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Handbook for Teachers

forexaminationsfromMarch2013
Contentandoverview
Paper/timing Content Testfocus
READINGAND
USEOFENGLISH
1 hour 30 minutes
Part1 Gapped text with eight multiple-choice cloze
questions.
Assessment of candidates ability to understand
the meaning of written English at word, phrase,
sentence, paragraph and whole text level and
demonstrate knowledge and control of the
language system.
Part2 Modified open cloze with eight questions.
Part3 One short text with eight word formation questions.
Part4 Six key word transformations.
Part5 Long text with six four-option multiple-choice
questions.
Part6 Gapped text with seven questions.
Part7 One long text or several short texts with ten
multiple-matching questions.
WRITING
1 hour 30 minutes
Part1 One compulsory question. Assessment of candidates ability to write
specified text types with a range of functions.
Part2 Candidates answer one question from a
choice of five questions (including the
set text option).
LISTENING
40 minutes
(approx.)
Part1 Three short extracts with two three-option
multiple-choice questions on each.
Assessment of candidates ability to understand
the meaning of spoken English, to extract
information from a text and to understand
speakers attitudes and opinions. Part2 One long text with nine sentence completion
questions.
Part3 One long text with five four-option multiple-
choice questions.
Part4 Five short themed monologues with ten multiple-
matching questions.
SPEAKING
16 minutes
Part1 Interview. Assessment of candidates ability to produce
spoken English using a range of functions in a
variety of tasks. Part2 Collaborative task.
Part3 Individual long turns and follow-up discussion.
1 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
CONTENTS
About Cambridge ESOL 2
The worlds most valuable range of English qualifications 2
Key features of Cambridge English exams 2
Proven quality 2
Introduction to Cambridge English: Prociency 3
Who is the exam for? 3
Who recognises the exam? 3
What level is the exam? 3
Exam content and processing 3
A thorough test of all areas of language ability 3
International English 4
Marks and results 4
Certificates 4
Exam support 5
Support for teachers 5
Support for candidates 5
Reading and Use of English 7
General description 7
Structure and tasks 7
The seven parts of the Reading and Use of English paper 8
Preparation 10
Sample paper 13
Answer key 19
Candidate answer sheet 19
Writing 21
General description 21
Structure and tasks 21
The two parts of the Writing paper 22
Preparation 23
Sample paper 25
Assessment of Writing 26
Sample scripts with examiner comments 30
Listening 39
General description 39
Structure and tasks 39
The four parts of the Listening paper 40
Preparation 41
Sample paper 42
Answer key 49
Candidate answer sheet 50
Speaking 51
General description 51
Structure and tasks 51
The three parts of the Speaking test 52
Preparation 53
Sample paper 54
Assessment of Speaking 57
Cambridge English: Prociency glossary 62
Preface
ThishandbookisforteacherswhoarepreparingcandidatesforCambridge English: Prociency,alsoknownasCerticate of Prociency in English
(CPE). Theintroductiongivesanoverviewoftherevisedexam(from2013)anditsplacewithinCambridgeESOL.Thisisfollowedbyafocuson
eachpaperandincludescontent,adviceonpreparationandexamplepapers.
Ifyouneedfurthercopiesofthishandbook,pleaseemailESOLinfo@CambridgeESOL.org
Contents
2 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
ABOUT CAMBRIDGE ESOL
AboutCambridgeESOL
Cambridge English: ProciencyisdevelopedbyUniversityofCambridge
ESOLExaminations(CambridgeESOL),anot-for-protdepartment
oftheUniversityofCambridge.
CambridgeESOLisoneofthreemajorexamboardswhichformthe
CambridgeAssessmentGroup(CambridgeAssessment).More
than8millionCambridgeAssessmentexamsaretakeninover
160countriesaroundtheworldeveryyear.
University of Cambridge International
Examinations
The worlds largest provider of
international qualications for
1419 year olds
Cambridge Assessment: the trading name for the
University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES)
Cambridge ESOL: University
of Cambridge ESOL Examinations
Provider of the world's most
valuable range of qualications for
learners and teachers of English
OCR: Oxford Cambridge and RSA
Examinations
One of the UKs leading providers
of qualications
Departments of the University
Departments (exam boards)
One of the oldest universities in the world
and one of the largest in the United Kingdom
TheworldsmostvaluablerangeofEnglish
qualications
CambridgeESOLoferstheworldsleadingrangeofqualications
forlearnersandteachersofEnglish.Over3.5millionpeopletakeour
examseachyearin130countries.
CambridgeESOLofersassessmentsacrossthefullspectrum
oflanguageability.Weprovideexaminationsforgeneral
communication,forprofessionalandacademicpurposes,andalso
specialistlegalandnancialEnglishqualications.Allofourexams
arealignedtotheprinciplesandapproachoftheCommonEuropean
FrameworkofReferenceforLanguages(CEFR).
TondoutmoreaboutCambridgeEnglishexamsandtheCEFR,goto
www.CambridgeESOL.org/CEFR
Inadditiontoourownprogrammesofworld-leadingresearch,we
workcloselywithprofessionalbodies,industryprofessionalsand
governmentstoensurethatourexamsremainfairandrelevantto
candidatesofallbackgroundsandtoawiderangeofstakeholders.
KeyfeaturesofCambridgeEnglishexams
CambridgeEnglishexams:
arebasedonrealistictasksandsituationssothatpreparingfor
theirexamgiveslearnersreal-lifelanguageskills
accuratelyandconsistentlytestallfourlanguageskillsreading,
writing,listeningandspeakingaswellasknowledgeoflanguage
structureanditsuse
encouragepositivelearningexperiences,andseektoachievea
positiveimpactonteachingwhereverpossible
areasfairaspossibletoallcandidates,whatevertheirnational,
ethnicandlinguisticbackground,genderordisability.
Provenquality
CambridgeESOLscommitmenttoprovidingexamsofthehighest
possiblequalityisunderpinnedbyanextensiveprogrammeof
researchandevaluation,andbycontinuousmonitoringofthe
markingandgradingofallCambridgeEnglishexams.Ofparticular
importancearetherigorousprocedureswhichareusedinthe
productionandpretestingofquestionpapers.
Alloursystemsandprocessesfordesigning,developingand
deliveringexamsandassessmentservicesarecertiedasmeeting
theinternationallyrecognisedISO9001:2008standardforquality
managementandaredesignedaroundveessentialprinciples:
Validityareourexamsanauthentictestofreal-lifeEnglish?
Reliabilitydoourexamsbehaveconsistentlyandfairly?
Impactdoesourassessmenthaveapositiveefectonteaching
andlearning?
Practicalitydoesourassessmentmeetlearnersneedswithin
availableresources?
Qualityhowweplan,deliverandcheckthatweprovide
excellenceinalloftheseelds.
Howthesequalitiesarebroughttogetherisoutlinedinour
publicationPrinciples of Good Practice,whichcanbedownloadedfree
fromwww.CambridgeESOL.org/Principles
3 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
INTRODUCTION TO CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: PROFICIENCY
IntroductiontoCambridgeEnglish:
Prociency
Cambridge English: Prociencywasoriginallyintroducedin1913andis
ahigh-levelqualicationthatisofciallyrecognisedbyuniversities,
employersandgovernmentsaroundtheworld.Followingextensive
research,updatesin1975,1984,2002and2013haveallowedthe
examtokeeppacewithchangesinlanguageteachingandtesting
whileensuringtheexamremainsreliable,relevantanduser-friendly
forcandidates.
Whoistheexamfor?
Cambridge English: Prociencyisaimedatlearnerswhohaveachieved
anextremelyhighlevelofskillintheEnglishlanguageandwantto:
studydemandingsubjectsatthehighestlevels,including
postgraduateandPhDprogrammes
activelyengageinacademiclifebyparticipatingcondentlyin
tutorialsandseminars
leadoncomplexandchallengingresearchprojects
negotiateandpersuadeefectivelyatseniormanagementlevelin
internationalbusinesssettings.
Whorecognisestheexam?
Cambridge English: Prociencyisatrulyinternationalexam,
recognisedbythousandsofemployersgloballyasaqualication
demonstratinganexceptionallevelofEnglish.CambridgeESOL
examsarerecognisedby12,500institutionsandemployers.
Itisalsoacceptedbyawiderangeofeducationalinstitutionsfor
studypurposes.
ItmeetstheUKBorderAgencylanguagerequirementsforTier1,
2and4immigration,coveringstudyandworkintheUK*.
TheUKsUniversitiesandCollegesAdmissionsService
(UCAS)nowallowsstudentsapplyingtoUKuniversities
togainUCASTarifpointsbyachievingcertaingradesin
Cambridge English: Prociency*.Formoreinformationvisit
www.CambridgeESOL.org/UCAS-points
TheexamhasbeenaccreditedbyOfqual,thestatutory
regulatoryauthorityforexternalqualicationsinEnglandandits
counterpartsinWalesandNorthernIreland.
*AllinformationaccurateasofApril2011.Checkthelatest
requirementsatwww.ukba.homeofce.gov.uk
Formoreinformationaboutrecognitiongoto
www.CambridgeESOL.org/recognition
Whatlevelistheexam?
Cambridge English: ProciencyistargetedatLevelC2thehighest
CEFRlevelandprovidesuniversitiesandemployerswithdetailed
evidencethatsuccessfulcandidatesareabletouseEnglishatnear-
nativelevelsinawiderangeofsituations.
WhatcancandidatesdoatLevelC2?
TheAssociationofLanguageTestersinEurope(ALTE)hascarried
outresearchtodeterminewhatlanguagelearnerscantypicallydoat
eachCEFRlevel.IthasdescribedtheseabilitiesinaseriesofCanDo
statementsusingexamplestakenfromreal-lifesituations.
CambridgeESOL,asoneofthefoundingmembersofALTE,usesthis
frameworkasawayofensuringitsexamsreectreal-lifelanguage
skills.
ExamplesofCanDostatementsatLevelC2
Typical abilities Reading and Writing Listening and Speaking
Overall
general ability
CAN understand documents,
correspondence and reports,
including the ner points of
complex texts.
CAN write letters on any subject
and full notes of meetings or
seminars with good expression
and accuracy.
CAN advise on or talk about
sensitive issues, understanding
colloquial references and
dealing condently with hostile
questions.
Study CAN access all sources of
information quickly and reliably.
CAN make accurate and
complete notes during the course
of a lecture, seminar or tutorial.
CAN understand colloquial
asides and cultural allusions.
Work CAN understand reports and
articles likely to be encountered
during his/her work, including
complex ideas expressed in
complex language.
CAN make full and accurate
notes and continue to participate
in a meeting or seminar.
CAN advise on/handle complex,
delicate or contentious issues,
such as legal or nancial
matters, to the extent that he/
she has the necessary specialist
knowledge.
Social & Tourist CAN (for example, when looking
for accommodation) understand
a tenancy agreement in detail,
including its main implications.
CAN write letters on any subject
with good expression and
accuracy.
CAN talk about complex
or sensitive issues without
awkwardness.
Examcontentandprocessing
Cambridge English: Prociency isarigorousandthoroughtestof
EnglishatLevelC2.Itcoversallfourlanguageskillsreading,writing,
listeningandspeakingandincludesafthelementfocusingonthe
candidatesunderstandingofthestructureofthelanguage.Preparing
forCambridge English: Prociencyhelpscandidatesdeveloptheskills
theyneedtouseEnglishtocommunicateefectivelyinavarietyof
practicalcontexts.
Athoroughtestofallareasoflanguageability
Therearefourpapers:ReadingandUseofEnglish,Writing,Listening
andSpeaking.TheReadingandUseofEnglishpapercarries40%
ofthemarks,whileWriting,ListeningandSpeakingeachcarry
20%ofthemarks.Detailedinformationoneachtestandsample
papersfollowlaterinthishandbook,buttheoverallfocusofeachtest
isasfollows:
4 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
EXAM CONTENT AND PROCESSING
Reading and Use of English: 1 hour 30 minutes
Candidates need to be able to understand texts from publications such as ction and non-
ction books, journals, newspapers and magazines. Candidates use of English is tested by
tasks which show how well they can control their grammar and vocabulary.
Writing: 1 hour 30 minutes
Candidates have to show that they can produce two diferent pieces of writing:
a compulsory task in Part 1, and one from a choice of ve in Part 2.
Listening: 40 minutes (approximately)
Candidates need to show they can understand the meaning of a range of spoken material,
including conversations, lectures, seminars, broadcasts and talks.
Speaking: 16 minutes
Candidates take the Speaking test with another candidate or in a group of three, and are
tested on their ability to take part in diferent types of interaction: with the examiner, with
the other candidate and by themselves.
Eachoftheseskillsprovidesauniquecontributiontoaproleof
overallcommunicativelanguageabilitythatdeneswhatacandidate
candoatthislevel.
InternationalEnglish
Englishisusedinawiderangeofinternationalcontexts.Toreect
this,candidatesresponsestotasksinCambridgeEnglishexamsare
acceptableinallvarietiesandaccentsofEnglish,providedtheydo
notinterferewithcommunication.Materialsusedfeaturearangeof
accentsandtextsfromEnglish-speakingcountries,includingtheUK,
NorthAmericaandAustralia.USandotherversionsofspellingare
acceptedifusedconsistently.
Marksandresults
Cambridge English: Prociencygivesdetailed,meaningfulresults.
AllcandidatesreceiveaStatementofResults.Candidateswhose
performancerangesbetweenCEFRLevelsC2andC1willalsoreceive
acerticate.
StatementofResults
TheStatementofResultsoutlines:
thecandidatesresult.Thisresultisbasedonacandidatestotal
scoreinallfourpapers
agraphicaldisplayofacandidatesperformanceineachskill
(shownagainstthescaleExceptionalGoodBorderline
Weak)
astandardisedscoreoutof100whichallowsacandidatetosee
exactlyhowtheyperformed.
Certicates
Wehavemadeenhancementstothewaywereporttheresultsofour
examsbecausewebelieveitisimportanttorecognisecandidates
achievements.
C2
C1
B2
B1
A2
A1
The Common European
Framework of Reference
C
Procient
user
B
Independent
user
A
Basic user
Proof of
exceptional
English ability
Cambridge English:
Prociency
Grade B
Grade C
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade A
Level C1
CambridgeEnglish:ProciencyLevelC2
IfacandidateachievesgradeA,BorCintheexam,theywillreceive
the Certicate of Prociency in English atLevelC2.
LevelC1Certicate
IfacandidatesperformanceisbelowLevelC2,butfallswithinLevel
C1,wewillrecognisetheirachievementwithaCambridgeEnglish
certicatestatingthattheydemonstratedabilityatC1level.
Specialcircumstances
CambridgeEnglishexamsaredesignedtobefairtoalltesttakers.
Thiscommitmenttofairnesscovers:
Specialarrangements
Theseareavailableforcandidateswithapermanentorlong-term
disability.ConsulttheCambridgeESOLCentreExamsManager
(CEM)inyourareaformoredetailsassoonasyoubecome
awareofacandidatewhomayneedspecialarrangements.
Specialconsideration
CambridgeESOLwillgivespecialconsiderationtocandidates
afectedbyadversecircumstancessuchasillnessor
bereavementimmediatelybeforeorduringanexam.Applications
forspecialconsiderationmustbemadethroughthecentreno
laterthan10workingdaysaftertheexamdate.
Malpractice
CambridgeESOLwillinvestigateallcaseswherecandidatesare
suspectedofcopying,collusionorbreakingtheexamregulations
insomeotherway.Resultsmaybewithheldwhiletheyare
beinginvestigated,orbecausewehavefoundaninfringementof
regulations.Centresarenotiedifacandidatesresultshavebeen
investigated.
5 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
EXAM SUPPORT
Examsupport
AfeatureofCambridgeEnglishexamsistheoutstandingfreeand
paid-forsupportweofertoteachersandcandidates.
HowtoordersupportmaterialsforCambridgeEnglish
exams
Awiderangeofofcialsupportmaterialsforcandidatesandteachers
canbeordereddirectlyfromthefollowingeShops:
Printed publications: www.cambridge.org/elt/exams
Online preparation: https://eshop.cambridgeesol.org
Supportforteachers
TeacherSupportwebsite
Thiswebsiteprovidesaninvaluable,user-friendlyfreeresourceforall
teacherspreparingforourexams.Itincludes:
Generalinformationhandbookforteachers,samplepapers,
examreports,examdates
Detailedinformationformat,timing,numberofquestions,task
types,markschemeofeachpaper
Adviceforteachersdevelopingstudentsskillsandpreparing
themfortheexam
Downloadablelessonsalessonforeverypartofeverypaper,
therearemorethan1,000intotal
Forums whereteacherscanshareexperiencesandknowledge
Careersteachingqualicationsforcareerprogression
Newsandeventswhatshappeninggloballyandlocallyinyour
area
Seminarswiderangeofexam-specicseminarsfornewand
experiencedteachers,administratorsandschooldirectors.
www.teachers.CambridgeESOL.org
CambridgeEnglishTeacher
DevelopedbyCambridgeUniversityPressandUniversityof
CambridgeESOLExaminations(CambridgeESOL),Cambridge
EnglishTeacherprovidesopportunitiesforEnglishteacherstoengage
incontinuingprofessionaldevelopmentthroughonlinecourses,share
bestpracticeandnetworkwithotherELTprofessionalsworldwide.
FormoreinformationonhowtobecomeaCambridgeEnglish
Teacher,visitwww.CambridgeEnglishTeacher.org
Supportforcandidates
CambridgeESOLwebsite
Weprovidelearnerswithawealthofexamresourcesandpreparation
materialsthroughoutourmainwebsite,includingexamadvice,
samplepapersandaguideforcandidates.
www.CambridgeESOL.org
Ofcialpreparationmaterials
AcomprehensiverangeofofcialCambridgeEnglishcoursebooks,
practicetestsandlearningresourcescanbeorderedfromyourlocal
CambridgeUniversityPressofceorrepresentative.
Materialsincludeprintedanddigitalresourcestosupportteachers
andhelplearnerspreparefortheirexam.
Findoutmoreatwww.cambridge.org/elt/exams
6 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
EXAM SUPPORT
Othersourcesofsupportmaterials
Ahugerangeofpreparationmaterialsandlearningresourcesare
producedbyindependentpublisherstohelppreparecandidatesfor
CambridgeEnglishexams.Wecannotadviseontextbooksorcourses
ofstudythatwedonotprovide,butwhenyouarechoosingcourse
materialsyoushouldbearinmindthat:
Cambridge English: Prociencyrequiresall-roundlanguageability
mostcoursebookswillneedtobesupplemented
anycoursebooksandpracticematerialsyouchooseshould
accuratelyreectthecontentandformatoftheexam.
www.CambridgeESOL.org/resources/books-for-study
Examsessions
Cambridge English: Prociencyisavailableasbothapaper-based
andcomputer-basedtest.Candidatesmustbeenteredthrougha
recognisedCambridgeESOLcentre.Findyournearestcentreat
www.CambridgeESOL.org/centres
Furtherinformation
ContactyourlocalCambridgeESOLcentre,orCambridgeESOL
direct(usingthecontactdetailsonthebackcoverofthishandbook)
for:
copiesoftheregulations
detailsofentryprocedure
examdates
currentfees
moreinformationaboutCambridge English: Prociency andother
CambridgeEnglishexams.
Structureandtasks
PART3
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Wordformation.
Themainfocusisonvocabulary,in
particulartheuseofafxation,internal
changesandcompoundinginword
formation.
FORMAT Atextcontainingeightgaps.Eachgap
correspondstoaword.Thestemsofthe
missingwordsaregivenbesidethetextand
mustbechangedtoformthemissingword.
NO.OFQS 8
PART4
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Keywordtransformations.
Thefocusisongrammar,vocabularyand
collocation.
FORMAT Sixdiscreteitemswithalead-insentence
andagappedresponsetocompletein38
wordsincludingagivenkeyword.
NO.OFQS 6
PART5
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Multiplechoice.
Understandingofdetail,opinion,attitude,
tone,purpose,mainidea,implication,text
organisationfeatures(exemplication,
comparison,reference).
FORMAT Atextfollowedby4-optionmultiple-choice
questions.
NO.OFQS 6
PART6
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Gappedtext.
Understandingofcohesion,coherence,text
structure,globalmeaning.
FORMAT Atextfromwhichparagraphshavebeen
removedandplacedinjumbledorderafter
thetext.Candidatesmustdecidefrom
whereinthetexttheparagraphshavebeen
removed.
NO.OFQS 7
PART7
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Multiplematching.
Understandingofdetail,opinion,attitude,
specicinformation.
FORMAT Atext,orseveralshorttexts,precededby
multiple-matchingquestions.Candidates
mustmatchaprompttoelementsinthe
text.
NO.OFQS 10
Structureandtasks
PART1
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Multiple-choicecloze.
Themainfocusisonvocabulary,e.g.
idioms,collocations,xedphrases,
complementation,phrasalverbs,semantic
precision.
FORMAT Asingletextwitheightgaps.Candidates
mustchooseonewordorphrasefromaset
offourtolleachgap.
NO.OFQS 8
PART2
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Opencloze.
Themainfocusisonawarenessandcontrol
ofgrammarwithsomefocusonvocabulary.
FORMAT Amodiedclozetestconsistingofatext
witheightgaps.Candidatesthinkofthe
wordwhichbesttseachgap.
NO.OFQS 8
Generaldescription
PAPERFORMAT ForParts1to4,thetestcontainstexts
withaccompanyinggrammarand
vocabularytasks,anddiscreteitems
withagrammarandvocabularyfocus.
ForParts5to7,thetestcontains
textsandaccompanyingreading
comprehensiontasks.
TIMING 1hour30minutes
NO.OFPARTS 7
NO.OFQUESTIONS 53
TASKTYPES Multiple-choicecloze,opencloze,word
formation,keywordtransformation,
multiplematching,gappedtext,
multiplechoice.
TEXTTYPES Fromthefollowing:books(ctionand
non-ction),non-specialistarticles
frommagazines,newspapersandthe
internet.
LENGTHOFTEXTS 2,9003,400wordsintotal
ANSWERFORMAT ForParts1,5,6and7,candidates
indicatetheiranswersbyshading
thecorrectlozengesontheanswer
sheet.ForParts2,and3,candidates
writetheiranswersincapitalletters
inthespaceprovidedontheanswer
sheet.ForPart4,candidateswrite
theiranswersontheanswersheetbut
capitallettersarenotrequired.
MARKS ForParts13,eachcorrectanswer
receives1mark;forPart4,eachcorrect
answerreceivesupto2marks;for
Parts56,eachcorrectanswerreceives
2marks;forPart7,eachcorrectanswer
receives1mark.Thereareatotalof72
marksavailableforthetest.
ReadingandUseofEnglish
7 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
8 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
Thesevenpartsofthe
ReadingandUseofEnglishpaper
PART1 Multiple-choice cloze
In this part, the focus of the gapped words is lexical or lexico-grammatical.
Sample task and answer key: pages 13 and 19.

