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Downlink Interference Analysis of CDMA-based LMDS Networks

Applying Multiuser Detection


Csaba Novk, Tams Plfalvi, Andrs Tikk and Jnos Bit
Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department of Broadband Infocommunication
Systems, Goldmann Gy. tr 3., Budapest, H-1111, Hungary
csaba.novak@mht.bme.hu, palfalvi@docs.mht.bme.hu, tikk@docs.mht.bme.hu, bito@mht.bme.hu
Abstract
The subject of this paper is the investigation of code division multiple access (CDMA) in broadband
wireless point-to-multipoint networks, such as local multipoint distribution services (LMDS). The most
critical point in LMDS networks is inter- and intracell interference. In our work we examine worst-case
interference situations on the downlink of LMDS networks applying CDMA. Comparison between CDMA
and time division multiple access (TDMA) approaches will be drawn in terms of downlink interference.
For effective interference cancellation in CDMA, multiuser detection will be introduced. Downlink
investigations of an LMDS sector by carrier to interference ratio (C/I) and bit error rate (BER) maps,
BER vs. SNR simulations will be presented.
1. Introduction
Increasing demand on wideband applications set wireless fixed networks into focus as a cheap alternative
to wired solutions such as digital subscriber line (DSL). Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) is
a broadband wireless point-to-multipoint (PMP) communication system that provides two-way high
speed multimedia transmission [1]. LMDS has to fulfil the requirements of copper- and fiber-based
networks besides offering high flexibility in network configuration. However, several disturbing effects
occur on the air interface of wireless PMP networks. One of the most critical factors is interference
caused by other sectors of the network. Efficient cell planning tool is required to reduce intra system
interferences. However, critical subscriber positions in the service area of the LMDS system could exist
caused by inter- and intracell interference. To overcome this problem of unacceptable interference
situations, sophisticated sectored antenna systems, adaptive modulation techniques, diversity solutions are
addressed. Considering multiple access schemes for LMDS, mostly TDMA and FDMA approaches are
favored. Although, code division multiple access (CDMA) provides the possibility of applying advanced
interference suppression techniques, i.e. multiuser detection (MUD), CMDA-based LMDS networks are
not foreseen at the present time.
In our paper we investigate the feasibility of applying MUD-aided CDMA in LMDS networks. This work
exploits the experiences of our former investigations, which addressed the performance evaluation of
uplink analysis of CDMA-based LMDS networks [2], and the effects of applying different antenna
systems in wireless PMP networks [3]. In future PMP solutions asymmetric applications are foreseen,
which mean high bandwidth demand on the downlink direction, therefore our investigations are presented
by downlink interference simulations. Key system parameters of our present investigations are the applied
multiple access scheme, antenna system, and receiver algorithm considering the CDMA solution. In
Section 2 an overview of LMDS is given with respect to the interference characteristics. CDMA for
LMDS is introduced in Section 3, where comparison with the most common TDMA approach is drawn.
CDMA-specific interference situations are demonstrated. CDMA multiuser detection is then introduced
for LMDS downlink receivers. Section 4 enumerates the system parameters of our investigated network
configurations, emphasizing the effect of the applied antenna parameters. The performance of CDMA-
based LMDS is examined in Section 5. Various network configurations are compared by bit error rate
(BER) distribution maps of an LMDS sector and BER vs. signal to noise ratio (SNR) analyses for a
selected user position.
2. Overwiev of LMDS characteristics
LMDS is a cellular networking solution aiming at providing high speed multimedia services to
subscribers with fixed terminal stations. LMDS can also serve as a possible transmission network for
future mobile communication systems, such as UMTS, connecting the base station of the mobile network
to the central stations (CS) of the LMDS network. In this application the base station of the mobile
network will be fed by the fixed terminal station (TS) of the LMDS system. The main concept of the
LMDS network architecture can be summarized as serving cheap TSs from CSs. In comparison to the TSs
higher CS costs are affordable, allowing the implementation of sophisticated antenna, receiver, etc.
solutions. To realize broadband distribution services, the system operates at millimetre frequencies,
typically in the range of 20-40 GHz (depending on country of licensing) [1]. The cell radius is limited to
2-5 km due to propagation conditions. Because of the applied high frequencies, line-of-sight connection is
a requirement. Sectoring solutions are preferred for frequency reuse. The most common cell sectoring
solution uses 90

