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Chapter1page1

MicroelectronicsTechnology

E.F.Schubert
2012,allrightsreserved
RensselaerPolytechnicInstitute
Troy,NewYork

SolidStateDevices

- Examplesare:
o Fieldeffecttransistors
o Bipolartransistors
o LEDs
o Lasers
o Photodetectors
o Solarcells

- Se
- T

everalimpo
o Trans
o Gener
o Recom

ransportof
o Transp
Diffus
>0K,





o Transp
motio


Trans
rtantphysic
portofcharg
rationofcha
mbinationof
electrons
port due to
sion is the ra
whenthese
Synonyms
motion;Br
Diffusion
performed
Diffusionr
Netdiffusi

Netdiffusi

port due to
onofcharged
The direct
particles a
electricfie
Negativee

Cha
portofcarri
almechanis
gecarriers(
argecarriers
fchargecarr
o thermal e
andom mov
eparticlesha
s for Diffus
rownianmo
or therma
dbyRobert
resultsincar
ionoccursa
ionoccursa
o an electric
dparticlesc
tion of car
and is direc
eld
electronsdri
pter1page2
iersbydiffu
msdetermin
e.g.electron
s
riers
energy of ca
vement of pa
aveatherma
ion: Therm
tion
al motion
BrownBr
rriertranspo
longthecon
longthepos
c field D
ausedbyan
rier drift de
cted either
iftagainstth
usionanddr
nethebeha
ns)
arriers D
articles (e.g
alenergygre
al motion;
was first
rownianmo
ortifthereis
ncentration
sitivexdirec
Drift. What i
nelectricfiel
epends on
along or a
hedirection
ift
viorofcharg
Diffusion. W
. electrons)
eaterthanz
Random m
identified
otion
saconcentr
gradient
ction
s drift? Drif
d.
the charge
against the
oftheelectr
gecarriers:
What is diffu
at tempera
ero.
motion; Diff
in experim
ationgradie
ft is the dire
e polarity of
direction o
ricfield
sion?
tures
fusive
ments
ent
ected
f the
f the

- O
- R
a
a
In

C
C

Ohmslaw:
o V=Vo
o R=Re
o I=Cu

ecall
nd
nd
nsertionofE
= Current I
densi Current
o e=ele
o n=co
o v=av
o o=co
B
oltage
esistance
rrent
Eq.(2),(3),a
time unit
charge
=
J

= = ity
ementarych
oncentration
verageveloci
onductivity
Cha
asiclawoft
nd(4)intoE
nu
e

=
e
e


u Area
number
harge=1.602
nofelectron
ityofelectro
pter1page3
transport:O
I R V =

A
l
R =
A J I =
l V E =
Eq.(1)yields
E o = J
time unit
el of umber
time unit
electron of r
e J =
210
19
C
spercm
3

ons
Ohmslaw
I
A
l
o
1
=
s
E
ectrons

v n e =
ns
v n
v

(1)

(2)

(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

- D

Derivationof

o Consid

o Nelec
o Conce
o Theav
o Curre
o wha

:
derelectron
ctronsarein
entration=

n
verageveloc
ntdensity:=
atwastobe

Cha
nsinavolum
nsidethevol
x A
N
n
d
=
cityofcarrie
=

A
N e
J

=
d
shown
pter1page4
e J =
meV=Adx
ume
ersis=

v =
x A
N e
t
N
=
d d

v n
t
x
d
d

n e
t
x
=
d
d

v n
(7)

- R
- C
- T
- H
- R

esistivity=
onductivity
heresistivity
Howmanyor
easonforth
o Insula
o Metal
o Semic

o What



o Examp


=o
yshowsala
rdersofmag
helargevaria
ator:
l:
conductor:
isthereaso
Chemicaln
Difference
Differe

ples:
Metal:
Semicondu
Insulator:

Cha
Conductiv
rgevariation
gnitude?
ation:Conce
Allelec
Electro
Somee
onforthesec
natureofele
esintheche
enceinnumb
uctor:

pter1page5
vityandresi
dimension(
dimension(

n
entrationof
ctronsaretig
nscanfreely
electronscan
conductivity
ementorco
micalbond
beroffreee
n=10
22

n=10
15
1
n=10
5

stivity
()=Ocm
(o)=O
1
cm
electrons:
ghtlybound
ymoveabou
nfreelymov
ydifferences
mpound

electrons
cm
3
10
20
cm
3
cm
3
m
1
=Scm
1

toatoms
utthemeta
veaboutthe
s?
3

l
ecrystal

- C

- Ex

- E
- E

- F

- E
o
o
- E

hemicalmo
xamples:
lectroninva
lectronina
reeelectron
lectronsins
Collisions
Electrons

lectrostatic
del:Electron
acuum =
solid =
ns = fre
= fre
Fre
solids:
withlattice
feelelect
potentialin
Cha
Freeele
nisnotlocal
trulyfreee
quasifree
eetomovea
eetomovein
eeelectrons
atomsarep
rostaticpote
asolid:
pter1page6
ectronsinas
lizedinapar

electron
electron
about(diffus
nanelectric
canforman
possible
entialofcrys
solid
rticularchem
sion)
cfield(drift)
nelectricalc
stallattice
micalbond

current

Chapter1page7
o Collisionswithlatticeatomsareminimizedinastrictlyperiodicpotential,thatis,
inacrystallinesolid
o Influenceofthelatticeistakenintoaccountbyaneffectivemassofelectrons
Example:
m
e
= 9.110
31
kg (freeelectron)
m
e
* = 6.110
32
kg=0.067m
e
(electroninGaAs)

- Comparison:Crystallinesolidversusamorphoussolid
o Highpuritycrystallinesolid=hightechnologysolid
Example:Laser,LED,integratedcircuit,microprocessorchip
o Amorphoussolid=lowcostsolid
Example:AmorphousSisolarcell

- T

- T

herearediff
o Single
o Polyc
o Which
o Which
o Which

herearediff
o Simple
o Body
o Facec
o What
o What
ferenttypes
ecrystalline
crystallineso
honehasth
honehasth
honeiseasi
ferentcrysta
ecubiccryst
centeredcu
centeredcub
isthedefini
isthedefini
Cha
sofsolids:
solids
olids
ehighestm
ehighestele
esttofabric
alstructures
tal
ubiccrystal
biccrystal
itionofthel
itionofaun
pter1page8
Crystals

echanicalst
ectricalcond
cate?
s.Commonc
latticeconst
itcell?
o A
rength?
ductivity?
crystalstruct
tanta
0
?
Amorphouss
turesare:
solids

- C

- B

- Ep
rystalgrowt
o isana
o isaslo
o requir
Bulkgrowth
o Applic
o Comm
o Name
o Other
pitaxialgro
o Epitax
o Epitax
o Epitax
o Epitax
o Epitax
o Applic
th
atombyato
owprocess
resT>>300
ofsinglecry
cation:Subst
montechniq
eoftechniqu
rtechniquei
wthofthinl
xy=growth
xy=thinfil
xyisaslowp
xyisanato
xyrequiresT
cations:
Cha
Cry
omassembly
Kforgrowt
ystals
trates
ue:Growthf
ue:Czochrals
sthefloatz
layersofsin
hofacrystal
mgrowth
process(1m
mbyatom
T>>300K
pter1page9
stalgrowth

yprocess
h

fromtheme
skitechniqu
zonetechniq
glecrystals
linelayeron
m/hr)
process

elt
ue(shownin
que(notdisc
ntopofacry
nthefigureb
cussedhere)
ystallinesub
below)
)

bstrate



o Vapor



o Other
pnjunctio
Heterostru
rPhaseEpita
Whyisitc
Chemicalr
- Si:
- Ga
Growthap

rgrowthtec
Chap
ongrowth(e
ucturegrow
axy(VPE)is
calledVapor
reactionfor

As:
pparatus:Se
hnique:Mol
pter1page10
.g.pnjuncti
th(e.g.AlAs
acommone
PhaseEpita
thegrowth
SiH
4
Si+
(CH
3
)
3
Ga+A
eillustration
lecularbeam
ionLED)
s/GaAs)
epitaxialgro
axy?
of
+2H
2

AsH
3
Ga
n
mEpitaxy(M
wthtechniq
aAs+3CH
4

MBE,notdisc
que
cussedhere))

Chap pter1page11

Chapter1page12
Thefourtypesofcrystals

- Recallsomechemistry
o Atomshaveelectronshells
o Acompletelyfilledshellhas2,8,or18electrons
o Noblegaseshave2(He),10(Ne),18(Ar),,electrons
o Noblegasesareverystableanddonotreactwithotheratoms
o Atomshavethetendencytoassumeanoblegaselectronconfiguration

- Thereare4mainclassesofcrystals:
o Metalliccrystals
o Ioniccrystals
o Covalentcrystals
o Molecularcrystals

o Next,wewilldiscussthese4typesofcrystals

1. Metalliccrystals

- Consideranatomwithonelooselyboundelectron:
o Na (11electrons=2+8+1electron)
o Cu (29electrons=2+8+18+1electron)
- Inmetalliccrystals,electronsbecomepracticallyfree
- Thepositivelychargedioncoresareheldtogetherbyaseaofelectrons
- Metalliccrystalshavehighelectricalconductivity
- Example:Copper,Cu
o 29protons,29electrons,34neutrons
o Molarmass=(29+34)g/mol=63g/mol
o Avogadrosnumber=610
23
atoms/mol
o MassdensityofCu=9g/cm
3

o Atoms per cm
3
= 6 10
23
atoms/mol (1/63) mol/g 9 g/cm
3
=
=8.510
22
atoms/cm
3

o Electronspercm
3
=8.510
22
electrons/cm
3

2. Ioniccrystals

- Twotypesofatomswithlargedifferenceinelectronegativity
- Oneatomhasalooselyboundelectron
- One atom has one electron missing from a noblegas configuration (this is a highly
electronegativeatom)
- Transferofthelooselyboundelectrontotheelectronegativeatomoccurs

