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Leading Figures of the Renaissance

Section 1: Introduction

The period in Europe known as the Renaissance began in Italy around 1300. In this chapter you will learn how Renaissance ideas spread from Italy across Europe. You will study the li es and work of ten leading figures of this rich cultural period. !rom the 1"th through the 1#th centuries$ Europe crackled with energy. Trade and commerce boomed. %ities grew. &rtists and writers e'perimented with their crafts and created wonderful works of art and literature. (ew ways of thinking led to in entions and scientific disco eries. Rulers and wealthy patrons supported the work of artists$ scientists$ and e'plorers. )hy was there so much creati e energy during the Renaissance* +ne reason was the Renaissance idea that people should be educated in many areas. ,eople who studied art or music$ for e'ample$ were also interested in science. To this day we still use the term -Renaissance person. to describe someone who is skilled and knowledgeable in many fields. /eonardo da 0inci is often considered to be the ideal Renaissance person. /eonardo trained mainly as a painter$ but he was also a scientist$ engineer$ musician$ and architect. 1e designed fortifications$ waterways$ and machines. 1e studied and drew plants$ animals$ and people. In his notebooks$ he sketched ideas for in entions that were far ahead of his time. /eonardo is one of the ten Renaissance people you will study in this chapter. You will learn how contributions made by these

leading figures affect society today. You will also learn how the Renaissance spread from its birthplace in Italy throughout Europe.

Section 2: The Renaissance Spreads through Europe

&s you ha e read$ the Renaissance began in Italy. !rom there it spread to !rance$ 2ermany$ !landers 3modern4 day 5elgium6$ 1olland$ England$ and 7pain. The diffusion of Renaissance ideas occurred through trade$ tra el$ and education. Italy was the gateway to Europe for much of the trade from &sia$ &frica$ and the 2reek4speaking cities of the east. Traders mo ed through Italy to the rest of Europe$ bringing a rich flow of new ideas along with their goods. 0isitors to Italy also helped spread Renaissance ideas. ,eople from all o er Europe tra eled to Italy to learn$ as well as to trade. 7cholars went to study humanism and medicine. &rtists studied Italian painting and sculpture to learn new styles and techni8ues. )hen these tra elers returned home$ many of them founded art schools and uni ersities. &rtists taught others what they had learned in Italy. 7cholars began to teach the new ideas of e'perimentation$ obser ation$ and logic. The spread of ideas was made e en easier by the in ention of the printing press. This machine pressed inked type or plates onto paper to create many copies of a work. You may recall that the %hinese had learned to make paper and to print using wooden blocks. The 9oreans had in ented a kind of mo able type. 2radually$ knowledge of papermaking and e'amples of &sian printing reached Europe. In about 1":0$ a 2erman named Johannes Gutenberg dramatically impro ed on e'isting printing methods. 1e in ented a printing press that used mo able type;characters that

could be rearranged and used o er again. <nlike the %hinese$ who used wooden blocks$ 2utenberg cast his type in metal$ which was much more durable. 5efore 2utenberg=s in ention$ most books were written and copied by hand. It could take four or fi e months to copy a >004page book. The new press could produce 300 pages in a single day. &s a result$ books and short works$ called pamphlets$ could be made much more 8uickly and cheaply. The number of printers in Europe increased rapidly. ,eople used printed matter to communicate new ideas$ disco eries$ and in entions. &nd$ since printed material was more widely a ailable$ more people learned to read.

Section 3: Michelangelo, Italian Sculptor and Painter


?ichelangelo 31"@:A1:#"6 was one of the leading artists of the Renaissance. 1e was born in a small illage near !lorence and grew up to be one of the greatest painters and sculptors in history. Personality and Training1istorians say that ?ichelangelo had a difficult childhood. 1is mother died when he was si' years old. 1is father was stern and demanding. ,erhaps this troubled early life contributed to ?ichelangelo=s famously bad temper. &lthough he was ery religious$ he was known to use fierce words when he was angry. 1e was also intensely ambitious. )hen ?ichelangelo was 13$ he became an apprentice to a painter in !lorence. &t 1:$ he began studying with a sculptor who worked for the powerful ?edici family. ?ichelangelo li ed for a time in the ?edici household. There he met many leading thinkers$ artists$ and writers.

