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MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE Dr. Teresa Paz B. Grecia-Pascual PART ONE BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION I. Defini i!n !f Me"ical Juris#ru"ence A. B. Differen ia e fr!

$ Le%al Me"icine an" &!rensic Me"icine. Me"ical Juris#ru"ence' A s#ecialize" area !f le%al #rac ice c!ncerne" (i ) )e rela i!ns)i# *e (een $e"icine an" )e la(. M!re s#ecificall+, $e"ical -uris#ru"ence is )e scien ific use !f le%al an" #arale%al s#ecial ies in )e #ursui !f -us ice in c!ur #r!cee"in%s an" in )e #r! ec i!n !f )e #u*lic fr!$ $e"ical ne%li%ence !r $al#rac ice. S ric l+ s#ea.in%, i is )e a##lica i!n !f )e #rinci#les !f la( as )e+ rela e ! )e #rac ice !f $e"icine, ! )e !*li%a i!ns !f )e #rac i i!ner ! )is #a ien , an" ! )e rela i!ns !f #)+sicians ! eac) ! )er an" ! s!cie + in %eneral /D!rlan"0s Illus ra e" Me"ical "ic i!nar+, 12 ) E"i i!n, 34456. Le%al Me"icine' T)e #r!fessi!nal an" aca"e$ic "isci#line ()ic) c!ncerns i self (i ) le%al as#ec s !f $e"ical science, $e"ical #rac ice, an" ! )er )eal ) care "eli7er+ #r!*le$s. S ric l+, le%al $e"icine s)!ul" inclu"e *! ) f!rensic $e"icine an" $e"ical -uris#ru"ence. &!rensic Me"icine' A s#ecialize" area !f $e"ical #rac ice c!ncerne" (i ) )e rela i!ns)i# *e (een $e"icine an" )e la(. In )e P)ili##ines, f!rensic $e"icine an" $e"ical -uris#ru"ence are *ranc)es !f le%al $e"icine.

C.

D.

II.

R!le8Pur#!se !f Me"ical Juris#ru"ence A. B. C. Cause !f Ac i!n Defense E7i"ence

III.

Branc)es !f La( ()ere Me" Jur8Le%al Me"icine $a+ *e a##lie" A. Ci7il La( an" &a$il+ C!"e' 3. "e er$ina i!n an" er$ina i!n !f ci7il #ers!nali + /Ar icle 59, 53, 51 !f Ci7il C!"e6: 1. ;. li$i a i!n !r res ric i!n !f a na ural #ers!n0s ca#aci + ! ac /Ar icle ;2 an" ;46: T)e $arria%e an" le%al se#ara i!n:

5. <. B.

Pa erni + an" &ilia i!n: an" Tes i$en ar+ Ca#aci + !f a #ers!n $a.in% a (ill.

Cri$inal La(' 3. Circu$s ances affec in% cri$inal lia*ili + /Ti le I6: 1. Cri$es a%ains Pers!ns /Ti le =III6: ;. Cri$es a%ains C)as i + /Ti le >I6. Re$e"ial La(' 3. 1. ;. P)+sical an" Men al e?a$ina i!n !f a #ers!n /Rule 126: Pr!cee"in%s f!r )!s#i aliza i!n !f an insane #ers!n /Rule 3936: an" Rules !n E7i"ence.

C.

D.

S#ecial La(s' 3. C!$#re)ensi7e Dan%er!us Dru%s Ac : 1. Insurance La(: ;. La*!r C!"e: 5. E$#l!+ee0s C!$#ensa i!n La(: <. An i-7i!lence a%ains @!$en an" )eir C)il"ren Ac !f 1995. A. Ju7enile Jus ice an" @elfare Ac !f 199A. PART T@O HEALTH LAWS OF THE PHILIPPINES

I.

Beal ) Pr!fessi!nals' P)+sician, nurse, "en is , #)ar$acis , $e"ical ec)n!l!%is , 7e erinarian, #)+sical an" !ccu#a i!nal )era#is , ra"i!l!%+ ec)n!l!%is , !# !$e ris , $i"(ife, nu ri i!nis an" "ie i ian, sani ar+ en%ineer an" s!cial (!r.er. Rela e" la(s %!7ernin% Beal )care Pr!fessi!nals Re#. Ac N!. 1;21 43C; 5534 <413 <<1C 41A2 Na$e !f La( Me"ical Ac !f 34<4, as a$en"e" P)ili##ine Nursin% Ac !f 1991 T)e P)ili##ine Den al Ac !f 34A< Ac Re%ula in% )e Prac ice !f P)ar$ac+ P)ili##ine Me"ical Tec)n!l!%+ Ac !f 34A4 T)e P)ili##ine =e erinar+ Me"icine

II.

