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BIOFUEL: FACTS, FICTIONS & FORECASTS Change your fuel ..Change the world
Participants Details: Ankit RajAshutosh Kumar 9082360 B11/ME/65 9603327 B11/ME/66

ankhunk.raj454@gmail.combewithashutosh@gmail.com 9088871724 9609843324

TEAM NAME: Mecharangers


Abstract .... 03 Introduction.. 04 Materials & Methods 05 Chemistry Involved.. 06-07 Till Date Findings Our Modifications Process Layout.. 08 Maintenance & Performance Analysis. 09 Problems Encountered Proposed Remedies Our Suggestions Biofuels: Ethical Issues Fair Fuels? ..............................................10-11 The Story So Far Ethical Aspects Inculcated In Our Proposal The Problem With Current Targets Bibliography.. 12


Scientific remedies of the shortcomings during recycling of waste cooking oil from chips factories into eco-friendly biofuel. Total cost reduction is given preference for economic competition but not at the cost of yield quality, quantity and social impact to ensure sufficient offset from petroleum derivatives to green fuels. The efficient application of this technique to produce biofuel has enabled the company to use its waste cooking oil (WCO) without having to dispose it and this has saved cost to the company. The dilemma regarding the risk of diverting agral land or crops for biofuels production to the detriment of food supply is minimized to avoid contribution to national hunger. Maintenance and performance analysis during its application in IC Engines along with ethical issues are also the integral part of this idea.


Food factories have always been facing an environment problem of Waste Cooking Oil (WCO). Converting the WCO into biodiesel will reduce this problem. This project will not only save environment but also cost. Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, but the cultivation of feedstock required for biofuel production contributes to national hunger by occupying a vast agricultural land which might lead to price hike.The main components required for biofuel production are triglycerides or also known as ester of fatty acid attached to glycerol, of which WCO is the best alternative. The term waste cooking oil (WCO) refers to vegetable oil has been in food production and which is no longer viable for its intended use. WCO arises from many different sources, including domestic, commercial and industrial. WCO is a potentially problematic waste stream which requires proper management. The disposal of WCO can be problematic when disposed incorrectly.Any fatty acid sources may be used to produce biodiesel. The use of edible vegetable oils and animal fats for biodiesel production has recently been of great concern because they compete with food material- the food versus fuel dispute. There are concern that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long term. From an economic point of view; the production of biodiesel is very feedstock sensitive. The cost of feedstock accounted for 88% of total estimated production cost. In all cases, more than 80% of the production cost is associated with the feedstock, such as recycled cooking oils. Reusing of these waste greases not only reduce the burden of the government in disposing the waste, maintaining public sewers, and treating the oily wastewater, but also lower the production cost of biodiesel significantly. This project is aimed to develop a simple small plant to process the waste cooking oil to biodiesel and use it in the factory. In practice, triglycerides present in WCO is converted to glycerol via transesterification process. The base catalyst used during this process might react with free fatty acids present in cooking oil leading to saponification reaction, which leads to the following short comings: Catalyst Consumption Increased difficulty in separation leading to high production cost Formation of water will inhibit the reaction

The above short comings can be overcome by implementing following change in the reaction mechanism: Avoiding the base catalyst used during transesterification and compensating for the rate of reaction by increasing the temperature of the reaction medium leading to optimum yield.


The above mentioned variation in reaction parameters minimizes the separation difficulties of by-products leading to a reduction in total production cost.


In order to obtain biofuel from cooking oil, following chemicals and equipments are required: Waste Cooking Oil (Indian Food Market)

Ethanol (Non-toxic) Heating Chamber Fractional Vacuum Distillation Chamber

Different degrees of purity can be achieved by employing furthur purification processes such as Bleaching, Ion Exchanging & Deodoring


Till Date Findings

Fig.: Schematic illustration to obtain Biodiesel from WCO till date

Till date catalyzed transesterification process is emphasized, which leads to the following unwanted side chain reactions (Saponification reaction) affecting the product yield : FFA + Base Catalyst (Free Fatty Acids) Soap + Water

Formation of water will inhibit the reaction as follows : Water generated + Triglyceride Biglyceride + FFA


Our Modifications
Transesterification (Main Chain Reaction)
Triglycerides + Alcohol Monoglyceride Glycerol

Avoiding the use of base catalyst and compensating the same by increasing the temperature of reaction medium (to enable unaltered reaction rate) leads to the following advantages : (1) No catalyst consumption. (2) Separation process no longer required. (3) Total cost reduction. To avoid Saponification process, following remedies are implemented :

Scientific Solution
FFA + Methanol Fatty Acid Ester + Water

Drawbacks : (1) Methanol used is toxic in nature. (2) High reaction conditions are required as this reaction is slower. (3) Water generated accelerate hydrolysis, thus reducing the yield (as per Le Chateliers Principle).

Our Modifications
(1) We are avoiding the base catalyst and compensating the reaction rate by increasing the temperature of the reaction media using a heating chamber. (2) Pre heating also ensures minimum water content in contaminated WCO to prevent hydrolysis, which otherwise might lead to backward reaction.

Drawbacks of our modifications : If temperature of reaction medium becomes greater than the vapourization temperature of the alcohol used, evaporation of alcohol will take place. Remedial Measures : In order to increase the vapourisation temperature of the alcohol, surface area must be increased, which being directly proportional to the carbon chain length necessiates the use of comparitively larger chain alcohol to ensure high


vapourization temperature, as the magnitude of Van Der Waals Force increases with increasing surface area, thus avoiding the alcohol loss.


Fig.: Schematic illustration of Biodiesel extraction from contaminated WCO



Biodiesels being hygroscopic in nature promotes corrosion leading to frequent wear and tear. During cold conditions, lower temperature facilitates clog (gum deposits) formation in the fuel lines. High viscosity leading to poor atomization of fuel, resulting in engine knocking.

To prevent corrosion blends of biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel products. Addition of some additives or refrigerants neutralize the high viscosity to optimum working conditions.

But the problem of clogging isnt eradicated completely, which otherwise would led to frequent change of fuel filters, which isnt economical.

Polycrystallinenano-composites consisting of conductive polymers and novel properties can be used for creating anti-corrosion coatings capable of adopting to environmental damage and conditions. Additional cylinder with a heating coil inside can be provided to maintain the engine temperature at optimum working condition by switching with the cylinder susceptible to lower temperature to ensure efficient working even during winters.



Fossil fuels increasingly unsustainable. Efforts to reduce consumption are essential, but short and mid-term need for liquid transport fuel will remain. Biofuels are one of the few alternatives for energy for transport.


Food security : Price High Water security Environmental Sustainability : Deforestation Full assessment of greenhouse gas emissions Higher conversion yields, leading to lower processing cost


Lack of Incentives

Established Biofuels

New Biofuels Financial rewards Avoiding penalties

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Dont spread my wealth Spread my work ethic! So everyone has a tiny little bit

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V Ganeshan, Professor Emeritus, Indian Institute Of Technology, Madras, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited. www.askiitians.com/book-review/iit-jee-organic-chemistry-o-p-tandon/ http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/sustainability/library/policies_programs/en vironmental_responsibility/biodiesel_and_recycling_cooking_oil.html http://www.rit.edu/affiliate/nysp2i/sites/rit.edu.affiliate.nysp2i/files/biodiesel_wor kshop_presentation_2012-10-05 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transesterification https: www.dur.ac.u resources bss i e dcoc .pdf www.scidev.net/global/.../biofuel-production-needs-ethical-policies--1.ht.

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