Talents and Achievements?ichelangelo was gifted in both sculpture and painting. 1is art combines Renaissance ideals of beauty with emotional e'pressi eness. ?ichelangelo=s sculptures show his amaBing talent for car ing lifelike figures from blocks of marble. )hen he was Cust >"$ he car ed his famous La Piet. & piet is a depiction of ?ary$ the mother of Desus$ mourning o er her dead son. ?ichelangelo=s Piet shows ?ary tenderly holding the body of Desus across her lap. Two other magnificent sculptures by ?ichelangelo are his David and Moses. ?ichelangelo=s David is 1@ feet tall. The statue combines great beauty with the intense look of a youth who is about to go into battle. ?ichelangelo=s ?oses is a strong$ powerful figure. The statue shows ?oses holding the Ten %ommandments$ which the 5ible tells he recei ed from 2od. ?ichelangelo is perhaps best known for painting the ceiling of the 7istine %hapel$ the pope=s chapel in Rome. ?ichelangelo labored for almost four years on a high platform to complete this work. 1e co ered the cur ed ceiling with brilliantly colored scenes from the 5ible. The scenes contain o er three hundred figures and continue to awe isitors to Rome today.

Section : Titian, Italian Painter

Titian 3TI714uhn6$ who li ed from about 1"EE to 1:@#$ was born in the Italian &lps. Early in life$ his talent took him to the wealthy city4state of 0enice. 1e became the city=s greatest Renaissance painter. Personality and Training&s a boy$ Titian was sent to 0enice to train with famous painters. 1e worked with an artist named 2iorgione$ who was a master of fresco painting. & fresco is a painting made on the wet plaster of a wall or ceiling. Titian also studied e'amples of art from Rome and !lorence. In time$ he outgrew the influence of his teachers and created his own style. Titian was a persuasi e man. &ccording to legend$ long after he was rich and famous$ he persuaded patrons to support his art by claiming to be poor. 5ut he was also 8uite generous with his friends. Talents and AchievementsTitian=s early work was precise and detailed. /ater he de eloped a freer style. 1e used blobs of paint to create i id forms$ colors$ and te'tures.1e was known for his inspired use of color and for loose$ li ely brushwork that made his pictures appear lifelike. 1is art also had a flair for e'pressing human personality. Titian painted many scenes of classical myths and 5ible stories. &s a court painter$ he created portraits of the rich and powerful. In 1:1#$ he was named the official painter of 0enice. /ater$ 1oly Roman emperor %harles 0 made him court painter of Italy. Titian made many portraits of %harles 0 and other royalty. %harles 0 greatly admired Titian=s work. There is a story that the emperor once picked up a paintbrush that had fallen to the floor. Titian protested$ -I am not worthy of such a ser ant.. The emperor replied$ -Titian is worthy to be ser ed by %aesar$. referring to the emperor of ancient Rome. %harles e en made Titian a knight;a first4time honor for a painter

Section !: "l#recht $urer, %er&an "rtist

&lbrecht FGrer 3&1/4brekht F++R4er6$ who li ed from 1"@1 to 1:>E$ was from the 2erman city of (uremberg. 1e earned fame for his paintings$ drawings$ prints$ and essays about art. Personality and Training&s a boy$ FGrer recei ed a di erse education. The son of a goldsmith$ he learned his father=s trade. &t 1:$ he began training with a well4known painter and printmaker. & printmaker uses printing to make copies of works of art. FGrer also studied math$ /atin$ and classical literature. &s a young man$ FGrer tra eled through 2ermany$ Italy$ and the (etherlands. 1e became friends with many humanist artists$ writers$ and thinkers. 1e studied classical sculpture for years to learn ideal human proportions. 1e wanted to be able to show the parts of the human body correctly siBed in relation to each other. FGrer=s self4portraits show him to be a fashionable$ confident man. 1e had an intellectual approach to life and art. 1e asked himself$ -)hat is beauty*. 1is art was an attempt to answer that 8uestion. Talents and AchievementsIn his painting$ FGrer blended the detailed style of 2ermany with the perspecti e and idealiBed beauty he learned from Italian painting. 1e encouraged all artists to study mathematics as the key to understanding Renaissance and classical art. FGrer was especially skilled at making engra ings and woodcuts. These are prints made from an original that is specially prepared for printing. The original may be etched$ or engra ed$ in metal or it may be cut into a block of wood. Then it is inked and re4inked to