EachcorrectanswerinPart1receives1mark.
Part1requirescandidatestocompleteeightgapsinatextby
selectingthecorrectword(orphraseinthecaseofwholephrasal
verbsorlinkers)fromasetoffouroptionsplusoneexample.
Candidateschoosetheanswerthatcorrectlytsthemeaningwithin
aphraseorsentence,andmayalsohavetotakeintoaccountthe
broadercontextofthepreviousorfollowingsentencesorthewhole
text.Somequestionsfocusonthemeaningofindividualwordsin
context.Othersfocusmoreonxedlanguagesuchasxedphrases,
collocationsandidioms.Lexico-grammarisalsotestedthrough
phrasalverbsandlinkers.Agrammaticalelementmayalsobe
presentinthechoiceofthecorrectoption;theanswermaybecorrect
because,forexample,itagreeswithafollowingprepositionoristhe
onlyoneoffourverbswhichtsthestructuralpattern.
PART2 Open cloze
In this part, the focus of the gapped words is grammatical or lexico-
grammatical.
Sample task and answer key: pages 14 and 19.

EachcorrectanswerinPart2receives1mark.
Part2isatextcontainingeightgapsplusoneexample.Candidates
arerequiredtodrawontheirknowledgeofthestructureofthe
languageandunderstandingofthetextinordertollthegaps.
Asinglewordisneededtolleachgapneveraphraseor
contraction.Theremaybemorethanoneacceptablewordforagap,
asgiveninthemarkscheme.Candidatesmustwritetheiranswersin
capitallettersontheanswersheet.
PART3 Word formation
In this part, the focus is mainly lexical (e.g. afxation, compounding).
Sample task and answer key: pages 14 and 19.

EachcorrectanswerinPart3receives1mark.
Part3isaword-buildingtask,consistingofatextwitheightgapsplus
oneexample.Thetypesofword-buildinginvolvenotjusttheaddition
ofafxes(e.g.honesttodishonestyorpersontoimpersonal),
butalsointernalchanges(e.g.strongtostrengthened)and
compounding(e.g.raintoraindroporsettooutset).Any
numberofchangesmaybemadetothestemword(e.g.doubtto
undoubtedlyisthreechanges)andcandidatesmayberequired
todemonstrateunderstandingofthetextbeyondsentencelevel.
Candidateswritetheiranswersincapitallettersontheanswersheet.
PART4 Key word transformations
In this part, the focus is on grammar and vocabulary.
Sample task and answer key: pages 15 and 19.

EachcorrectanswerinPart4receivesupto2marks.
Part4consistsofsixkeywordtransformations,plusoneexample.
Eachquestioncontainsthreeparts:alead-insentence,akeyword
andasecondresponsesentenceofwhichonlythebeginningand
endaregiven.Candidateshavetollthegapinthesecondsentence
sothatitissimilarinmeaningtothelead-insentence.Thekeyword
mustbeused.Candidatesarerequiredtomanipulatestructures
andlexicalphrasesintheiranswer,e.g.averbinthegivensentence
mightneedtobechangedtoanoun.Theycanusebetweenthreeand
eightwordsincludingthegivenkeyword.Thekeywordmustnotbe
changedinanywayandcandidatesmustwritetheiranswersonthe
answersheet.
PART5 Multiple choice
This part tests candidates detailed understanding of a long text, including
its purpose and organisation and the opinions and attitudes expressed
within it.
Sample task and answer key: pages 16 and 19.

EachcorrectanswerinPart5receives2marks.
Part5consistsofonelongertextfollowedbysixmultiple-choice
questionswhichtestdetailedunderstandingofthetext,including
opinionsandattitudesexpressedwithinit.Thetexthasatitleand
mayalsohaveasubheading.Candidatesneedtoreadthetextclosely
tounderstandexactlywhatthewriterissayingandinorderto
distinguishbetweenapparentlysimilarviewpointsorreasonsinthe
options.Candidatesshouldbeabletodeducemeaningfromcontext
andinterpretthetextforinferenceandstyle.Theyshouldalsobe
abletounderstandtextorganisationfeaturessuchasexemplication,
comparisonandreference.Thequestionsarepresentedinthesame
orderastheinformationinthetextandthenalquestionmay
dependoninterpretationofthetextasawhole,e.g.thewriters
purpose,attitudeoropinion.
PART6 Gapped text
This part tests candidates understanding of text structure and their ability
to follow text development.
Sample task and answer key: pages 17 and 19.

EachcorrectanswerinPart6receives2marks.
Thetaskrequirescandidatestoselectfromeightoptionsthecorrect
extracttotineachofthesevengapsinthetext.Thereisonlyone
correctanswerforeachgap.Thereisnoexampleanswer.Thetask
consistsofagappedtextfollowedbytheextractsfromthetextand
onefurtherextractwhichdoesnottinanyofthegaps.Thetexthas
atitleandmayalsohaveasub-heading.Candidatesneedtoread
thegappedtextrstinordertogainanoverallideaofthestructure
andmeaningofthetext,noticingcarefullytheinformationandideas
beforeandaftereachgapaswellastheirdevelopmentthroughout
thewholeofthegappedtext.Theyshouldthendecidewhichextract
tseachgap,andwritetheappropriateletterineachgap.They
9 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
shouldrememberthateachlettermayonlybeusedonceandthat
thereisoneextractthattheywillnotneedtouse.
PART7 Multiple matching
This part tests candidates ability to locate specic information, detail,
opinion and attitude in a text or a group of short texts.
Sample task and answer key: pages 18 and 19.

EachcorrectanswerinPart7receives1mark.
Part7consistsofasetoftenquestionsfollowedbyasinglepage
oftext.Thetextisdividedintofourtosixsectionstheoptions.
Candidatesarerequiredtomatchthequestionswiththerelevant
informationfromthetext.Todothis,theyneedtounderstanddetail,
attitudeoropinioninthequestions,andlocateasectionoftext
wherethatideaisexpressed.Atthesametimetheyneedtodiscount
ideasinothersectionswhichmayappearsimilar,butwhichdonot
reectthewholeofthequestionaccurately.Someoftheoptionsmay
becorrectformorethanonequestioninotherwords,theremay
beseveralquestionswiththeanswerA,forexample.Therearethree
maintexttypes:diferentpeoplegivingtheirviewsonatopic;asingle
textdividedintosections;andextractsfromasingletext,suchasa
bookorlongarticle.
10 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
Preparation
General
RegularandefectiveuseofanadvancedmonolingualEnglish
dictionaryisessential,notonlytoclarifythemeaningofnew
wordsbutalsotoextendknowledgeofcollocations,xed
phrases,andfeaturesoflexico-grammarsuchasdependent
prepositions.However,studentsshouldalsobeawareof
alternativetechniquesforcopingwithunfamiliarvocabulary,such
astheuseofcontextualclues.
Studentsshouldbefamiliarwiththetechniqueofllingin
lozengesontheseparateanswersheetsothattheycandothis
quicklyandaccurately.(Theymaywriteonthequestionpaper
duringtheexamination,buttheirnoteswillnotbemarked.)Some
studentsprefertotransfertheiranswersattheendofeachtask
ratherthanwaituntiltheyhavecompletedthewholepaper,but
eitherwaytheymustcompletethetransferofanswerswithin
thetimeallowedforthewholepaper.Theanswersheetsare
scannedbyanOpticalMarkReader.Ifaquestionisleftblank,
orifacandidatellsinmorethanonelozengeforaquestion,
theanswersheetisrejectedandcheckedmanually.Candidates
shouldalwayscheckthattheyhavewrittentheanswernextto
theappropriatequestionnumber.
Candidatescancompletethevariouspartsofthetestinany
order,butitisprobablybettertodothemintheorderofthe
questionpapertoavoidthepossibilityofputtinganswersinthe
wrongsectionsoftheanswersheets.
ForallpartsoftheUseofEnglishsection,studentsneedto
analyselanguageatbothsentenceandparagraphlevel,andto
readtextscriticallyinordertodevelopsensitivityto,forexample,
wordcombinations,collocationsandidioms.Theyalsoneed
toincreasetheirawarenessofappropriacyintheselectionof
languageandtobeabletoanalysetheuseofmodalityand
tenses.Encouragingstudentstoreadawidevarietyoftexttypes
willhelpthemdeveloptheirabilitytounderstandthelanguage
systemandhowthissystemcanbemanipulated.
TherearethreetextsintheUseofEnglishsection,whichare
largelycontemporaryandtakenfromjournalistic,academicand
literarysources.Thetitlesaremeanttogivecandidatesanearly
ideaofwhattoexpectfromthetext,andtohelpthemusetheir
predictivereadingskills.Encouragecandidatestoreadthrough
thewholeofanytextintheUseofEnglishsectiontogainaclear
ideaofwhatitisaboutbeforetheybegintoansweranyofthe
questions.
Candidatesmaythinkthat,forcertainquestionsintheUseof
Englishsection,morethanoneanswerispossible.However,they
shouldnotgivemorethanoneanswerontheseparateanswer
sheetsastheywilllosemarksiftheydo.
Candidatesshouldwriteinasoftpencil(BorHB)ontheanswer
sheets.IftheywishtochangeawordanswerintheUseofEnglish
section,theyshouldrubitoutusinganeraserandwritethe
correctanswerinstead.Ifcandidatescrossoutananswerinstead
ofrubbingitout,theyshoulddothisclearly.Itisnotagoodidea
toaltertheworditself,asthiswillmakeitunclear.Candidates
shouldnotputthewordinbrackets,asthismayappeartobean
alternativeanswerandtheywilllosemarks.
IntheUseofEnglishsectionallspellingsmustbecorrectasthis
isanimportantaspectofaccuracy.
FortheReadingsection,bothinclassandathome,students
needtoreadaswidelyaspossible.Thiswillenablethemto
becomefamiliarwithawiderangeoflanguage.TheReading
sectionincludesarangeoftexttypes,sostudentsshouldaimto
readavarietyofauthentictextsincludingmodernction,short
stories,non-ctionbookssuchasbiographiesandarticlesfrom
newspapersandmagazines.Theinternetprovidesaccesstonews
andfeaturearticlesfromthepressofBritainandotherEnglish-
speakingcountries.Studentsshouldbeencouragedtofollow
theirowninterestswhilereadingoutsidetheclassroom,e.g.
lookingontheinternetforarticlesinEnglishonwork,technology,
musicetc.Extensivereadingcanbesupportedbyaskingstudents
toprovideverbalorwrittenfeedbackontheirreading,orbyusing
itasthebasisforclassroomdiscussion.Studentscanalsobe
encouragedtosharetextsandinformationongoodtextsources
betweenthemselves.
Aswellaspractisingintensivereadingskillsfocusingondetail,
studentsshouldbeencouragedtodiscussthemainpointsof
longertextsandsummariseparagraphs,concentratingonoverall
understandingandprogressionofideaswithintheargumentor
narrative.
Studentsshouldbeawareofthediferentreadingstrategies
requiredbydiferenttypesofquestion,anditisalsousefulfor
themtoexperimentwithalternativewaysofdealingwithtextsso
thattheycandecidewhichonessuitthembest.
Timingisalsoimportant.TheReadingsectionrequiresprocessing
largequantitiesoftextinadenedtimescaleandstudents
thereforeneedpracticeinplanningandusingtheirtimeproperly.
Bypart
PART1
Studentsshouldbeawareofthediferentaspectsofvocabulary
testedinthispartofthepaper.Questionstestingsemantic
meaningthroughcontextrequirecarefulreadingofthewhole
text.Thisisparticularlyimportantinthecaseoflinkers.Equally,
studentsshouldbeawarethatthemissingword(s)mayform
partofanidiom,xedphraseorcollocation,sotheyshould
alwayscheckthewordsaroundthegapcarefully.
Studentsshoulddiscussdiferentmethodsofrecording
andrecyclingvocabularyandbeencouragedtoexperiment
withdiferenttechniques.Efectiveuseofagoodup-to-date
monolingualdictionaryisessential,anddictionaryworkmaybe
particularlyusefultocheckandextendknowledgeoflexis.
Aswellaslearningnewwords,studentsshouldextendtheir
knowledgeofcollocations,xedphrasesandidioms.Readingand
listeningtextsusedinskillsworkactivitiesshouldbeanalysed
afterwardsforusefulchunksoflanguage.
Ausefulpre-readingactivityisfortheteachertoextracta
numberoftwo-wordcollocationsfromatextandseparate
andjumblethem.Thestudentscanthenbeaskedtopredict
theoriginalcollocationsbeforereadingthetexttocheck.
Alternatively,anumberofcollocations,idiomsandxedphrases
canbeextractedfromthetextandwrittenontheboardwithone
wordineachgap.Studentscanpredictthemissingwordsand
thencheckwiththetext.
11 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
PART2
Studentsshouldtreattheopenclozeastheywouldanyreading
text,andlookatthetitleandthewholetextbeforeattemptingto
llinanygaps.Thiswillhelpthemtounderstandwhatthetextis
about,andmakeiteasierforthemtollinthegaps.Emphasise
thattheyshouldalwayskeepinmindthemeaningofthewhole
textwhendoingthetask.
Studentsshouldalwaysreadthecompletesentencethatcontains
thegapbeforedecidingontheiranswer,andshouldalwayscheck
forthepossibilityofnegatives,conditionalsorotherstructures
thatmightputforwardtheoppositepointofview.Theymayneed
tolookforareferent(e.g.names;places;pronouns,he/they,etc.)
inanotherpartofthesentenceand,inthiscase,theyshould
makesurethatthewordtheywriteinthegapagreeswiththat
subject.
Studentsneedtopayparticularattentiontothewordsbefore
andafterthegap,astheymayformpartofanexpressionthatis
completedbythemissingword.
Remindstudentsthattheymustonlyuseonewordtollineach
gap,andthereforetheywillnotbeexpectedtouseacontraction.
Iftheyarenotsureofananswer,advisethemtoleaveitblank
andgoon.Then,whentheychecktheirworkafterdoingthetask,
theyshouldreadthewholetextthroughagain.Thismaygive
themthecluetheyneedtollinthewordtheyarenotsureof.
Inclass,encouragestudentstonotedownandlearnwordsand
expressionsincontext,especiallygrammaticalpatternsandxed
phrases.Itisalsousefuliftheymarksuchphrasesintextsthat
theyread.
PART3
Studentsshouldreadthewholetextbeforeattemptingtoll
inanygaps.Somequestions,suchasmakingthebaseword
negative,requirecarefulreadingbeyondsentencelevel.
Studentsshouldbemadeawareoftherangeofwordsthatcanbe
formedfromthesamebaseword,includingthenegativeforms,
e.g.friend-friendship-friendliness-friendly-befriend-unfriendly.
Thiscanbedonebypreparingtasksinwhichallsuchpossible
wordsaregiveninaseparatebox.Alternatively,studentscan
researchandcomeupwiththewordsthemselves.Itcanbe
usefultogivestudentsparticularwordstoresearchindividually
orinpairs,usingagoodEnglishdictionary.
Encouragestudentstonotedownallpartsofanewwordwhen
theycomeacrossitinareadingtextandnotjustthebaseform.
PART4
Remindstudentsthattheanswermustconsistofthree,four,ve,
six,sevenoreightwords.Iftheywritemorethaneightwordsthey
willnotbeawardedthemarks.Remindthemthatcontractions
countastwowords(dont=donot).Eachtransformationis
dividedintotwoparts,eachworthonemark,soacandidatemay
score0,1or2marksdependingontheaccuracyoftheresponse.
Candidatesmustusethekeywordintheiranswerandthey
mustnotchangeitinanyway.Iftheydonotuseitoriftheyalter
it,theywillnotbeawardedthemarks.Whentheywritetheir
answersontheanswersheettheyshouldonlywritethewords
thatareneededtollthegapandnotthewholesentence.
Remindstudentstopaycarefulattentiontotheframeforthe
answer,especiallyanyverbinthenalpartofthesecond
sentenceasitmayindicatewhetheraverbinthegapshouldbe
singularorplural.Theyshouldalsotakeparticularnoteofthe
wordsimmediatelybeforeandafterthegap.
Inpreparingforthispartofthepaper,giveyourstudentspractice
inparaphraseuse.Youcouldaskthemtorewritesentences
fromtextstheyhaveread,orrewritesentencesfromtheirown
orapartnerswrittenwork.Youcanalsouseaudioscriptsfrom
listeningactivities:givestudentsaparaphraseofasentenceand
askthemtolistenandidentifytheoriginal.
PART5
Preparationforthemultiple-choicetaskshouldinclude
practiceinreadingatextquicklyforarstoverallimpression,
followedbyclosereadingofthetextinordertopreventany
misunderstandingswhichmayleadstudentstochooseawrong
answer.Theymustbeawareoftheneedtocheckeachoption
againsttheevidenceofthetext.
Whenansweringthequestions,somestudentsndituseful
toconsiderapossibleanswerbyrstlookingonlyatthestem
andnotattheoptions.Theythenunderlinethepartofthetext
whichgivestheanswer,andnallycomparethiswiththeoptions.
However,theymustbeawarethatitisalsonecessarytocheck
eachoptionagainsttheevidenceofthetext.
Studentsneedtoreadtextsinwhichopinion,attitudesand
feelingsareexpressed,e.g.interviewswithfamouspeople,
shortstorieswhichfocusonhowcharactersfeelaboutthe
situationstheyndthemselvesin,andmagazinearticlesin
whichthereisastrongauthorialvoiceorviewpoint.Activities
whichfocusonrecognisingandevaluatingattitudeandopinion
andinferringunderlyingmeaningwillbehelpful.Studentscan
alsobeencouragedtoidentifysimilarfeaturesintextsoftheir
ownchoice,andtoworkingroupstopreparequestions(not
necessarilymultiplechoice)focusingonthesefeatures.
Part5textsoftencontaincomplexideas,andintheclassroom
studentsshouldbeencouragedtodiscusstheseandrelatethem
totheirownexperienceandworldknowledgebothbeforeand
afterreading.
Studentswillndithelpfultoanalyseanddiscussstructural/
organisationalfeaturesoftexts,atparagraphlevelandbeyond.
Forexample,theremaybeaquestionwhichteststheabilityto
recogniseamainideaandanexampleofit,oronewhichinvolves
comparingorcontrastingideasorexamples.
PART6
Encourageyourstudentstoreadthemain(base)textrstso
thattheygainanoverallideaofthestructureanddevelopmentof
thethemeorargumentofthetext,beforestartingtodothetask.
Theyshouldpayattentiontotheinformationandideasbefore
andaftereachgapaswellasthroughoutthewholeofthegapped
text.Studentsfrequentlymakethewrongchoicebyselecting
optionswhichtthetextbeforethegap,andneglectingtocheck
thatthetextafterthegapfollowsonsmoothly.
Studentsshouldbetrainedtoconsiderthedevelopmentofthe
textasawhole,andnottofocusoneachgapindependently.
Studentsshouldkeeponreferringtothedevelopingargument
inthebasetext.Sometimesstudentswillneedtochoose
12 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH
carefullybetweentwoextractsaspossibleanswers,andwill
needtomakedecisionsaboutwhichisthemostlogicalextract
tolltheparticulargap.Theyshouldnotruleoutananswerfor
considerationonthegroundsthattheyhavealreadyusedit,as
theearlierusemaybeincorrect.
Practiceisneededinrecognitionofawiderangeoflinguistic
deviceswhichmarkthelogicalandcohesivedevelopmentofa
text,e.g.wordsandphrasesindicatingsequenceofevents,cause
andefect,premiseandconclusion.Inclass,thetaskcanbe
adaptedbyphotocopyingthetextandcuttinguptheparagraphs,
whichgivesstudentsadditionalvisualsupportandallowsthem
tocomparealternativesmoreeasily.Ifthisactivityisdonein
pairsorgroups,studentswillalsobeencouragedtojustifytheir
combinationsandlinkstooneanother.Itisveryimportanttolook
atavarietyofcompletetextsfromdiferentsources(magazines,
books,ction)andtoanalyseanddiscussintheclassroomtheir
style,structureandorganisation.
Candidatesshouldbewareofapproachingthegapped-texttask
asanexerciserequiringthemmerelytoidentifyextractsfrom
thetextandsectionsinthetextwhichcontainthesamewords,
namesordates.Thetaskisdesignedtotestunderstandingof
thedevelopmentofideas,opinionsandeventsratherthanthe
supercialrecognitionofindividualwords.
PART7
Studentsneedtopractiseskimmingandscanningtextsinorder
toprepareforthistask.Theyshouldpractisescanningtextsfor
theparticularinformationrequiredandnotfeelthattheymust
readeverywordinthetext.Eachsectionoftextwillcontainsome
redundantinformation.
Theinternetisanidealmediumandsource,asitencourageseasy
accessoftextsandquickreadingtondtheinformationoneis
seeking.Aswellasskimmingandscanningarticles,students
canreadtondcommonfeaturesindiferentarticlesorreadto
locatediferentviewsonaparticulartopic.
Questionsforthemultiplematchingtaskareprintedbeforethe
textsothatthecandidatesknowwhattolookforinthetext.
However,therearevariouswaysofdoingthistaskandstudents
shouldbeputinapositiontotrydiferenttechniques.
Sometimesaquestionmayhavetwoelements,suchasawriters
surpriseatbeingconfrontedbyadifcultsituation.Students
mayndevidenceofadifcultsituationinaparticularsection
ofthetextandthinktheyhavefoundtheanswereventhough
nosurpriseisexpressed.Thusitisimportanttotrainstudentsin
ndingaparaphraseofthewholeideainthequestion,notjust
oneelementofit.
Studentsshouldbediscouragedfromselectingananswersolely
onthebasisofmatchingawordinthequestionwithawordin
thetext,sincecarefulreadingofaparticularpartofthetextis
requiredtoensureanaccuratematchintermsofmeaning.
Studentscouldworktowardscreatingtheirownmultiple-
matchingtext,byinterviewingeachotherandconvertingtheir
notesintofourpeoplesviewsonanaspectof,e.g.workor
universitylife.Studentscouldthenwritetheirownquestionson
thesetextsforothergroupstoreadandanswer.
13 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
EXAM | LEVEL |PAPER SAMPLEPAPER
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH
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14 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH
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.