- T

- N
- Io
- Ex

3. Cova

- A
- B
- Ex

hustheionic
Nofreeelect
oniccrystals
xample:Sod
o Na
o Cl
o NaCli
lentcrystals
Atomswithp
ondsbetwe
xample:Silic
o Sihas
o Illustr
electr
ccrystalcon
rons
areinsulato
diumchlorid
(11
(17
saninsulato
s
partiallyfilled
enlikeatom
con,Si
4outerelec
ation below
ronshelland

Chap
nsistsofposi
ors
e,NaCl
1electrons=
7electrons=
or
doutershel
msarealway
ctrons
w shows tha
dthusisina
pter1page13
itiveandneg
=2+8+1el
=181elec

lsbondbysh
scovalent(e
at the cente
stableconfi
gativeions
ectron)
ctron)
haringelect
e.g.O
2
,N
2
,
er Si atom
iguration

ronstofillth
)
has 8 electr
heoutershe
rons in its o
ells
outer

4. Mole

- B
- M
W
- Ex

5. Hybri

ecularcrysta
ondingforce
Molecularcry
Waalsbonds
xamples:
o CO
2
cr
o Snow
idbondingc
Group
IV
III
II
I
als
esareVand
ystalsaretyp
rystals(dryi
crystals
crystals(this
Group
IV
V
VI
VII
Chap
derWaalsfo
picallymade
ce,lowtem
sisnotasep
pter1page14
orces(polariz
eupofmole
peraturesne
parateclass
Elements
Si
GaAs
ZnS
NaCl
zationforces
eculesthata
eeded)

butamixtu
s
s)
reheldtoge
reof2class
co
most
Mo
etherbyVan
es)
Bond
ovalent
tlycovalent
ostlyionic
ionic
nder
Chapter 2 page 1
Energy Bands

- The physical basis of energy bands is quantum mechanics

- Atoms have
o quantized electron states
o discrete energies
o a specific spatial distribution of electrons
that is, electron orbitals have a certain shape
s-type orbitals have spherical symmetry
p-type orbitals have a lobe-shaped symmetry

o Wave function (x, y, z)
o Probability distribution = *

o Example: The yellow light emitted by Na vapor (sodium vapor) is a
manifestation of the discreteness of the energy levels of a Na atom

- Pauli exclusion principle:
o At most two electrons with opposite spin can occupy one quantum state

- Two atoms in contact (= molecule)





Chapter 2 page 2
- Many atoms in contact (= solid)





- Number of electron states in band
o Each atom contributes one state (one bond or one bonding state)
o N atoms form a band with N states
o Number of states in band in conserved
o Example: Copper (Cu) crystal
1 cm
3
Cu crystal
8.5 10
22
atoms / cm
3

8.5 10
22
states / cm
3


- Atoms have multiple states
o Therefore solids have many energy bands
o These bands include the conduction band (CB) and the valence band (VB)

- Two bands are of particular importance, namely the conduction band (CB) and the
valence band (VB)



Chapter 2 page 3
Electrons and holes

- Assume two bands, a nearly filled one (the valence band = VB) and a nearly empty one
(the conduction band = CB):





- Consider a semiconductor in thermal equilibrium at T = 300 K
o n = 10
10
cm
3
DOS in CB ~ 10
22
cm
3

Most states in the conduction band are empty
o Example for Si DOS = Density of status

- Intrinsic semiconductor = Pure semiconductor
= Undoped semiconductor

- Current density of electrons in CB:
Unit volume = V

One electron: v
V
e J

1
= (1)

N electrons:
i
N
i
v
V
e J

=
=
0
1
(2)

Chapter 2 page 4
- Current density of electrons in VB:
No holes: 0
1
0
= =

=
i
N
i
v
V
e J

(3)
In this equation, the current density must be zero, because the band is completely filled
and electrons cannot move ( see Shockleys parking garage model).

One hole (assume that electron # j is missing so that there is a hole):


j
j
j i
N
i
v
V
e
v
V
e
v
V
e v
V
e J

1
1
0
1 1
0
+ =
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
(4)

positively charged particle with velocity
j
v

hole

Many holes (assume a total of P holes):



j
P
j
v
V
e J

=
+ =
0
1
(5)


Definition of CB and VB





Chapter 2 page 5
- Metal, semiconductors, and insulators:





Excitation of electron from VB to CB:





- Thermal excitation

o Assume E
g
= 1 eV
o Thermal energy of electron kT E
2
3
g
=
o K T kT E E
g
4
2
3
th
10 eV 1 ~ = = =

- Optical excitation

o Assume E
g
= 1 eV
o m 2 . 1 eV 1
g
~

= v = =
c
h h E (IR = infrared)
o Assume large bandgap, e.g. E
g
= 5 eV
o m 25 . 0 eV 5
g
~

= v = =
c
h h E (UV)
Chapter 2 page 6
Shockleys parking garage model

- Empty states (free spaces) are needed for electron (automobile) transport







Chapter 2 page 7
Dispersion relation of a free carrier
- Recall the particle-wave nature of electrons
o De Broglie relationship

= = =
h
k v m p
k p =


- Dispersion relation = E(k) relation

o Free electron:
m
k
m
p
v m E
2 2 2
1
2 2 2
2

= = =

o Free electron in solid:

- -
-
= = =
m
k
m
p
v m E
2 2
2
1
2 2 2
2










Chapter 2 page 8
- Direct-gap and indirect-gap semiconductors






- During an electronic transition, Electrons need to satisfy energy and momentum
conservation

o Direct gap:
Radiative transitions

g
g
E
c
h
c
h E =

=

o Indirect gap:
Non-radiative transitions
Radiative transitions forbidden due to small momentum of photons (p ~
0)
Momentum change absorbed in lattice vibrations (phonons)



In
In
C

n
p

It

E
(N

U
U
T
E

ntrinsic=Pu
ntrinsic=N
hemicalmo
o Electr
o Positiv

=concentr
=concentr
tis
quilibriumc
Noexternal
Underequilib
o there
o there
o there
o there

Underequilib
o electr
o electr

hermalgene
quilibriumre
ecombinatio
o Proba
ure=Undo
oimpurities
del=Broke
ronistakeno
vechargeis
rationofele
rationofhol
oncentratio
stimulisuch
briumcondit
arenoexte
isnolightil
isnovoltag
isnoothers
briumcondit
ronholepair
ronholereco
erationrate
ecombinatio
onrate.
abilitythaton
Cha
Intrinsic
oped
sadded
enbondmod
outofaSiS
leftbehind
ectronsinthe
lesintheva
p n
n=n
i

aslight,ele
tions
rnalstimuli,
luminatingt
eappliedto
stimulation
tions
rsaregenera
ombine
=G
i

onrate=R
i
neelectron
Prob
pter3page1
semiconduc
del
ibond
econduction
lenceband(
i
n p =in
ectricfield,e
thatis,
thesemicon
thesemico
ateddueto
i i
G R

recombines

babilityp
ctors
nband(CB)
(VB)
intrinsiccarr
etc.)
ductor
nductor
thetherma

swithanyho
p

rierconcentr
lenergyofc
oleperunit
ration
carriers
time

Chapter3page2
o Probabilitythatnelectronsrecombinewithaholeperunittime

Probabilitynp
o Recombinationrate:

p n R
r



r

proportionalityconstant

o Recombinationinanintrinsicsemiconductor

2
i r i i r i
n p n R


o Generationinanintrinsicsemiconductor

2
i i i r i i
n p n R G

D
D
ntypese
Fi
C

T
O

Io
Doping=ad
Dopingby
o Diffus
o Impla
o During
emiconducto

irstthought
o Remo
o Siisg

hemicalbon
andmodelf
hedonoris
Oncethedon
onizationen
o E
d
5
o AtT=
o Since

dingaforeig
sion
ntation(ion
gepitaxialg
ors
texperiment
oveoneSiat
roupIVelem
ndmodel
fordonors
eitherneutr
nordonates
nergyoracti
550meV
300K:Ther
E
d
andkTar
Cha
Extrinsic
gnelement
implantatio
rowth
t:
ominaSicr
ment.Pisgro
ral(lefthand
itselectron,
ivationener
rmalenergy
resimilar
n
pter3page3
semicondu
on)

rystalandre
oupVeleme
dside)orion
,thedonori
gy
y=kT=26
fullionizatio
D
N N

ctors
eplaceitwith
ent
nized(right
spositively
6meV
onofdonors

D
N

haphospho
handside)
charged
s
orus(P)atom

m.

ptypese
Se
C

B
co

Io
Notesimilarit
o Bothh
o Hydro
o Modif
1)
2)
o Hydro

emiconducto

econdthoug
o Remo
o Bisgr
hemicalbon
wants to
onfiguration
andmodelf
Acceptoracce
onizationen
o E
a
5
o AtT=
o Since

tybetweend
haveoneele
ogenatomm
ficationofhy
Effectivem
Dielectric
ogenicimpur
ors
ghtexperim
oveoneSiat
roupIIIelem
ndmodel
capture (ac
n
foracceptor
eptsanelec
nergyoracti
50meV
300K:Ther
E
a
andkTar
Cha
donorsand
ectronboun
modelfordo
ydrogenato
mass
constant
ritiesclosely
ent
ominaSicr
ment
cept) an el
s
tronfromth
ivationener
rmalenergy
resimilar
pter3page4
thehydroge
dbycoulom
onors
ommodelby

e
m

0

yfollowtheh
rystalandre
ectron in o
hevalenceb
gy
y=kT=26
fullionizatio
A
N p
enatom.
mbicinteract
y
*
e
m
0 r

hydrogenat
eplaceitabo
order to ach
band
6meV
onofaccept

A
N

tion
tommodel(
oron(B)atom
hieve an ine
tors
Bohrsmode
m

ertgas elec
el)
ctron

Chapter3page5

Compensatedsemiconductors

Whenasemiconductorisdopedsimultaneouslywithdonorsandacceptors,itiscalled
acompensatedsemiconductor
o Example:SidopedsimultaneouslywithPandB
o compensatedSi