make copies. In Renaissance times$ printers used engra ings and woodcuts to illustrate books. ?uch of FGrer=s art shows religious figures. 1e also painted subCects from myths. /ike other artists of his time$ he made many portraits of royalty and wealthy patrons. 1e worked for years as a court artist for the 1oly Roman emperor ?a'imilian I. FGrer=s work is widely admired$ particularly his beautiful engra ings and woodcuts. They set a new standard in print4making because of their clarity$ e'pressi eness$ and fine detail.

Section ': (icolaus )opernicus, Polish Scientist


(icolaus %opernicus 31"@3A1:"36 was born in Torun$ ,oland. 1e is often called the Hfather of modern astronomy.H Personality and Training)hen %opernicus was ten years old$ his father died. 1is uncle$ a %atholic bishop$ became his guardian. 1e made sure that %opernicus recei ed a good education. &s a young man$ %opernicus attended the <ni ersity of 9rakow in ,oland. Then he went to Italy to study medicine and %hurch law. In Italy$ he rented rooms from an astronomy teacher. 7oon he became fascinated by astronomy. %opernicus=s scientific work would show that he was highly creati e. 1e was also a free thinker$ unafraid to 8uestion accepted beliefs. Talents and Achievements%opernicus was skilled in mathematics and obser ation. 1e based his thinking on what he truly saw$ rather than on what he thought he should see. /ike other people of his time$ %opernicus had been taught that Earth was at the center of the uni erse. &ccording to this idea$ the sun$ stars$ and planets tra el around Earth.

&s %opernicus studied the motion of the planets$ he became dissatisfied with this e'planation. 1e proposed a re olutionary idea. In reality$ Earth and the other planets orbit the sun. Earth rotates$ or turns$ on its a'is. This turning is what makes the sun and other obCects in the hea ens seem to mo e across the sky around Earth. In 1:1"$ %opernicus printed a booklet that outlined his theory. Then he began years of work on a full4length book. 1e titled it On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres . 3Celestial means -hea enly..6 %opernicus dedicated his book to the pope. 1owe er$ the idea of Earth tra eling around the sun went against the Roman %atholic %hurch=s belief that 2od had placed humans at the center of the uni erse. In 1#1#$ the %hurch forbade people to read %opernicus=s book. Fespite the %hurch=s disappro al$ %opernicus=s theory had a maCor influence on a few key scientists. E entually$ it was pro ed to be correct. Today$ the %opernican theory is part of the basis of modern astronomy.

Section *: "ndreas +esalius, ,elgian Scientist


&ndreas 0esalius 31:1"A1:#"6 was born in 5russels$ in what is now 5elgium. 1e became an outstanding scientist. 1is work changed medicine and the study of anatomy. Personality and Training0esalius came from a family of doctors and pharmacists. ,harmacists are people who prepare medicines. 1e was always interested in li ing things and$ especially$ in anatomy. 0esalius attended uni ersities in !landers$ !rance$ and Italy. In 1:3@$

he earned his medical degree$ specialiBing in anatomy. /ater$ he became a personal doctor to Italian and 7panish royalty. 0esalius was hardworking$ curious$ and confident. 1e was also said to be gloomy and distant at times. Talents and Achievements0esalius was a talented obser er and an independent thinker. 1e also had the artistic skill necessary to make detailed drawings of his scientific obser ations. In 0esalius=s time$ physicians= understanding of human anatomy was based on the works of the ancient 2reek physician 2alen. 0esalius studied 2alen$ but he soon broke with this tradition. /ike %opernicus$ he was determined to obser e things for himself. 0esalius began dissecting$ or cutting apart to study$ dead human bodies. 1is research showed that 2alen=s work had relied on studies of animals.&s a result$ it had many errors when applied to human anatomy and medicine. 0esalius made many disco eries about the human body. !or e'ample$ he showed that the human heart has four hollow areas$ called chambers. 1is disco eries led him to write his own se en4 olume te'tbook of anatomy. 0esalius called his book On the Structure of the Human Body. It e'plains how the body functions. The book contains prints by artists that were based on 0esalius=s drawings of the body. 0esalius=s book was a maCor breakthrough. It changed what people knew about human anatomy and how they studied it. It also changed physicians= understanding of medicine. 1is book is considered to be the world=s first modern medical te'tbook.