15 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
EXAM | LEVEL |PAPER SAMPLEPAPER
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH
T
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2
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16 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH
T
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3
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3
3

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3
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3
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C

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D

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3
6


W
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A

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B

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P
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17 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
EXAM | LEVEL |PAPER SAMPLEPAPER
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH
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(
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4
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3
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3
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3
9


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4
0


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1
6

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4
1


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18 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 18 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
READINGANDUSEOFENGLISH | SAMPLE PAPER
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH


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20 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
21 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
Generaldescription
PAPERFORMAT Thepapercontainstwoparts.
TIMING 1hour30minutes
NO.OFPARTS 2
NO.OFQUESTIONS Candidatesarerequiredtocomplete
twotasksacompulsoryonein
Part1,andonefromachoiceofve
inPart2.
TASKTYPES Arangeoftasksfromthefollowing
texttypes:articles,essays,letters,
reports,reviews.
ANSWERFORMAT Candidateswritetheiranswers
ontheseparateanswersheets.
Answersshouldbewritteninpen.
MARKS Eachquestiononthispapercarries
equalmarks.
Structureandtasks
PART1
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
QUESTION1
Writingacompulsoryessay.
Thetaskfocusisdiscursive.
FORMAT Candidatesarerequiredtowriteanessay
summarisingandevaluatingthekeyideas
containedintwotextsofapproximately
100wordseach.
NO.OFTASKS
ANDLENGTH
Onecompulsorytask.
240280words
PART2
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Either:
QUESTIONS24
Writingoneofthefollowing:
an article
a letter
a report
a review
Or:
QUESTION5
Writingoneofthefollowing,basedon
readingonefromaprescribedlistoftwo
books:
an article
an essay
a letter
a report
a review.
FORMAT Contextualisedwritingtasks,eachspecied
innomorethan70words.
NO.OFTASKS
ANDLENGTH
Fivetasksfromwhichcandidateschooseone.
280320words
Writing
22 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
ThetwopartsoftheWritingpaper