Thefreecarrierconcentrationisthengivenby

A D
N N n

or
D A
N N p

Dopedsemiconductors=Extrinsicsemiconductors

IngroupIVsemiconductors,thereisonlyonetypeoflatticesite(Example:Si)
InIIIVsemiconductors,therearetwotypesoflatticesites(Example:GaAs)
o thegroupIIIsite(Gasite)
o thegroupVsite(Assite)
InIIIVsemiconductors,aSidopantcanoccupyeithersite,andthenactsasdonororan
acceptor
ASidopantinaIIIVsemiconductorisanamphotericdopant

Amphotericdopants
o Originofword:Amphimeansdualnature
o e.g.anamphibianvehiclecandriveonlandandswiminwater(dualnature)
o e.g.anamphibiananimalcanliveonlandandinwater(dualnature)
o Amphotericdopantscanactasacceptorandasdonors

Example: SiinGaAsisanAmphotericdopant
Si
Ga
=Donor
Si
As
=Acceptor

(Periodic

I
H
1
Li
3
Na
11
K
19
Rb
37
Cs
55
Fr
87

* d
** d

cSystemissim
II

Be
4

Mg
12

Ca
20
*
Sr
38
*
Ba
56
**
Ra
88

electronshe
andfelectr
P
mplifiedandd
III

B
5

Al
13

Ga
31

In
49

* Ti
81

ellstartstobe
onshellsstar
Cha
PeriodicSy
doesnotinclu
IV

C
6
Si
14
Ge
32
Sn
50
Pb
82

efilled
rttobefilled
pter3page6

ystemofEl
udeelements
V

N
7
P
15
2
As
33
0
Sb
5
2
Bi
83

lements
swithpartiall
VI
O
8
5
S
16
3
Se
3
1
Te
5
3
Po
8
lyfilleddand
I VI

8
F
9
6
Cl
1
34
Br
52
I
5
84
At

dfelectrons
II V
H
9
Ne
17
Ar
r
35
Kr
53
Xe
t
85
Rn

shells)
III
e
2

e
10

r
18

r
36

e
54

n
86

Chapter3page7
selectronshellcanbeoccupiedbyatmost2electrons
pelectronshellcanbeoccupiedbyatmost6electrons
delectronshellcanbeoccupiedbyatmost10electrons
felectronshellcanbeoccupiedbyatmost14electrons

Inertgaseshave2(He),10(Ne),18(Ar),36(Kr),54(Xe),and86(Rn)electrons.

Chapter 4 page 1
Semiconductor statistics

- Particles in a system have a statistical distribution of their energy

Examples: Molecules in liquids
Molecules in gases
Electrons in a solid

- Electrons in a free electron gas follow Fermi-Dirac statistics. A state can be occupied by
at most one electron with a certain spin.





- Fermi-Dirac distribution function gives the probability that a state at energy E is
occupied by an electron



exp 1
1
) (
F
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
kT
E E
E f
(1)

where E
F
= Fermi level

- Note that
1 ) ( 0 ) (
2 / 1 ) ( 2 / 1 ) (
2 / 1 ) (
F F
F F
F
~ << ~ >>
> < < >
=
E E f E E f
E E f E E f
E f


Chapter 4 page 2
- Note the temperature dependence of ) (E f

Low T: Abrupt ) (E f
High T: Smeared out ) (E f



- High energy approximation
For
kT
E
kT
E
F
>> one obtains

kT
E E
kT
E E
E f
F
e
exp
1
) (
F

=
|
.
|

\
|
~ (2)

This approximation is called the Boltzmann distribution


kT
E E
E f
F
e ) (
B

= (3)

- Note that Fermi-Dirac distribution is symmetric with respect to E
F


) ( 1 ) (
F F
E E f E E f A = A + (4)

- Is ) (
B
E f symmetric with respect to E
F
?



Chapter 4 page 3
Fermi level











- Free carrier concentration

E E E f n
E
d ) ( ) (
C
=
}

(5)

where = ) (E density of states in the conduction band
Chapter 4 page 4
Density of States and Effective Density of States

- Density of states


C
2 3
2
*
2
2
2
1
) ( E E
m
E
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
=

(6)







- Effective density of states

(valid for E >> E
F
; f

(E) approximated by f
B
(E))


c C B B
) ( d ) ( ) (
C
N E E f E E E f n
E
= = =
}

(7)

where N
c
= effective density of states at the conduction band edge


2 3
2
*
c
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
=

kT m
N (8)

Eqn. (8) can be proven by using
a a
x e x
ax
2
d
0
t
=

}



Chapter 4 page 5
Carrier concentrations

) ( ) (
C B c C c
E f N E f N n ~ =



kT E E
N n
) (
c
F C
e

= (9)

For E
F
= E
C
n = N
c

( ) ) ( 1
V v
E f N p =

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
kT E E
N p
) (
v
F V
e 1
1
1


kT E E
N p
) (
v
V F
e

= (10)


- Intrinsic semiconductor: E
F
= E
Fi


kT E E
N n
) (
c i
Fi C
e

=

kT E E
N p
) (
v i
V Fi
e

=

kT E E E E
N N p n
) (
v c i i
V Fi Fi C
e
+
=

kT E
N N n p n
g
e
v c
2
i i i

= =



kT E
N N n
g
e
v c
2
i

= (11)

Same calculation for doped semiconductor:

kT E E
N n
) (
c
F C
e

=

kT E E
N p
) (
v
V F
e

=

kT E E E E
N N p n
) (
v c
V F F C
e
+
=

Chapter 4 page 6

2
i
n p n = (12)

This is an important result. The product np is, at a given temperature, a constant.

Increasing the concentration of one type of carrier decreases the concentration of the
other type of carrier.


- Boltzmann statistics for doped semiconductors
kT
E E
N n
F C
e
c

=
kT
E E
N p
V F
e
v

=


- Boltzmann statistics for intrinsic semiconductors
kT
E E
N n
Fi C
e
c i

=
kT
E E
N p
V Fi
e
v i

=


- Using Boltzmann statistics for doped and intrinsic semiconductors one can show that


kT
E E
n n
Fi F
e
i

= (13)


kT
E E
kT
E E
n p p
F Fi F Fi
e e
i i

= = (14)



Chapter 4 page 7
- Example: Assume a semiconductor with E
g
= 1.0 eV and N
c
= N
v
= 10
19
cm
3
and
N
D
= N
A
= 0

1) Calculate n
i


3 10
2
v c i
cm 10 9 . 3 e
g

= =
kT E
N N n

2) Calculate E
F


kT E E
N n
) (
c i
Fi C
e

=

eV 5 . 0
Fi C
= E E
that is, E
Fi
is at the middle of the gap

Assume that the semiconductor is doped with N
D
= 10
18
cm
3

3) What is n?
n = N
D

4) Calculate E
F

kT E E
N n
) (
c
F C
e

=

meV 60 eV 06 . 0
F C
= = E E

E
F
is close to the CB edge

5) Calculate p

( )
3 3 3 18
2
3 10 2
i
cm 10 5 . 1 cm 10 cm 10 9 . 3

= = = n n p



- Definition of majority and minority carriers

o Majority carrier = the type of carrier that is in the majority (greater abundance)

o Minority carrier = the type of carrier that is in the minority (smaller abundance)

o In the above example, which type of carrier is the majority carrier?

Chapter 4 page 8
Temperature dependence of carrier concentration

1) Intrinsic semiconductor
kT E
N N n
2
v c i
g
e

=
T k
E
N N n
1
2
ln ln
g
v c i
=





2) Extrinsic semiconductor (e. g. n-type)



- Intrinsic regime
i i
p n =
slope = ) 2 (
g
k E n > N
D

- Saturation regime
n = N
D
slope = 0

- Freeze-out regime
n < N
D
slope = ) 2 (
d
k E

3) Questions
Where is the typical operating temperature of a doped semiconductor?
What happens if T decreases?
What happens if T increases?
Is Ge a suitable semiconductor?
Did Ge transistor radios work well at the beach (in a hot environment)?
How is N
D
chosen relative to n
i
?
Chapter 4 page 9
Compensated semiconductors

Both donors and acceptors are present

Lets assume n-type: N
D
> N
A

1) Intuitive approach





2) Analytic approach based on charge neutrality


charge negative
A
charge positive
D
+
+ = + N n N p


Using n n p
2
i
= , one obtains:

0
A D
2
i
= +
+
N N n
n
n


Multiplying with n yields:

0 ) (
2
i A D
2
=
+
n n N N n

This is a quadratic equation. It has the solution:

2
i
2
A D A D
4
) (
2
n
N N N N
n

=
+ +


with
2
i
2
A D
4 ) ( n N N >>
+
, one obtains:

+
=
A D
N N n

Chapter 4 page 10
Rsum of Newtonian Mechanics

- Newtons first law
A body maintains its constant velocity, if there are no forces acting on the body


- Newtons second law
p
t
d
a m F
d
= =


- Newtons third law
Actio = Reactio
Action force = Reaction force
Force = Counterforce


- Newtons definition of work

}
=
s
s F W d s F W =


- Velocity
t
v
a
d
d
= t a v
t v
d d
} }
= t a v =
valid if a = constant


- Distance
t t a t v s d d d = =
2
2
1
t a s =
valid if a = constant

- E
- E

- N
quilibrium
quilibriume
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Chapter5page6
At the energy E, the rate of transfer from a first region to a second
region is proportional to the number of filled states in the first region
andalsotothenumberofemptystatesinthesecondregion.