Pr!fessi!nal P)+sician Nurse Den is P)ar$acis Me"ical ec)n!l!%is =e erinarian

P)+sical an" Occu#a i!nal T)era#is Ra"i!l!%+ Tec)n!l!%is O# !$e ris Mi"(ife Nu ri i!nis Die e ics Sani ar+ En%ineer S!cial @!r.er Pu*lic Beal ) @!r.er Baran%a+ Beal ) @!r.ers

<A29 C5;3 29<9 C;41 312A 3;A5 5;C; C;9< C22;

Ac !f 1995 P)ili##ine P)+sical an" Occu#a i!nal T)era#+ La( Ra"i!l!%ic Tec)n!l!%+ Ac !f 3441 Re7ise" O# !$e r+ La( !f 344< P)ili##ine Mi"(ifer+ Ac !f 3441 Re%ula in% )e Prac ice !f Nu ri i!n an" Die e ics in )e P)ili##ines Sani ar+ En%ineerin% La( An Ac ! Re%ula e )e Prac ice !f S!cial @!r. Ma%na Car a !f Pu*lic Beal ) @!r.ers Baran%a+ Beal ) @!r.er0s Benefi s an" Incen i7es Ac !f 344<

L!!. a )e "efini i!ns !f #rac ice !f )e "ifferen )eal )care #r!fessi!nal fiel"s. III. E?ecu i7e Or"er N!. 131' reDuires )e a en"in% #)+sician !f an+ )!s#i al, $e"ical clinic, sani ariu$, !r ! )er $e"ical es a*lis)$en s, !r an+ ! )er $e"ical #rac i i!ner, ()! )as rea e" an+ #ers!n f!r seri!us !r less seri!us #)+sical in-uries as )ese in-uries are "efine" in Ar icles 1A1, 1A;, 1A5 an" 1A< !f )e Re7ise" Penal C!"e s)all re#!r )e fac !f suc) rea $en #r!$# l+ ! )e neares %!7ern$en )eal ) au )!ri +. I=. O )er La(s !n Beal ) Pr!$! i!n

A. R.A. N!. 4122' Ne(*!rn Screenin% Ac !f 1995' An+ )eal ) #rac i i!ner ()! "eli7ers !r assis s in )e "eli7er+ !f a ne(*!rn in )e P)ili##ines s)all, #ri!r ! "eli7er+, inf!r$ )e #aren s !r le%al %uar"ian !f )e ne(*!rn !f )e a7aila*ili +, na ure an" *enefi s !f ne(*!rn screenin%. B. C. D. E. R.A. N!. 2<95' R.A. N!. C1CC' R.A. N!. 2429' R.A. N!. C2C<' P)ili##ine Ai"s Pre7en i!n an" C!n r!l Ac !f 3442' C!nfi"en iali + Ma%na Car a f!r Disa*le" Pers!ns Earl+ C)il")!!" Care an" De7el!#$en Ac Na i!nal Beal ) Insurance Ac !f 344<: a$en"e" *+ R.A. N!. 4153.

PART TBREE MEDICAL PRACTICE AS A PRIVILEGE

I.