Section -: Isa#ella I, .ueen of Spain

Iueen Isabella I 31":1A1:0"6 was born in the 7panish kingdom of %astile. 7he is best known for creating a unified 7pain and for sponsoring the oyages of %hristopher %olumbus. Personality and TrainingIsabella was the daughter of the king of %astile. 7he was highly intelligent$ strong4willed$ and a de oted %atholic. 2irls at that time recei ed little education$ so Isabella=s schooling was limited. In adulthood$ she educated herself by learning /atin. &s 8ueen$ she supported scholarship and art$ collected fine paintings$ and built schools. Talents and AchievementsIsabella was a forceful and bra e ruler. In 1"#J$ she married ,rince !erdinand of &ragon$ the other maCor kingdom in 7pain at that time. In 1"@"$ Isabella became 8ueen of %astile. )hen !erdinand inherited the throne of &ragon in 1"@J$ the two monarchs ruled Cointly o er much of 7pain. They fought se eral battles to unify the rest of the nation. Isabella and !erdinand acti ely encouraged e'ploration. Isabella ga e her support to %hristopher %olumbus$ an Italian who proposed finding a new sea route to &sia. In 1"J>$ %olumbus sailed across the &tlantic and stumbled upon the &mericas. 1is disco ery of this so4called New World would lead to a 7panish empire and create great wealth for 7pain. Isabella and !erdinand also sought to strengthen 7pain as a unified %atholic country. Dews who refused to con ert to %atholicism were forced to lea e. This harsh action cost 7pain many of its most talented and producti e citiBens. !or 7panish Dews$ it was a tragedy.

Section /: Eli0a#eth I, .ueen of England

Iueen EliBabeth I 31:33A1#036 was one of England=s most popular and successful monarchs. 5orn in /ondon$ she was the daughter of 9ing 1enry 0III and his 8ueen at the time$ &nne 5oleyn. Personality and Training)hen EliBabeth was two years old$ 9ing 1enry lost interest in Iueen &nne. %laiming that &nne had been unfaithful to him$ he ordered her beheading. EliBabeth was raised in a separate household$ largely away from the royal court. &n English scholar became her teacher and educated her as a possible future monarch.EliBabeth was a gifted student. 7he became highly educated and learned to speak 2reek$ /atin$ !rench$ and Italian. EliBabeth was a strong4minded ruler$ but she was not stubborn. &s monarch$ she was willing to listen to good ad ice and always kept in mind what was best for the people of England. Talents and AchievementsEliBabeth became 8ueen at age >: and reigned for ": years$ until her death. 7he ne er married$ because she feared that a husband would take her power. 7he said she was married to the people of England. EliBabeth was a hard4working and able ruler. 7he was independent$ but she was also fle'ible. 7he was willing to change unpopular policies. 7he showed political skill in balancing the interests of different people in her court. 7he inspired great lo e and loyalty from her subCects$ who called her -2ood Iueen 5ess..

EliBabeth=s long reign is often called England=s 2olden &ge. %ulture thri ed under her rule. 7he supported theater$ fashion$ literature$ dance$ and education. ,oets and playwrights during her rule composed some of the greatest works in the English language. EliBabeth worked to strengthen England=s economy$ and she encouraged trade and commerce. 7he authorized English trading companies in &frica$ &sia$ and the &mericas. 1er funding of sea e'ploration helped England gain territory in (orth &merica. In 1:EE$ the English na y defeated the 7panish &rmada$ a mighty fleet that tried to attack England. This ictory sparked a national celebration and further strengthened England=s sea power. 5y the time EliBabeth died$ England was one of the strongest and richest countries in the world.