sectors, therefore CSs can be arranged in a rectangular grid (e.g. in Figure 1). To reduce
intercell interference, terminal antennas use accurate narrow-beam focusing on the selected CS. Primary
access methods in LMDS are TDMA, FDMA and CDMA, whereas the latter gained less attention.
Currently, most system operators and standards activities address the TDMA and FDMA approaches.
Therefore the section hereunder discusses the most commonly used TDMA solution in terms of
interference.
2.1. Four-frequency sectored TDMA scheme
TDMA assumes time-frame synchronization of the terminal stations (TS), therefore the central
controlling of the CSs is necessary. The loss of frame synchronization leads to severe degradation of
TDMA system performance. As a large number of TSs has to be served, sectoring is needed. According
to the cellular principle, frequency sectoring allows the reuse of spectrum, increasing capacity.
Considering the above discussed properties of LMDS, namely 90

sector CS antennas and narrow-beam


TS antennas, the following four-frequency sectored TDMA configuration can be applied as shown in
Figure 1 in case of 33 CSs. Four different frequency bands represented by different grey levels are used
in the sectors of one cell. Downlink interference situations are denoted between sectors which transmit to
the same direction operating at the same frequency. In that case the denoted TS in Figure 1 is disturbed by
intercell interference. Similar most disturbing situations occur between all of the second nearest
neighbours. Downlink interference situations assuming the same arrangement can be observed in the C/I
map of the whole coverage area in Figure 2. calculated with antenna system noted as CS0-TS3 given in
Section 4. Critical areas with low C/I values (with dark colours in Fig. 2) are aligned along the sector bor-
ders and in the corners of the 33 network. Avoiding critical interfering places play the major role in
downlink network planning. We focused our attention on the most critical sectors at the corners of the
service area. Simulation results will be presented for the bottom left corner sector. Please observe the
circled sector of Figure 2 with the corresponding magnified C/I map for comparison to our further
investigations.
TS
CS9 CS8 CS
7
CS6 CS5 CS
4
CS3 CS2 CS1

Figure 1 Downlink
interference situations in 4-
frequency sectored TDMA
LMDS network with 33 CSs


Figure 2 Downlink C/I map for LMDS network with 33 CSs
applying 4-frequency sectored TDMA. The investigated sector
is indicated with circle.
3. Applying CDMA in LMDS networks
The main advantage of CDMA is the capability of eliminating the influence of frequency selective fading
mostly caused by multipath propagation. Because line-of-sight connection is a requirement for PMP
systems, applying higher frequencies e.g. 40 GHz, fading due to meteorological phenomena i.e. rain
attenuation are the dominant degradation factors rather than multipath fading. Therefore, applying CDMA
has not yet been preferred in LMDS systems [4]. However, recent studies have shown that CDMA can
compete with TDMA [5] and can play a major role in two-layer LMDS architectures [6].
The advantage of applying CDMA against TDMA is that frequency sectoring can be avoided using the
whole available frequency band assuming the existence of satisfactory number of codes. In that case the
interference will be determined by the used code set. The further advantage of CDMA systems, however,
is that the loss of synchronization is not so critical if the periodic and aperiodic cross-correlation functions
of the codes in the code set are satisfactory enough. Additionally, CDMA provides inter-system
interference suppression determined by the processing gain allowing the co-existence of different systems
operating at the same frequency band. We considered the single-frequency approach, i.e. applying only
space sectoring by the 90