Ratefrom(1)to(2) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | E f E E f E
2 2 1 1
1

Ratefrom(2)to(1) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | E f E E f E
1 1 2 2
1

Bothratesareequal.Multiplyingoutyields:



cancels
1 1 2 2 1 2 2
cancels
2 2 1 1 2 1 1
f f f f f f =

Thusitfollowsthat
2 1
f f =

and
2 F 1 F
E E =

Chapter 6 page 1
Equilibrium state, Steady state, and Transient state
We distinguish between the following three types of states:

- Equilibrium state:

No excitation (no current, no light )

- Steady state

Steady state is a non-equilibrium state
All processes are balanced by the opposite processes (opposing processes)

Example: Generation and recombination are opposing processes





- Transient state

Transient state is a non-equilibrium state

Processes are not balanced by opposing processes

Example: Switching off a device after a steady-state operation results in a transient state



Chapter 6 page 2
Excess carriers

- During operation, devices are not in equilibrium
Example: LED; detector; transistor, etc.

- Excess carriers created by illumination, injection,

- Despite excess carriers, charge neutrality holds.
Example: Excitation by light




p n A = A


- Optical absorption (Photoexcitation)
Planck relation

v = h E

= e =
c
h

h Planks constant t = 2 h

v Photon frequency



g
E h > v Absorption


g
E h < v No absorption


Chapter 6 page 3
- Example: (blue) nm 400 = eV 1 . 3 =

=
c
h E

(green) nm 500 = eV 5 . 2 = E

(red) nm 700 = eV 8 . 1 = E



GaAs: eV 4 . 1
g
= E nm 870
g
=
nm 870 > no absorption

nm 870 < absorption will occur

GaAs is black (opaque)



GaP: eV 3 . 2
g
= E nm 540
g
=

GaP appears red



C (diamond): eV 5
g
= E nm 250
g
=

Diamond is transparent


Chapter 6 page 4
Absorption and emission

Absorption event




o Creation of electron-hole pair
o Relaxation of the carriers to the band edge. Energy is lost.
Lattice vibrations = heat
o Photon will be emitted with h v = E
g

o Emission of photons = Luminescence

Luminescence
o Photoluminescence
o Electroluminescence
o Cathodoluminescence
o Chemiluminescence see example below
o Radioluminescence see example below



Quantum efficiency
unit time per photons absorbed of number
unit time per photons emitted of number
Q
= q

Power efficiency
power optical absorbed
power optical emitted
P
= q
Chapter 6 page 5
Example: Semiconductor absorbs 10
14
photons/sec with hv = 3 eV and emits
10
13
photons/sec with hv = 2 eV

o Calculate
Q Quantum
q = q

% 10 1 . 0
10
10
14
13
Q
= = = q


o Calculate
P Power
q = q

sec eV 10 2 eV 2
sec
1
10
13 13
emitted
= = P
sec eV 10 3 eV 3
sec
1
10
14 14
absorbed
= = P
% 6 . 6 066 . 0
10 3
10 2
14
13
P
= =

= q

o Calculate power in Watts emitted by the semiconductor

W 2 . 3 W 10 2 . 3
sec
eV
10 2
6 13
= = =

P




Non-radiative recombination

Shallow states = Donors and acceptors

Deep states = luminescence killers

Deep states = defects, unwanted impurities




Chapter 6 page 6

Absorption of light





o Differential equation
d
d
I
x
I
o =

I = intensity dimension {I} = W cm
2

o = proportionality constant = absorption coefficient
dimension {o} = cm
1

o Solution of differential equation
x
x I x I
o
= = e ) 0 ( ) (

o Energy dependence of
o = 0 for
g
E h < v
o > 0 for
g
E h > v
o Density of states





Chapter 6 page 7
o o depends on the nature of the bandgap

Indirect gap low o
Direct gap high o









o Example: Semiconductor with eV 4 . 1
g
= E ;
1 4
cm 10

= o (@ 1.45 eV);
thickness d = 1

m; illumination with eV 45 . 1 = v h ,
2
cm
mW
10 ) 0 ( = I

Calculate absorbed intensity

2
cm mW 10 ) 0 ( = I
) 0 ( 37 . 0 e ) 0 ( ) ( I I t I
d
= =
o

2
absorbed
cm mW 3 . 6 ) 0 ( 63 . 0 ) 0 ( 37 . 0 ) 0 ( = = = I I I I

Calculate emitted intensity ( % 100
Q
= q )

2 2
emitted
cm
mW
1 . 6
eV 45 . 1
eV 4 . 1
cm
mW
3 . 6 = = I

Calculate heat generated in sample; give heat in units of W/cm
2


2 2 2
heat
cm
mW
2 . 0
cm
mW
1 . 6
cm
mW
3 . 6 = = I

Chapter 6 page 8
Direct recombination

- Any recombination process must satisfy the

o energy conservation law
o momentum conservation law

o Energy conservation




o Momentum conservation



Vertical transitions are k-conserving transitions (i.e. momentum-conserving transitions)


- Nomenclature

Carrier concentration n p

Intrinsic carrier concentration
i
n
i
p

Equilibrium concentration
0
n
0
p

Excess concentration (steady state) n A p A

Excess concentration (transient state) ) (t n o ) (t p o

Total carrier concentration n n A +
0
p p A +
0
(steady state)
) (
0
t n n o + ) (
0
t p p o + (transient state)
Chapter 6 page 9
- Charge neutrality p N n N + = +
+
D A


p n A = A ) ( ) ( t p t n o = o


- p-type semiconductor





- As shown previously
p n R
r
o = (1)

= o
r
Bimolecular recombination coefficient

dimension {o
r
} = cm
3
/ s

o Equilibrium

2
i r 0 0 r 0
n p n R o = o = (2)


2
i r 0
n G o = (3)

(Note that G = R under equilibrium conditions)

Chapter 6 page 10
- Non-equilibrium recombination


| | | |
| |
( )
(
(
(
(

o + o + o + o =
o o + o + o o + o =
o + o + o = o =

neglected) be (can
summand first than smaller
2
0 0 r 0 0 r
0 0 r 0 0 r
0 0 r r
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
t n t n p n p n
t p t n t n p t p n p n
t p p t n n t p t n R
(4)

( ) ) (
0 0 r
2
i r
t n p n n R o + o + o = (5)

excess 0
R R R + =

In this derivation we used that

(1) electrons and holes disappear in pairs, i.e.
) ( ) ( t p t n o = o (6)
(2) low-level excitation, i.e.

0 0
) ( p n t n + << o (7)
) ( ) (
0 0 r excess
t n p n R o + o = (8a)

2
i r 0
n R o = (8b)

2
i r 0 0
n G R o = = (8c)

- Change of the free carrier concentration

R G
t
t n
=
d
) ( d
(9)

Let us assume that there is no excess generation (because light is switched off). Then:
( )
excess 0 0 0
) (
d
d
R R G t n n
t
= o +

( ) ) ( ) (
d
d
0 0 r
t n p n t n
t
o + o = o (10)
this is a differential equation
Chapter 6 page 11
The solution of Eqn. (10) is given by


( )
e ) 0 ( ) (
0 0 r
t + o
A = o = o
t t p n
e n n t n (11)

Electrons in a p-type semiconductor:


0 0 0
p p n ~ + ( )
1
0 r n

o = t p (12)

Holes in an n-type semiconductor:

0 0 0
n p n ~ + ( )
1
0 r p

o = t n (13)

Generalizing Eqns. (12) and (13) yields

( ) | |
1
0 0 r

+ o = t p n






- Example: GaAs sec cm 10
3 10
r

= o
Assume
3 16
0 A
cm 10

= = p N
o Calculate t
( ) sec 10 cm 10
cm
sec
10
6 3 16
3
10 1
0 r

= = o = t p



- Example:
quantities Given
cm 10
cm 10
cm 10
3 15
3 16
0
3 10
i i

= A
=
= =

p
p
p n


Chapter 6 page 12
o Calculate p
3 16
0
cm 10 1 . 1

= A + = p p p

o Calculate n
0

3 4 3 16 6 20
0
2
i
0
cm 10 cm 10 cm 10

= = = p n n


o Calculate Ap
3 15
cm 10

= A = A p n

o Calculate n
3 15
0
cm 10

~ A + = n n n

o Note:
Small change in majority carrier concentration
Large change in minority carrier concentration

- Simplification of Eqn. (5)

o p-type semiconductors

0 0 A 0
p n N p << =

n = minority carrier concentration ) ( ) ( ) (
0
t n n t n t n ~ = o

Using Eqns. (5) and (12), one obtains


) (
d
) ( d

n
t
=
t n
t
t n
(14)

( ) ( ) constant
1
A r
1
0 r n
= o = o = t

N p (15)

o n-type semiconductors

0 0 D 0
n p N n << =

p = minority carrier concentration ) ( ) ( ) (
0
t p p t p t p ~ = o

Using Eqns. (5) and (13), one obtains


) (
d
) ( d
p
t
=
t p
t
t p
(16)

( ) ( ) constant
1
D r
1
0 r p
= o = o = t

N n (17)
Chapter 6 page 13
Indirect recombination

- Indirect bandgap





Recombination probability in indirect gap semiconductors is very low.
Why? Answer: Because the momentum-conservation law is not automatically satisfied.