Section 11: 2illia& Sha3espeare, English Poet and Pla45right


William Shakespeare 31:#"A1#1#6 was born in the English town of 7tratford4on4 & on. 1e was a maCor figure of the English Renaissance. 1e is widely considered to be the world=s greatest playwright and one of its finest poets. Personality and Training&s a boy$ 7hakespeare studied /atin and classical literature in grammar school. 1e ne er went to a uni ersity. 1is plays$ howe er$ show a broad knowledge of many subCects$ from history and politics to music and art.

In his early twenties$ 7hakespeare became an actor with a theater company in /ondon. 1e learned about drama by performing and writing plays. ?any of his plays were first presented at /ondonKs 2lobe Theatre. Iueen EliBabeth$ among many others$ enCoyed his work.

7hakespeare had a reputation for being 8uiet and a bit mysterious. 1is writings show that he was curious and keenly obser ant. 1e thought deeply about life and its sufferings. Yet he also had a sense of humor and found much to laugh at in life. Talents and Achievements7hakespeare was a skilled actor$ but he was an e en greater poet and playwright. 1e had an enormous talent for e'pressing thoughts and feelings in memorable words. 1is plays show that he had a deep understanding of human beha ior and emotions. &bo e all$ he had the skill to present his understanding through i id characters and e'citing drama. 7hakespeare=s poetry is widely admired$ especially the 1"4line poems called sonnets. 1e is best known$ howe er$ for his 3E plays. 1e wrote both comedies and tragedies. ?any of his plays are still performed around the world$ and se eral ha e been made into tele ision series or mo ies. &mong the most popular are Romeo and Juliet Hamlet Mac!eth Julius Caesar "ll#s $ell %hat &nds $ell$ and %he Merchant of 'enice. 7hakespeare=s plays co er a broad range of subCects. 1e wrote about history$ romance$ politics$ preCudice$ murder$ and war. 1is plays remain popular in part because he wrote about timeless$ uni ersal themes such as lo e$ Cealousy$ power$ ambition$ hatred$ and fear. 7hakespeare has had a deep influence on later writers. 1e also left a lasting mark on the English language. ?any common sayings come from 7hakespeare$ such as -?uch ado about nothing.. ,eople often 8uote his witty$ wise lines$ sometimes without knowing that they owe their cle er or graceful words to 7hakespeare.

Section 11: Miguel )er6antes, Spanish 2riter

iguel !ervantes 3mi42E/ ser40&(4tayB6 was born near ?adrid$ 7pain. 1e li ed from 1:"@ to 1#1#. 1e is best known for his comic no el Don (ui)ote 3F+( kee41+14tay6. Personality and Training/ittle is known about %er antes= education. 1e may ha e studied with priests influenced by humanism. It is certain that he lo ed to read. ?uch of %er antes= education came through e'perience. &t >3$ he became a soldier. In a battle at sea$ he was shot twice in the chest. 1e also inCured his left hand so badly that the hand became useless. 7e eral years later$ he was taken prisoner at sea by pirates. 1e spent fi e years as a sla e in (orth &frica until his family bought his freedom. %er antes= early life shows that he was ad enturous and courageous. 1is sense of humor could be biting$ but he also turned it on himself. 1e once bragged that the public liked his plays enough not to boo them off the stage or throw egetables at the actors. Talents and Achievements& gifted writer$ %er antes wrote many plays$ poems$ and no els. 1e had a particular talent for satire. 1is masterpiece$ Don (ui)ote$ pokes fun at romantic stories of heroic knights$ as well as at 7panish society. The no el=s title character$ Fon Iui'ote$ is an elderly man who has read too many tales of glorious knights. &lthough the age of knights is past$ he dresses up in rusty armor and sets out to do noble deeds. )ith him is short$ stout 7ancho ,anBa. 7ancho is an ordinary farmer who rides a mule$ but Fon Iui'ote sees him as his faithful s8uire$ or armor bearer. Together the two men ha e a series of comic ad entures. In Fon Iui'ote=s imagination$ country inns turn into castles and windmills become fearsome giants. )hile his ad entures

are ery funny$ there is something noble about the way he bra ely fights e il$ e en if his deeds are only in his mind. Don (ui)ote was ery popular in 7pain. 9ing ,hilip III supposedly saw a man reading and laughing so hard that he was crying. The king said$ -That man is either craBy or he is reading Don (ui)ote.. Today$ Don (ui)ote is considered one of the masterpieces of world literature.