PrereDuisi es ! )e Prac ice !f Me"icine A. Ci izens)i# B. A%e ReDuire$en C. E"uca i!nal ReDuire$en D. Licensure E?a$ina i!n E. Oa ) a.in% &. Cer ifica e !f Re%is ra i!n G. Li$i e" Prac ice (i )!u an+ Cer ifica e !f Re%is ra i!n B. EBali.*a+anF P)+sicians I. A##lica*le La(s' 3. 342C P)ili##ine C!ns i u i!n 1. Re#u*lic Ac N!. 322< ;. Me"ical Ac !f 34<4, R.A. 1;21 5. P.D. N!. 11;: re#eale" *+ R.A. 2423 <. R. A. 5115 <. B!ar" !f Me"icine e . al. 7s.Gasu+u.i O a, G.R. N!. 3AA94C, Jul+ 35, 1992 A. Bali. Scien is Pr!%ra$, E.O. 3;9, series 344;: PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. <53 Ille%al Prac ice !f Me"icine A. B. C. D. E. &. G. Defini i!n !f Prac ice !f Me"icine' Sec i!n 39, Me"ical Ac !f 34<4. Defini i!n !f Ille%al Prac ice !f Me"icine Cri$inal Na ure' Pe!#le 7s. Hue*ral, A2 P)il. <A5 In en is i$$a erial' Pe!#le 7s. Anunciaci!n ="a. De G!lez, G.R. N!. L-353A9, June ;9, 34A9 I is in"e#en"en fr!$ )e resul !f )e #rac ice. I is in"e#en"en fr!$ ! )er cri$es c!$$i e" (i ) i ' Pe!#le 7s. Ba ani, G.R. N!s. C223;-35, N!7e$*er 2, 344; A #)+sician s)!ul" *e license" an" re%is ere" (i ) )e Pr!fessi!nal Re%ula i!n C!$$issi!n. T)e %eneral rule is )a n! #ers!n s)all *e en%a%e" in )e #rac ice !f $e"icine in )e P)ili##ines unless )e is a )!l"er !f a 7ali" cer ifica e !f re%is ra i!n "ul+ issue" ! )i$ *+ )e B!ar" !f Me"icine. B!(e7er, )ere are e?e$# i!ns ! )is rule as s a e" in Sec i!n 33, Me"ical Ac !f 34<4, as a$en"e" *+ R.A. N!. 5115.

II.

III.

Ille%al Prac ice E?#laine" in C!ur Decisi!ns A. Pe!#le 7s. =en ura, G.R. N!. L-3<9C4, Januar+ ;3, 34A1 B. Pe!#le 7s. Buen7ia-e, 5C P)il. <;A C. Cris!s !$! 7s. SEC, G.R. N!s. 2494< I 24<<<, N!7e$*er A, 3424 D. Pe!#le 7s. Hue*ral,su#ra.

E. Pe!#le 7s. Ba ani, su#ra. &. Pe!#le 7s. Buen7ia-e, su#ra. I=. &ai ) Bealin% A. Is i e?e$# e" fr!$ )e "efini i!n !f ac s ()ic) c!ns i u e )e #rac ice !f $e"icineJ

B.
C.

Sec <, Ar . III, 342C C!ns i u i!n


Reli%i!us Belief Tes

D. E. &. G. B. =.

People vs. Handzik, 391 N.E. /1"6 ;59 Ill. 34<3. Pe!#le 7s. @en"el, A2 N.G.S. /1"6 N.G. 345A. Pe!#le 7s. C!le, 134 N.G. 42, 33; N.E. C49 L.R.A. 343C C 23A Pe!#le 7s. Klin%er, Ill. 33 N.E. 59 State Board of Medical Examiners vs. Maxwell, N.J. 323 A. A45.

E?e$# i!ns' Sec i!n 33 PART FOUR PATIENT-PHYSICIAN RELATIONSHIP

I.

P)+sician-Pa ien Rela i!ns)i# A. A c!n rac ' ele$en s !f a c!n rac B. Na ure' fi"uciar+, c!nsensual C. NCC, Ar icles 3;9<, 3;9A, 3;32, 3;34, 3;11 D. C)an%es' #a ien rea e" as c!$$ercial c!$$!"i +, =AT la(. E. @)en "!es i s ar ' D!c rine !f C!%ni i!n !f Ci7il C!n rac s &. Cases' 3. Garcia-Rue"a 7s. Pascasi!, G.R. N!. 332353, Se# e$*er <, 344C 1. San ia%! A. "el R!sari!, e al., 7s. B!n!ra*le Alfre"! Ben%z!n, G.R. N!. 221A<, Dece$*er 13, 3424 Cases ()ere )ere are n! P)+sician-Pa ien rela i!ns)i# A. Pre-e$#l!+$en #)+sical e?a$ina i!n ! "e er$ine ()e )er )e a##lican is sui a*le f!r (!r. !r n! . B. P)+sical e?a$ina i!ns f!r )e #ur#!se !f "e er$inin% eli%i*ili + f!r insurance. C. @)en )e #)+sician is a##!in e" *+ )e rial c!ur ! e?a$ine )e accuse" an" ! re#!r ()e )er )e is insane. D. Durin% au !#s+ *ecause a "ea" *!"+ is n! l!n%er a #ers!n !r a #a ien . E. Casual Dues i!ns as.e" !f a #)+sician in an un!r"inar+ #lace $a+ n! crea e P)+sician-#a ien c!n rac ual rela i!ns)i#, as in a s!cial %a )erin%. Ri%) s an" "u ies !f a P)+sician

II.

