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# Chapter 5 - Data Analysis and Research

INTRODUCTION

## The purpose of this chapter is to interpret, analyze, and report the

results from data. This chapter will introduce the methods and examples of

the paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and

## Bivariate-Pearson-Correlation. Steps to the tables and External Links for

online tutorial are provided for each test. Software package SPSS 10.0 was

## used to analyze the data.

THE T-TEST

The t-test provides the probability that the null hypothesis is true

when examining the difference between the means of two groups. Normally

## THE PAIRED SAMPLES T-TEST

When do we use it? We assume that the confidence interval is at 95% all

the time.
1. When there is a natural relationship between the subjects from whom the

## Example 1: Looking at differences between pre- and post-tests of one

group, you would choose the paired samples t-test, the scores of both

## THE INDEPENDENT SAMPLES T-TEST

(We use this t-test more often)
When do we use it?

## of people, you would use this t-test.

2. The data descriptions are normally distributed and of the groups are

homogeneous.

## Example 1: Two groups of students are identified: an experimental

and a control group. Both groups are pretested (Both groups are

## withheld from the control group. Both groups are posttested.

Example 2: TLI scores are collected on students who have attended

## scores are significantly different according to the schedule

experienced by the students. (We reject the null when p<0.05; we fail

## ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA)

1. The probability that the null hypothesis is true when examining the mean

## test, except that it handles more than two groups.

2. The assumptions for one-way ANOVA are the same as for the t-test:

## normal distributions and homogeneity of variances. We have to run

Levene’s test for homogeneity. There are two situations: (1) use

Bonferroni when the data fail to reject the null and (2) use Tamhane

## 3. A probability value p < 0.05 indicates that a significant difference exists

among the various means, but it does not indicate which means are

## significantly different and which are chance differences.

Example 1: If the GPA averages were significantly different according to

undergraduate majors. We would input all of the GPAs into a variable (this

## variable often called a “factor”) assigning a “1” if the GPA belonged to an

English major, a “2” for History majors, a “3” for Psychology majors, etc..

(Don’t use “0” for anything because it does not work sometimes.)

## Example 2: TAAS scores are collected to describe scores of students. Three

different methods of teaching were used after the students had been divided

into three equal groups. The socioeconomic level of each student was

## displayed among the three groups of professors.”

♦ The standard way to report the one-way ANOVA:

## The null hypothesis is that there will be no significant differences in

_____________________________________________________________

_. To test this hypothesis, the one-way ANOVA from SPSS (10.0) was

used. The null hypothesis is accepted/ not accepted F=(n-1, N-n), p = ____<

## or > than 0.05.

We reject the null when p< 0.05; we fail to reject the null when p> 0.05.

Example 4: It was hypothesized that students who excel in fine arts are also

## relationship of the two measures was analyzed statistically. (Bivariate-

Pearson-Correlation)

## Example 5: There will not be a significant relationship between the percent

of students passing all TAAS tests and the size of the school districts.

(Bivariate-Pearson-Correlation)

## weaker the relationship.

♦ The standard way to report the Bivariate-Pearson-Correlation:

## The null hypothesis is that there is no significant relationship between the

________________________________________________________.

## to interpret some more details about the data.)

Following question was the review question for cohort VII in 2001.
JOINT UNIVERSITY DOCTORAL PROGRAM
REVIEW FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION
Review question for Cohort VII

## To compare the effectiveness of three different methods of

into three groups. Each group was instructed for a give period of time

## using one of the three methods. After completing the instruction

period, all students were tested. The test results are shown in the

## Method I Method II Method III

Test scores: 45 45 44
51 44 50
48 46 45
50 44 55
46 41 51
48 43 51
45 46 45
48 49 47
47 44
To do the following:

45 1
51 1
48 1
50 1
46 1
48 1
45 1
48 1
47 1
45 2
44 2
46 2
44 2
41 2
43 2
46 2
49 2
44 2
44 3
50 3
45 3
55 3
51 3
51 3
45 3
47 3