EachquestionontheWritingpapercarriesequal
marks.
Expectedtextlength
Thespeciedwordrangeisintendedasaguide.Ifsignicantly
fewerwordsarewritten,thisislikelytomeanthatthetaskhas
notbeensuccessfullycompleted.However,inthecontextofthe
newCambridgeESOLWritingmarkscheme,candidatesarenot
explicitlypenalisedforthelengthoftheirresponse.Exceedingthe
recommendedwordrangeisthereforeacceptable(thoughifthereis
resultingirrelevance,repetitionorpoororganisation,thesemaybe
penalised).
PART1 Compulsory task
This part tests the candidates ability to write an essay, summarising and
evaluating the key points from two texts and including their own ideas in
their answer.
Sample question and scripts: pages 25 and 3033.
Tasktypeandfocus
InPart1,candidatesareaskedtowriteanessay.Thequestionin
Part1alwayshasadiscursivefocus.Discursivewritingisastyle
usedinacademicwritinganditrequiresthehighleveloflanguage
competenceappropriateatC2level.Inaddition,theabilitytoidentify
keypointsfromatextisconsideredimportantatC2level.TheCEFR
statesthatatthislevelcandidatesshouldbeabletosummarise
informationfromdiferentsources,reconstructingargumentsand
accountsinacoherentpresentationoftheoverallresult.
Taskformat
Candidatesarerequiredtobasetheiranswersoninputmaterial
whichwilltaketheformoftwotextseachapproximately100words
long.Thetextswillbebasedonavarietyofauthentic,contemporary
sources.Sincethetaskfocusisonproductivelanguage,theinputwill
bewellwithinthereadingcompetenceofcandidatesatthislevel.
PART2
This part consists of four optional questions, one of which ofers two
options based on the set texts. Candidates must choose one question from
this part of the paper.
Taskformat
TheinputforthequestionsinPart2isconsiderablyshorterthanin
Part1,andwillnotbemorethan70wordsinlength.Therubricfor
eachquestionwilldenethepurposeforwriting,identifythetarget
readerandthereforeindicatetheappropriateformatandregister
requiredintheanswer.
PART2 Questions 25
Sample questions and scripts: pages 25 and 3438.
Tasktypesandfocus
InPart2,candidateshaveachoiceoftask.Thediferenttask
typesareintendedtoprovidethecandidateswithaclearcontext,
topic,purposeandtargetreaderfortheirwriting.Forquestions
24,thetasktypesusedarearticle,letter,report,andreview.The
characteristicsofeacharedetailedonpage24.
PART2 Questions 5(a) and 5(b)
Question5consistsofachoicebetweentwotasksbasedon
thesetreadingtexts.Furtherinformationcanbefoundon:
www.cambridgeesol.org/exams/general-english/cpe.html
Thisoptionisincludedtoencouragetheextendedreadingwhich
developscandidateslinguisticcompetence,widenstherange
oflanguagetheyencounterandenrichestheirlanguagestudy.It
alsoenablescandidatestoshowintheirwritingthattheyhave
appreciatedthethemes,charactersandrelationshipswithinthetext
theyhaveread.Achoiceoftextsisincludedinordertoappealto
diferenttastes.Alternatively,orinaddition,candidatesmaychoose
towatchalmversionofoneofthesettexts.Teachersarebest
placedtomakeajudgementastowhichsettextonofermaybe
appropriateandstimulatingforaparticularteachingsituation.Each
textwillnormallyremainonthelistfortwoyears.
Tasktypesandfocus
Candidatesarerequiredtowriteoneofthefollowing:anarticle,an
essay,aletter,areportorareview.Thecharacteristicsofeachare
detailedonpage24.Candidatesarenotrequiredtoproduceliterary
analysisforquestion5.
WRITING
23 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS 23 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING
Preparation
General
Candidatesneedtoreadthequestionverycarefullyinorder
toperformthetasksetefectively.Studentsneedpracticein
identifyingwhatthetaskisandwhatneedstobeaddressed.
Itisimportantthatstudentsarefamiliarwiththeformatofthe
paper,thediferentrequirementsofPart1andPart2andthe
rangeoftexttypesusedsothatinPart2theycanmakethebest
choicefromthequestionswhichareavailable.
Candidatesshouldgetintothehabitofplanningtheiranswers
thoroughlybeforetheybegintowrite.Thiswillencourage
anorganisedandcoherentapproachandpreventirrelevant
digression.Practiceinwritingtotimewillhelppreparestudents
toanswerthequestionunderexaminationconditions,produce
theappropriatenumberofwordsrequiredinthetimesetand
avoidthepossibilityofrunningoutoftime.
Thevarioustasktypeswhichappearonthepaperrequirethe
useofarangeoflanguagefunctions,forexamplethelanguageof
persuasion,description,recommendation,comparison.Students
shouldbegivenguidanceinidentifyingthese,andpracticein
usingthem.
Remindyourstudentsthatcorrectspellingandpunctuation
areimportant.Ifspellingerrorsorfaultypunctuationimpede
communication,thenthiswillbereectedinthemarkawarded.
CandidatesareexpectedtouseaparticularvarietyofEnglish
withsomedegreeofconsistency(seepage25).
Familiaritywiththeassessmentcriteriacanbeanotheruseful
partofpreparation.Candidatesareassessedonascale
incorporatingfouranalyticcriteria:Content,Communicative
Achievement,OrganisationandLanguage.
Bypart
PART1
Candidatesshouldbetrainedtoreadthetwoinputtextsvery
carefully.Eachtext,approximately100wordsinlength,will
presentcontrastingorcomplementaryviewsonatopic.Itis
importantthatstudentslearntoidentifythekeypointsineach
ofthetexts,asthesepointswillformthebasisofacandidates
essay.Candidatesmustintegrateasummaryofthesepoints,
anevaluationoftheabstractargumentsinvolvedandtheirown
ideasonthetopicinacoherentessay.
Candidatesmay,ofcourse,usekeywordsfromthequestion,but
mustavoidliftingwholesegmentsoftheinput.Nocreditwill
begivenforlanguageorideasthathavenotbeenappropriately
expandedonorintegratedintotheirwriting.
Becauseofthediscursivefocusofthispartofthepaper,students
needtobeequippedtodiscussarangeoftopics.Readingand
discussingarticlesinEnglishonavarietyofissueswillhelpthem
todeveloptheirideasandextendtheirvocabularyinorderto
covertheargumentsraisedinthetexts.
PART2
Thereisconsiderablechoiceonthispartofthepaper:advise
yourstudentstochoosetasktypesandtopicsthatappealtotheir
interestsandexperience.
Makesurestudentsknowhowimportantitistoreadthe
questionsverycarefullyandtoidentify,beforetheybegintoplan
theiranswers,whattheyhopetoachievethroughwriting(the
purposeofthetask),towhomtheyarewriting(thetargetreader)
andtheirroleaswriter.
Thequestionidentiesthecontext,thewritersroleand
thetargetreader,whichhelpsthecandidatetochoosethe
appropriateregister.Itisalsoveryimportantthatstudentslearn
todistinguishbetweenthevarioustasktypesrequiredbythe
questionsinPart2.Eventhoughacandidatemaydisplayan
excellentcommandofthelanguage,ananswerwillonlyachievea
highmarkifalltheabovefactorsaretakenintoaccount.
ThequestionsinPart2areshorterthaninPart1,butjustasmuch
careisrequiredinreadingthem.Candidateswhodonotreada
questioncarefullyenoughmayseizeonafamiliartopicandstart
thetaskbeforetheyhaveidentiedexactlywhatisrequired.Itis
alwaysthecasethatthereareatleasttwo,ifnotthreeelements
inthesequestions,andonlycandidateswhoproduceananswer
dealingadequatelywithallelementsofthequestioncanexpect
togainahighermark.
Encourageyourstudentstouseawidevarietyofgrammatical
structuresandlanguagefunctionsandtoexploretheuseofa
rangeofvocabularyandexpression.
24 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING
Task types in the Cambridge English: Prociency Writing paper Part 2 Preparation
ANARTICLEiswrittenonaparticularthemeinastylewhichmakesit
suitableforpublicationinanEnglish-languagenewspaper,magazineor
newsletter.Thequestionidentiesthetopicforthearticle,andthetypeof
publicationmentionedgivesthecandidateguidanceastotheappropriate
registertobeusedforexample,howacademicorlivelythearticleshould
be.Thepurposeofanarticleistoconveyinformation;itmaycontainsome
descriptionand/ornarrative,andcandidatesshouldbearinmindtheneed
toengagetheinterestoftheirreaders.
Studentsshouldberemindedthatasuccessfularticleinterestsandengages
thereader,oftenwithsomedescription,narrationandanecdote.Insome
cases,apersonalanglewillbeappropriateandacatchytitlewillattractthe
readersattention.However,remindstudentsthattherearemanydiferent
typesofarticle,andthattheyshouldcheckcarefullytoseewhatkindof
publicationtheyarebeingaskedtowritefor.Anarticleinanacademic
publicationwillhaveaverydiferentstyleandchoiceoflanguagefromone
inaninternationalmagazine.Itmaybeappropriatetouseheadingsforthe
varioussectionsinanarticle;whetherthisisdoneornot,thearticleneeds
tobewellplannedandparagraphed.Readinganddiscussingarangeof
articlesfromavarietyofpublicationswillbeusefulpreparationhere.
ANESSAYisusuallywrittenforateacher.Itshouldbewellorganised,with
anintroduction,cleardevelopmentandanappropriateconclusion.The
compulsoryPart1essayquestionwillinvolvereadingtwoshortinputtexts
onaparticulartopicandsummarisingandevaluatingthekeypointsfrom
thesetextsinthecontextofacoherentessayonthetopic,includingthe
candidatesownviews.Thesettextessayquestionsspecifywhatparticular
aspectofthesettext(developmentofcharacterorsignicanceofevents)
shouldformthecontentoftheessay.
Essaysmaybeunitedbyacentralideawhichprovidesapointand
purposetothewriting,sotheyneedcarefulplanning.Studentsshouldbe
encouragedtopractiseorganisingthepointstheywishtomakeandthe
textualreferencesthatwillsupportthesepointsinordertowriteaclearly
structuredessaywithasuitableintroduction,developmentandconclusion.
ALETTERiswritteninresponsetothesituationoutlinedinthequestion.
LettersintheCambridge English: ProciencyWritingpaperwillrequirea
responsewhichisconsistentlyappropriateforthespeciedtargetreader,
andcandidatescanexpecttobeaskedtowritelettersto,forexample,
theeditorofanewspaperormagazine,tothedirectorofaninternational
company,ortoaschoolorcollegeprincipal.Alettertoanewspaperor
magazinemaywellincludeanarrativeelementwhichdetailspersonal
experience;otherlettersmaybemoreconcernedwithgivingfactual
information.
Itisimportantthataletterbeginsandendsappropriately:itmaybe
appropriateatthebeginningtoexplainthereasonforwriting,andtheletter
shouldhaveasuitableconclusion.Studentsshouldbeencouragedtoread
anddiscusslettersinnewspapersandmagazinesasthismayhelpmake
themawareofthestyleofwritingrequired.
AREPORTiswrittenforaspeciedaudience.Thismaybeasuperior,
forexample,abossatwork,ormembersofapeergroup,colleaguesor
fellowclassmembers.Thequestionidentiesthesubjectofthereportand
speciestheareastobecovered.Thecontentofareportismainlyfactual
anddrawsonthepromptmaterial,buttherewillbescopeforcandidatesto
makeuseoftheirownideasandexperience.
Thepurposeofthereportmustbeidentiedsothatthecorrectinformation
canbeselected;establishingtheidentityofthetargetreaderwillensure
thatasuitablestyleandchoiceoflanguageisused.Itisalsoimportantfor
studentstoreadthecontextcarefullytoidentifytheirroleaswriter.Areport
shouldbewellorganisedandclearlyarrangedinsections.
Studentsshouldbegivenpracticeinachievingthis,perhapsbyusing
sectionheadingsandtheyshouldalsobegivenpracticeinwriting
anefectiveconclusion.Studentsshouldalsobeencouragedto
developanawarenessofthelanguagecommonlyusedinreports,for
examplethelanguageofdescribing,comparing,analysingandmaking
recommendations.
AREVIEWmaybeaboutabook,magazine,lm,play,orconcert,but
itmayalsobeabout,forexample,anexhibition.Thetargetreaderis
speciedinthequestion,sothecandidateknowsnotonlywhatregisteris
appropriate,butalsohasanideaaboutthekindofinformationtoinclude.
Areviewdoesnotmerelyrequireageneraldescriptionof,forexample,an
eventorpublication,butitspeciestheparticularaspectstobeconsidered.
Forexample,thereviewmayemploynarrative,aswellasdescriptiveand
evaluativelanguage,andarangeofvocabularyrelating,forexample,to
literatureandthemediasuchascinemaorTV.
Inordertobecomefamiliarwithwhatisrequiredofareview,students
shouldreadanddiscussarangeofreviewssuchascanbefoundinvarious
magazinesandnewspapers.Thelanguageappropriatetoareviewwill
include,forexample,languagefordescribing,narratingandevaluatingand
studentsshouldtrytoextendtheirvocabularytoincludethatrelatedto
literatureandthemedia.
SETTEXTquestionsmaybearticles,essays,letters,reportsorreviews. Settextsmaygiverisetousefulandstimulatingclassroomworkand
discussion.Candidateswhochoosethesequestionswillbeexpectedto
haveagoodknowledgeofthetext,orthelmversion,andtobeableto
dealwiththethemesandideasofthechosentext.Creditwillbegiven
forcontent,communicativeachievement,organisationandlanguage
competence;candidatesarenotexpectedtodemonstrateskillinliterary
analysis.Theyareexpected,however,toreadthequestioncarefullyand
toaddresstherequirementsofthetaskwhileclearlyreferringtospecic
eventsorcharactersfromthesettext.Usefulpreparationforthese
questionsmaybetoconsiderthemeswhichrunthroughthetextandthen
identifyeventsorcharactersthatexemplifythese.Studentsshouldbemade
awarethatmerelyreproducing,forinstance,asummaryofanovelsplot
oroutliningitsprincipalmessagewillnotprovideasuccessfulanswer,and
thattheirstatementsandopinionsmustbeclearlysupportedbyevidence
fromthetext.
Theseindicationsofreadershipandpurposearenotcomprehensive,butareintendedtogivesomeguidelinestothediferenttasktypes.
25 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE PAPER
EXAM | LEVEL |PAPER SAMPLEPAPER WRITING
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26 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | ASSESSMENT
AssessmentofWriting
Examinersandmarking
WritingExaminers(WEs)undergoarigorousprocessoftrainingand
certicationbeforetheyareinvitedtomark.Onceaccepted,theyare
supervisedbyTeamLeaders(TLs)whoareinturnledbyaPrincipal
Examiner(PE),whoguidesandmonitorsthemarkingprocess.
WEsmarkcandidateresponsesinasecureonlinemarking
environment.Thesoftwarerandomlyallocatescandidateresponses
toensurethatindividualexaminersdonotreceiveaconcentrationof
goodorweakresponses,orofanyonelanguagegroup.Thesoftware
alsoallowsforexaminersmarkingtobemonitoredforqualityand
consistency.Duringthemarkingperiod,thePEandTLsareable
toviewtheirteamsprogressandtoofersupportandadvice,as
required.
Assessmentscales
Examinersmarktasksusingassessmentscalesthatweredeveloped
withexplicitreferencetotheCommonEuropeanFrameworkof
ReferenceforLanguages(CEFR).Thescales,whichareusedacross
thespectrumofCambridgeESOLsGeneralandBusinessEnglish
Writingtests,consistoffoursubscales:Content,Communicative
Achievement,Organisation,andLanguage:
Contentfocusesonhowwellthecandidatehasfullledthetask,
inotherwordsiftheyhavedonewhattheywereaskedtodo.
CommunicativeAchievementfocusesonhowappropriatethe
writingisforthetaskandwhetherthecandidatehasusedthe
appropriateregister.
Organisationfocusesonthewaythecandidateputstogetherthe
pieceofwriting,inotherwordsifitislogicalandordered.
Languagefocusesonvocabularyandgrammar.Thisincludesthe
rangeoflanguageaswellashowaccurateitis.
Responsesaremarkedoneachsubscalefrom0to5.
Whenmarkingthetasks,examinerstakeintoaccountlengthof
responsesandvarietiesofEnglish:
Guidelinesonlengthareprovidedforeachtask;responses
whicharetooshortmaynothaveanadequaterangeoflanguage
andmaynotprovidealltheinformationthatisrequired,while
responseswhicharetoolongmaycontainirrelevantcontentand
haveanegativeefectonthereader.Thesemayafectcandidates
marksontherelevantsubscales.
CandidatesareexpectedtouseaparticularvarietyofEnglish
withsomedegreeofconsistencyinareassuchasspelling,and
notforexampleswitchfromusingaBritishspellingofawordto
anAmericanspellingofthesameword.
27 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | ASSESSMENT
CEFR
level
Communicative Achievement Organisation Language
Demonstratescompletecommandofthe
conventionsofthecommunicativetask.
Communicatescomplexideasinanefective
andconvincingway,holdingthetarget
readersattentionwithease,fulllingall
communicativepurposes.
Textisorganisedimpressivelyand
coherentlyusingawiderangeof
cohesivedevicesandorganisational
patternswithcompleteexibility.
Usesawiderangeofvocabulary,including
lesscommonlexis,withuency,precision,
sophistication,andstyle.
Useofgrammarissophisticated,fullycontrolled
andcompletelynatural.
Anyinaccuraciesoccuronlyasslips.
C2 Usestheconventionsofthecommunicative
taskwithsufcientexibilityto
communicatecomplexideasinanefective
way,holdingthetargetreadersattention
withease,fulllingallcommunicative
purposes.
Textisawell-organised,coherent
whole,usingavarietyofcohesive
devicesandorganisationalpatterns
withexibility.
Usesarangeofvocabulary,includingless
commonlexis,efectivelyandprecisely.
Usesawiderangeofsimpleandcomplex
grammaticalformswithfullcontrol,exibility
andsophistication.
Errors,ifpresent,arerelatedtolesscommon
wordsandstructures,oroccurasslips.
C1 Usestheconventionsofthecommunicative
taskefectivelytoholdthetargetreaders
attentionandcommunicatestraightforward
andcomplexideas,asappropriate.
Textiswell-organisedandcoherent,
usingavarietyofcohesivedevicesand
organisationalpatternstogenerally
goodefect.
Usesarangeofvocabulary,includingless
commonlexis,appropriately.
Usesarangeofsimpleandcomplexgrammatical
formswithcontrolandexibility.
Occasionalerrorsmaybepresentbutdonot
impedecommunication.
B2 Usestheconventionsofthecommunicative
tasktoholdthetargetreadersattentionand
communicatestraightforwardideas.
Textisgenerallywell-organisedand
coherent,usingavarietyoflinking
wordsandcohesivedevices.
Usesarangeofeverydayvocabulary
appropriately,withoccasionalinappropriateuse
oflesscommonlexis.
Usesarangeofsimpleandsomecomplex
grammaticalformswithagooddegreeofcontrol.
Errorsdonotimpedecommunication.
B1 Usestheconventionsofthecommunicative
taskingenerallyappropriatewaysto
communicatestraightforwardideas.
Textisconnectedandcoherent,using
basiclinkingwordsandalimited
numberofcohesivedevices.
Useseverydayvocabularygenerally
appropriately,whileoccasionallyoverusing
certainlexis.
Usessimplegrammaticalformswithagood
degreeofcontrol.
Whileerrorsarenoticeable,meaningcanstillbe
determined.
A2 Producestextthatcommunicatessimple
ideasinsimpleways.
Textisconnectedusingbasic,high-
frequencylinkingwords.
Usesbasicvocabularyreasonablyappropriately.
Usessimplegrammaticalformswithsome
degreeofcontrol.
Errorsmayimpedemeaningattimes.
ThesubscaleContentiscommontoalllevels:
Content
5 All content is relevant to the task.
Target reader is fully informed.
3 Minor irrelevances and/or omissions may be present.
Target reader is on the whole informed.
1 Irrelevances and misinterpretation of task may be present.
Target reader is minimally informed.
0 Content is totally irrelevant.
Target reader is not informed.
Theremainingthreesubscales(CommunicativeAchievement,
Organisation,andLanguage)havedescriptorsspecictoeach
CEFRlevel:
28 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
Cambridge English: ProciencyWritingExaminersusethefollowingassessmentscale,extractedfromtheoneonthepreviouspage:
WRITING | ASSESSMENT
C2 Content Communicative Achievement Organisation Language
5 Allcontentisrelevanttothe
task.
Targetreaderisfullyinformed.
Demonstratescomplete
commandoftheconventions
ofthecommunicativetask.
Communicatescomplexideas
inanefectiveandconvincing
way,holdingthetarget
readersattentionwithease,
fulllingallcommunicative
purposes.
Textisorganisedimpressively
andcoherentlyusingawide
rangeofcohesivedevicesand
organisationalpatternswith
completeexibility.
Usesawiderangeofvocabulary,
includinglesscommonlexis,with
uency,precision,sophistication,and
style.
Useofgrammarissophisticated,fully
controlledandcompletelynatural.
Anyinaccuraciesoccuronlyasslips.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Minorirrelevancesand/or
omissionsmaybepresent.
Targetreaderisonthewhole
informed.
Usestheconventionsof
thecommunicativetask
withsufcientexibilityto
communicatecomplexideas
inanefectiveway,holding
thetargetreadersattention
withease,fulllingall
communicativepurposes.
Textisawell-organised,
coherentwhole,usinga
varietyofcohesivedevices
andorganisationalpatterns
withexibility.
Usesarangeofvocabulary,including
lesscommonlexis,efectivelyand
precisely.
Usesawiderangeofsimpleand
complexgrammaticalformswithfull
control,exibilityandsophistication.
Errors,ifpresent,arerelatedtoless
commonwordsandstructures,oroccur
asslips.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Irrelevancesand
misinterpretationoftaskmay
bepresent.
Targetreaderisminimally
informed.
Usestheconventionsof
thecommunicativetask
efectivelytoholdthetarget
readersattentionand
communicatestraightforward
andcomplexideas,as
appropriate.
Textiswell-organisedand
coherent,usingavariety
ofcohesivedevicesand
organisationalpatternsto
generallygoodefect.
Usesarangeofvocabulary,including
lesscommonlexis,appropriately.
Usesarangeofsimpleandcomplex
grammaticalformswithcontroland
exibility.
Occasionalerrorsmaybepresentbutdo
notimpedecommunication.
0 Contentistotallyirrelevant.
Targetreaderisnotinformed.
Performance below Band 1.
29 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | GLOSSARY OF TERMS
CambridgeESOLWriting
markscheme
Glossaryofterms
1. GENERAL
Generally Generally is a qualier meaning not in every way or instance. Thus,
generally appropriately refers to performance that is not as good
as appropriately.
Flexibility Flexible and exibly refer to the ability to adapt whether
language, organisational devices, or task conventions rather than
using the same form over and over, thus evidencing better control
and a wider repertoire of the resource. Flexibility allows a candidate
to better achieve communicative goals.
2. CONTENT
Relevant Relevant means related or relatable to required content points and/
or task requirements.
Target reader The target reader is the hypothetical reader set up in the task, e.g. a
magazines readership, your English teacher.
Informed The target reader is informed if content points and/or task
requirements are addressed and appropriately developed. Some
content points do not require much development (e.g. state what
is x) while others require it (describe, explain).
3. COMMUNICATIVE ACHIEVEMENT
Conventions
of the
communicative
task
Conventions of the communicative task include such things
as genre, format, register, and function. For example, a personal
letter should not be written as a formal report, should be laid out
accordingly, and use the right tone for the communicative purpose.
Holding the
target readers
attention
Holding the target readers attention is used in the positive sense
and refers to the quality of a text that allows a reader to derive
meaning and not be distracted. It does not refer to texts that force
a reader to read closely because they are difcult to follow or make
sense of.
Communicative
purpose
Communicative purpose refers to the communicative
requirements as set out in the task, e.g. make a complaint, suggest
alternatives.
Straightforward
and complex
ideas
Straightforward ideas are those which relate to relatively limited
subject matter, usually concrete in nature, and which require simpler
rhetorical devices to communicate. Complex ideas are those which
are of a more abstract nature, or which cover a wider subject area,
requiring more rhetorical resources to bring together and express.
4. ORGANISATION
Linking words,
cohesive
devices, and
organisational
patterns
Linking words are cohesive devices, but are separated here to refer
to higher-frequency vocabulary which provide explicit linkage. They
can range from basic high frequency items (such as and, but) to
basic and phrasal items (such as because, rst of all, nally).
Cohesive devices refers to more sophisticated linking words and
phrases (e.g. moreover, it may appear, as a result), as well
as grammatical devices such as the use of reference pronouns,
substitution (e.g. There are two women in the picture. The one on
the right ), ellipsis (e.g. The rst car he owned was a convertible,
the second a family car.), or repetition.
Organisational patterns refers to less-explicit ways of achieving
connection at the between sentence level and beyond, e.g.
arranging sentences in climactic order, the use of parallelism, using
a rhetorical question to set up a new paragraph.
5. LANGUAGE
Vocabulary Basic vocabulary refers to vocabulary used for survival purposes,
for simple transactions, and the like.
Everyday vocabulary refers to vocabulary that comes up in
common situations of a non-technical nature in the relevant
domain.
Less common lexis refers to vocabulary items that appear less
often in the relevant domain. These items often help to express
ideas more succinctly and precisely.
Appropriacy of
vocabulary
Appropriacy of vocabulary: the use of words and phrases that
t the context of the given task. For example, in Im very sensible
to noise, the word sensible is inappropriate as the word should
be sensitive. Another example would be Todays big snow makes
getting around the city difcult. The phrase getting around is well
suited to this situation. However, big snow is inappropriate as big
and snow are not used together. Heavy snow would be appropriate.
Grammatical
forms
Simple grammatical forms: words, phrases, basic tenses and
simple clauses.
Complex grammatical forms: longer and more complex items, e.g.
noun clauses, relative and adverb clauses, subordination, passive
forms, innitives, verb patterns, modal forms and tense contrasts.
Grammatical
control
Grammatical control: the ability to consistently use grammar
accurately and appropriately to convey intended meaning.
Where language specications are provided at lower levels (as in
Cambridge English: Key (KET) and Cambridge English: Preliminary
(PET)), candidates may have control of only the simplest exponents
of the listed forms.
Range Range: the variety of words and grammatical forms a candidate
uses. At higher levels, candidates will make increasing use
of a greater variety of words, xed phrases, collocations and
grammatical forms.
Overuse Overuse refers to those cases where candidates repeatedly use the
same word because they do not have the resources to use another
term or phrase the same idea in another way. Some words may
unavoidably appear often as a result of being the topic of the task;
that is not covered by the term overuse here.
Errors and slips Errors are systematic mistakes. Slips are mistakes that are non-
systematic, i.e. the candidate has learned the vocabulary item or
grammatical structure, but just happened to make a mistake in this
instance. In a candidates response, where most other examples of
a lexical/grammatical point are accurate, a mistake on that point
would most likely be a slip.
Impede
communication
Impede communication means getting in the way of meaning.
Meaning can still be determined indicates that some efort is
required from the reader to determine meaning.
30 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
WRITING | QUESTION 1
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 4 Allcontentisrelevanttothetask,althoughthenalkeypointisnotaddressed.Nevertheless,thetargetreaderwould
beinformed.
Communicative
Achievement
3 Usestheconventionsoftheessaywithsufcientexibilitytocommunicatecomplexideasinanefectiveway,holding
thetargetreadersattentionwitheaseandfulllingallcommunicativepurposesassetoutinthetask.Theregisteris
occasionallyuneven(rising thru the ranks, dizzy heights).
Organisation 3 Thetextisawell-organised,coherentwhole,usingavarietyofcohesivedevicesandorganisationalpatternswith
exibility(In this connection, the above-mentioned, moreover, for example, Throughout the history of humanity)though
despite thatdoesnotseemtobeemployedcorrectly.
Language 2 Awiderangeofvocabulary,includinglesscommonlexis,isusedefectively,andsometimeswithstyle(deeply
ingrained in their consciousness, perennial problem, quicker on the uptake, adhere to their own set of beliefs, t the mould,
fullling their potential, by leaps and bounds, social norms, coming to terms).
Usesarangeofsimpleandcomplexgrammaticalformswithcontrolandexibility.
Grammaticalandlexicalerrorsarepresentbutdonotimpedecommunication.
Behavioural Change
Our modern life often poses us a question what is acceptable in terms of behaviour considering the fast
pace at which modern society changes. Besides, the shift towards the cult of individuality has been obvious
for the past years.
Nowadays, we are all aware of the fact that society is made up of different generations each of which
has their own preferences and habits deeply ingrained in their consciousness. In this connection the
generation gap is considered to be a perennial problem. It is a well-known fact younger generations are more
technologically advanced than the previous ones, moreover the young are quicker on the uptake and more
resilient to ever changing demands of our life. Despite that, I am inclined to believe that only by being tolerant
to each other and accepting the right of each generation to adhere to their own set of beliefs and ideas we will
be able to peacefully co-exist in society.
At last society has recognised the need for each member to be an individual. Throughout the history of
humanity members of society have had to fit the mould and conform to the set of principles and beliefs