Section 12: Leonardo da +inci, Renaissance Person


/eonardo da 0inci 31":>A1:1J6 was born in a illage near !lorence in Italy. 1is wide range of interests and accomplishments made him a true Renaissance person. Personality and Training/eonardo trained in !lorence under a master sculptor and painter. &ll his life he studied many subCects$ including painting$ sculpture$ music$ math$ anatomy$ botany$ architecture$ and engineering. /eonardo spent much of his life in !lorence and ?ilan. 1e worked as an artist$ engineer$ and architect for kings$ popes$ and wealthy commoners. 1e had a special lo e for animals. 7ometimes he bought caged animals at the market and set them free. 1e also was a egetarian$ which was 8uite unusual at the time. Talents and Achievements/eonardo was gifted in many fields. 1e was an accomplished painter$ sculptor$ architect$ and engineer.

/eonardo=s notebooks show him to be one of the greatest creati e minds of all time. /ike &lbrecht FGrer$ he closely studied proportions. 1e made precise drawings of people$ animals$ and plants. 1e also sketched out ideas about geometry and mechanics$ the science of motion and force. 1e designed weapons$ buildings$ and a ariety of machines. ?any of the in entions he imagined$ such as a helicopter and a submarine$ were centuries ahead of their time. /eonardo=s paintings are among the world=s greatest works of art. +ne of his masterpieces is the Mona Lisa$ a painting of a woman with a mysterious smile. It is among the most famous paintings in the world. /ike his other works$ it displays a remarkable use of perspecti e$ balance$ and detail. The rich effects of shade and color re eal /eonardo=s close study of light. 7tudents of his art also detect how principles of geometry helped him organiBe the space in his paintings. /eonardo=s work inspired other great artists$ such as ?ichelangelo. )ith his many interests and talents$ /eonardo is a perfect e'ample of the spirit of the Renaissance.

Su&&ar4

"n this chapter# you learned how the $enaissance spread %rom "taly across &urope' Then you studied the lives and accomplishments o% ten ma(or $enaissance %igures' The $enaissance Spreads Through &uropeRenaissance ideas spread through trade$ tra el$ and education. ,eople from across Europe went to Italy to learn and to trade. )hen they returned home$ they passed on the new ideas. ?any founded schools and uni ersities. The spread of the Renaissance was made e en easier by 2utenbergKs new printing press. ichelangelo# Titian# and )*rerRenaissance artists like ?ichelangelo$ Titian$ and FGrer created many kinds of art. They studied human anatomy and mathematics that helped them to create works of art based on humanist ideals of realism and beauty. !opernicus and +esaliusThrough obser ation and fresh thinking$ scientists %opernicus and 0esalius dramatically increased human knowledge.%opernicus disco ered that Earth and other planets in our solar system re ol e around the sun$ not Earth. 0esalius= studies of anatomy and his detailed drawings changed how people understood the human body. "sabella " and &lizabeth "Iueen Isabella and Iueen EliBabeth were strong leaders who supported the arts and encouraged e'ploration. 5oth monarchs impro ed their nations and financed important e'plorations that increased Europeans= knowledge of the world. Shakespeare and !ervantes7hakespeare and %er antes created masterpieces of world literature. 5oth writers created lyrical and e'pressi e works that e'plored humanist ideas and enriched their nati e languages. ,eonardo da +inci/eonardo da 0inci was a creati e genius who embodied the spirit of the Renaissance. 1is studies in topics such as art$ architecture$ and engineering led him to in ent many de ices that were far ahead of his time$ as well as timeless works of art.