- Most of recombination occurs via deep levels





o Electron capture
o Hole capture
o Electron capture and hole capture alternate


- Traps





Chapter 6 page 14
- Methods to measure traps

Photoconductivity
) ( ) (
p n
t p e t n e + = o


(1) Experimental setup:





(2) Measurement of decay times:



Chapter 7 page 1
Steady-state carrier generation

- Equilibrium
0 0
R G = (1)
- Steady-state non-equilibrium

excess 0 excess 0
G G G R R R + = = + = (2)
excess excess
R G = (3)
-
excess
G can be, for example, due to illumination (optical excitation)

- Recall Eqn. (10) of previous section:
) (
d
) ( d
0 r excess
t n p
t
t n
G o o =
o
= (4)
In the steady state:

n
0 r excess
t
A
= A o =
n
n p G (5)
With
excess 0
G G << one obtains
excess
G G =

n
excess
t
A
=
n
G or
n
t = A G n (6)
valid for p-type semiconductors

- Similarly one obtains


p
t = A G p (7)
valid for n-type semiconductors


- Change in conductivity

p n
+ = o p e n e (8)

p n
A + A = o A p e n e (9)

p p n n
t + t = o A G e G e (10)
Chapter 7 page 2
Quasi Fermi level

- Thought experiment:



Chapter 7 page 3
- Electrons and holes equilibrate very rapidly within the two bands (CB and VB)

- Both types of carriers are in equilibrium with themselves

- They are not in equilibrium with each other

- f

(E) = distribution function
(Fermi-Dirac or Boltzmann)
Quasi-Fermi level for electrons
Quasi-Fermi level for holes

- Equilibrium

( ) kT E E
N n
F C
e
c 0

=

( ) kT E E
N p
V F
e
v 0

=
- Quasi equilibrium

( ) kT E E
N n
Fn C
e
c

=


kT E E
N p
) (
v
V Fp
e

=


- Band diagram








Chapter 7 page 4
- Example: Assume semiconductor with N
c
= N
v
= 10
18
cm
3
, N
D
= 10
15
cm
-3
,
n
i
= 10
10
cm
3
,
p
= 1 s

o Calculate E
C
E
F

( )
meV 179 e
F C c
F C
= =

E E N n
kT E E


o Calculate p in equilibrium
3 5 3 15 6 20 2
i
cm 10 cm 10 cm 10

= = = n n p

o Calculate E
F
E
V

( )
meV 774 e
V F v
V F
= =

E E N p
kT E E


o Calculate E
g

( ) ( ) meV 953
V F F C V C g
= + = = E E E E E E E
o Assume a steady-state generation rate with
1 3 18
s cm 10

= G . Calculate An and
Ap
3 12 6 1 3 18
p
cm 10 s 10 s cm 10

= = t = A G p
3 12
cm 10

= A = A p n

o Calculate E
C
E
Fn

( )
meV 179 e
Fn C c
Fn C
= =

E E N n
kT E E


o Calculate E
Fp
E
V

( )
meV 357 e
V Fp v
V Fp
= =

E E N p
kT E E


Chapter 8 page 1
Diffusion

- Diffusion = random, thermally stimulated motion
Diffusion = random walk

- Browns experiment: Petri dish filled with water having particle floating on water
surface.




o Soot particles floating on water
o Random motion
o Brownian motion

- Thought experiment: Figure shows top view into Petri dish



We learn: Diffusion motion is directed towards lower concentrations, i.e. along the
gradient of the concentration.

- Particle current density for one-dimensional (1D) case

x
x n
D J
d
) ( d
= (1)
D = diffusion constant
dimension {D} = cm
2
/ s
Chapter 8 page 2
- Electron and hole current density (i.e. electrical current density)

x
x n
D e
x
x n
D e J
d
) ( d
d
) ( d
) (
n n e
= = (2)

x
x p
D e
x
x p
D e J
d
) ( d
d
) ( d
) (
p p p
= = (3)

- Diffusion is independent of other effects (e.g. electric fields). Diffusion is just the random
motion of particles

- Other examples of diffusion:
o Mixing of two different liquids
o Brownian motion
o Diffusion of pupils in school yard

- Two driving forces on free carriers: Drift and Diffusion
diffusion drift total
J J J + =


x
x n
D e x x n e x J
d
) ( d
) ( ) ( ) (
n n n
+ = E (4)


x
x p
D e x x p e x J
d
) ( d
) ( ) ( ) (
p p p
= E (5)

- General equations for 3-dimensional (3D) case
) , , ( grad ) , , ( ) , , ( ) , , (
n n n
z y x n D e z y x z y x n e z y x J + = E


) , , ( grad ) , , ( ) , , ( ) , , (
p p p
z y x p D e z y x z y x p e z y x J = E


Chapter 8 page 3
- Example





- Minority carriers:
o Contribution to drift current is always low:

Drift current depends on the carrier concentration which is always low for minority
carriers

o Contribution to diffusion current can be high:

Diffusion current depends on the gradient of the concentration which can be high
for minority carriers


Chapter 8 page 4
- Band diagram and electric fields

Newtons law: Work = W = F x or Energy = E = F x

Electrostatic energy: E = F x = e E x (where E = electric field)
E e
x
E
=
d
d

o Electric fields in semiconductors result in tilted band diagrams



o Electrons go downhill

o Holes bubble up like air bubbles in water

o Note that we have previously shown that E
F
is a constant, independent of position,
at equilibrium

o Also note the analogy of the tilted bands to an electron in vacuum where the
potential energy is tilted


Chapter 8 page 5
Einstein Relation

=
e
kT
D
Einstein relation applies to both types of carriers, i.e.

n n
) ( = e kT D and
p p
) ( = e kT D
Below (next page), we will prove the Einstein relation

- Example: Consider an abrupt doping profile




o Electrons diffuse away from donors
o Diffusion current occurs
o Drift current due to electric field E
Chapter 8 page 6
- In equilibrium:



Currents must be balanced at all positions

Proof of Einsteins relation:
We consider one specific location with electric field E. Let us choose x = 0 as specific location

Band diagram:



Boltzmann distribution:
( ) kT E E
N x n
F C
e ) (
c

=
Electric field: E e x E = d d
C


Drift current

( )
( )
x
E
e
N e
x n e J
kT E E
d
d 1
e
) (
C
n c
n drift
F C
=
=

E

Diffusion current

( )
( )
( )
( )
x
x E
kT
N D e
N
x
D e
x
x n
D e J
kT E E
kT E E
d
) ( d 1
e
e
d
d
d
) ( d
C
c
c
diff
F C
F C

=
=
=



Drift current must balance the Diffusion current
Chapter 8 page 7
It is
d i f f u s i o n d r i f t
J J =


Therefore
kT
D
e
1 1
n
=
Rewriting the equation yields =
e
kT
D
this concludes the proof.


Combination of drift and diffusion (opposing or aiding each other) gives rise to useful
semiconductor devices. The free carrier concentration can be changed over orders of
magnitude which allow one to change drift and diffusion. Electronic properties cannot be
tailored in other materials (e.g. such as metals or insulators).




Example: Diffusion of electrons and holes
In Si (300 K): s cm 35
2
n
= D
) s (V cm 1350
2
n
=
s cm 5 . 12
2
p
= D
) s (V cm 480
2
p
=
Note that generally
p n
>> and
p n
D D >>
That is:
o electrons are more mobile than holes (higher mobility)
o electrons diffuse more easily than holes (higher diffusion constant)

Chapter 8 page 8
Generation of carriers by light


o We assume Ap >> p
0
and An >> n
0

o Holes are pulled forward (along +x direction)
o Electrons are pulled backward (along x direction)
Chapter 9 page 1
Injection of carriers

- Consider the following effects:
o Generation (equilibrium or excess)
o Injection
o Diffusion
o Drift (external fields or internal fields)
o Recombination (equilibrium or excess)
all effects need to be considered simultaneously

- Consider a small volume V with electron concentration n. The concentration n can
change by

(i) recombination
(ii) transport of carriers out of the volume
(iii) generation
(iv) transport of carriers into the volume

transport can be either drift or diffusion
we need to formulate a condition of continuity



- Consider the rectangular volume V = A Ax, as shown below, and assume that holes can
flow into and out of the volume


Chapter 9 page 2

|
|
.
|

\
|

A +
= A
e
x J
e
x x J
x
t
p
) ( ) (
d
d p p
(1)

Equation states that number of particles = constant
Equation is a bean-counting equation

- Next, we assume that there is no carrier generation and take into account that electrons
and holes can disappear by recombination

ion recombinat transport total
d
d
d
d
d
d
t
p
t
p
t
p
+ =
Recall that
p ion recombinat
d
d
t
=
p
t
p

Thus:
p
p p
) ( ) (
1
d
d
t

A
A +

=
p
x
x J x x J
e t
p
(2)

The differential form of this equation is given by

p
p
1
t

c
c
=
c
c p
J
x e t
p
(3)
this is the continuity equation for holes
Note: op ~ p (i.e. holes = minority carriers)

For electrons:

1

n
n
t

c
c
+ =
c
c n
J
x e t
n
(4)
this is continuity equation for electrons
Note: on ~ n (i. e. electrons = minority carriers)

Chapter 9 page 3
- Note that the diffusion current is usually larger than the drift current for minority
carriers
n v n e J =
drift
n is always small


x
n
J
d
d
diffusion

x
n
d
d
can be large

Recall that electron and hole diffusion currents are given by

x
n
D e J
d
d
n n
= (5)


x
p
D e J
d
d
p p
= (6)

- Diffusion equation
Insertion of Eqns. (6) and (5) into Eqns. (3) and (4) yields


n
2
2
n
t

c
c
=
c
c n
x
n
D
t
n
(7)


p
2
2
p
t

c
c
=
c
c p
x
p
D
t
p
(8)

These are the diffusion equations
Note: ) , ( t x n n = and ) , ( t x p p =
- In the steady state: ( 0 = c c t )

n n
2
2
t
=
c
c
D
n
x
n
steady-state diffusion eqn. (9)


p p
2
2
t
=
c
c
D
p
x
p
steady-state diffusion eqn. (10)