accepted. For example, even 50 years ago womans only domain was household chores. Nowadays, we are
relieved to see that women are equal members of society fulfilling their potential and rising thru the ranks.
Some of them even manage to achieve dizzy heights.
In conclusion, our society is moving forward by leaps and bounds, patterns of behaviour and social norms are
changing as well. So, only by coming to terms with the above-mentioned we, all members of it, wont be deemed
as misfits and relish our existence in the society.
Question1
CandidateA
31 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
WRITING | QUESTION 1
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 5 Targetreaderisfullyinformed.
Allcontentisrelevanttothetask.
Communicative
Achievement
4 Usestheconventionsoftheessaytocommunicatecomplexideasinanefectiveandconvincingway,holdingthe
targetreadersattentionwithease,fulllingallcommunicativepurposes.
Organisation 4 Textisawell-organised,coherentwhole,usingawidevarietyofcohesivedevicesandorganisationalpatternswith
exibility(The term society describes ..., So, by denition, However, Consequently, Yet, Whereas, Yet at the heart of the
matter is not ...).Clearparagraphingwouldhaveenhancedcoherencefurther.
Language 5 Usesawiderangeofvocabulary,includinglesscommonlexis,withuency,precision,sophistication,andstyle(in a ...
sociological sense, individuality comes into play, critically reviewed, stiing, leapfrog towards).
Useofgrammarissophisticated,fullycontrolledandnatural(Just as ... so it is for, But it might also be that ...).
Anyinaccuraciesoccuronlyasslips(being, being).
The term society describes a group of people having something in common a birdwatchers society shares
a pastime, society in a more general rather more sociological sense shares a set of values. So, by definition,
a certain degree of conformity is needed: If no-one adhered to such values (or nobody shared the pastime)
there would be no society. However, conforming to social norms, meant to uphold the values, requires these
to be meaningful and the meaning of norms will change just like the people making up a society will change.
After all, the norms are just a reflection of the people living according to them. Consequently, adherence for
adherences sake is wrong and this is where individuality comes into play. Norms have to be critically reviewed,
lest they become stifling. So indeed, conformity does not bring about progress. Yet individuality has to take
into account others individuality as well, that is to say, ones own ends where that of others begins. While
this limits the degree of individuality of any single person within a society, it allows society to exist as such in
the face of individuality. Just as individuality being, being treated as and seeing oneself as an individual is
vital for a persons health, so it is for society, which should be made up of healthy individuals. Older individuals
might disagree with younger ones about which values bear which weight or indeed about which values they
share at all. This might be due to values having changed between the time when the older ones were raised
and imprinted with values and the time when that was the case for younger ones. But it might also be that
the actual values (norms) havent changed that much but are rather expressed differently. Most of the time,
norms drift rather than leapfrog towards new meaning. Still, the perception is a disagreement. The rise of
electronic equipment in public places illustrates this. Whereas older people might consider it unacceptable, it
is normal for younger ones. Yet at the heart of the matter is not the issue whether such devices are used or
not but how sensitively and with respect for others, or not. And I think that most people would agree that
sometimes they do not want to be disturbed and that is the value that is still shared. In everyday life, such
disagreement can only be resolved by communicating. Communication is a two-way process and, as such,
requires understanding, awareness and respect for other peoples views.
Question1
CandidateB
32 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
WRITING | QUESTION 1
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 5 Targetreaderisfullyinformed.
Allcontentisrelevanttothetask.
Communicative
Achievement
4 Usesconventionsoftheessaytocommunicatecomplexideasinanefectiveandconvincingway,holdingthetarget
readersattentionwithease,fulllingallcommunicativepurposes.
Organisation 4 Textisawell-organised,coherentwhole,usingawiderangeofcohesivedevicesandorganisationalpatternswith
exibility.
Language 5 Usesawiderangeofvocabulary,includinglesscommonlexis,withuency,precision,sophistication,andstyle
(over-arching theme, difering viewpoints, contentious, an end in themselves).
Useofgrammarissophisticated,fullycontrolledandcompletelynatural.
The over-arching theme of these two texts is social behaviour.
The first considers the fact that different groups of society have different ideas about what is acceptable
behaviour. What is normal for one set of people may appear rude to another group. This text makes the point
that it is important to appreciate that others may have differing viewpoints, claiming that such awareness
can help to avoid social conflicts. The second text looks at the issue from a contrasting angle. It argues
against the desirability of behaving in socially acceptable ways. Its contention is that being too concerned
about social conventions stifles individuality and may even have a negative effect on our own psychological
health.
In my opinion, there is little to disagree with in the first text. It is an undeniable fact that behavioural norms
vary across generations, classes and cultures and it is also true that understanding and tolerance provide
the soundest basis for our approach to social difference.
The second text is possibly more contentious. While it may be the case that some people are over-concerned
about etiquette and unimportant social rules, I feel that some conventions for social behaviour have a positive
impact on everyones lives. It all depends on the type of rule. I do not feel that it is important to know which
way you should tip your bowl when eating soup or when you should or shouldnt wear gloves but I do think it
is desirable to say please and thank you and to behave in a considerate way towards ones fellows. In other
words, I think that basic social conventions serve a useful purpose but that they should be used to oil our
interactions rather than becoming too much of an end in themselves.
Question1
CandidateC
33 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
WRITING | QUESTION 1
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 5 Targetreaderisfullyinformed.
Allcontentisrelevanttothetask.
Communicative
Achievement
5 Demonstratescompletecommandoftheconventionsoftheessay.Communicatescomplexideasinanefectiveand
convincingway,holdingthetargetreadersattentionwithease,fulllingallcommunicativepurposes.Efectiveuseof
openingquestiontoengagethereadersattention.
Organisation 5 Textisorganisedimpressivelyandcoherentlyusingawiderangeofcohesivedevicesandorganisationalpatternswith
completeexibility(Some people ..., However, Similarly, The key ..., In general).Paragraphdivisionsclearlysupportthe
internalorganisationoftheargument,whichintegratesevaluationofkeypointsandwritersownviewssubtlyand
uently.Openingquestionclearlyaddressedandreturnedtointheconclusion.
Language 5 Usesawiderangeofvocabulary,includinglesscommonlexis,withuency,precision,sophistication,andstyle(social
norms, conduct ourselves, obey the rules of etiquette, imaginative empathy, unhealthily anxious, inappropriate behaviour).
Useofgrammarissophisticated,fullycontrolledandcompletelynatural.
How should we behave in society? Should we follow social norms or should we use our own individual judgement
to decide what is the appropriate way to conduct ourselves?
Some people find it very important to obey the rules of etiquette, to do what others consider proper. There
are people often the older generation who get very upset when others do not follow social conventions,
when they, for example, speak loudly on mobile phones in public places or lick their fingers or queue jump.
However, it should be noted that the things that irritate people will vary from one society to the next;
the rules of queue behavour, for instance, are very different in London, Moscow and Istanbul, and how it is
acceptable to use a mobile phone differs considerably from one society to the next. Similarly, it is important
to remember that social conventions change over time. It was once considered improper to eat on the street
but now no-one pays the slightest attention to someone walking along munching a sandwich or an apple. The
key to avoiding conflict, it seems, is imaginative empathy.
In general, it is counter-productive to worry too much about what the socially acceptable way to behave might
be in any given situation. It can stop you thinking about what is the moral way to behave as you may become
more focused on what is proper rather than on what is right. You can also start suppressing your own
important individuality and originality as you become unhealthily anxious about what others might be thinking.
The rules that do not and should not change are those regarding behaviour that has an effect on others.
Dropping litter, for example, or pushing someone out of the way should always be condemned as inappropriate
behaviour
Question1
CandidateD
34 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
WRITING | QUESTION 2
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 5 Allcontentisrelevanttothetask.Thetargetreaderisfullyinformed.
Communicative
Achievement
4 Theconventionsofthereviewareusedwithsufcientexibilitytocommunicatecomplexideasinanefectiveand
convincingway,holdingthereadersattentionwithease,fulllingallcommunicativepurposes.
Organisation 3 Thetextisawell-organised,coherentwholewhichusesavarietyofcohesivedevicesandorganisationalpatterns
withexibility(contrary to what one might think, although, however, This is something, another thing)althoughthereare
instanceswhentheyarenotusedaccurately(Despite, not to mention).
Language 3 Arangeofvocabulary,includinglesscommonlexis,isusedefectivelyandprecisely(limited resources, efortlessly,
remote village, come up with).
Awiderangeofsimpleandcomplexgrammaticalformsareusedwithfullcontrol,exibilityandsomesophistication
(I wished I could, far from boring, contrary to what one might think when imagining life in ...).Thereareafewslips(since
1930s, I have truly enjoyed).
Childhood Book
One of my favourite childhood books is the Six Bullerby Children written by Astrid Lindergren, a famous
Swedish author.The story is set in a three-farm remote village of Bullerby in Sweden.
The narrator is a seven-year-old girl, Lisa who, with her parents and two older brothers - Lasse and Bosse,
lives in one of the houses. Lisa describes the daily life of the children in Bullerby which contrary to what one
might think when imagining life in a small, remote village is far from boring. The children have plenty of funny
ideas, which often lead to amusing adventures.
Although the book was included in the compulsory school literature when I was a child (which often meant long,
boring reads), I have truly enjoyed the adventures of Lisa and her friends. Despite very limited resources (the
story is set in 1930s when children did not have many toys, not to mention a TV or video games!) the children
always come up with exciting games or things to play with. This is something I admired and wished I could do
when reading the book.
Another thing which appealed to me as a child was the natural childlike way in which Lisa (or Astrid Lindgren,
the author) could tell the story connecting effortlessly with the young readers.
Despite the environment in which the children live nowadays has changed considerably since 1930s, children
will always be children and if the book has appealed to so many young generations since it was published, I
believe it will retain its impact. It can be more, even more relevant today, when children are presented with
things to play, instead of inventing games themselves. Reading the book could definitely wake up their innate
creativity.
Six Bullerby Children could, however, also be more relavent to adults who would like to either return to their
childhood for a little while, or be able to connect with their own children a bit better.
Question2
CandidateE
35 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
WRITING | QUESTION 3
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 5 Allcontentisrelevanttothetask.Thetargetreaderisfullyinformed.
Communicative
Achievement
4 Agoodcommandoftheconventionsofareportisdemonstrated.Complexideasarecommunicatedinanefective
way,holdingthereadersattentionwitheaseandfulllingallcommunicativepurposes.
Thestyleisappropriatelyformalthroughoutandtheuseofappropriateheadingsshowsthatasuitableformathas
beenadopted.
Organisation 3 Thetextisawell-organisedandcoherentwholethatusesavarietyofcohesivedevicesandorganisationalpatterns
withexibility(All in all, This is something that ..., in terms of, In my opinion)although,inthenalparagraph,arangeof
cohesivedevicesissomewhatlacking.
Language 4 Arangeofvocabulary,includinglesscommonlexis,isusedefectivelyandprecisely(a wealth of promotional literature,
work-related talks, stands, fellow-students, vacancies).
Theuseofgrammarisoftensophisticated,fullycontrolledandcompletelynatural(... that we might not otherwise have
known about, left the event feeling that their career plans had been transformed by ...).
Jobs Fair
Recent Jobs Fair
Last weekend there was a Jobs Fair in the Town Hall. Over 100 different international companies and
organisations had stands giving information about the careers they can offer young people. There were plenty
people on each stand to answer questions and to give advice and there was also a wealth of promotional
literature available, The Fair also arranged a series of work-related talks, films and other events in the course
of the weekend.
Promotions of particular interest
All in all it was an excellent event. There were two stands that I personally found particularly interesting
and relevant. The first was one promoting opportunities for language teaching abroad. This is something
that I and a number of fellow-students have been seriously considering. We were able to find out there about
what qualifications we would need, what kind of working conditions we could expect and where there might be
interesting vacancies for us to apply for.
The second stand that drew my particular attention was one for a charity offering young people opportunities
to gain experience of other countries and cultures while helping on a range of voluntary projects abroad.
These projects included medical, environmental, construction and educational work in a number of different
countries. I was able to talk to several young people who had already participated in such work and gained a
very positive impression of the benefits of taking part.
Value of such events
In my opinion such events are of great benefit to young people. They inform us about opportunities that we
might not otherwise have known about. They expand our horizons in terms of what we can aspire to. Several of
my friends, for example, left the event feeling that their career plans had been transformed by what they have
discovered during the Jobs Fair. We all agreed that our eyes had been opened to new opportunities in a very
valuable way.
Question3
CandidateF
36 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
WRITING | QUESTION 4
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 5 Allcontentisrelevanttothetaskandthetargetreaderisfullyinformed.
Communicative
Achievement
5 Acompletecommandoftheconventionsofthearticleisdemonstrated,withideascommunicatedinanefectiveand
convincingway,holdingthetargetreadersattentionwitheaseandfulllingallcommunicativepurposes.
Theintroductionisparticularlyefectivewiththereaderdrawninbytheuseofahighlyappropriateandinteresting
quotationfromafamouswriter.
Organisation 4 Thetextisorganisedverywellandiscoherentthroughout,usingagoodrangeofcohesivedevicesandorganisational
patternswithexibility(Although, Some years ago, But in my opinion, These days).
Language 5 Awiderangeofvocabularyincludinglesscommonlexisisusedefectively,preciselyandwithstyle(chugged
eastwards, immensely enriching, hop on a plane, to savour, samovar, for its own sake).
Theuseofgrammarissophisticated,fullycontrolledandcompletelynatural.Itisworthnotingthatthereareno
grammaticalerrorsatall,notevenslips.
Long-distance Travel
The Scottish writer, Robert Louis Stevenson, used to say that he travelled not to go anywhere but to go. In
other words he loved travelling for its own sake. Although I enjoy being at a new destination, I agree that the
journey there can be the most exciting and rewarding part of any holiday.
Some years ago I studied Russian at university and used to travel frequently to Russia. I usually went by
train, by far the cheapest way to get there then. This involved a three-day train journey across the Channel
and then over the North European Plain through Belgium, Germany, Poland and Byelorus to Moscow. The train
from Ostend was a Russian one and once on board you felt as if you were already in Russia, especially as you
poured yourself a glass of tea from the samovar at the end of each carriage and made yourself comfortable
for the two nights youd spend in your sleeping compartment.
I loved the sense of gradually making my way into a different world. Towns and villages became less frequent
and fields turned into forests as we chugged eastwards. The children who waved at the train as it passed
began to have high Slav cheekbones. Travelling slowly gives you time to savour the gradual changes, to think
about where youre going or where youve just been, to adapt to a new way of being. This opportunity to reflect
is immensely enriching.
These days its cheaper to hop on a plane than a train and you can now get to Russia in three hours instead
of three days. Lunch in London and dinner in Moscow has become possible thanks to the jet engine. In many
ways the journey could be seen as easier now. But in my opinion travelling by rail is still much more satisfying,
providing a real sense of the distance both geographical and social - between different countries.
Question4
CandidateG
37 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
WRITING | QUESTION 4
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 5 Allthecontentisrelevanttothetask.Targetreaderisfullyinformed.
Communicative
Achievement
3 Theconventionsofthearticleareusedwithsufcientexibilitytocommunicatecomplexideasinanefectiveway,
holdingthetargetreadersattentionwithease,fulllingallcommunicativepurposes.
Thenalparagraphismoreappropriatetotheconclusionofanessayratherthananarticle,butgenerallythestyleis
appropriateforanarticlewrittentoengageandholdareadersinterest.
Organisation 3 Thetextisawell-organised,coherentwholewhichusesavarietyofcohesivedevicesandorganisationalpatternswith
exibility(First of all, namely, Thanks to).
Thereareacoupleofinstancesofincorrectlyusedcohesivedevices(comparing to, under the condition that)andthe
thirdparagraphcouldhavebeendividedintotwoforgreaterclarity.
Language 2 Awiderangeofvocabulary,includinglesscommonlexis,isusedefectivelyandwithuency(no-frills airlines,
de-humanising, perched on the mountain sides, social interaction, engage in long conversations, strolling).However,thereare
examplesofincorrectlychosenwords(ache, overweight)andinafewplacesvocabularyisrepetitive(views).
Awiderangeofbothsimpleandcomplexgrammaticalformsisusedwithcontrolandexibility.
Occasionalerrorsdonotimpedecommunication.
Long-distance Travel
With the rapid pace in which technology has been developing over the last decades, air travel has become more and
more affordable to the hoi polloi. This is particularly true since the spread of the no-frills airlines which have taken
over Europe by storm. Air travel offers relatively cheap and fast journey to its passengers, which explains its recent
rise. But are these journeys pleasant ones? Recent opinion polls show they are not. People are unhappy about the
weight and size limits on luggage, numerous changes, stress related to queues to check-in, security and then to
the gate . . . . The largest ache for air passengers, however, seems to be the lack of human interaction amid the de-
humanising feel of the airports.
I recently had an opportunity and a pleasure to travel by train to a family wedding in Germany. Despite the fact
the journey took 6 hours longer than it would by plane, it was a truly enjoyable experience. The rail track passed
through beautiful, green mountain valleys, offering amazing views of numerous castles perched on the mountain
sides and the views of medieval towns. I have also met a few very nice local people who entertained me during the
journey with interesting and funny stories of their family weddings.
Thanks to excellent views and the people I travelled with, the journey felt unbelievably short. There are many
advantages of travelling long distances by train, most of which overweight the largest disadvantage to some
namely the length of the journey. First of all one is able to meet interesting people and engage in long
conversations a train journey seems to be a more welcoming environment for social interaction than a quick
flight is. Secondly, whilst passing through the towns and villages rather than flying over them one is able to better
experience the culture. There are also practical advantages like the lack of strict luggage restrictions, less
queues and the ability to open the window to get some fresh air. There are also less problems with the leg space
and a possibility to stretch them by strolling to the restaurant carriage or up and down the train.
To conclude, train travel could lead to a better travel experience comparing to the aircraft, under the condition
that the passenger is open to experiencing the journey and is able to sacrifice a bit more time travelling.
Question4
CandidateH
38 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
WRITING | SAMPLE SCRIPTS WITH EXAMINER COMMENTS
WRITING | QUESTION 5(b)
Examinercomments
Subscale Mark Commentary
Content 5 Allcontentisrelevanttothetaskandthetargetreaderwouldbefullyinformedthoughthereisrelativelylittledirect
referencetospeciceventsandcharactersinthebook.
Communicative
Achievement
3 Usestheconventionsofthereportwithsufcientexibilitytocommunicatecomplexideasinanefectiveway,
holdingthetargetreadersattentionwitheaseandfulllingallcommunicativepurposes.
Thestyleandregisterareformalthroughout,asonewouldexpectfromareport,andtheformatisalsohighly
appropriatewithclearheadingsused.
Organisation 2 Thetextiswell-organisedandcoherentandusesavarietyofcohesivedevicesandorganisationalpatterns
(referencingpronouns,but, so the question ... is ...).However,theparagraphsarenotlinkedtogetherparticularlywell
andseemtostandalone.
Language 3 Arangeofvocabulary,includinglesscommonlexis,isusedefectivelyandprecisely(profound implications, abandoning
his former cynical approach, takes a compassionate view, journey of self-discovery, pile of contaminated rubble).
Awiderangeofsimpleandcomplexgrammaticalformsisusedwithfullcontrol,exibilityandsophistication,with
onlyafewslips.
Thereareanumberofvocabularyerrors(sparkle the interest, tolerating view, terbid, eminent)whichdonotimpede
communication.
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep by Philip K Dick is a title of profound implications, able to sparkle the interest of
the average reader.
The Plot
The story follows the life and experiences of Rick Deckard who works for the San Francisco Police Department on a
journey of self-discovery through the landscapes of a post-apocalyptic Earth. A couple of decades ago there was a
major nuclear catastrophe that has gradually reduced Earth to a pile of contaminated rubble. Most animal species are
extinct and a vast percentage of the population has emigrated to the newly-colonized planet Mars. Those left behind
have no choice but to continue their lives as best as possible enduring the radioactivity still eminent in the atmosphere.
Emigrants to Mars are given specially-designed Androids which are human-like robots to aid them in the planets hostile
conditions. Deckards official capacity is bounty hunter with the job of hunting down escaped Androids from Mars in
order to retire them before causing harm to humans.
Title meaning and importance
The title of the novel asks the rhetoric question of whether these outwardly human robots are capable of dreaming and
having emotions in the form that their human masters are. This theme is developed as Deckard undergoes profound
changes regarding his attitude towards Androids, ultimately abandoning his former cynical approach in favour of a
more tolerating view of them. The distinction between human beings and Androids grows increasingly terbid and towards
the end Deckard takes a compassionate view of the Androids in terms of their plight which is solely mans creation. It
highlights that we may, in the not so distant future, manufacture robots that might be dangerously close to humans in
their resemblance of them
Titles application to the story
The title clearly reflects major premises of the story, such as the thin line between humans and their robotic creations.
There are many surreal moments during which Androids even seem like human beings in their reactions but they cannot
escape their fate and must succumb to the horrible facts of their existence. So the question in the title is arguably a
concrete negative one, but is meant to be addressed in a philosophical way.
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep is very captivating at times and the reader can identify with the characters and
their respective struggles. Its title carries with it a resonance able to draw the readers attention.
Question5(b)
CandidateI
39 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
Structureandtasks
PART1
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Three-optionmultiplechoice.
Gist,detail,function,purpose,topic,speaker,
feeling,attitude,opinion,etc.
FORMAT Threeshortunrelatedtextslasting
approximately1minuteeach,consistingof
eithermonologuesorexchangesbetween
interactingspeakers.Therearetwomultiple-
choicequestionspertext,eachwiththree
options.
NO.OFQS 6
PART2
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Sentencecompletion.
Detail,statedopinion.
FORMAT Amonologuelasting3to4minutes.
NO.OFQS 9
PART3
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Four-optionmultiplechoice.
Opinion,gist,detail,inference,agreement.
FORMAT Atextinvolvinginteractingspeakerslasting
3to4minutes.
NO.OFQS 5
PART4
TASKTYPE
ANDFOCUS
Multiplematching.
Gist,attitude,mainpoints,interpreting
context.
FORMAT Fiveshortthemedmonologues,of
approximately35secondseach.Thereare
twomultiple-matchingtasks.Eachmultiple-
matchingtaskrequiresselectionoftheve
correctoptionsfromalistofeight.
NO.OFQS 10
Generaldescription
PAPERFORMAT Thepapercontainsfourparts.Each
partcontainsarecordedtextortexts
andcorrespondingcomprehension
tasks.Eachpartisheardtwice.
TIMING Approximately40minutes
NO.OFPARTS 4
NO.OFQUESTIONS 30
TASKTYPES Multiplechoice,sentence
completion,multiplematching
TEXTTYPES Monologues or interacting
speakers:interviews,discussions,
conversations,radioplays,talks,
speeches,lectures,commentaries,
documentaries,instructions.
ANSWERFORMAT Candidatesareadvisedtowritetheir
answersinthespacesprovidedon
thequestionpaperwhilelistening.
Therewillbe5minutesattheend
ofthetesttocopytheanswers
ontotheseparateanswersheet.
Candidatesindicatetheiranswers
byshadingthecorrectlozengesor
writingtherequiredwordorshort
phraseinaboxontheanswersheet.
RECORDING
INFORMATION
Theinstructionsforeachtaskare
giveninthequestionpaper,and
arealsoheardontherecording.
Theseinstructionsincludethe
announcementofpausesofspecied
lengths,duringwhichcandidatescan
familiarisethemselveswiththetask.
Avarietyofvoices,stylesofdelivery
andaccentswillbeheardineach
Listeningpapertoreectthevarious
contextspresentedintherecordings,
asappropriatetotheinternational
contextsofthetesttakers.
MARKS Eachcorrectanswerreceives1mark.
Listening
40 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
Thefourpartsofthe
Listeningpaper
PART1 Multiple choice
This part tests candidates ability to listen for a variety of focuses.
Sample task, audioscript and answer key: pages 42, 45
and 49.