CS antennas. The downlink interference situation in single-frequency (i.e. all


sectors apply the same frequency) CDMA-based LMDS networks with 33 CSs is depicted in Figure 3.
Compared with Figure 1, the number of interfering sectors has increased significantly. In contradiction to
the worst-case uplink situation of four-frequency TDMA system, the received signal at the CS in single-
frequency CDMA is the superposition of the desired signal (from CS1) and all interfering signals from
the sectors looking to the same direction. Figure 4 shows C/I conditions of the CDMA-based network
with the same antenna parameters as those of TDMA case (Figure 2). High interference level can be
observed, even negative C/I values occur in critical positions. However, inter- and intracell interference
can be kept low by applying codes with good correlation properties. Using orthogonal codes, inter- and
intracell interference can totally be suppressed. In case of using non-orthogonal codes, multiuser detection
can lead to the required BER performance.
Code utilization can play an important role in CDMA-based LMDS networks. In addition to antenna
sectoring, further sector separation can not only be realized by using different frequency band, but by
applying code sectoring in CDMA. In our approach, downlink code utilization is considered, similar to
that of UMTS [7]. A unique pseudo-noise (PN) code is assigned to each sector; therefore sector
synchronization is not required. Users of a certain sector are separated by orthogonal Walsh codes. The
resulting code system therefore is a combination of quasi-orthogonal PN sequences and orthogonal codes.
A certain TS receives the desired signal spread by the PN code identifying its serving sector and also
multiplied with its unique Walsh code, identifying the desired downlink connection. Interference will
consist of inter-sector: intra- and inter-cell interfering signals. As in the downlink, the CS separates the
users signals by orthogonal Walsh-codes, intra-sector interference at the TS does not occur. Because the
sector identifier PN codes are not orthogonal, inter-sector and inter-cell interference must be taken into
account, however applying sectored antennas at the CSs and focused antennas at the TSs, intra-cell
interference can be reduced.
TS
CS1 CS2 CS3
CS4 CS5 CS6
CS7 CS8 CS9
Figure 3 Downlink
interference situations in
single frequency CDMA
LMDS network with 33 CSs


Figure 4 Downlink C/I map for LMDS network with 33 CSs
applying single frequency CDMA. The investigated sector is
indicated with circle.
Further demonstration of interference situations in single frequency CDMA-based LMDS network can be
made by examining the most interfering sectors in a certain position. This way the investigated sector can
be divided into separate zones, which have common main interferers. Figure 5 shows five interference
zones of the examined corner sector of the network. In Figures 5 a)-e) the dominant interferers are
depicted for the five zones respectively. Sectors in these maps marked with darker tones indicate higher
interference level received from the certain sector. The effect of these interference zones can be observed
in the magnified sector of the network on the C/I map in Figure 4. Please observe the high interference
level along the sector borders in Figure 4 and see the interference zones d and e in Figure 5. The
corresponding maps (Figure 5 d, e) show that most of the interference is caused by the neighbour sector,
which is due to the not perfect side lobe suppression of the applied sectored CS antenna.
However, critical TS positions of the network show symmetric arrangement, in practical LMDS network
configurations the CS arrangement is not necessarily regular, therefore the marked zones will not be
symmetric in real LMDS networks.
3.1. Interference suppression with multiuser detection
The application of CDMA produced inter-sector interference which is the multiple access interference
(MAI) caused by non-orthogonal PN codes assigned to the sectors. Multiuser detection aims to remove
MAI when detecting the desired user. In our contribution parallel interference cancellation (PIC) MUD
scheme is investigated. Assuming a CDMA system with K users transmitting continuously the received
signal is given by (1)
( )
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ,
K
k k k k
i k
r t A b i s t iT n t

= =
= +

(1)
the k
th
user is identified by spreading waveform s
k
, b
k
(i) denotes the sent i
th
bit with the duration T, A
k
is
the received amplitude of the k
th
user and n is the white Gaussian noise. Applying a bank of K matched
filters (MF), the output of the k
th
filter (MF
k
) for the i
th
bit is then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ,
1
1
,
n l b A i b A dt t s iT t r
T
i y
T
MAI
l
K
k j
j
j j k k j j k k k k k k
k
+ + = =