Chapter 9 page 4
General solution (for electrons)
( ) ( )

term decaying
lly exponentia
2
term growing
lly exponentia
1
2 1
n n
2 1
n n
e e ) (
t t
+ =
D x D x
C C x n (11)

Note that (D
n
t
n
)
1/2
must have units of a length, which we call diffusion length



n n n
t = D L
(12)


p p p
t = D L
(13)


- Specific solution of steady-state diffusion equation is determined from boundary
condition.
Lets choose 0 ) ( = x n and n x n A = = ) 0 (
Therefore:
0
1
= C

Solution: e ) (
n
L x
n x n

A = (14)
e ) (
p
L x
p x p

A = (15)



injection of electrons (minority carriers) into a p-type (majority carrier) region
Carrier concentration decreases due to recombination.
current at x = 0 is n
x
x n
x
A
=0
d
) ( d

current at x is n
x
x n
A
d
) ( d

Chapter 9 page 5
- The probability that a carrier injected at x = 0 reaches the position x without
recombination, is given by:
n
) (
) 0 (
) (
) 0 (
) (
n
n
L x
e
n
x n
n
x n
J
x J

=
A
= =
- Total density (per cm
2
) of diffusing carriers
( )
n
0
n
0 0
e e ) ( d e d ) (
n
L n L n x n x x n
L x
A = A = A =


} }
(16)
- Mean diffusion distance traveled by carrier before recombination

n
0
0
d ) (
d ) (
L
x x n
x x n x
x = =
}
}

(17)
(the integration in the above equation is left to the reader)





- Example: Assume the steady state carrier concentration
n
e ) (
L x
n x n

A =
o Calculate the diffusion current
n
e
1
d
) ( d
n
L x
L
n
x
x n

A =
n
e
d
) ( d
) (
n
n n n
L x
L
n
D e
x
x n
D e x J

A
= =

o Calculate the steady state recombination rate.
Continuity equation:
n
n
) (
d
d 1
d
) ( d
0
t
= =
x n
J
x e t
x n

n n
e
1
e ) (
1
d
d 1 ) (
2
n
n
n n
n n
n
L x L x
L
n
D
L L
n
D e
e
J
x e
x n

|
|
.
|

\
|
A
=
|
|
.
|

\
| A
= =
t


L
n
= diffusion length =average distance a
carrier diffuses before recombination

Chapter 9 page 6
- Example: Illumination of an n-type semiconductor


Note that p p A <<
0
; p n A = A ;
p n
L L >
o Calculate
diff n,
J and
diff p,
J at x = 0
( )
n
n n diff n,
d
d
0
L
n
D e
x
n
D e x J
A
= = =
( )
p
p p diff p,
d
d
0
L
p
D e
x
p
D e x J
A
= = =
Thus, using
n n
n n
n
n
n
t =
t
= D
D
D
L
D
one obtains
n n diff n,
t A = D n e J
p p diff p,
t A = D p e J

Chapter 9 page 7
Note: The above two currents are different. However, the two currents must
be equal. Therefore, there must be an electric field present that
generates a drift current that exactly cancels the difference of the
diffusion currents.

For n-type semiconductors:
0
diff p, diff n, drift n,
= + + J J J
0
p p n n e
= t A t A + D p e D n e n e E

|
|
.
|

\
|
t
A
t
A

=
n
n
p
p
e
1 D
n
D
p
n
E
Above, we neglected
drift p,
J . Was it justified?
Let us calculate
drift p,
J :
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
A
t
A

= =
n
n
p
p
e
p
p drift p,
D
n
D
p
n
p
e p e J E
n p << therefore
drift n, drift p,
J J <<
Note that
n
&
p
and D
n
& D
p
are different:
Electrons are generally more mobile than holes:
n
>
p

Electrons generally diffuse more easily than holes: D
n
> D
p




Chapter 9 page 8
Drift and Diffusion and the Quasi-Fermi level

- Recall that Boltzmann statistics gives

( ) kT E E
N n
F C
e
c

= (18)
Note that if
Fi F
E E
i
n n = . Therefore

( ) kT E E
N n
Fi C
e
c i

= (19)
Eqn. (18) divided by Eq. (19) yields:

( ) ( ) kT E E kT E E
n
n
Fi C F C
e
i
+
=

( )
e
Fi F
i
kT E E
n n

= (20)
Electronic equilibrium substitute E
Fn
for E
F


( ) kT E E
n n
Fi Fn
e
i

= (21)
It is

( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
= =

x
E
x
E
kT
x n n
x x
x n kT E E
d
d
d
d 1
) ( e
d
d
d
d
Fi Fn
i
Fi Fn
(22)

- Electron current drift and diffusion equation

x
x n
D e x x n e x J
d
) ( d
) ( ) ( ) (
n n n
+ = E (23)

Insertion of Eqn. (22) into Eqn. (23) yields
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
x
E
x
E
kT
x n
D e x x n e x J
d
d
d
d ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
Fi Fn
n n n
E (24)
Using the Einstein relation D = (kT /

e) yields

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =


b
a
x
E
x
E
x n x x n e x J
2 Term
Fi Fn
2 Term
n
1 Term
n n
d
d
d
d
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( E (25)
Chapter 9 page 9
In a homogeneous semiconductor, it is
E e
x
E
x
E
x
E
= = =
d
d
d
d
d
d
Fi V C
(26)

Therefore Terms (1) and Terms (2a) and (2b) cancel in Eqn. (25), leaving

x
E
x n J
d
d
) (
Fn
n n
= (27)

x
E
x p J
d
d
) (
Fp
p p
= (28)
Drift and diffusion are proportional to the gradients of the quasi-Fermi level.
Note: We have two different currents: Drift current and Diffusion current.
By using the quasi-Fermi levels, the current has only one term. This term
contains both types of currents (i.e. drift and diffusion)

- Example: Electron injection

Chapter 10 page 1
PN Junctions

- We now have the tools to work with
o Carrier concentration gradients (diffusion)
o Electric fields (drift)
o Generation and injection
o Recombination

Previously: n-type or p-type semiconductor
Now: pn junctions

PN junctions form the basis of many devices including LEDs, photodetectors, lasers,
solar cells, bipolar transistors, etc.


- Thought experiment:




o Large concentration gradients must occur at the junction

o Example:
3 17
D
cm 10

= N
3 17
A
cm 10

= N
3 10
i
cm 10

= n

3 3
A
2
i
p0
cm 10

= = N n n

3 3
D
2
i
n0
cm 10

= = N n p

p changes from 10
17
cm
3
to 10
3
cm
3

n changes from 10
17
cm
3
to 10
3
cm
3

Chapter 10 page 2
o Large diffusion currents occur
o There must be a built-in electric field opposing the diffusion current
o Note that J = 0 at all locations in equilibrium


- Qualitative arguments for the internal built-in electric field

o Electrons diffuse to the p-type region and most of them recombine with holes
o Holes diffuse to the n-type region and most of them recombine with electrons
o Due to recombination of diffused carriers, there will be regions depleted of free
carriers





o Diffusion and drift drive carriers into different directions
o At equilibrium:
0
diff n, drift n,
= + J J (1)
0
diff p, drift p,
= + J J (2)


Chapter 10 page 3
- Fabrication of pn junctions
o Alloying
Example: Alloying of a AuGe contact into p-type GaAs

o Diffusion
Example: Diffusion of Zn into n-type GaAs

o Implantation
Example: Si into p-type GaAs

o Doping during epitaxial growth
Example: Zn and Si precursors during OMVPE growth of GaAs

The Diffusion Potential (V
D
) also called built-in potential (V
bi
)
We will calculate diffusion potential (also called diffusion voltage or contact potential)
from the requirement of a constant Fermi level at equilibrium.




- Definition of potential
x
x V
x V x
d
) ( d
)] ( [ grad ) ( = = E
or
}
= x x x V d ) ( ) ( E
When E points along negative x direction, then E is negative.

V(x) becomes more positive along the positive x direction


Chapter 10 page 4
- First derivation of V
D
:
E
F
= constant across the pn junction
Sum of energies:

type p V F g D type n F C
) ( ) ( 0

+ + = E E E eV E E (3)
Using:
kT E E
N n
) (
c
F C
e

= (4)

kT E E
N p
) (
v
V F
e

= (5)

kT E
N N n
g
e
v c
2
i

= (6)

One obtains:

v v c
2
i
D
c
ln ln ln 0
N
p
kT
N N
n
kT eV
N
n
kT + + = (7)

2
i
p0 n0
D
ln
n
p n
kT eV =
(8)

2
i
A D
D
ln
n
N N
kT eV = (9a)

Note that in Eqn. (3):
type n F C
) (

E E is small
type p V F
) (

E E is small
Therefore
g D
E V e s (9b)


- Second derivation of V
D
:
Hole and electron current density must be zero in equilibrium
0
d
) ( d
) ( ) ( ) (
p p p
= =
x
x p
D e x x p e x J E (10)
Separation of variables

x
x p
x p
x
D d
) ( d
) (
1
) (
p
p
=

E
(11)
Using Einstein relation and ) (
d
d
x V
x
= E yields

) (
d
d
) (
1
) (
d
d
x p
x x p
x V
x kT
e
=
(12)
Chapter 10 page 5
Integration yields:
) ( d
) (
1
) ( d
n0
p0
n
p
x p
x p
x V
kT
e p
p
V
V
} }
=
(13)

p0 n0 p n
ln ln ) ( p p V V
kT
e
= (14)

p0
n0
D
ln
p
p
e
kT
V = (15)
) ( ln
0 n 0 p D
p p kT eV = (16)

With
A p0
N p = and
D
2
i n0
2
i n0
N n n n p = = one obtains
ln
2
i
D A
D
n
N N
kT eV = (17)

Note that Eqn. (17) and Eqn. (9) are identical

Another useful form of Eqn. (16) is

kT
eV
p
p
D
n0
p0
exp = (18)
With
2
i n0 n0 p0 p0
n p n p n = = one obtains

kT
eV
n
n
p
p
p
p
D
p0
n0
n0
p0
n0
p0
exp = =
(19)



Chapter 10 page 6
- Example: Consider a semiconductor with an abrupt pn junction. Given are the
quantities eV 1 . 1
g
= E ,
3 10
i
cm 10

= n ,
3 17
D
cm 10

= N , and
3 15
A
cm 10

= N . Assume that E
Fi
is located in the middle of the gap.

o Calculate E
F
on the p- and n- side.

n-type side:
kT
E E
n n
Fi F
i
exp

=
eV 42 . 0
Fi F
= E E


p-type side:
kT
E E
n p
F Fi
i
exp

=
eV 30 . 0
F Fi
= E E

o Draw the band diagram





o Calculate E
Fi


eV 72 . 0 eV 55 . 0 eV 42 . 0 eV 30 . 0 eV 55 . 0
D
= + = eV


Chapter 10 page 7
Space charges, electric fields, and potentials in the pn junction




Chapter 10 page 8
The semiconductor is overall charge neutral.
Why?