EachcorrectanswerinPart1receives1mark.
Thesixquestionsinthispartrelatetothreeseparatetexts(two
questionspertext).Thetextsmaybeself-containedormay
beextractsfromlongertexts.Thethreetextsareamixtureof
monologuesandtextswithinteractingspeakers.Candidatesshould
readtheintroductorysentencecarefullyasthisgivesinformation
whichwillhelptocontextualisewhattheywillhear.Eachquestion
focusesonadiferentaspectofeachtext,forexample:
Whatisthespeakersattitudetothosewhocomplain?
Inthespeakersopinion,whatexplainstheteamsrecentlackof
success?
PART2 Sentence completion
This part tests candidates ability to listen for specic words or phrases and
produce written answers in response to the sentences.
Sample task, audioscript and answer key: pages 43, 45
and 49.

EachcorrectanswerinPart2receives1mark.
Candidateslistentoamonologueofaninformativenature,aimed
atanon-specialistaudience.Theninequestionsinthisparttake
theformofincompletesentences.Thecandidatesshowtheir
understandingofwhattheyhaveheardbycompletinggapsinthese
sentences.Answersareshort,generallyintheformofsinglewords
ornoungroups.Theymustbespelledcorrectlyandmusttintothe
grammaticalstructureofthesentence.Thequestionsfollowtheorder
oftheinformationinthetextandcandidateswritedownthewords
thatareheardontherecording.
PART3 Multiple choice
This part tests candidates ability to listen for opinion, gist, detail and
inference.
Sample task, audioscript and answer key: pages 43, 46
and 49.

EachcorrectanswerinPart3receives1mark.
Candidateslistentoatextinwhichopinionsandattitudesare
expressed,bothimplicitlyandexplicitly.Thevefour-optionmultiple-
choicequestionsinthispartfocusondetailedunderstandingof
pointsraised.Questionsfollowtheorderoftheinformationheardin
thetext,butthenalquestionmaytestglobalunderstandingofthe
textasawhole.
PART4 Multiple matching
This part tests candidates ability to identify the gist of a number of short
texts on a theme by identifying main points and interpreting context.
Sample task, audioscript and answer key: pages 44, 47
and 49.

EachcorrectanswerinPart4receives1mark.
Part4consistsofaseriesofveshortmonologuesonatheme.
Thetextis34minutesinlengthwitheachmonologuelasting
approximately35seconds.Themonologuesrepresentspontaneous
speech,deliveredbyspeakerswitharangeofbackgroundsand
voices.Therearetwoparallelmultiple-matchingtasks,eachwitha
diferentfocus.Ineachcase,thecorrectoptionhastobechosenfrom
alistofeight.
Theseriesofmonologuesisheardtwice,butcandidatesmay
approachthetaskineitherorder.Eachtaskfocusesonadiferent
aspectofgistunderstanding,forexample:interpretingattitudes,
identifyingmainpointsandopinions.
LISTENING
41 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING
Preparation
General
ThebestpreparationfortheListeningpaperisexposureto,and
engagementwith,awiderangeofspokenEnglish,includinga
rangeofvoices,accentsandstylesofdelivery.Newsbroadcasts,
documentariesanddiscussionscanbeusedassuitabletexts,
ascanlightentertainmentanddramabroadcastinEnglish.
Classroomdiscussionactivitiesalsoprovideaninvaluablesource
oflisteningpractice.
Candidatesshouldfamiliarisethemselveswiththeformatofthe
paperandthetasktypes,whicharealwaysthesame.Itishelpful
toworkthroughasamplepaperbeforetheexaminationtakes
placeandtohavepracticeincompletingtheanswersheets.
Studentsshouldlistentoarangeoftexttypesandaccents
regularly.
Buildupstudentscondenceinlisteningbygradinglistening
tasksfromeasytomorechallenging.
Makestudentsawareofhowmuchtheythemselvesbringtoa
listeningtask.Forexample,discusswiththemwhattheyexpect
tohearinaparticularcontext.
Studentsshouldpractiselisteningtoandreadingtherubricso
thattheyaresuretheyunderstandwhattheyarelisteningfor,and
whattheyhavetodo.
Remindstudentsthattheyshouldusethetimeallowedbefore
eachparttoreadthroughthequestionscarefully,sothatthey
knowwhattolistenoutfor.
Asstudentslistentotexts,encouragethemtoconcentrateon
whatthespeakerssay,andtolistenforbothstatedandimplied
attitudesandopinions,especiallyinParts1,3and4.
Trainstudentstofollowthequestionsthroughastheylistentoa
textsothattheycanlocatetheanswertoeachquestion.
Encouragestudentstoconrmtheiranswerswhentheylistento
eachtextforthesecondtime.
Studentsshouldgetusedtoansweringallthequestions,even
iftheyarenotsuretheyhaveprobablyunderstoodmorethan
theythink.
Bypart
PART1
Candidatesshouldbeverywaryofchoosingananswerjust
becauseitcontainsawordorphrasewhichtheyhearonthe
recording.Theyshouldlistentothewholetextcarefullyand
thenchoosetheanswer.Similarly,theyshouldnotanswerthe
questiontoosoon,andperhapsjumptothewrongconclusion.
Candidatescanprepareforthispartbylisteningtoarangeof
shortextractsofspeechandconcentratingonthemainpointsof
whattheyhear,aswellaspredictingthepurposeofthetextand
theattitudesandopinionsexpressed.
Workingwiththeaudioscript,markingwherethecorrectanswer
islocated,canhelpcandidatesgaincondenceintheirlistening
skills.Thiscouldthenbefollowedbydiscussionofthereasonsfor
thedistractorsbeingwrong.
PART2
Taskssuchasgap-llingexerciseswhichfocusonretrievingfacts
fromaninformativetextwillpreparestudentsforthispart.
Candidatesneedtogetintothehabitofreadingwhatisbefore
andafterthegapinthesentencesothattheydonotattemptto
repeatinformationwhichisalreadyinthesentence,andtocheck
thatwhattheyhavewrittentsintothegrammaticalstructureof
thesentence.
Candidatesshouldbediscouragedfromattemptingtowritelong
orcomplicatedanswers.
Remindstudentsthattheyshouldwritetheactualwordorwords
theyhear.
Remindstudentsthattheyshouldwritetheiranswersclearly
whentheycopythemontotheanswersheet,usingcapitalletters
iftheyarenotsureabouttheirhandwriting.
PART3
Classroompreparationforthispartcouldincludeinitiallyfocusing
onthequestionandnottheoptions.Thisencouragesstudentsto
concentrateonthefocusofthequestionandreallylistentowhat
thespeakersaysaboutthispoint.
Studentsshouldlistencarefullytolocatewheretheanswertothe
questionlies.Youcouldaskstudentstoraisetheirhandswhen
theyhearthecue(therstreference)forthenextquestion.
Summarisingwhatthespeaker(s)sayisvaluablepracticeforthis
part.
Itisusefulforstudentstoworkwithtextswhereopinionsare
statedindirectlyratherthandirectlyandtopractiselistening
betweenthelines.
Iftheanswertoaquestioncannotbeheardduringtherst
listening,encouragestudentstomentallyleavethatpoint
andrefocusonthenextquestion.Thesecondlisteningallows
studentstheopportunitytonalisetheiranswers.
PART4
Remindstudentsthattheywillhearvediferentspeakers,but
thatthetextshaveathematiclink.Inthispartofthetest,the
wholeseriesoftextsisheardonceandthenthewholeseriesis
repeated.
Encouragestudentstothinkaboutthethemeofthetextsandto
thinkaboutthekindsofattitudesandideasthattheyexpectto
hearinconnectionwiththetopicinquestion.
Remindstudentsthattheywillbelisteningforgistmeaning
inthesetexts.Activitieswhichrequirestudentstopickouta
speakersmainpoint,feeling,attitudeoropinionareveryuseful.
Remindstudentsthattheymustanswerbothtasksandthat
theywillonlyheartheseriesofmonologuestwice.Theycan
choosehowtheyapproachthetasks:approachingbothtasks
simultaneously,answeringthemostaccessiblequestionson
therstlisteningandthemorechallengingquestionswhenthe
recordingisrepeated,attemptingonetaskoneachlistening.
Researchhasshownthatdiferentcandidatesapproachthistask
indiferentways,withequalsuccess,soavoidimposingone
particularstrategyonthem.Classroomactivitiescouldfocuson
helpingstudentsidentifythebestmethodofapproachingthis
taskforthem.
42 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
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LISTENING
43 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
EXAM | LEVEL |PAPER SAMPLEPAPER
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LISTENING
44 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
Part 4
You will hear five short extracts in which students talk about doing an internship, professional work experience in a company.
TASK ONE
For questions 21 25, choose from the list (A H), what reason each
speaker gives for choosing the internship.
TASK TWO
For questions 26 30, choose from the list (A H), what
unexpected experience each speaker had during their internship.
While you listen, you must complete both tasks.