III.

A. B. C. D. E. &. G. B. I. I=.

Bill !f Ri%) s T)e Bi##!cra ic Oa ) C!"e !f Me"ical E )ics !f )e B!ar" !f Me"icine C!"e !f E )ics !f )e Me"ical Pr!fessi!n, P)ili##ine Me"ical Ass!cia i!n Ri%) ! refuse rea $en ' e?ce# i!n L RA 2;55 Ri%) ! li$i $e"ical #rac ice Ri%) ! (i ))!l" inf!r$a i!n' e?ce# i!n L in cri$inal cases: u#!n la(ful !r"er !f )e c!ur Ri%) !f (a+ ()ile res#!n"in% ! an e$er%enc+ call Ri%) ! *e #ai" f!r ser7ices ren"ere"

Du ies !f P)+sicians ! )eir #a ien s' A. C!"e !f E )ics B. Carill! 7s. Pe!#le !f )e P)ili##ines, G.R. N!. 2A249, Januar+ 13, 3445. Ri%) s !f Pa ien s A. Ri%) ! c)!!se )is #)+sician B. Ri%) ! rea $en C. Ri%) ! inf!r$e" c!nsen D. Ri%) ! c!nfi"en ial inf!r$a i!n E. Ri%) ! #ri7ac+ an" access ! c!$$unica i!n &. EDual #r! ec i!n !f )e la( G. Re7ie( $e"ical rec!r"s an" )a7e inf!r$a i!n e?#laine" B. C!n inui + !f care PART &I=E LIABILITIES O& PBGSICIANS

=.

I.

A"$inis ra i7e Lia*ili ies A. Prac ice !f $e"icine is a #ri7ile%e an" n! a ri%) . L!!. a Sec i!n 15, Me"ical Ac !f 34<4. T)e S a e can a.e a(a+ )e #ri7ile%e an+ i$e !nce )ere are 7i!la i!ns !f )e #r!7isi!ns !f )e Me"ical Ac . T)e #r!#er 7enue is )e Pr!fessi!nal Re%ula i!n c!$$issi!n *ecause i )as Duasi-u"icial au )!ri +. Gr!un"s f!r re#ri$an", sus#ensi!n !r re7!ca i!n !f cer ifica e !f re%is ra i!n !f )e #)+sician' 3. 1. ;. 5. <. c!n7ic i!n *+ a c!ur !f c!$#e en -uris"ic i!n !f an+ cri$inal !ffense in7!l7in% $!ral ur#i u"e: i$$!ral !r "is)!n!ra*le c!n"uc : insani +: frau" in )e acDuisi i!n !f )e cer ifica e !f re%is ra i!n: %r!ss ne%li%ence, i%n!rance !r inc!$#e ence in )e #rac ice !f )is !r )er #r!fessi!n resul in% in an in-ur+ ! !r "ea ) !f )e #a ien :

B.

A. C. 2. 4. 39. 33. 31. C.

a""ic i!n ! alc!)!lic *e7era%es !r ! an+ )a*i f!r$in% "ru% ren"erin% )i$ !r )er inc!$#e en ! #rac ice )is !r )er #r!fessi!n, !r ! an+ f!r$ !f %a$*lin%: false !r e? ra7a%an !r une )ical a"7er ise$en s ()erein ! )er )in%s )an )is na$e, #r!fessi!n, li$i a i!n !f #rac ice, clinic )!urs, !ffice an" )!$e a""ress, are $en i!ne": #erf!r$ance !f !r ai"in% in an+ cri$inal a*!r i!n: .n!(in%l+ issuin% an+ false $e"ical cer ifica e: Issuin% an+ s a e$en !r s#rea"in% an+ ne(s !r ru$!r ()ic) is "er!%a !r+ ! )e c)arac er an" re#u a i!n !f an! )er #)+sician (i )!u -us ifia*le $! i7e: ai"in% !r ac in% as a "u$$+ !f an unDualifie" !r unre%is ere" #ers!n ! #rac ice $e"icine: an" 7i!la i!n !f an+ #r!7isi!n !f )e C!"e !f E )ics as a##r!7e" *+ )e P)ili##ine Me"ical Ass!cia i!n.