+
= Q Q (20)
If semiconductor has cross-sectional area A, then
) ( ) (
n0 D p0 A
x A N e x A N e = (21)

n0 D p0 A
x N x N = (22)
Eqn. (22) shows that the depletion region extends farther into the side that has the
lower doping concentration


- Recall that
= = V D D

div
3D Maxwell equation (23)

x
= D
d
d
1D Maxwell equation (24)

x
= E
d
d
1D Gauss equation (25)
Using u V = u = grad E one obtains

d
d
2
2
= u
x
1D Poisson equation (26)
Poisson equation relates potential u to charge density
c = c
r
c
0
= permittivity of a material


- Using Gausss equation to solve for the electric field
x d ) ( d = E (27)
On p-type side, it is
A A
N e N e = =

(28)

Integration of Eqn. (27):

) ( d d
p0 A A
0
p0
x x N

e
x N

e x
x
+ = =
} }
=
E
E
E
valid for (x
p0
x 0) (29)
Chapter 10 page 9
) ( ) (
p0 A
x x N
e
x +
c
= E valid for (x
p0
x 0) (30)


p0 A max
x N
e
c
= E (31)
) (x E depends linearly on x

We next calculate ) (x E for
p0
0 x x s s

Boundary condition D
normal
= continuous

Since c = c
r
c
0
is the same E
normal

= continuous

x N

e
x N

e
x
x
d ) (
D
0
p0 A
}
+ = E (32)

x N

e
x N

e
x
D p0 A
) ( + = E (33)

Charge distribution, electric field, and potential:



Chapter 10 page 10
o Charge concentration = e N
D
and e N
A

o Charge concentration is a constant
o Therefore, electric field changes linearly

- Calculation of the diffusion potential (V
D
)

Recall: u = u = u V =
x d
d
grad E (34)

Separation of variables
} }
= u x d d E (35)

Left-hand side of equation:

D p0 n0
) ( ) ( d
n0
p0
V x x
x
x
= u u = u
}
u
u
(36)
Right-hand side of equation:

D p0 A D max
2
1
2
1
d ) (
n0
p0
W x N

e
W x x
x
x
= =
}

E E
(37)

D p0 A D
2
1
W x N
e
V
c
= (38)

Depletion region and its width

- Calculation of the depletion width (W
D
)

Recall
n0 D p0 A
x N x N =
Recall
p0 n0 D
x x W + =
It is
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + = + =
D
A
p0
D
A
p0 p0 p0 n0 D
1
N
N
x
N
N
x x x x W
(39)

A D
D
D
1
D
A D
D
1
D
A
D p0
1
N N
N
W
N
N N
W
N
N
W x
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

(40)
Insertion of Eqn. (40) into Eqn. (38) yields
Chapter 10 page 11

2
D
D A
D A
D
2
1
W
N N
N N e
V
+ c
=
(41)
Solving Eqn. (41) for W
D
yields

|
|
.
|

\
| + c
=
D A
D A D
D
2
N N
N N
e
V
W (42)
Substitution of Eqn. (17) for V
D
yields

|
|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
=
D A
D A
2
i
D A
2
D
ln
2
N N
N N
n
N N
e
kT
W
(43)

Using
p0 n0 D
x x W + = and
n0 D p0 A
x N x N = one can calculate x
p0
and x
n0



D
D A
A
n0
W
N N
N
x
+
=
(44)


D
D A
D
p0
W
N N
N
x
+
=
(45)

o Depletion region extends further into the low-doped region. This follows form
n0 D p0 A
x N x N =

o Electric field increases linearly in the depletion region. Potential increases
quadratically in the depletion region

o Examples of band diagrams of two pn junctions (one symmetrically doped and
one asymmetrically doped pn junctions) are shown below:


Chapter 10 page 12

- Example: Consider a p
+
n junction diode with N
A
= 10
18
cm
3
, N
D
= 10
16
cm
3
; abrupt
junction; cross sectional area A = 1 1 mm
2
; dielectric constant
r
= 12;
n
i
= 10
10
cm
3


o Calculate V
D
at 300K
mV 834 ln
2
i
D A
D
= =
n
N N
e
kT
V
o Calculate W
D

m 334 . 0
2
2 / 1
D A
D A D
D
=
(

|
|
.
|

\
| + c
=
N N
N N
e
V
W
o Calculate x
p0
and x
n0

nm 331
D
D A
A
n0
=
+
= W
N N
N
x

nm 3 . 3
D
D A
D
p0
=
+
= W
N N
N
x

o Calculate
max
E

cm
V
10 98 . 4
cm) 100 ( cm cm) 100 ( V 98 . 4 m cm m V 98 . 4
m 10 3 . 3 cm 10
As/(Vm) 10 85 . 8 12
C 10 6 . 1
) (
4
3 3
9 3 18
12
19
p0 A
0 r
=
= =



=
c c
=

x N
e
x E

Chapter 10 page 13
o Calculate Q
+

C 10 29 . 5 cm) (100 cm C 10 529
m 10 331 cm 10 cm 10 C 10 6 . 1
10 1 14
9 2 2 3 16 19
n0 D

+ +
= =
= = x A N e Q

o Note that the thickness of the depletion layer is very thin, that is
W
D
0.3 m = 0.3 10
6
m
o Typical doping concentrations range from 10
15
10
20
cm
3

The concentration of lattice atoms 10
22
cm
3

Doping concentration 10
5
% 1 % of the lattice-atom concentration
Chapter 11 page 1
IV Characteristic of PN junction


Qualitative discussion





- Connect diode to external voltage source

o p-type layer is conductive (conductivity = p)
o n-type layer is conductive (conductivity = n)
o Depletion layer is resistive (Why?)
o Therefore, the external voltage drops across the depletion layer.

Chapter 11 page 2
- No bias: If no voltage is connected to p-type side, then drift and diffusion cancel:

Diffusion = Drift


- Forward bias: If a positive voltage is connected to p-type side, then the internal field is
reduced. Therefore more majority carriers will diffuse into the adjacent region. Drift and
diffusion no longer cancel:

Diffusion > Drift


- Reverse bias: If a negative bias is connected to p-type side, then the internal electric
field is enhanced. Drift will be stronger than diffusion. No majority carriers will
contribute to current.

Drift > Diffusion


However, minority carriers can flow into the adjacent region (see illustration)





Chapter 11 page 3
- In reverse bias direction, there is a minority carrier flow, i.e. electrons from the p-type
region flow to the n-type region and holes from the n-type region flow to the p-type
region. This current is supply limited (very few minority carriers). Minority carriers are
limited by thermal generation. Reverse current is, therefore, independent of voltage.


- Qualitative IV characteristic:

- Forward: Diffusion current increases rapidly as potential barrier is lowered

- Reverse: Minority carrier current. Current is independent of voltage.


- Plot of current-voltage characteristic:





Chapter 11 page 4
Quantitative discussion

- At equilibrium we have

kT eV
x p
x p
p
p
D
e
) (
) (
n0
p0
n0
p0
=

= (1)
where p
p0
and p
n0
are the majority and minority hole concentration at the p-side edge
and n-side edge of the neutral region, respectively. The neutral regions are located at:

p-type neutral region: x < x
p0
n-type neutral region: x > x
n0

- Application of bias V to the diode
Fermi levels on p-type and n-type side split by eV, as shown in the figure.



- Next, we substitute (V
D
V) for (V
D
) in Eqn. (1).
Why are we permitted to make this substitution?
This is because an external voltage will drop across the most resistive region, that is, the
depletion region.

Positive V Reduction of barrier

Negative V Enhancement of barrier

Making the substitution of (V
D
V) for (V
D
), Eqn. (1) yields:

kT V V e
p
p
x p
x p
) (
n
p
n0
p0
D
e
) (
) (

= =

(2)
Chapter 11 page 5

kT V V e
x p x p
) (
p0 n0
D
e ) ( ) (

= (3)
=
kT eV
p
kT eV
p e e
1) Eqn. (see
n0
p0
D

=

(4)

kT eV
p x p e ) (
n0 n0
= (5)
This is an important result:
The injected minority carrier concentration can be tuned by the applied
voltage.
These minority carriers are injected into the neutral n-type region.
This is a boundary condition for the injection of holes into the neutral n-type
region.
We will derive the diode current from Eqn. (5).