=
4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 1
(2)
a)
e)
b)
d)
c)

CS1 CS2 CS3
CS4 CS5 CS6
CS7 CS8
CS9

0.0001
0.001
0.01
(CS1-TS3) (CS1-TS0) (CS0-TS3) (CS0-TS0)
a
v
e
r
a
g
e
B
E
R
TDMA
MF
MMSE
PIC

a) b)
CS1 CS2 CS3
CS4 CS5 CS6
CS7 CS8 CS9

CS1 CS2 CS3
CS4 CS5 CS6
CS7 CS8 CS9

CS1 CS2 CS3
CS4 CS5 CS6
CS7 CS8 CS9

c) d) e)
Figure 5 Interference zones (zone a zone e) of the bottom left sector (hatched sector) of a
single-frequency CDMA-based LMDS network with the corresponding maps (ae) marking the
most dominant interferer sectors with decreasing grey levels, for each zone respectively
where
j,k
is the cross-correlation between users j and k and MAI
k
is the interference caused by other
users.
The PIC receiver [8] detects all users at the same time and then cancels MAI simultaneously as shown in
Figure 6.
The output vector of the first MF bank
) 0 (

b is used for respreading and subtracting from the delayed


received signal, which then will be the input of the second MF bank to perform the final decision
corresponding to:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
(
(
(
(

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
T
k k
K
k j
j
j j j j k
dt t s i b iT t s A t r i b
1
0

sgn
(3)
On the downlink direction the knowledge of the applied codes by other users is a question, therefore
MUDs with and without the knowledge of other codes were examined.
In the case when only the code of the desired TS is known, MUD with adaptive minimum mean squared
error (MMSE) algorithm [8] was simulated. This detector belongs to the family of adaptive equalizers
using training sequences for initial channel estimation. The principle of the algorithm is applying an
adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filter so that the adaptation rule should fulfil the MMSE criterion
with respect to the decision error. The rule for the (l+1)
th
iteration step for filter weight vector w results:
( ) ,
T
1 l l l l l l
b r w r w w + =
+
(4)
where r is the received signal vector; b
l
is the l
th
detected bit; is the iteration step size, and ( )
T
means the
transpose function.
4. LMDS system model
The described TDMA and CDMA approaches are compared with the following system assumptions.
26 GHz frequency domain was considered. The applied modulation method was BPSK both for TDMA
and CDMA. In our CDMA system bit-asynchronous transmission was considered, assuming chip-
synchronism.
Propagation assumption: Free-space line of sight propagation conditions were assumed between all of the
terminal and central stations, assuming that the signal attenuation is proportional to the square of the
distance. All CSs transmit with the same power.

r(t)

T

AKsK(t)
Aksk(t)
( )
1

b t
( )

k
b t
( )

K
b t

A1s1(t)
MF
1
MF
k
MF
K
( )
(0)
1

b t
( )
( )
0

k
b t
( )
( )
0

K
b t
MF
1
MF
k
MF
K


Figure 6 Receiver structure of parallel interference cancellation (PIC)
Applied CDMA codes and receivers: PN codes assigned to different sectors are 64 chip long, constructed
from 63 chip long Gold codes extended with one further chip. Users of a certain sector are separated by
orthogonal 64 chip long Walsh codes, as described in Section 3. Three detectors are compared: single
user detector, which means a matched filter (MF), PIC and adaptive MMSE multiuser detectors (see
Section 3.1). For the applied PIC detector, however, we used some simplifications. As it could be seen in
section 3 (Figure 5), in most of the TS positions only a few sectors cause most of the interference.
Interference suppressing capability of the PIC algorithm can maximally be exploited if all of the codes in
the systems are utilized in the interference cancelling algorithm as given in equation (3), which can lead
to very complex receiver structure. Receiver complexity can be reduced by applying only a few branches
of correlators (see Fig. 6), however in this case interference suppression capability will also be reduced.
As we will see, this reduction is not significant on the downlink of the examined LMDS system, a
detector exploiting the knowledge of the five most interfering sectors performs nearly the same as for ten
sectors. Considering PIC detector, we limited the knowledge of the codes in the system to the five most
interfering sectors. We assumed that TSs cancel interference exploiting the knowledge of the PN codes of
the five most disturbing sectors, which means at least 80% of total interference according to our
calculations. Therefore the implemented PIC detector has matched filter banks only for the five most
interfering sectors. For comparison PIC detector with the knowledge of 3, 4 and 10 most disturbing
sectors are also simulated.
Antenna systems: 90