## Run the Analysis

1) Check Normality.
Steps to the tables:

Explore

TEACHMTH

## Case Processing Summary

Cases
Valid Missing Total
TEACHMTH N Percent N Percent N Percent
READSCR 1.00 9 100.0% 0 .0% 9 100.0%
2.00 9 100.0% 0 .0% 9 100.0%
3.00 8 100.0% 0 .0% 8 100.0%

Tests of Normality
a
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Shapiro-Wilk
TEACHMTH Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
READSCR 1.00 .193 9 .200* .933 9 .490
2.00 .173 9 .200* .950 9 .667
3.00 .193 8 .200* .919 8 .437
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

(a) Normality

## test. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed a probability coefficient

of 0.2 for each group since this value is greater than 0.05, the

Kolmogorov-Smirnov test did not reject the null hypothesis that the

## The Shapiro-Wilk test showed a probability coefficient of 0.49 for

method 1, .667 for method 2, and 0.437 for method 3. In all three

## cases the coefficient is greater than 0.05. Therefore, the Shapiro-

Wilk test did not reject the null hypothesis that the scores for each

normality.

## (b) The assumption of homogeneity of variance was tested using the

Levene test. The results for the Levene test showed a probability

coefficient of 0.042. Since this value is less than 0.05, the null
hypothesis is rejected. The assumption of homogeneity of variance is

not supported.

Post-hoc comparisons among the groups could be tested with either the

## the homogeneity of variance assumption is supported and the Tamhane test

is appropriate when it is not supported. Since the Levene test showed that

## the homogeneity of variance assumption was not supported, the Tamhane

test was used to test differences between the means of the three groups.
Descriptives

## TEACHMTH Statistic Std. Error

95% Confidence Lower Bound 45.9657
Interval for Mean Upper Bound
49.1454

## 5% Trimmed Mean 47.5062

Median 48.0000
Variance 4.278
Std. Deviation 2.0683
Minimum 45.00
Maximum 51.00
Range 6.00
Interquartile Range 3.5000
Skewness .335 .717
Kurtosis -.651 1.400
2.00 Mean 44.6667 .7454
95% Confidence Lower Bound 42.9479
Interval for Mean Upper Bound
46.3855

## 5% Trimmed Mean 44.6296

Median 44.0000
Variance 5.000
Std. Deviation 2.2361
Minimum 41.00
Maximum 49.00
Range 8.00
Interquartile Range 2.5000
Skewness .450 .717
Kurtosis 1.300 1.400
3.00 Mean 48.5000 1.3628
95% Confidence Lower Bound 45.2776
Interval for Mean Upper Bound
51.7224

## 5% Trimmed Mean 48.3889

Median 48.5000
Variance 14.857
Std. Deviation 3.8545
Minimum 44.00
Maximum 55.00
Range 11.00
Interquartile Range 6.0000
Skewness .429 .752
Kurtosis -.887 1.481
To analyzing, interpreting and reporting the results from data:

## Method I has 9 scores ranging from 45 as the lowest score to the

highest score of 51. The mean of the distribution is 47.56, the median is 48,

and the standard deviation is 2.07. The skew and Kurtosis coefficients are

distribution.

## Method II has 9 scores ranging from 41 as the lowest score to the

highest score of 49. The mean of the distribution is 44.67, the median is 44,

and the standard deviation is 2.24. The skew and Kurtosis coefficients are

## 0.45 and 1.3, respectively. Method II can be considered as a normal

distribution.

Method III has 8 scores ranging from 44 as the lowest score to the

highest score of 55. The mean of the distribution is 48.5, the median is 48.5,

and the standard deviation is 3.85. The skew and Kurtosis coefficients are

## 0.43 and –0.887, respectively. Method III can be considered as a normal

distribution.
2) Finish the Analysis: run the ANOVA test/table, and Post-hoc
comparisons.