C)arac eris ics !f )e A"$inis ra i7e Pr!cee"in%s /Me"ical Ac !f 34<4, as a$en"e"6 3. 1. ;. 5. <. A. C. Presu$# i!n !f inn!cence: Pre#!n"erance !f e7i"ence: Ri%) s !f res#!n"en s /Sec i!n 1<, Me"ical Ac : T)e C!ns i u i!n: Sec i!n 3 !f Rule 33< !f )e Rules !f C!ur 6: A##eal fr!$ -u"%$en /Sec i!n 1A, Me"ical Ac 6: Reins a e$en /Sec i!n 1C, Me"ical Ac 6: Penal ies /Sec i!n 12, Me"ical Ac 6: In-unc i!ns /Sec i!n 14, Me"ical Ac 6.

II.

Ci7il Lia*ili ies !f P)+sicians A. Ci7il lia*ili ies !f #)+sicians fall un"er )e f!ll!(in% ca e%!ries' 3. 1. ;. Breac) !f C!n rac : "ifferen fr!$ $e"ical ne%li%ence: =i!la i!n !f Ar icles 34, 19, !r 13 !f )e Ne( Ci7il C!"e: an" T!r /Huasi-"elic !r *reac) !f le%al "u +6 M le%al (r!n%"!in% in"e#en"en !f )e c!n rac /Ar icle 13CA, NCC6.

III.

Cri$inal Lia*ili ies !f P)+sicians A. Cri$inal 7s. ci7il lia*ili ies' 3. Cri$es are c!nsi"ere" #u*lic (r!n%s ()ic) are a *reac) an" 7i!la i!n !f #u*lic ri%) s an" "u ies ()ic) affec )e ()!le c!$$uni + an" is "is in%uis)e" *+ )e )ars)er er$ cri$e !r $is"e$ean!r. Ci7il (r!n%s are c!nsi"ere" 7i!la i!ns !f ri%) s ()ic) *el!n% ! )e in"i7i"ual an" are er$e" ci7il in-uries.

1. ;.

Cri$inal' lia*ili + is al(a+s #enal. Ci7il la(' "a$a%es. I is i$#!r an ! re$e$*er )a )ere can *e n! ci7il ac i!n f!r ne%li%ence if )e ne%li%en ac !r !$issi!n )as n! *een a en"e" *+ an in-ur+ ! an+ #ers!n. Bare ne%li%ence in7!l7in% )e ris. !f in-ur+ is #unis)a*le cri$inall+, )!u%) n!*!"+ is ac uall+ )ur *+ i.

B.

Pr!7isi!ns !f )e RPC ()ic) s#ecificall+ $en i!ne" )e #)+sician as )e (r!n%"!er 3. 1. ;. 5. <. A. C. 2. 4. Issuance !f &alse Me"ical Cer ifica es /Ar icle 3C5, RPC6: A*!r i!n /Ar icle 1<4, su#ra6: Si$ula i!n !f *ir )s, su*s i u i!n an" c!nceal$en !r a*an"!n$en !f a le%i i$a e c)il" /Ar icle ;5C, su#ra6: &ailure ! re#!r rea $en !f #)+sical in-uries /PD 3A4: E.O. 1316: Refusal ! ren"er rea $en in e$er%enc+ cases /RA AA3<, Sec i!n ;6: =i!la i!n !f RA 4;55 /Sec i!ns 3, 56: &ailure ! re#!r $al rea e" !r a*use" c)il" /PD A9;, Ar icle 3AA6: =i!la i!n !f )e Generics Ac !f 3422 /Sec i!ns A an" 316: an" =i!la i!n !f P)ili##ine AIDS Pre7en i!n an" C!n r!l Ac !f 3442 /Sec i!n ;96.

C.

Lia*ili ies incurre" inci"en al ! )e #rac ice !f )e #r!fessi!n 3. 1. ;. 5. <. A. Cri$inal ne%li%ence an" i$#ru"ence /Ar icle ;A<, RPC6: =i!la i!n !f )e C!$#re)ensi7e Dan%er!us Dru%s Ac !f 1991 /Sec i!ns 32 an" 34, RA 43A<6: Lia*ili + in )e issuance !f *ir ) an" "ea ) cer ifica es /PD A<3, as a$en"e" *+ PD CAA, Sec i!ns 3, 1, 5, < an" 46: Se?ual )arass$en : Sale !f #)ar$aceu ical sa$#les /RA <413, Sec i!ns 1A an" 596: an" Gi7in% assis ance ! suici"e /Ar icle 1<;, RPC6.