sectored antennas are investigated at the CSs and focused narrow-beam TS


antennas were considered in our simulations. In our system model a pair of CS and TS antennas were
used according to ETSI recommendations (CS1 and TS3, see [9]), and a pair of commercially available
antennas with excellent main lobe gain and side lobe suppression, (named CS0 and TS0) were used. ETSI
standards lay down minimum requirements for suppliers, therefore simulations with ETSI-recommended
antennas mean a worst case scenario. Radiation patterns of the applied CS and TS antennas are given in
Tables 1 and 2 respectively and depicted in the corresponding Figures 7 and 8.


Table 1 CS antenna patterns[9] Table 2 TS antenna patterns [9]
CS1 CS0 TS3 TS0
Angle
(deg)
Rel. gain
(dB)
Angle
(deg)
Rel. gain
(dB)
Angle
(deg)
Rel. gain
(dB)
Angle
(deg)
Rel. gain
(dB)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0
50 0 20 0 2 0 1 -15
95 -10 45 -4 8 -17 12 -35
135 -12 60 -10 30 -22 35 -43
155 -15 90 -20 90 -30 60 -50
180 -25 125 -40 100 -35 80 -60
180 -50

180 -37 180 -65
-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Degree [ ]
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

G
a
i
n

[
d
B
]
CS1
BS0

-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Degree [ ]
G
a
in

[
d
B
]
TS3
TS0

Figure 7 CS antenna radiation patterns [9] Figure 8 TS antenna radiation patterns [9]
5. Results
In this section comparison for different combinations of the described system parameters is given.
Investigations are presented by BER distribution maps of the examined sector, sector average BER
values, and BER vs. SNR analyses for a certain point on the sector map.
5.1. The effect of applied multiple access method and antenna system
The main goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying CDMA in LMDS networks.
Furthermore, it will also be shown that according to our previous investigations [3] the effect of the
applied antenna system on interference is dominant. BER conditions in the investigated sector (circled
area in Figures 2 and 4) are presented by sector maps in Figure 9. A certain point on the map indicates the
BER value on the downlink of a TS installed at that point. Darker tones represent poorer BER results.
44=16 depicted maps of Figure 9 comprise all combinations of the examined system parameters, such as
four access methods: TDMA and three CMDA applying MF, PIC and MMSE detectors, and four antenna
configurations. All of our simulations were considered at a constant signal to noise ratio SNR=7 dB.

TDMA (CS1-TS3) TDMA (CS1-TS0) TDMA (CS0-TS3) TDMA (CS0-TS0)

MF (CS1-TS3) MF (CS1-TS0) MF (CS0-TS3) MF (CS0-TS0)

MMSE (CS1-TS3) MMSE (CS1-TS0) MMSE (CS0-TS3) MMSE (CS0-TS0)

PIC (CS1-TS3) PIC (CS1-TS0) PIC (CS0-TS3) PIC (CS0-TS0)


Color scale
for BER
Figure 9 Downlink BER conditions of the examined LMDS sector for TDMA and CDMA
approaches with MF, MMSE and PIC detectors, applying four combinations of the
CS (CS1, CS0) and TS (TS3, TS0) antennas (SNR=7 dB)
0.0001
0.001
0.01
(CS1-TS3) (CS1-TS0) (CS0-TS3) (CS0-TS0)
a
v
e
r
a
g
e