A a friends recommendation
B the companys good reputation
C the convenience of the location
D the chance to relate theory to practice
E the opportunity to work outdoors
F the international make-up of the company
G the chance to travel
H the opportunity to work with an expert
Speaker 1 21
Speaker 2 22
Speaker 3 23
Speaker 4 24
Speaker 5 25
A being given a lot of responsibility
B making a future career decision
C making life-long friends
D attending high-level meetings
E using cutting-edge technology
F making useful contacts
G being offered a permanent job
H winning an award
Speaker 1 26
Speaker 2 27
Speaker 3 28
Speaker 4 29
Speaker 5 30
LISTENING
45 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
EXAM | LEVEL |PAPER SAMPLEPAPER LISTENING
Cambridge Certicate of Prociency in English Listening Test.
I am going to give you the instructions for this test.
I shall introduce each part of the test and give you time to look at the
questions.
At the start of each piece you will hear this sound:
***
You will hear each piece twice.
Remember, while you are listening, write your answers on the question
paper. You will have ve minutes at the end of the test to copy your
answers onto the separate answer sheet.
There will now be a pause. Please ask any questions now, because you
must not speak during the test.
Now open your question paper and look at Part One.
You will hear three diferent extracts. For questions 16, choose the answer
(A, B or C) which ts best according to what you hear. There are two
questions for each extract.
Extract one.
***
Conductingyourselfefectivelyatbusinessmeetingsisabout
ensuringyourpresenceisfelt.Beawareofsittingupratherthan
slouching,butmaintainarelaxedappearance.Spreadingpapers
aroundlookschaotic,andtheresatendencytosupposehaving
phonesonthetableinfrontofyoumakesyoulookimportantandin
demand.Ithintsmoreatapropensitytogetdivertedfromtheissues
athand.Anotepadandpenwillbemoreefectualinsuggesting
youreontheball,aswillplacingyourselfintheeye-lineofmovers
andshakersandlookingfocused.
Haveaglassofwatertohand,asthiswillkeepyoualertandwillalso
checkyoururgetoblurtsomethingoutwithoutdueconsideration.
Youwantyourobservationstobevalidandarticulate,soawell-
judgedsipbeforerespondingcanensureagainstanythingtoo
of-the-cuf.Docontributeintheearlystagesofthemeetingasthe
longeryouholdoftheharderitgetstochipin,andyoucouldgetleft
behind.Itsbesttocomeupwithideasthatappeartodemonstrate
foresightandthatyouthinkotherswilldeemsensibleandgoalong
with.
***
Extract two.
***
F: Whydidyoudecidetostartagreenlearningorganisation
totargetschoolchildren?
M: Wereinatimenowwhereeveryonestalkingabout
climatechange,buteverythingsbeenrenedtofour
words:carbon,energy,transportandofset.ThatsallI
everhearandpeoplebelievethatbyfocusingonthese,
ourplanetwillbehealthyagain.Soweneedaconcerted
eforttointroduceaprogrammethatsaboutinvestigative
learning,notprescribedpathways.Thechallengeis
howwemarketthemessageinawaythatwillresonate
andcompete.Becausewerebombardedbyadvertising
messagestwenty-fourhoursaday.
F: Areyoutryingtogetyourlearningprogrammeintothe
schoolcurriculum?
M: Imintwomindsbecauseitwouldbeawfulifitbecame
justanotherclass,likeOhno,wevegotecologytoday!
Ilovegoingtoschoolsthough,thatsthepayback,
sittingwithkids.Theyhaveanamazingperspectiveon
things.Wegrowmorecynicalaswegrowolderandhave
preconceivedideasaboutwhatspossibleandwhatsnot.
Kidsarelike,Whyarewecuttingdowntreesifitsbadfor
theEarth?Wemuststoprightnow.
***
Extract three.
***
Manypeoplearehamperedbywhattheythinkofasatandproper
subjectforthecamera.But,itcanbehealthyforyourcreativityto
applythesamekindofattentionandefortyoumighttoaso-called
importantsubjectorspectacle,toinstead,themundanestufthat
mostpeopleignore.Theideaofndingtheextraordinarysimplyby
givingtheordinaryyourfullattentionbeganwithsurrealistpaintersin
the1920s.
Thishasevenmoreresonancenow,withtheonsetofglobalisation,
whichmayhomogenisethingsinoneway,butalsomeansthat
theremainingdiferencesbetweenculturesareoftenfoundinthe
simplestthings.Ahennastencil,usedasbodydecorationforspecial
occasions,maybeunremarkableinAsia,butinthewestitmakes
animageoddlyintriguing.Evenso,ashasalwaysbeentrue,itsnot
enoughjusttondsomethingandmakeasnapshotofit.Forthe
photographyoftheordinarytowork,itsmoreimportantthaneverto
givetheimageyourfullimaginativeandskilfultreatment.Thebest
photographersoftendothisinstinctively.
***
That is the end of Part One.
Now turn to Part Two.
You will hear a journalist reporting on a scientic expedition to a volcano
in Papua New Guinea.
For questions 715, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
You now have forty-ve seconds in which to look at Part Two.
***
Biologistshadlongharbouredahunchthattheextinctvolcanoof
MountBosaviinthejunglesofPapuaNewGuineacouldcontaina
treasuretroveofundiscoveredspecies.Itshighcraterwallsmeant
thatanimalscontainedwithinthemhaveevolvedinisolationfor
thousandsofyears.Scientistshadneverbeeninsideandsoan
expeditionwasplannedinvolvingateamofbiologistsandnaturalists,
buttheTVcrew,whowouldlmitforadocumentaryseries,
outnumberedthemall.
Audioscript
46 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
LISTENING
Theproducerwaschargedwithsortingoutthelogisticsofthe
mission.Heandaresearcherewbyhelicoptertothenearestvillage,
a4-daytrekfromthevolcano,andsoughtthepermissionoflocal
peopletolmthere.
Concernednottoconsumethelocalresources,theyalsoarranged
forsweetpotatoestobeplanted,reducingthequantitiesofriceand
cannedfoodthatwouldneedtobeownin.Aftersixmonths,the
harvestedyieldwouldsustainexpeditionmembersduringtheirtime
there.Abasecampwasestablishednearthevillageandeventually
therestoftheteamarrived.
Localtribespeoplewereemployed,who,thoughtheyhadsome
knowledgeofthecrater,hadalwaysjudgedittooinaccessibleto
visitregularly.Anadvancepartyheadedouttolocatesomewherea
helicoptercouldland.Inchargewasaskilledclimbingprofessional
who,withthehelpoflocalhunters,wouldscalethemountainside
andenterthecrateritself.Onceinside,theyfoundanareawherea
helicoptercouldland.
Thetimewasthenrightfortheotherstoheadforthecrater.Flying
in,theyweregreetedbyvegetationdrippingwithdiverselife-forms.
Thevolcanoteemedwithsomuchlifethatittookjust30secondsto
discoveranewspeciesoffrog,andeventhentheyalmostsquashed
it.
Bythetimetheyre-emergedfromthecraterthiswouldbejustone
of16frogspeciescataloguedforthersttime,includingonewith
longpointedteethmoreakintoasnakes.Despitebeinghot,dirty
andsweatingformuchofthetime,thenaturalistswereecstatic.
Thejunglewithinthecraterwallsrevealedstickinsectsthelength
ofahumanforearmorhugefat-lippedshthatlookedasiftheyd
swallowedanoctopus.Butteries,somewithdimensionscloserto
thoseofapaperback,utteredeverywhere,manyofwhichwere
alreadydocumented.
Mostbiologistsconsideritanachievementtonameonenew
species,butinrainforestsasremoteasthisthediscoveriesseemed
endless.Theyalsohadthedauntingtaskofassigningnamesto
theirnds.Onecaterpillarawaitingcataloguingprovidedasource
ofamusement.Thehairycreatureboremorethanapassing
resemblancetotheeyebrowsofapoliticalgureandcouldwell
provideinspirationforitsultimatelabelling.
Oneoftheteamsnaturalists,SteveBackshall,chancedupona
treekangarooashecombedtheareasalongsidethestreamsfor
unfamiliarcreatures.Treekangaroosarenotoriouslywaryofpeople,
butthisonewasunfazedbytheteamspresence,conrming
suspicionsthatthecraterwallshadefectivelycutoftheanimals
livingwithin,allowingthemtoremaininnocentofthedangerhumans
couldrepresent.
Themostexcitingdiscoverywasofagiantratrecordedrummaging
aroundontheforestoor,afterbeingcapturedbywhatsknownin
thetradeasacameratrap.Membersoftheteamwereawedbyits
sizeandsuspecteditcouldbeanewspeciesbutneededtoseethe
animalintheeshtobesure.Trackerscaughtalivespecimenwhich
measured82cmfromnosetotailandweighedaround1.5kilos.
AfterafortnightwithinBosaviscrater,someofthegroupvisitedthe
islandofNewBritain,severalhundredkilometrestotheeastofNew
Guinea.Thevolcanothereisactiveandtheirgoalwastoobserve
itsactivity,andchartthecavesthere,believedtobethedeepestin
thesouthernhemisphere,andalikelylocationforfurtherincredible
discoveries.Suddenspectacularvolcanicactivity,however,forced
themtomakeaprematuredeparture,bringingthisremarkable
expeditiontoaclose.
Now you will hear Part Two again.
***
That is the end of Part Two.
Now turn to Part Three.
You will hear part of a discussion between two language experts, George
Steadman and Angela Conti, who are talking about how advances in
communication are afecting English usage.
For questions 1620, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which ts best
according to what you hear.
You now have one minute in which to look at Part Three.
***
M1: Itsgreattowelcometworesearchersfromtheuniversity
linguisticsdepartment,AngelaandGeorge,toleadour
discussionofwhatshappeningtoourlanguagetoday.
Folksarepointingtocommunicationontheinternetas
evidenceofalanguagecollapse.Aretheyright,Angela?
F: Well,traditionallywevehadtwomediumsspeechand
writing.Nowwehaveathirdelectroniccommunication
producingafundamentaldiferenceinthewaylanguage
iscommunicated.Theinternetsmanythings:emails,chat
roomsandsoon.Ineachyouseeanewformoflanguage
anamalgamofwritingandspeech,ifyoulike,withitsown
conventions.Whatdoyouthink,George?
M2: Throughouthistory,technologyhasallowedustodonew
thingswithlanguage,startingwithprintinginthefteenth
century,viathetelephonetobroadcasting.Justthinkof
allthevarietiesofusageonradioandtelevisionthathave
comeintoexistence.Butwitheachadvancetherehave
beenpeoplewhoveprophesiseddoom.Nownaysayers
areproclaimingthatthenetisallowingthelanguage
structurestofallapart.Butwereinatransitionalperiod,so
thejurysstillout.
F: Anotherthingthatpeoplearemoaningaboutisthe
languageintextmessaging.
M2: Theresadiference,inmyview.Alltheusualstufpeople
worryaboutwithlanguage,hassomebasis.Ifsomebody
says,Splittinginnitivesismakingthelanguagegodown
thedrain,itsbecausepeopledoactuallysplitinnitives.
Withtextmessagingthough,itspeoplefantasising.
Theirmaincriticismis,Textsarefullofstrangemade-up
wordsandmisspellings.Theyrmlybelievethat,although
theyveprobablynevertexted.Andoneoftherstplanks
ofmyresearchwastoexaminelargequantitiesoftexts,
tondthatmorethan90percentofwordshavestandard
spelling.Soitsamyth.
F: Buttextsdocontainsomeabbreviationsandtheyrewhat
peoplendsalientaboutthem.
M2: Thatsafairpoint,butthereareotheraspectsofthemyth
too.Somepeoplebelievethattheculpritsareteenagers
47 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
EXAM | LEVEL |PAPER SAMPLEPAPER LISTENING
whoareforcingthelanguageintounknowndirections.
Thoughifyoulookintoit,asIhave,youndvirtuallyevery
commonlyusedabbreviationhasrootsthatgoway,way
back.
F: Andinterestingly,ifwedidasurveyoftexting,wednd
theamountkidsgenerateisprobablyunder20percent.
Adultsofallagestextnow,andinstitutionstextmorethan
everyoneputtogetherthatstextssentbycompaniesand
thestockmarket,oruniversitiesandbroadcasters.When
youconsidertheetiquette,mostoftheseorganisations
barabbreviations,becausetheyreconcernedtheycause
ambiguity.
M2: Well,whataboutthisnewliterarygenretext-poetry?
Whatsyourtakeonit?
F: Itssupporterssaythelengthconstraintintext-poetry
fosterseconomyofexpression,justasothertightly
constrainedformsofpoetrydo.Tosayatext-poemmust
bewrittenwithin160charactersatrstseemsjustas
pointlessastosayapoemmustbefourteenlines,butput
theformintothehandsofamaster,andtheresultcanbe
magic.Ofcourse,text-poetryhassomewaytogobefore
itmatchestraditionalforms,buttheyvehadquiteahead-
start!
M2: Theressomethingunparalleledaboutit.Thisisnothingto
dowiththeuseoftextinglanguageorlength.Itsmorethe
waytheshortlineshaveanindividualforce.Withatext-
poemyoustayfocusedoneachlineasitappearsonthe
tinyilluminatedscreen.Itcanbeverypowerful,though,of
course,mostarenauseatingrubbish.Sowhatsnew?
F: So,whatconclusioncanwereach?
M2: Asfaraslinguisticsisconcerned,weneedtoobserve
therapidchangesanddoresearch.Therearestillan
extraordinarynumberofdoom-ladenpropheciesabout
damagetothelanguagethatthingsliketextingare
unleashing.Butresearchhasbeguntodispelthese
notions.Themostimportantndingisthattexting
doesnterodechildrenslanguage.Infact,itimprovesitin
certainaspects.Thelateststudieshavefoundstronglinks
betweentextlanguageandtheskillsunderlyingsuccessin
standardEnglishinpre-teenagechildren.Themoreshort
formsintheirmessages,thehighertheyscoredonreading
andvocabulary.Andtheyoungertheyreceivedtheirrst
phone,thebetter.
F: Peopleassumethatchildrenarelearningpoorspellingand
non-standardgrammaticalstructures.Theyfailtorealise
thatbeforeyoucanwriteandplaywithshortforms,you
needasenseofhowthesoundsofyourlanguagerelateto
theletters.Ifyoureawarethatyourtextingbehaviouris
diferent,youmusthavealreadyintuitedthattheressuch
athingasastandard.
Now you will hear Part Three again.
***
That is the end of Part Three.
Now turn to Part Four.
Part Four consists of two tasks.
You will hear ve short extracts in which students talk about doing an
internship, professional work experience in a company.
Look at Task 1. For questions 2125, choose from the list (AH) what
reason each speaker gives for choosing the internship.
Now look at Task 2. For questions 2630, choose from the list (AH) what
unexpected experience each speaker had during their internship.
While you listen you must complete both tasks.
You now have forty-ve seconds in which to look at Part Four.
***
Speaker 1
IvejustgotbackfrommyinternshipinNewZealand.Imstudying
environmentalpolicyandwhenIwaslookingforaninternship,Iwas
determinednottospendmytimecoopedupinsomedingyofceso
whenIsawtheamountofeldworkthisoneinvolved,Iwentforit.
Ihadtogoandtalktodairyfarmersandanalysedamagecausedby
oodingusingsomeverycomplicatedformetechnology!Oneof
thescientistsIworkedwithwantsmetotakeupapostmonitoring
waterqualitywhenIvecompletedmystudies.Idneverthoughtof
livinginNewZealandpermanentlyIllhavetosee.
Speaker 2
Idalwayswantedtogotovetschool,eversinceIwasreallylittle,but
neverreallythoughtbeyondthat.Andfunnilyenough,itsonlywhen
IwentonmyinternshipandworkedinabirdsanctuarythatIrealised
thatrehabilitatingnativebirdswaswhereIsawmyfuture.Infact,I
mustemailsomeoneIknowwhosdoingjustthatinSpain;perhaps
shecanputmeintouchwithsomeorganisations.Theinternships
liveduptomyexpectationsineverysense.Iknewthataleading
zoologistwasworkingatthesanctuaryandIgottoworkwithheron
severaloccasionssomydreamcametrue!
Speaker 3
Ichosetodoaninternshipataphotographicstudionexttotheart
schoolwhereIstudyinNewYork.Thefactitsonmydoorstepisa
bonusbutthatwasntthedecidingfactorwhenchoosing.Theyget
photographers,designers,techniciansfromeverywhereanditwas
thatglobalperspectiveonphotographythatIwasafter.Itwaspretty
scaryatrst;IdgointoameetingandbytheendofitIdndthat
Idbeenallocatedaprojecttomanage.Nothinghadpreparedmefor
that.OK,therewerepeopletosupportme,butuntilIaskedforhelp,I
wasjustexpectedtogetonwithit.
Speaker 4
MyinternshipwasoneofthebestexperiencesIvehadsofar.It
motivatedmetostudyhardandasaresultIvenowgotareally
well-paidjobinanancialinstitution.Itwascrucialformetond
somethingthatwouldgivemehands-onexperienceofwhatwewere
coveringinlecturesandmyplacementgavemejustthat.WhatI
didntseecomingwasthefactthatinmysecondmonththereIwas
nominatedandchosenfortheNationalHonourSociety.Iwasthrilled
especiallybecauseIknowthatthepanelofjudgeswasmadeupof
somereallyfamousbusinesspeople.
Speaker 5
Afriendhadwarnedmethatresearchscienceinternshipscanmean
workingdayin,dayout,inthesamelabsomewhere.Thatswhythe
48 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING | SAMPLE PAPER
LISTENING
mostimportantcriterionwhenselectingmyinternshipwasthatit
hadtobeinalargecompanywhereIcouldgotobranchesindiferent
citiesandbroadenmyexperiencethatway.Theknock-onefectof
that,thatIhadntthoughtaboutwasthatIdgottoworkwithsomeof
thelatestmicroscopesandscanners.Sobothmylife-longambitions
werefullledduringmyinternship.Ivenowgottomakesurethatthe
realjobIveappliedforlivesuptothatexperience.
Now you will hear Part Four again.
***
That is the end of Part Four.
There will now be a pause of ve minutes for you to copy your answers
onto the separate answer sheet. Be sure to follow the numbering of all the
questions. I shall remind you when there is one minute left, so that you are
sure to nish in time.
You have one more minute left.
That is the end of the test. Please stop now. Your supervisor will now
collect all the question papers and answer sheets.
49 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING | ANSWER KEY
EXAM | LEVEL |PAPER SAMPLEPAPER LISTENING
Answerkey
Q Part1
1 C
2 B
3 B
4 B
5 C
6 B
Q Part2
7 TV/FILMCREW
8 SWEETPOTATOES
9 CLIMBING
10 FROG
11 PAPERBACK(BOOK)
12 EYEBROWS
13 STREAMS
14 CAMERATRAP
15 CAVES
Q Part3
16 C
17 C
18 D
19 C
20 B
Q Part4
21 E
22 H
23 F
24 D
25 G
26 G
27 B
28 A
29 H
30 E
InPart2,bracketedwordsdonothavetoappearintheanswer.
50 CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
LISTENING | CANDIDATE ANSWER SHEET
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51 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
Structureandtasks
PART1
TASKTYPE
ANDFORMAT
Conversationbetweentheinterlocutorand
eachcandidate(spokenquestions).
FOCUS Generalinteractionalandsociallanguage.
TIMING 2minutes
PART2
TASKTYPE
ANDFORMAT
Atwo-wayconversationbetweenthecandidates.
Thecandidatesaregiveninstructionswith
writtenandvisualstimuli,whichareusedina
decision-makingtask.
FOCUS Sustaininganinteraction;exchangingideas,
expressingandjustifyingopinions,agreeing
and/ordisagreeing,suggesting,speculating,
evaluating,reachingadecisionthrough
negotiation,etc.
TIMING 4minutes
PART3
TASKTYPE
ANDFORMAT
Anindividuallongturnfromeachcandidate
followedbyadiscussionontopicsrelatedto
thelongturns.Eachcandidateinturnisgivena
writtenquestiontorespondto.Theinterlocutor
leadsadiscussiontoexplorefurtherthetopics
ofthelongturns.
FOCUS Organisingalargerunitofdiscourse,
expressingandjustifyingopinions,developing
topics.
TIMING 10minutes(2-minutelongturnforeach
candidateandapproximately6minutes
followingthelongturns).
Generaldescription
PAPERFORMAT TheSpeakingtestcontainsthree
parts.
TIMING 16minutes
NO.OFPARTS 3
INTERACTION
PATTERN
Twocandidatesandtwoexaminers.
Oneexamineractsasboth
interlocutorandassessorand
managestheinteractioneitherby
askingquestionsorsettingupthe
tasksforcandidates.Theotheracts
asassessoranddoesnotjoininthe
conversation.
TASKTYPES Shortexchangeswiththeexaminer;
acollaborativetaskinvolvingboth
candidates;a2-minutelongturnand
followupdiscussion.
MARKS Candidatesareassessedontheir
performancethroughoutthetest.
Speaking
52 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
Thethreepartsofthe
Speakingtest
Format
ThepairedformatoftheCambridge English: ProciencySpeaking
test(twoexaminersandtwocandidates)oferscandidatesthe
opportunitytodemonstrateinacontrolledbutfriendlyenvironment,
theirabilitytousetheirspokenlanguageskillsefectivelyinarangeof
contexts.Thetesttakes16minutes.Oneexaminer,theinterlocutor,
conductsthetestandgivesaglobalassessmentofeachcandidates
performance.Theother,theassessor,doesnottakeanypartin
theinteractionbutfocusessolelyonlisteningto,andmakingan
assessmentof,eachcandidatesoralprociency.
AttheendoftheSpeakingtest,candidatesarethankedforattending,
butaregivennoindicationoftheleveloftheirachievement.
Thestandardformatistwoexaminersandtwocandidates.Incases
wherethereisanunevennumberofcandidatesatacentre,the
lastSpeakingtestofthesessionwillbetakenbythreecandidates
togetherinsteadoftwo.Thetestformat,testmaterialsandprocedure
willremainunchangedbutthetimingwillbelonger;24minutes
insteadof16.
TheSpeakingtestconsistsofthreeparts,eachofwhichisassessed.
Eachpartofthetestfocusesonadiferenttypeofinteraction:
betweentheinterlocutorandeachcandidate,betweenthetwo
candidates,andamongallthree.Thepatternsofdiscoursevary
withineachpartofthetest.
PART1 Interview
This part tests the candidates ability to provide information about
themselves.
Sample tasks and assessment criteria: pages 54 and 58.
Thispartofthetestconsistsofaninitialgreeting,establishingwhere
thecandidatescomefrom,andwhetherthecandidatesareworking
orstudyingatthemoment.Theinterlocutorthenasksonequestion,
selectedfromalistofsix,toeachcandidateinturn.
Thecandidatesdonotneedtotalktoeachotherinthispartofthe
test,thoughtheymayiftheywish.
PART2 Collaborative task
This part tests the candidates ability to engage in a discussion and to work
towards a negotiated outcome of the task set.
Sample tasks and assessment criteria: pages 5455 and
58.
Thecandidatesaregivenspokeninstructionsandareprovidedwith
avisualstimulus(oneorseveralphotographs)toformthebasisfora
taskwhichtheycarryouttogether.
First,thecandidatesareaskedaquestionwhichfocusesontheir
reactiontoaspectsofoneormorepictures,andtheyaregiven
1minutetotalkaboutthis.Afterthis,theinterlocutorgivesthe
candidatesspokeninstructionsforadecision-makingtask.
Candidatesareexpectedtoworktogethertowardsanegotiated
completionofthetaskandareassessedontheirspeakingskillswhile
doingthis;thereisnorightorwronganswertothetask.
Thetaskgivescandidatestheopportunitytoshowtheirrangeof
language(speculating,evaluating,comparing,givingopinions,
eliciting,negotiating,etc.)andtheirabilitytomanageadiscussion.
PART3 Long turn and discussion
This part tests the candidates ability to develop and sustain discourse, and
to engage in discussion on the topics of the long turns.
Sample tasks and assessment criteria: pages 56 and 58.
Inthispartofthetest,eachcandidateisgiventheopportunityto
speakfor2minuteswithoutinterruption.Eachcandidateinturnis
givenacardwithaquestiononit,andtherearealsosomeideason
thecardwhichthecandidatescanmakeuseofiftheychoose.
Candidatesshouldbeawarethattheymustnotspeakduringtheir
partnerslongturn.Thelisteningcandidateneedstopayattention
whiletheirpartnerisspeakingastheywillbeaskedafollow-up
questionaftertheirpartnerhasspoken.Thecandidatewhohasjust
nishedtheirlongturnwillthenbeinvitedtojoinin.
Inthispart,candidatesneedtobeabletoorganisetheirthoughtsand
ideas,andexpressthemselvescoherentlyinappropriatelanguagein
thegiventime.Followingbothcandidateslongturnsandfollow-up
questions,theinterlocutorleadsadiscussionwhichfurtherexplores
thetopicsofthelongturns.
SPEAKING
53 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
SPEAKING
Preparation
General
Classroomactivitieswhichinvolvestudentsworkinginpairsand
smallgroupswillgivethempracticeinskillssuchassensitivityto
turn-takingandrespondingappropriatelytotheirpartners,which
isessentialtosuccessintheSpeakingtest.
Ensurestudentshavetheopportunitytoworkwithdiferent
partnersintheclass.
Makesureyourstudentsarefamiliarwiththeformatofeachpart
ofthetest.Theyshouldbeawareoftheinteractionpatterns(in
Part1theyspeaktotheinterlocutor,inPart2toeachother,andin
Part3toeachotherandtheinterlocutor).
Itishelpfulforthestudentstoknowthetimingsforeachpart.
Encourageyourstudentstospeakclearlyandaudiblysothat
theycanbeheardbyboththeinterlocutorandassessor,andto
paraphrasewhentheydonotknoworcannotrememberaword.
Trainyourstudentstolistencarefullytotheinstructionssothat
theyknowpreciselywhattheyhavetotalkabout.
Inordertomakeafairandaccurateassessmentofcandidates
performance,theexaminersmustbegivenareasonableamount
oflanguagetoassess.Remindstudentsitistheirresponsibilityto
giveagoodaccountofthemselves.
Remindstudentsthattheycanaskforclaricationofinstructions
beforetheybeginatask.
Bypart
PART1
Aftertheinitialgreeting,examinerswillaskcandidateswhere
theycomefromandwhethercandidatesareworkingorstudying
atthemoment.Candidateswillthenbeaskedonequestionabout
theireverydaylife,workandstudyexperience,wheretheyare
living,interestsetc.
Inclass,studentscanpractiseinterviewingeachotherusing
questionssimilartothoseinthesametaskonpage54.
PART2
Teachyourstudentstolistencarefullytotheinstructionsandto
carrythemout.Studentsshouldbeawarethattheirresponseto
therst1-minutefocusquestionthataccompaniesthevisuals
sheetneedstogobeyondthelevelofpuredescriptionand
containaspeculativeelement.
Trainyourstudentstotakenoticeofthetitleonthevisuals
sheet.Firstofall,itisveryusefulinhelpingthemrememberthe
examinersinstructions.Secondly,informationgiveninthetitle
aboutthecontextoraudience(e.g.Magazinearticle)willhelp
studentstokeeptheirdiscussionfocused,andtoensurethatthe
outcomeisappropriate.
Itisveryimportantthatthestudentsinteractwitheachother
inthistask.Allclassroomdiscussioninpairsandsmallgroups
providesexcellentpreparation.Studentsshouldknowhow
tomakepositivecontributionstomoveadiscussionforward,
andshowawillingnesstotaketurns,invitingotherstospeak,
listeningandresponding,aswellasinitiatingdiscussion
themselves.
Encouragestudentstobegoodlisteners.Theyshouldbeableto
pickupontheirpartnerspoints.
Setupclassroomactivitiesthatallowstudentstoexpresstheir
reactionstoandopinionsaboutpictures.
Encouragestudentstodiscussthemessagesportrayedinvisuals.
Choosetwoorthreethematicallylinkedpicturesfromyour
coursebook,orcutthemoutofamagazine(orgetstudentsto
bringsomeintoclass);askstudentstotalkabouttheaspectsof
thethemethatthepicturesillustrate.
Equipstudentswiththefunctionallanguageneededtomanage
adiscussion,i.e.howtomoveforward,re-directifnecessary,
managetheconclusion,etc.
PART3
Remindstudentstheycanallowthemselvesupto10seconds
beforetheyneedtospeak.Somestudentsndithelpfultoread
thequestionoutloudasawayofgettingstarted.
Brainstormingactivitiesinclasswillgivestudentspracticein
gettingideasquickly.
Afterthequestiononthecard,therearethreebulletedpoints;
theseareideaswhichsupportthequestion.Remindstudents
thattheydonotneedtousethesepointsiftheydontwantto.
Asaclassroomactivity,removethebulletpoints.Thisfocuses
thestudentsattentiononthemainquestion.
Encouragestudentstofocusonstructuringextended
contributions,forexamplebyusinglinking,counter-argument
andsummingup.
Inordertogivestudentspracticeingettingthefeelofhowlong2
minutesis,putstudentsinpairsoneasaspeakerandoneasa
time-keeper.
Inthediscussionthatfollowsthelongturns,theinterlocutorwill
askquestionsaddressedtobothcandidates.He/shemightnot
usethecandidatesnamessostudentsmustbepreparedtotake
itinturnstobetheinitialresponderandtheonewhoreactsto
thatresponse.Inclass,makesurepairedstudentsgetpractice
inbeingboththerstspeakertoreacttoaquestion,andthe
second.
Remindyourstudentsthatthisisnotatestofknowledge.Itis
quiteacceptabletoadmittonotknowingmuchaboutaparticular
topic,butthisshouldbefollowedbysomesortofopinioninorder
toprovidealargeenoughsampleoflanguageforassessment.
Afteryourstudentshavebothdonetheirlongturns,readthem
therubricthatintroducesthediscussionphase(Now,tonish
thetest,weregoingtotalkaboutingeneral).Askpairsof
studentstowriteveorsixdiscussionquestionsonthetopic.
Thesesetscanbeexchangedwithintheclassanddiscussed.
54 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
SPEAKING | SAMPLE PAPER
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57 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
SPEAKING | ASSESSMENT
AssessmentofSpeaking
Examinersandmarking
ThequalityassuranceofSpeakingExaminers(SEs)ismanaged
byTeamLeaders(TLs).TLsensureallexaminerssuccessfully
completeexaminertrainingandregularcerticationofprocedure
andassessmentbeforetheyexamine.TLsareinturnresponsible
toaProfessionalSupportLeader(PSL)whoistheprofessional
representativeofCambridgeESOLfortheSpeakingtestsinagiven
countryorregion.
Annualexaminercerticationinvolvesattendanceataface-to-face
meetingtofocusonanddiscussassessmentandprocedure,followed
bythemarkingofsampleSpeakingtestsinanonlineenvironment.
Examinersmustcompletestandardisationofassessmentforall
relevantlevelseachyearandareregularlymonitoredduringlive
testingsessions.
Assessmentscales
Throughoutthetestcandidatesareassessedontheirownindividual
performanceandnotinrelationtoeachother.Theyareawarded
marksbytwoexaminers;theassessorandtheinterlocutor.The
assessorawardsmarksbyapplyingperformancedescriptorsfromthe
analyticalassessmentscalesforthefollowingcriteria:
GrammaticalResource
LexicalResource
DiscourseManagement
Pronunciation
InteractiveCommunication
Theinterlocutorawardsamarkforglobalachievementusingthe
globalachievementscale.
AssessmentforCambridge English: Prociencyisbasedon
performanceacrossallpartsofthetest,andisachievedbyapplying
therelevantdescriptorsintheassessmentscales.Theassessment
scalesforCambridge English: Prociency(shownonpage58)are
extractedfromtheoverallSpeakingscalesonpage59.
58 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
SPEAKING | ASSESSMENT
C2 Grammatical Resource Lexical Resource Discourse Management Pronunciation Interactive Communication
5 Maintainscontrol
ofawiderangeof
grammaticalformsand
usesthemwithexibility.
Usesawiderangeof
appropriatevocabulary
withexibilitytogive
andexchangeviewson
unfamiliarandabstract
topics.
Producesextended
stretchesoflanguage
withexibilityandease
andverylittlehesitation.
Contributionsare
relevant,coherent,varied
anddetailed.
Makesfullandefective
useofawiderangeof
cohesivedevicesand
discoursemarkers.
Isintelligible.
Phonologicalfeaturesare
usedefectivelytoconvey
andenhancemeaning.
Interactswitheaseby
skilfullyinterweavinghis/
hercontributionsintothe
conversation.
Widensthescopeofthe
interactionanddevelops
itfullyandefectively
towardsanegotiated
outcome.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Maintainscontrol
ofawiderangeof
grammaticalforms.
Usesarangeof
appropriatevocabulary
withexibilitytogive
andexchangeviewson
unfamiliarandabstract
topics.
Producesextended
stretchesoflanguage
witheaseandwithvery
littlehesitation.
Contributionsare
relevant,coherentand
varied.
Usesawiderangeof
cohesivedevicesand
discoursemarkers.
Isintelligible.
Intonationisappropriate.
Sentenceandwordstress
isaccuratelyplaced.
Individualsoundsare
articulatedclearly.
Interactswithease,
linkingcontributionsto
thoseofotherspeakers.
Widensthescopeofthe
interactionandnegotiates
towardsanoutcome.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Showsagooddegree
ofcontrolofarange
ofsimpleandsome
complexgrammatical
forms.
Usesalimitedrangeof
appropriatevocabularyto
giveandexchangeviews
onfamiliarandunfamiliar
topics.
Producesextended
stretchesoflanguage
withverylittlehesitation.
Contributionsarerelevant
andthereisaclear
organisationofideas.
Usesarangeofcohesive
devicesanddiscourse
markers.
Isintelligible.
Intonationisgenerally
appropriate.
Sentenceandwordstress
isgenerallyaccurately
placed.
Individualsoundsare
generallyarticulated
clearly.
Initiatesandresponds
appropriately,linking
contributionstothoseof
otherspeakers.
Maintainsanddevelops
theinteractionand
negotiatestowardsan
outcome.
0 Performance below Band 1.
Cambridge English: Prociency SpeakingExaminersuseamoredetailedversionofthefollowingassessmentscales,extractedfromtheoverall
Speakingscalesonpage59.
C2 Global Achievement
5 Handles communication on all topics, including unfamiliar and abstract ones,
with very little hesitation.
Uses accurate and appropriate linguistic resources with exibility to express
complex ideas and concepts and produce extended and coherent discourse.
4 Performance shares features of Bands 3 and 5.
3 Handles communication on a wide range of topics, including unfamiliar and
abstract ones, with very little hesitation.
Uses accurate and appropriate linguistic resources to express complex ideas
and concepts and produce extended and coherent discourse.
2 Performance shares features of Bands 1 and 3.
1 Handles communication on a range of familiar and unfamiliar topics, with very
little hesitation.
Uses accurate and appropriate linguistic resources to express ideas and
produce extended discourse that is generally coherent.
0 Performance below Band 1.
59 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
SPEAKING | ASSESSMENT
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p
s