PART SI> MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE I. Defini i!n !f Me"ical Ne%li%ence Garcia-Rue"a 7s. Pascasi!, G.R. N!. 332353, Se# e$*er <, 344C II. Ele$en s !f $e"ical ne%li%ence' PETER PAUL PATRICK LUCAS, &ATIMA GLADGS LUCAS, ABBEGGAIL LUCAS AND GILLIAN LUCAS 7s. DR.

PROSPERO MA. C. TUANO, OG.R. N!. 3C2CA;. A#ril 13, 1994.P III. P)+sicians $a+ *ec!$e #r!fessi!nall+ lia*le f!r $al#rac ice in f!ll!(in% (a+s' A. B. C. D. E. )e

T)r!u%) )e #)+sician0s !(n ne%li%ence /failin% ! c!nf!r$ ! %enerall+ acce# e" $e"ical #rac ice6: T)r!u%) )e ne%li%ence !f )e #)+sician0s e$#l!+ees' Res#!n"ea Su#eri!r6: T)r!u%) )e #)+sician0s failure ! !* ain )e inf!r$e" c!nsen !f )e #a ien #ri!r ! rea $en : T)r!u%) *reac) !f #)+sician-#a ien c!n rac ual rela i!ns)i# /i.e., a*an"!nin% #a ien , "iscl!sin% c!nfi"en ial inf!r$a i!n, !r %uaran eein% a cure !r s!$e ! )er s#ecific resul 6: an" T)r!u%) )e ne%li%ence !f )e #)+sician0s #ar ners.

I=. S an"ar" !f Care' T)e s an"ar" !f care f!r #)+sicians an" )eal ) care #r!7i"ers reDuires )a )e+ e?ercise )a "e%ree !f s.ill, .n!(le"%e an" care !r"inaril+ #!ssesse" an" e?ercise" *+ ! )er $e$*ers !f )e #r!fessi!n ac in% un"er si$ilar c!n"i i!ns an" circu$s ances. A. B. Garcia-Rue"a 7s. Pascasi!, su#ra. PETER PAUL PATRICK LUCAS, &ATIMA GLADGS LUCAS, ABBEGGAIL LUCAS AND GILLIAN LUCAS 7s. DR. PROSPERO MA. C. TUANO, OG.R. N!. 3C2CA;. A#ril 13, 1994.P, su#ra. S!$e "!c rines !n s an"ar" !f care' 3. N! $a er ()a a )eal )care #r!7i"er "!es, )e (ill n! *e f!un" lia*le if )e s an"ar" !f care is $ain aine". A #rac i i!ner ()! c!n"uc s )i$self in c!nf!r$i + (i ) )e s an"ar" !f care (ill n! *e )el" lia*le e7en if )e rea $en #r!7e" unsuccessful. T)e e?is ence !f #!!r rea $en !r sur%er+ resul "!es n! in an+ (a+ raise a #resu$# i!n !f )e 7i!la i!n !f )e s an"ar" !f care. Plain iff $us s ill #r!7e a s an"ar" !f care 7i!la i!n. @)ere a )eal )care #r!7i"er $a.es an err!r in -u"%$en , if )ere is n! s an"ar" !f care 7i!la i!n, )e #lain iff )as n! case. T)e s an"ar" !f care "!es n! call f!r a #rac i i!ner ! use )e )i%)es s.ill .n!(n ! $e"ical science. Un"er $!s circu$s ances, if e7i"ence su%%es s )a )ere (ere al erna i7e rec!%nize" $e )!"s !f rea $en a7aila*le, a #rac i i!ner (!ul" n! *e f!un" ne%li%en f!r selec in% )e (r!n% !ne as l!n% as i is a Erec!%nize"F rea $en c)!ice. T)e s an"ar" !f care %!7ernin% $e"ical s#ecialis s reDuires )e e?ercise !f #r!fessi!nal c!n"uc n!r$all+ e?)i*i e" *+ s#ecialis s in )e sa$e !r si$ilar l!cali + un"er si$ilar circu$s ances.