B
E
R
TDMA
MF
MMSE
PIC

Figure 10 Comparison of sector average BER performances on downlink of the examined
LMDS sector for TDMA and CDMA approaches with MF, MMSE PIC and detectors, applying
different antenna systems (SNR=7 dB)
In Figure 9 maps are ordered vertically so that antenna performance shows an improving tendency: from
minimum ETSI requirements (CS1-TS3) to an antenna system with highest main lobe gain and side lobe
suppression (CS0-TS0). Poorer antenna characteristics result in darker maps, meaning poorer BER
performance caused by higher interference level. The side lobe suppression of the CS antennas affects
CDMA performance significantly. As shown in Section 3, (also see Figures 4 and 5), while downlink
interference in 4-frequency sectored TDMA-based LMDS network is received from second nearest
neighbour sectors, in single-frequency CMDA approach all sectors transmitting to the same direction
cause intercell interference. Therefore CS antenna radiation pattern has greater effect on interference in
CDMA case than in TDMA case. The first two columns of Figure 9 representing the ETSI-recommended
CS sectored antenna with lower side lobe suppression indicate heavy interference along the sector borders
and diagonals. Although applying MUD can significantly reduce the effect of interference, and make the
sector area nearly homogeneous in terms of BER performance, CDMA cannot outperform TDMA
according to sector average BER values given in Figure 10. Sector average BER performances indicate
that TDMA has nearly the same average BER performance for all investigated antenna systems, since it is
less sensible to CS and TS antenna characteristics than CDMA. Different behaviour of the examined two
multiuser algorithms can be observed in different TS positions. As explained in Figure 5, interference
zones near the sector borders have one dominant interferer, namely the neighbour cell, while in the
diagonal, interference is composed of several sectors interfering signals. Because the PIC detector
performs better when only a few strong interferers are present, it shows higher interference reduction
capability in the borders than MMSE (e.g. see maps MMSE (CS1-TS0) and PIC (CS1-TS0) in Fig. 9).
Nevertheless, MMSE shows better performance in case of more but lower interferers, e.g. in the sector
diagonal.
Further illustration of the applied antenna system is shown by BER vs. SNR analyses in Figure 11.
Simulations for CDMA approach with the PIC detector take the five most disturbing sector into account.
A selected TS location at the right bottom corner of the sector was investigated. The difference between
the best (CS0-TS0) and the worst (CS1-TS3) antenna systems is revealed by approximately 1 dB gain at
10
-3
BER value.
0 2 4 6 8 10
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR [dB]
B
E
R
5-PIC (CS1-TS3)
5-PIC (CS1-TS0)
5-PIC (CS0-TS3)
5-PIC (CS0-TS0)
BPSK

Figure 11 Comparison of different antenna systems: BER vs. SNR at a fixed TS location for
CDMA-based LMDS system with PIC detector taking 5 most interferer sectors into account
5.2. The effect of PIC detectors with different complexity
As discussed in the system model of Section 4, the applied simplified PIC detector takes into account
only the five most interfering sectors. The effect of utilizing more and less interferers is demonstrated on
the BER maps of Figure 12, proving the feasibility of this simplification. The critical number of the
considered interfering sectors is 4 corresponding to Figure 5, above which no significant performance
gain can be achieved. Please see the nearly same BER maps of Figure 12 in case of utilizing 4, 5 and 10
interfering sectors signals (4-PIC, 5-PIC, 10-PIC) compared to the higher BER values of 3-PIC. The
corresponding sector average BER values are also nearly the same for 4-PIC, 5-PIC and 10-PIC (see
Figure 13).
Additionally the interference suppression capability of CDMA with PIC detector is investigated by
increasing the processing gain from 64 to 128. BER vs. SNR curves in Figure 14 include simulation
results for one of the antenna systems (CS0-TS3) in the right bottom location of the sector. The effect of
higher processing gain is examined together with the complexity of PIC receiver, i.e. exploiting the
knowledge of 3, 4 and 10 interfering sectors (denoted as 3-PIC, 4-PIC and 10-PIC). The nearly equivalent
performance of PICs with at least 4 sectors utilization can be observed. The interference suppression
effect of higher processing gain means nearly 2 dB gain with 3-PIC, while with 4-PIC and 10-PIC only a
0.5 dB gain could be achieved by doubling the code length. Therefore it is worth applying a bit more
sophisticated receiver (i.e. 4-PIC instead of 3-PIC) than increasing processing gain.
0 2 4 6 8 10
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
SNR [dB]
B
E
R
3-PIC (CS0-TS3, 64)
4-PIC (CS0-TS3, 64)
10-PIC (CS0-TS3, 64)
3-PIC (CS0-TS3, 128)
4-PIC (CS0-TS3, 128)
10-PIC (CS0-TS3, 128)
BPSK