- Definition of Low-Level Injection



o Example: Hole injection in to n-type material






Rule:
Low-level injection: p << n
n0

For low-level injection, the concentration of injected
minority carriers (e.g. Ap) is much smaller than the
majority carrier concentration (e.g. n
n0
)
Chapter 11 page 6
- Depletion layer width changes with bias

Recall:
2 / 1
D A
D A D
D
2
(

|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
N N
N N
e
V
W (6)

Using the above substitution, we now have

2 / 1
D A
D A D
D
) ( 2
(

|
|
.
|

\
| + c
=
N N
N N
e
V V
W (7)


2 / 1
D A
D
D
1 1 ) ( 2
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
=
N N e
V V
W (8)

o Depletion layer width shrinks for forward bias

o Depletion layer width increases for reverse bias

Chapter 11 page 7


Chapter 11 page 8
- We have previously discussed low-level injection of minority carriers into a neutral
semiconductor (Low-level injection implies that the carrier density (i.e. majority carrier
density) is not changed significantly)

Recall:
p n
e ) (
n
L x
p x p

A = o (9)
with
n0 n0
) ( p x p p = A (10)

n0 n0
e p p p
kT eV
= A (11)
( )

familiar? look
term this Does
n0
1 e = A
kT eV
p p (12a)
( ) 1 e
n0
= A
kT eV
p p (12b)





Insertion of Eqn. (12b) into Eqn. (9) yields:
( )
p n p n
e 1 e e ) (
n0 n
L x
kT eV
L x
p p x p

= A = o (13)
( )
p n
e 1 e ) (
n0 n
L x
kT eV
p x p

= o (14)

This is equation gives us the concentration gradient of holes (minority carriers) as a
function of V

Chapter 11 page 9
- Current density

( )
p n
e
1
1 e
) (
d
d
) (
p
n0 p
n
n
p n p
L x
kT eV
L
p D e
x p
x
D e x J

=
o =

( )
( ) 0 for 1 e
e 1 e ) (
n n0
p
p
n0
p
p
n p
p n
= =
=

x p
L
D e
p
L
D e
x J
kT eV
L x
kT eV
(15)
- Plot of J
p
(x
n
) for a given bias (forward bias)





- The total current must be the same everywhere in the diode in the steady state
Therefore, there must be other current components

What happens to the holes diffusing into the n-type region? They recombine.
Recombining electrons are replenished from the contact.

Chapter 11 page 10
- Illustration of recombination current







- The illustration shows
constant = +
ion recombinat electron, diffusion hole,
J J (16)
constant = +
ion recombinat hole, diffusion electron,
J J (17)



- Total current through diode


0
diffusion p,
0
diffusion n,
p n
n
n
p
p

=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
x
x x
x
x x
J J
J J J
(18)


Chapter 11 page 11
- Using Eqn. (15) and writing the analogous expression for the diffusion current of
electrons, one obtains for x
n
= 0 and x
p
= 0


( ) 1 e
p0
n
n
n0
p
p

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
kT eV
n
L
D
p
L
D
e J
(19)

D
p
= Diffusion constant of holes
L
p
= Diffusion length of holes
p
n0
= Hole minority-carrier concentration on n-type side

D
n
= Diffusion constant of electrons
L
n
= Diffusion length of electrons
n
p0
= Electron minority-carrier concentration on p-type side

V = Applied voltage
kT = Thermal energy = 26 meV at T = 300 K
kT / e = 26 mV at T = 300 K


This is the celebrated Shockley equation for pn-junction diodes. It was first derived by
William Shockley.

Using L
n
= (D
n
t
n
)
1/2
and L
p
= (D
p
t
p
)
1/2
, the Shockley equation can be written as


( ) 1 e
p0
n
n
n0
p
p

|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
t
=
kT eV
n
D
p
D
e J (20)

The Shockley equation can also be written as
( ) 1 e
s
=
kT eV
J J (21)
where
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
p0
n
n
n0
p
p
s
n
L
D
p
L
D
e J (22)
J
s
is the called the reverse saturation current density.

- We learn that the
o Diode current increases exponentially in the forward direction
o Diode current saturates in the reverse direction

- Current = current density Area
o I = J A
Chapter 12 page 1
IV Characteristic of PN junction based on Charge-Control Model

- Charge-Control Model

o The charge-control model is an alternative method to calculate the pn-junction
diode IV characteristic

o Consider the injected minority carrier charge





Continuity equation for steady state for minority holes:

p
p
) (
d
d 1
t
o
=
x p
J
x e
(1)
Separation of variable and integration yields:
x x p e J
x
J
d ) (
1
d
0
p
p
0
n
p
o
t
=
} }

=
(2)
Using
p n
e ) (
L x
p x p

A = o (3)
and
p
0 0
d e d ) (
p n
n
L p x p x x p
L x
x
A = A = o


=
} }
(4)
one obtains:

p
p
p
L p
e
J A
t
= (Note: A Q L p e /
p
= A ) (5)
Chapter 12 page 2
Using
p p p
t = D L or
p
2
p p
D L = t (6a)

and using ( ) 1 e
n0
= A
kT eV
p p (6b)

one obtains ( )
p n0
2
p
p
p
1 e L p
L
D
e J
kT eV
= (7)
or ( ) 1 e
n0
p
p
p
=
kT eV
p
L
D e
J (8)
Writing the analogous equation for electrons gives
( ) 1 e
p0
n
n
n
=
kT eV
n
L
D e
J (9)
Adding Eqns. (8) and (9) yields the total current
( ) 1 e
p0
n
n
n0
p
p

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
kT eV
n
L
D
p
L
D
e J (10)
This is again the Shockley equation which was derived in a previous chapter. We
have thus re-derived the Shockley equation



- Typical diodes are p
+
n or pn
+
diodes.

Why?
It is difficult to make them symmetric.

Therefore, one of the two summands in the Shockley equation can usually be
neglected.

o In p
+
n diodes, the current is carried predominantly by holes

Near junction: Current is mostly carried by minority carriers
Far from junction: Current is carried by majority carriers
Chapter 12 page 3
- Next we consider the distribution for n and p for reverse bias
Recall: ) 1 e (
n0
= A
kT eV
p p (11)
For reverse bias, the exponential term approaches zero and
n0
p p = A .
That means: 0
n0
= + A = p p p


The minority carrier concentration at x
p0
and at x
n0
approaches zero.


Why?
Because minority carriers are swept away due to the high field that exists in the
reverse-biased junction.







We will come back to this when we consider bipolar transistors. Bipolar
transistors have two junctions, one of them (BC) is reverse biased.



Chapter 12 page 4
- Example: Given is a semiconductor with N
A
= 10
17
cm
3
and N
D
= 10
14
cm
3
,
D
n
= 35 cm
2
/s, D
p
= 10 cm
2
/s, L
p
= L
n
= 1 m, n
i
= 10
10
cm
3


o Calculate saturation current density

3 6
D
2
i
n0
cm 10

= =
N
n
p

3 3
A
2
i
p0
cm 10

= =
N
n
n


2 4
2
negligible
12 15
p0
n
n
n0
p
p
m A 10 6 . 1
C
1
m
A
10 5 . 3 10 1
) 1 e (

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

e
n
L
D
p
L
D
e J
kT eV

o Calculate saturation current for diode with area A = 100 m 100 m
A 10 6 . 1 m 10 m 10
m
A
10 6 . 1
12 4 4
2
4
s s

= = = A J I
o Calculate forward current for V = 0.7 V
( ) mA 897 10 6 . 5 A 10 6 . 1 1 e
11 12
s
= = =
kT eV
I I
o Note: In real devices
the reverse saturation current (I
s
) can be higher due to defects
the forward current can be lower due to series resistance




Chapter 12 page 5
Differential resistance of pn-junction diode


( ) 1 e
s
=
kT eV
J J
(12)
For forward bias with mV 26 = >>
e
kT
V one obtains

kT eV
J J e
s
= (13)
Differential resistance per unit area

1
d
d

|
.
|

\
|
=
V
J
A
R


1
|
.
|

\
|
=
dV
dI
R (14)

1
s
1
e

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
kT
e
J
dV
dJ
A
R
J
kT eV

(15)
Therefore:

J e
kT
A
R
= or
I e
kT
R = (16)

- Example: Calculate R for diode with I
s
= 10
10
A for the diode voltages V = 100 mV
and V = 500 mV.
Recall:
kT eV
I I e
s
=
mA 76 . 4 ) mV 100 ( = = V I M 4 . 5 = =
I e
kT
R
mA 246 ) mV 500 ( = = V I M 105 . 0 = =
I e
kT
R
Chapter 12 page 6
Summary of pn junction

PN junction:





Diffusion Theory:



p
n
n
0
p
n p n

d
d
) 0 (
p
n
L
D
A e
x
n
D A e x I
x
A =
o
= =
=

n
p
p
0
n
p n p
n
d
d
) 0 (
p
L
D
A e
x
p
D A e x I
x
A =
o
= =
=


Chapter 12 page 7
Charge Control Model:



p
n
n
n
n
p n
0
p p n

) 0 (
d ) (
n
L A e Q
x I
x x n A e Q
A
t
=
t
= =
o =
}


n
p
p
p
p
n p
0
n n p
) 0 (
d ) (
p
L A e Q
x I
x x p A e Q
A
t
=
t
= =
o =
}





Shockley Equation:

( )
( )
( )
( ) 1 e
1 e
1 e
1 e
) 0 ( ) 0 (
s
A
2
i
n
n
D
2
i
p
p
n
p0 n
p
n0 p
n
p0 n
p
n0 p
p
n
n
n
p
p
p n n p
kT eV
kT eV
kT eV
kT eV
I
N
n D
N
n
D
A e
n L p L
A e
L
n D
L
p D
A e
n
L
D
p
L
D
A e
x I x I I
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
t
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+
t
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
A + A =
= = =