Reading Further: Fro& %uten#erg to the Internet

Around -./0# Johannes Gutenberg invented a printing press that used movable metal type' 1e%ore Gutenberg2s press# books and other printed materials were made by hand' Printed material was costly to make and to buy' Gutenberg2s invention

changed &urope by making books more a%%ordable and by spreading in%ormation %aster and to more people' Today# Gutenberg is known as the inventor o% printing in &urope' 1ut his achievements were hard won3and his invention was almost taken away %rom him' The year is 1"::$ and Dohannes 2utenberg sits in a courtroom. &cross from him is Dohann !ust$ who has sued 2utenberg. The two men are bitter enemies. 2utenberg shifts ner ously$ waiting for the Cudges= decision. If the Cudges rule against him$ he will lose e erything;including the printing press that he has worked for >0 years to perfect. 2utenberg was born in ?ainB$ 2ermany$ sometime between 13J" and 1"00. 1e found$ at a young age$ that he lo ed to work with metal. 1e worked with craftsmen in the city and slowly learned their secrets. 1e showed an e'traordinary talent$ mastering the technology of turning metal into beautiful obCects. 1e was also fired with the ambition to do something special that people would remember. In 1">E$ 2utenberg mo ed from ?ainB to 7trasbourg. 1e started a business cutting gemstones to make Cewelry. The company thri ed$ and he formed a business partnership with three other men. 7oon they were making mirrors and other 8uality products. &arly Printing and ovable Type

Furing the 1"30s$ 2utenberg saw the chance to do something e en greater;to de elop a printing press that lowered the cost of books. ,rinting was first de eloped in %hina and Dapan in the Eth century. %raftspeople in those countries spent hours car ing an image into a block of wood. They rolled ink onto the raised parts and pressed the image against paper. 9orean craftspeople were the first to de elop metal mo able type$ in which the characters could be rearranged to form different words. Furing the 13th century$ they formed type by heating bronBe to a temperature high enough to make it li8uid. They poured the bronBe into molds formed in sand$ and the bronBe hardened and formed type. They then used the type to form all the words on a page$ applied ink to the type$ and rubbed paper against it$ producing a printed page.

In 13@@$ the 9oreans printed a te't for 5uddhists. It is the oldest known book in the world printed with mo able metal type. Europeans did not de elop mo able type for another >00 years. <ntil then$ monks and nuns in monasteries painstakingly copied books by hand.?any of the books were uni8ue works of art. They had huge$ colorful capital letters$ comple' illustrations$ and the edge of each page was lined with gold. 5ut these books were incredibly e'pensi e. & person had to work an a erage of 300 days to make Cust one book. 1istorians estimate that the typical book might cost between L>00 and L>:0 in today=s dollars. +nly the ery wealthy could afford such items.

"nventing Type# a Press# and "nk 2utenberg turned his creati e genius to de eloping a way to print books that would cost far less money. 1e faced three challenges;de eloping type$ creating a printing press$ and mi'ing the right ink. To create type$ he had to decide what metal to use. It couldn=t be too hard because then it wouldn=t melt. It couldn=t be too soft because then the type wouldn=t last. !inally$ he hit on a brilliant idea. Instead of one metal$ he would blend different metals. 1e created an alloy;or combination of metals;which included E0 percent lead$ : percent tin$ and 1: percent of a metal called antimony. To make the letter a$ for e'ample$ he heated the metal until it melted$ poured it into a mold$ let it cool$ and then remo ed the metal from the mold. (ow he had the type for the letter a$ which he could use o er and o er again. 1e did the same for all the other letters and for punctuation. (e't$ 2utenberg needed to find the right ink. It couldn=t be too thin$ because then it would lea e smudges on the paper. It couldn=t be too thick$ or it would clog the type. 2utenberg

