Studies

Education & Educational ResearchBusiness Computer Science, Information Systems Economics Environmental Studies Information Science & Library

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Operations Research & Management ScienceResearch Environmental Studies Information Science & Library Science Management Planning & Development 35

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Science & Library Science Management Operations Research & Management Science Planning & Development 35
250 200 150 100 50 0 Business Computer Science, Information Systems Economics Education & Educational

250

200

150

100

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Planning & DevelopmentEnvironmental Studies Information Science & Library Science Management Operations Research & Management Science 36

Science & Library Science Management Operations Research & Management Science Planning & Development 36
Evolution of publications with topics ‘social’ and ‘ innovation ’ 80 70 60 50 40

Evolution of publications with topics ‘social’ and ‘innovation

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

and ‘ innovation ’ 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Business Computer Science,

Businessand ‘ innovation ’ 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Computer Science, Information

Computer Science, Information Systemsand ‘ innovation ’ 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Business Economics Education

Economics40 30 20 10 0 Business Computer Science, Information Systems Education & Educational Research Environmental Studies

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Science & Library Science Management Operations Research & Management Science Planning & Development 37
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Business Computer Science, Information Systems Economics

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

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Economics40 30 20 10 0 Business Computer Science, Information Systems Management Operations Research & Management Science

Management0 Business Computer Science, Information Systems Economics Operations Research & Management Science Planning &

Operations Research & Management Science40 30 20 10 0 Business Computer Science, Information Systems Economics Management Planning & Development Sociology

Planning & DevelopmentComputer Science, Information Systems Economics Management Operations Research & Management Science Sociology 38

Systems Economics Management Operations Research & Management Science Planning & Development Sociology 38

Sociology

Systems Economics Management Operations Research & Management Science Planning & Development Sociology 38
WC f % Management 1889 12% Business 1216 8% Economics 809 5% Operations Research

WC

f

%

Management

1889

12%

Business

1216

8%

Economics

809

5%

Operations Research & Management Science

546

4%

Planning & Development

518

3%

Computer Science, Information Systems

483

3%

Sociology

482

3%

Environmental Studies

415

3%

Information Science & Library Science

403

3%

Education & Educational Research

389

3%

Engineering, Industrial

342

2%

Geography

321

2%

Public, Environmental & Occupational Health

261

2%

Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary

255

2%

Environmental Sciences

252

2%

Computer

Science, Interdisciplinary Applications

217

1%

Computer Science, Theory & Methods

209

1%

Public Administration

201

1%

Political Science

193

1%

Engineering, Electrical & Electronic

187

1%

Social Work

 

175

1%

Urban Studies

170

1%

Electrical & Electronic 187 1% Social Work   175 1% Urban Studies 170 1% 39
40
40
References  ANDREW, C. and KLEIN, J. L. (2010). Social Innovation: What is it and

References

ANDREW, C. and KLEIN, J. L. (2010). Social Innovation: What is it and why is it important to understand it better. ET10003. Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation. Toronto. Cahiers du Centre de recherche sur les innovations

sociales (CRISBROOKS, H. (1982). ES). Collection Études théoriques, no

ET1003.

BROOKS, H. (1982). Social and technological innovation. In Lundstedt, Sven B. and Colglazier, E. William, Jr. (Eds.), Managing innovation. Elmsford, NY:

Pergamon Press, 9-10.

EUROPEAN UNION/THE YOUNG FOUNDATION. (YF) (2010). Study on

social innovation. Report prepared

(SIX) and the Young Foundation for the Bureau of European Policy Advisors.

by

the

Social

Innovation eXchange

HOCHGERNER, j. (2011). The Analysis of Social Innovations as Social Practice. Published in Zentrum für Soziale Innovation (ed.). 2011. Pendeln

zwischen Wissenschaft und Praxis. ZSI-Beiträge zu sozialen Innovationen.

Vienna and Berlin: LIT. 173-189.

HOWALDT, J. and SCHWARTZ, M. (2010). Social innovation: concepts, research fields and international trends. Report of ESF, EU and Aachen University. Dortmund, May 2010.

HUBERT, A. (2010). Empowering people, driving change: Social innovation in

the European Union.

http://ec.europa.eu/bepa/pdf/publications_pdf/social_innovation.pdf

41

Social innovation in the European Union.  http://ec.europa.eu/bepa/pdf/publications_pdf/social_innovation.pdf 41
References  KUHN, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University MACCALLUM, D.; MOULAERT,

References

KUHN, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University

MACCALLUM, D.; MOULAERT, F.; HILLIER, J. an VICARI HADDOCK, S. (2009). Social Innovation and Territorial Development. Ashgate.

MOULAERT, F.; MARTINELLI, F. and SWYNGEDOUW, E. (Eds.). (2005). Social innovation in the governance of urban communities: a multidisciplinary perspective. Urban Studies Vol. 42(11).

MULGAN, G.; TUCKER, S.; RUSHANARA, A. and SANDERS, B. (2007). Social Innovation: What it is, Why it matters and How it can be accelerated. Oxford: Said Business School.

MULGAN, G. (2006). The Process of Social Innovation, Innovations, pp. 145-

162.

MURRAY, R.; MULGAN, G. and CAULIER-GRICE, J. (2009). How to innovate: The tools for Social Innovation. NESTA and the Young Foundation.

PHILLS JR., J. A., DEIGLMEIER, K., and MILLER, D. T. (2008). Rediscovering social innovation. Stanford Social Innovation Review, Vol. 6(4):

34-44. RODRÍGUEZ HERRERA, A. and ALVARADO UGARTE, H.

RODRÍGUEZ HERRERA, A. and ALVARADO UGARTE, H. (2008). Claves de

la innovación social en América Latina y el Caribe. CEPAL: Santiago de Chile

42

ALVARADO UGARTE, H. (2008). Claves de la innovación social en América Latina y el Caribe. CEPAL:

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