C.

1. ;. 5. <.

A.

D.

E?#er es i$!n+ ! es a*lis) s an"ar" !f care 3. 1. ;. ! es a*lis) )a )e "efen"an #)+sician )as "e7ia e" fr!$ )e a##lica*le s an"ar" !f care )a in-ur+ )as )ere*+ resul e": O#ini!n !f e?#er (i ness, Rules !f C!ur . E?ce# i!n' Res i#sa l!Dui ur.

E.

Cases' 3. 1. ;. 5. <. A. Ra$!s 7s. CA, G.R. N!. 315;<5, Dece$*er 14, 3444 Cruz 7s. CA, G.R. N!. 31155<, N!7e$*er 32, 344C Re+es 7s. Sis ers !f Merc+ B!s#i al, G.R. N!. 3;9<5C, Oc !*er ;, 1999 DR. PEDRO DENNIS CERENO, an" DR. SANTOS QA&E 7s. COURT O& APPEALS, SPOUSES DIOGENES S. OLA=ERE an" &E R. SERRANO, G.R. N!. 3AC;AA. Se# e$*er 1A, 1931. &E CAGAO-LASAM 7s. SPOUSES CLARO an" EDITBA RAMOLETE, OG.R. N!. 3<43;1. Dece$*er 32, 1992.P SPOUSES &REDELICTO &LORES /"ecease"6 an" &ELICISIMA &LORES 7s. SPOUSES DOMINADOR PINEDA an" =IRGINIA SACLOLO, an" &LORENCIO, CANDIDA, MARTA, GODO&REDO, BALTAQAR an" LUCENA, all surna$e" PINEDA, as )eirs !f )e "ecease" TERESITA S. PINEDA, an" UNITED DOCTORS MEDICAL CENTER, INC., OG.R. N!. 3<244A. N!7e$*er 35, 1992.P

=.

La(s %!7ernin% $e"ical ne%li%ence A. B. Ci7il Ac i!n /Ar icles, 34, 19, 13, 13CA !f NCC6 Cri$inal Ac i!n /Ar icle ;A<, RPC6 Carill! 7s. Pe!#le, G.R. N!. 2A249, Januar+ 13, 3445 Cruz 7s. CA, G.R. N!. 31155<, N!7e$*er 32, 344C

=I.

O )er a##lica*le "!c rines A. B. C. D. E. C!n ri*u !r+ ne%li%ence Assu$# i!n !f ris. Las clear c)ance In"e#en"en C!n rac !r' e$#l!+er-e$#l!+ee rela i!ns)i# Res i#sa l!Dui ur' reDuisi es Ba iDuin 7s. CA, G.R. N!. 3321;3, 344A Ra$!s 7s. CA, G.R. N!. 315;<5, su#ra. Re+es 7s. Sis ers !f Merc+ B!s#i al, su#ra.

&. G. =II.

DR. MILAGROS L. CANTRE 7s. SPS. JOBN DA=ID Q. GO an" NORA S. GO, G.R. N!. 3A9224, A#ril 1C, 199C. Pr!fessi!nal Ser7ices, Inc. 7. A%ana: G.R. N!. 31A5AC, Jan. ;3, 199C. =icari!us Lia*ili + Ca# ain !f )e S)i#' Ra$!s 7s. CA, su#ra.