Figure 14 BER vs. SNR analysis at a fixed TS location for CDMA-based LMDS system with PIC
detector utilizing 3, 4 and 10 interfering sectors, applying different antenna systems


3-PIC (CS0-TS3) 4-PIC (CS0-TS3) 5-PIC (CS0-TS3) 10-PIC (CS0-TS3)
Figure 12 Downlink BER maps for CDMA-based LMDS network applying PIC-
type multiuser detectors utilizing the knowledge of the 3, 4, 5 and 10 most
interferer sectors.
0.0001
0.001
0.01
3-PIC 4-PIC 5-PIC 10-PIC
a
v
e
r
a
g
e

B
E
R


Color scale
for BER
Figure 13 Sector average BER performances of downlink PIC detecrors in LMDS systems
utilizing 3, 4, 5 and 10 interferer sectors, applying antenna system (CS0-TS3)
6. Conclusions
CDMA-based LMDS networks were investigated in terms of downlink interference. Code sectoring
similar to the code system used e.g. in UMTS was examined. Multiuser detection strategies were
introduced, examining PIC-type detectors with different complexities. Comparisons are made with a four-
frequency sectored TDMA approach, and antenna systems with various side lobe suppressions were
considered. CDMA with PIC-type multiuser detector proved to compete with TDMA, even though bit-
asynchronous transmission. The comparison of various antenna systems revealed that the applied antenna
system affect CDMA interference more seriously than that of TDMA, moreover the side lobe suppression
of the sectored CS antennas is dominant. Different interference zones were determined in a sector of the
CDMA-based LMDS network, leading to the necessity of using different PIC receiver structures at TSs
located in different zones. It has been revealed that in case of the investigated network with 33 CSs,
most of the interference is received from the four dominant interferer sectors. It has been shown that a
PIC detector exploiting the knowledge of only the four most interfering sectors can lead to accessible
system performance. Applying a PIC receiver with the proposed complexity proved to suppress
interference more effectively than increasing processing gain by doubling the code length of the applied
CDMA code system.
In summary, our investigations lead to the experience that system performance is mostly determined by
the CS antenna and receiver complexity at the TS. Increasing system performance in CDMA-based
LMDS systems can be therefore achieved by applying a bit more sophisticated receiver than increasing
processing gain. Because the interference situation in single-frequency CDMA-based LMDS system is
mostly determined by the CS antenna, applying cheaper TS antennas together with precisely dimensioned
sectored CS antennas; result in an economical future LMDS system.
7. References
[1] A. Nordbotten, LMDS systems and their application, IEEE Communications Magazine, June
2000, pp. 150-154
[2] Cs. Novk et al., Uplink Interference Analysis of LMDS Networks Applying CDMA with
Interference Cancellation submitted to IEEE-ISSSTA 2002, Prague
[3] Cs. Novk et al., Investigation of Interference in Broadband Wireless Point-to-Multipoint
Networks submitted to VDE Kongress 2002 Networlds, Dresden
[4] B. Friedrichs, K. Fazel, Efficient multiple access schemes for wireless broadband point-to-
multipoint access networks, Proc. of ECRR 2000, Dresden, Germany, Sept. 12-15, 2000, pp .99-
105
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