e'perimented for a long time and finally used linseed oil. To make it black$ he added soot$ which he got from lamps. !inally$ 2utenberg had to build a press. 1istorians belie e that he probably adapted a press that papermakers used to dry stacks of paper. In his press$ 2utenberg set the type and rolled ink onto the type. Then he turned a giant screw that lowered the type onto paper. In a few seconds$ he could print a page that would ha e taken monk hours to copy. ?ore importantly$ he could make many copies of the same page ery 8uickly. Printing Success and 1usiness Setbacks 2utenberg made great progress on the printing press$ but he faced some serious business problems. !irst$ one of his partners died. Then the man=s relati es sued 2utenberg to get control of the business. 2utenberg was relie ed when the court ruled in his fa or. 5ut e en though he won$ the lawsuit kept him from finishing his printing press. 2utenberg=s problems got worse. 1e ignored the Cewelry business$ and his income sank. Yet he was spending money to buy metals$ a press$ and inks. 1e went into debt$ but he kept working on the printing press. !inally$ in 1""#$ he had his first maCor triumph$ when he printed a short poem. 7oon after$ he printed a grammar book. It became a bestseller throughout Europe. These early books were plain$ and 2utenberg wanted to print something wonderfully beautiful. ?oney was still a big problem. 7o 2utenberg formed a partnership with Dohann !ust$ a wealthy businessman in ?ainB. !ust loaned him 1$#00 guldens$ which at that time was a fortune. 1istorians ha e estimated that Cust 100 guldens could buy a small farm. The two men planned to print a book that would sell e'tremely well and gi e them a good return on their in estment. 5ut what kind of a book should it be* Printing a 1ible

!inally they came up with a brilliant idea;they would print a 5ible that was e'traordinary in e ery way. &round 1"::$ 2utenberg started preparations. The 5ible would ha e two olumesM the +ld Testament and the (ew Testament. It would ha e "> lines per page$ and the two olumes together would contain 1$>E> pages. E ery page would ha e >$000 letters. !or this monumental task$ 2utenberg had to create >J0 pieces of type$ including capital letters$ lower case letters$ and punctuation. 1e planned to print >10 copies. )hile 2utenberg was aiming for perfection$ !ust was growing impatient. 1e had in ested 1$#00 guldens in the printing press$ but in fi e years$ the in estment had not earned him one penny. 1e filed a lawsuit against 2utenberg$ demanding that his money be returned. 2utenberg simply didn=t ha e the money. 1e desperately needed the Cudges to find in his fa or. 5ut the Cudges ruled against 2utenberg. They said that !ust had waited long enough to earn a profit on the money that he had in ested. 2utenberg had to repay !ust. 7ince 2utenberg didn=t ha e the funds$ the court allowed !ust to take o er the business$ including the typefaces and the printing press. !ust e en hired away 2utenberg=s most skilled assistant. Together$ they finished work on the 5ible that 2utenberg had started and began to sell it. This remarkable book became an instant bestseller. !ust made a good deal of money from the sweat$ tears$ and genius that 2utenberg had poured into the proCect. Yet 2utenberg was an amaBingly stubborn man. !ust had taken away his business$ but he couldn=t take away 2utenberg=s knowledge and skills. 1e found another financial backer$ Fr. 9onrad 1umery$ who helped him set up a printing shop in ?ainB. 2utenberg printed philosophical writings$ a dictionary$ and other works$ all with the e'traordinary 8uality that was his trademark. 1e also trained printers$ who spread his printing technology throughout Europe. 1ooks4 The "nternet o% the Time 2utenberg=s amaBing in ention made books the Internet of the time. The printing press made it possible to produce books much more 8uickly and cheaply than e er before. 5y 1"#3$ printed 5ibles cost one4tenth of hand4copied 5ibles. The demand for books e'ploded. 5y 1:00$ Europe had more than 1$000 printers and @$000 books in print.

/ike the Internet$ books spread new ideas 8uickly and sped up the process of change. !or e'ample$ as a young sailor in 2enoa$ %hristopher %olumbus read ?arco ,olo=s famous %ravels$ in which he described his Courneys to %hina. %olumbus was thrilled by ,olo=s descriptions. 5ooks also planted the seeds of democracy and human rights in the ne't generation of thinkers. (ewspapers and pamphlets generated information and ideas e en faster. In 1"#:$ the &rchbishop of ?ainB ga e 2utenberg a pension for the -agreeable and willing ser ice. that he had pro ided to the city and to 2ermany. 2utenberg died in 1"#E$ and Fr. 1umery inherited e erything. Yet the &rchbishop refused to let the doctor mo e 2utenberg=s printing press. The city was honored to be the birthplace of printing in Europe. 2utenberg would always be known as the father of an in ention that truly changed the world.