Factor: teachmth

♦ Bonferroni

♦ Tamhane T2

## Go to: Options, check:

♦ Statistics

♦ Descriptives

♦ Homogeneity of Variance

Oneway

Descriptives

95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Std. Lower Upper
N Mean Deviation Std. Error Bound Bound Minimum Maximum
1.00 9 47.5556 2.0683 .6894 45.9657 49.1454 45.00 51.00
2.00 9 44.6667 2.2361 .7454 42.9479 46.3855 41.00 49.00
3.00 8 48.5000 3.8545 1.3628 45.2776 51.7224 44.00 55.00
Total 26 46.8462 3.1457 .6169 45.5756 48.1167 41.00 55.00
Test of Homogeneity of Variances

Levene
Statistic df1 df2 Sig.
3.641 2 23 .042

ANOVA

Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.
Between Groups 69.162 2 34.581 4.463 .023
Within Groups 178.222 23 7.749
Total 247.385 25

## effectiveness of three different methods of teaching reading. To test this

hypothesis, the one-way ANOVA from SPSS (10.0) was used. The null

## hypothesis is rejected F(2/23) = 4.463, p = 0.023<0.05.

Post Hoc Tests

Multiple Comparisons

95% Confidence
Mean Interval
Difference Lower Upper
(I) TEACHMTH (J) TEACHMTH (I-J) Std. Error Sig. Bound Bound
Bonferroni 1.00 2.00 2.8889 1.3122 .114 -.4993 6.2771
3.00 -.9444 1.3526 1.000 -4.4369 2.5480
2.00 1.00 -2.8889 1.3122 .114 -6.2771 .4993
3.00 -3.8333* 1.3526 .028 -7.3258 -.3408
3.00 1.00 .9444 1.3526 1.000 -2.5480 4.4369
2.00 3.8333* 1.3526 .028 .3408 7.3258
Tamhane 1.00 2.00 2.8889* 1.3122 .035 .1815 5.5963
3.00 -.9444 1.3526 .909 -5.2769 3.3880
2.00 1.00 -2.8889* 1.3122 .035 -5.5963 -.1815
3.00 -3.8333 1.3526 .091 -8.2019 .5352
3.00 1.00 .9444 1.3526 .909 -3.3880 5.2769
2.00 3.8333 1.3526 .091 -.5352 8.2019
*. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

## appropriate if the homogeneity of variance assumption is supported and the

Tamhane test is appropriate when it is not supported. Since the Levene test

showed that the homogeneity of variance assumption was not supported, the

Tamhane test was used to test differences between the means of the three

groups.

## The Tamhane test indicated the following:

♦ There was a statistically significant difference between the mean of

Method I and Method II (sig.=0.035). The mean for Method I was 2.889

## Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

It covers a broad range of statistical procedures that allow you to summarize
data (e.g., compute means and standard deviations), determine whether there
are significant differences between groups (e.g., t-tests, analysis of
variance), examine relationships among variables (e.g., correlation, multiple
regression), and graph results (e.g., bar charts, line graphs). Written by Gil
Einstein and Ken Abernethy

## Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Procedures

J. Cooper Cutting SPSS for Windows: Brief How-To's Introduction SPSS basics Graphs
Descriptive Statistics Crosstabulation and Chi-square Reliability Regression Procedures
T-tests ANOVAs Nonparametric tests Factor Analysis Cluster Analysis Discrimina
lilt.ilstu.edu

## Using SPSS 10.0 for Windows (for statistical analysis)

This link introduces you how to collect, interpret, and report the data by using Windows
Excel program. ANOVA, Independent T-test, Levene’s test, and other statistical methods
for analysis are included.

## SPSS Tutorial for Research and Analysis

This link will take you to the Confidence Interval, One sample T-test, Independent T-test,
Mann Whitney U test, Paired T-Test, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Sign Test and
interpreting the output data.

## Computing a T-Test for Between-Subjects Designs

In this link, we will describe how to analyze the results of between-subjects designs.
It is important to distinguish between these two types of designs because they require
different versions of the t-test.