BOSPITAL LIABILITG A. Ra$!s 7. CA, su#ra.: See als! G.R. N!. 315;<5, A#ril 33, 1991 B. PSI 7. A%ana, su#ra.: G.R. N!. 31A14C. &e*ruar+ 33, 1992, G.R. N!. 31A14C, &e*ruar+ 1, 1939 C. DR. PEDRO DENNIS CERENO, an" DR. SANTOS QA&E 7s. COURT O& APPEALS, SPOUSES DIOGENES S. OLA=ERE an" &E R. SERRANO, su#ra. D. DR. EDUARDO AHUINO 7s. BEIRS O& RAGMUNDA CALAGAG, na$el+' R!"ri%!, @il$a, @illie, @illia$, @ils!n, @en"+, @)i ne+ an" @arren, all surna$e" CALAGAG, Re#resen e" *+ RODRIGO CALAGAG, OG.R. N!. 3<25A3. Au%us 11, 1931.P E. ROGELIO P. NOGALES, f!r )i$self an" !n *e)alf !f )e $in!rs, ROGER ANTBONG, ANGELICA, NANCG, an" MICBAEL CBRISTOPBER, all surna$e" NOGALES 7s. CAPITOL MEDICAL CENTER, DR. OSCAR ESTRADA, DR. ELG =ILLA&LOR, DR. ROSA UG, DR. JOEL ENRIHUEQ, DR. PERPETUA LACSON, DR. NOE ESPINOLA, an" NURSE J. DUMLAO, OG.R. N!. 351A1<. Dece$*er 34, 199A.P CONSENT A. DR. RUBI LI 7s. SPOUSES REGNALDO an" LINA SOLIMAN, as #aren s8)eirs !f "ecease" An%elica S!li$an, OG.R. N!. 3A<1C4. June C, 1933.P NATURE O& MEDICAL MALPRACTICE ADMINISTRATI=E CASE' IS IT CRIMINAL IN NATUREJ A. ARSENIO PASCUAL, JR. 7s. BOARD O& MEDICAL E>AMINERS, res#!n"en -a##ellan , SAL=ADOR GATBONTON an" ENRIHUETA GATBONTON, in er7en!rs-a##ellan s: OG.R. N!. L-1<932. Ma+ 1A, 34A4.P B. &E CAGAO-LASAM 7s. SPOUSES CLARO an" EDITBA RAMOLETE, OG.R. N!. 3<43;1. Dece$*er 32, 1992.P, su#ra.

=III.

I>.

>.

OTBER ALLIED MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE A. ORLANDO D. GARCIA, JR., "!in% *usiness un"er )e na$e an" s +le COMMUNITG DIAGNOSTIC CENTER an" BU CASTRO 7s. RANIDA D. SAL=ADOR an" RAMON SAL=ADOR, G.R. N!. 3A2<31 , Marc) 19, 199C

PART SE=EN DNA AS E=IDENCE T)e f!cus is n!r !n DNA es in% ! #r!7e )e %uil !r inn!cence !f )!se accuse" !f cri$es. I. @)a is DNA es J

I is s+n!n+$!us ! DNA +#in%, DNA fin%er#rin in%, DNA #r!filin%, %ene ic es s an" %ene ic fin%er#rin in%. I s scien ific *asis is *ase" !n )e fac )a !ur "ifferences as in"i7i"uals are "ue ! "ifferences in !ur %ene ic $a.e-u# !r %ene ic c!$#!si i!n. T)e %enes c!$#rise a c)e$ical su*s ance, DNA !r "e!?+ri*!nucleic aci". Pe!#le 7s. =alle-!, G.R. N!. 355A<A, Ma+ 4, 1991, ;21 SCRA 341 Pe!#le 7s. Ga ar, G.R. N!. 3<9115, Ma+ 34, 1995, 512 SCRA <95 Berrera 7s. Al*a, G.R. N!. 352119, June 3<, 199< II. Ini ial reac i!n !f )e C!ur ! DNA E7i"ence Pe Li$ 7s. C!ur !f A##eals, ;;A P)il. C53 /344C6 Ti-in% 7s. C!ur !f A##eals, G.R. N!. 31<493, Marc) 2, 1993, ;<5 SCRA 3C III. A"$issi*ili + an" Pr!*a i7e =alue Pe!#le 7s. =alle-!, su#ra. I=. DNA E7i"ence a"$issi*le in )e SC Pe!#le 7s. Ga ar, su#ra. In re' T)e @ri !f )a*eas c!r#us f!r Re+nal"! "e =illa, G.R. N!. 3<9115, Ma+ 34, 1995, 512 SCRA <95 Pe!#le 7s. Jans!n, G.R. N!. 31<4;2, A#ril 5, 199;, 599 SCRA <25 A%us in 7s. C!ur !f A##eals, G.R. N!. 3A1<C3, June 3<, 199< Berrera 7s. Al*a, G.R. N!. 352119, June 3<, 199< =. =I. @)en DNA E7i"ence is n! necessar+ An"al 7s. Pe!#le, G.R. N!. 3;212A-A4 Pr!*a i7e 7alue !f DNA Anal+sis as E7i"ence =alle-! s an"ar"' Pe!#le 7s. =alle-!, su#ra. =II. DNA e?a$ina i!n an" ri%) ! self-incri$ina i!n

Pe!#le 7s. Ga ar, su#ra. Berrera 7s. Al*a, su#ra.

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