i
t

f
u
l
l
y

a
n
d

e
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
l
y

t
o
w
a
r
d
s

n
e
g
o
t
i
a
t
e
d

o
u
t
c
o
m
e
.
C
2


M
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
s

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
f

w
i
d
e

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

g
r
a
m
m
a
t
i
c
a
l

f
o
r
m
s
.


U
s
e
s

w
i
d
e

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

v
o
c
a
b
u
l
a
r
y

t
o

g
i
v
e

a
n
d

e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e

v
i
e
w
s

o
n

u
n
f
a
m
i
l
i
a
r

a
n
d

a
b
s
t
r
a
c
t

t
o
p
i
c
s
.


P
r
o
d
u
c
e
s

e
x
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
t
r
e
t
c
h
e
s

o
f

l
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

w
i
t
h

e
a
s
e

a
n
d

w
i
t
h

v
e
r
y

l
i
t
t
l
e

h
e
s
i
t
a
t
i
o
n
.


C
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

a
r
e

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
t
,

c
o
h
e
r
e
n
t

a
n
d

v
a
r
i
e
d
.


U
s
e
s

w
i
d
e

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

c
o
h
e
s
i
v
e

d
e
v
i
c
e
s

a
n
d

d
i
s
c
o
u
r
s
e

m
a
r
k
e
r
s
.


I
s

i
n
t
e
l
l
i
g
i
b
l
e
.


I
n
t
o
n
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e
.


S
e
n
t
e
n
c
e

a
n
d

w
o
r
d

s
t
r
e
s
s

i
s

a
c
c
u
r
a
t
e
l
y

p
l
a
c
e
d
.


I
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

s
o
u
n
d
s

a
r
e

a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
t
e
d

c
l
e
a
r
l
y
.


I
n
t
e
r
a
c
t
s

w
i
t
h

e
a
s
e
,

l
i
n
k
i
n
g

c
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

t
o

t
h
o
s
e

o
f

o
t
h
e
r

s
p
e
a
k
e
r
s
.


W
i
d
e
n
s

t
h
e

s
c
o
p
e

o
f

t
h
e

i
n
t
e
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

n
e
g
o
t
i
a
t
e
s

t
o
w
a
r
d
s

a
n

o
u
t
c
o
m
e
.
C
1


S
h
o
w
s

g
o
o
d

d
e
g
r
e
e

o
f

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
f

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

s
i
m
p
l
e

a
n
d

s
o
m
e

c
o
m
p
l
e
x

g
r
a
m
m
a
t
i
c
a
l

f
o
r
m
s
.


U
s
e
s

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

v
o
c
a
b
u
l
a
r
y

t
o

g
i
v
e

a
n
d

e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e

v
i
e
w
s

o
n

f
a
m
i
l
i
a
r

a
n
d

u
n
f
a
m
i
l
i
a
r

t
o
p
i
c
s
.


P
r
o
d
u
c
e
s

e
x
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
t
r
e
t
c
h
e
s

o
f

l
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

w
i
t
h

v
e
r
y

l
i
t
t
l
e

h
e
s
i
t
a
t
i
o
n
.


C
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

a
r
e

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
t

a
n
d

t
h
e
r
e

i
s

c
l
e
a
r

o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

i
d
e
a
s
.


U
s
e
s

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

c
o
h
e
s
i
v
e

d
e
v
i
c
e
s

a
n
d

d
i
s
c
o
u
r
s
e

m
a
r
k
e
r
s
.


I
s

i
n
t
e
l
l
i
g
i
b
l
e
.


I
n
t
o
n
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e
.


S
e
n
t
e
n
c
e

a
n
d

w
o
r
d

s
t
r
e
s
s

i
s

a
c
c
u
r
a
t
e
l
y

p
l
a
c
e
d
.


I
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

s
o
u
n
d
s

a
r
e

a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
t
e
d

c
l
e
a
r
l
y
.


I
n
i
t
i
a
t
e
s

a
n
d

r
e
s
p
o
n
d
s

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e
l
y
,

l
i
n
k
i
n
g

c
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

t
o

t
h
o
s
e

o
f

o
t
h
e
r

s
p
e
a
k
e
r
s
.


M
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
s

a
n
d

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
s

t
h
e

i
n
t
e
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

n
e
g
o
t
i
a
t
e
s

t
o
w
a
r
d
s

a
n

o
u
t
c
o
m
e
.
G
r
a
m
m
a
r

a
n
d

V
o
c
a
b
u
l
a
r
y
B
2


S
h
o
w
s

g
o
o
d

d
e
g
r
e
e

o
f

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
f

s
i
m
p
l
e

g
r
a
m
m
a
t
i
c
a
l

f
o
r
m
s
,

a
n
d

a
t
t
e
m
p
t
s

s
o
m
e

c
o
m
p
l
e
x

g
r
a
m
m
a
t
i
c
a
l

f
o
r
m
s
.


U
s
e
s

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

v
o
c
a
b
u
l
a
r
y

t
o

g
i
v
e

a
n
d

e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e

v
i
e
w
s
,

o
n

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

f
a
m
i
l
i
a
r

t
o
p
i
c
s
.


P
r
o
d
u
c
e
s

e
x
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
t
r
e
t
c
h
e
s

o
f

l
a
n
g
u
a
g
e

d
e
s
p
i
t
e

s
o
m
e

h
e
s
i
t
a
t
i
o
n
.


C
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

a
r
e

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
t

a
n
d

t
h
e
r
e

i
s

v
e
r
y

l
i
t
t
l
e

r
e
p
e
t
i
t
i
o
n
.


U
s
e
s

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

c
o
h
e
s
i
v
e

d
e
v
i
c
e
s
.


I
s

i
n
t
e
l
l
i
g
i
b
l
e
.


I
n
t
o
n
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e
.


S
e
n
t
e
n
c
e

a
n
d

w
o
r
d

s
t
r
e
s
s

i
s

g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y

a
c
c
u
r
a
t
e
l
y

p
l
a
c
e
d
.


I
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

s
o
u
n
d
s

a
r
e

g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y

a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
t
e
d

c
l
e
a
r
l
y
.


I
n
i
t
i
a
t
e
s

a
n
d

r
e
s
p
o
n
d
s

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e
l
y
.


M
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
s

a
n
d

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
s

t
h
e

i
n
t
e
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

n
e
g
o
t
i
a
t
e
s

t
o
w
a
r
d
s

a
n

o
u
t
c
o
m
e

w
i
t
h

v
e
r
y

l
i
t
t
l
e

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
.
B
1


S
h
o
w
s

g
o
o
d

d
e
g
r
e
e

o
f

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
f

s
i
m
p
l
e

g
r
a
m
m
a
t
i
c
a
l

f
o
r
m
s
.


U
s
e
s

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

v
o
c
a
b
u
l
a
r
y

w
h
e
n

t
a
l
k
i
n
g

a
b
o
u
t

f
a
m
i
l
i
a
r

t
o
p
i
c
s
.


P
r
o
d
u
c
e
s

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
s

w
h
i
c
h

a
r
e

e
x
t
e
n
d
e
d

b
e
y
o
n
d

s
h
o
r
t

p
h
r
a
s
e
s
,

d
e
s
p
i
t
e

h
e
s
i
t
a
t
i
o
n
.


C
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

a
r
e

m
o
s
t
l
y

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
t
,

b
u
t

t
h
e
r
e

m
a
y

b
e

s
o
m
e

r
e
p
e
t
i
t
i
o
n
.


U
s
e
s

b
a
s
i
c

c
o
h
e
s
i
v
e

d
e
v
i
c
e
s
.


I
s

m
o
s
t
l
y

i
n
t
e
l
l
i
g
i
b
l
e
,

a
n
d

h
a
s

s
o
m
e

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
f

p
h
o
n
o
l
o
g
i
c
a
l

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

a
t

b
o
t
h

u
t
t
e
r
a
n
c
e

a
n
d

w
o
r
d

l
e
v
e
l
s
.


I
n
i
t
i
a
t
e
s

a
n
d

r
e
s
p
o
n
d
s

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e
l
y
.


K
e
e
p
s

t
h
e

i
n
t
e
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

g
o
i
n
g

w
i
t
h

v
e
r
y

l
i
t
t
l
e

p
r
o
m
p
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
.
A
2


S
h
o
w
s

s
u
f
c
i
e
n
t

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
f

s
i
m
p
l
e

g
r
a
m
m
a
t
i
c
a
l

f
o
r
m
s
.


U
s
e
s

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

v
o
c
a
b
u
l
a
r
y

t
o

t
a
l
k

a
b
o
u
t

e
v
e
r
y
d
a
y

s
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
s
.


I
s

m
o
s
t
l
y

i
n
t
e
l
l
i
g
i
b
l
e
,

d
e
s
p
i
t
e

l
i
m
i
t
e
d

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
f

p
h
o
n
o
l
o
g
i
c
a
l

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s
.


M
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
s

s
i
m
p
l
e

e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
s
,

d
e
s
p
i
t
e

s
o
m
e

d
i
f
c
u
l
t
y
.


R
e
q
u
i
r
e
s

p
r
o
m
p
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
.
A
1


S
h
o
w
s

o
n
l
y

l
i
m
i
t
e
d

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
f

f
e
w

g
r
a
m
m
a
t
i
c
a
l

f
o
r
m
s
.


U
s
e
s

v
o
c
a
b
u
l
a
r
y

o
f

i
s
o
l
a
t
e
d

w
o
r
d
s

a
n
d

p
h
r
a
s
e
s
.


H
a
s

v
e
r
y

l
i
m
i
t
e
d

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

o
f

p
h
o
n
o
l
o
g
i
c
a
l

f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s

a
n
d

i
s

o
f
t
e
n

u
n
i
n
t
e
l
l
i
g
i
b
l
e
.


H
a
s

c
o
n
s
i
d
e
r
a
b
l
e

d
i
f
c
u
l
t
y

m
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
g

s
i
m
p
l
e

e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
s
.


R
e
q
u
i
r
e
s

a
d
d
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

p
r
o
m
p
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

s
u
p
p
o
r
t
.
OverallSpeakingscales
60 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
SPEAKING | GLOSSARY OF TERMS
CambridgeESOL
Speakingassessment
Glossaryofterms
1. GENERAL
Conveying basic
meaning
Conveying basic meaning: the ability of candidates to get their
message across to their listeners, despite possible inaccuracies in
the structure and/or delivery of the message.
Situations and
topics
Everyday situations: situations that candidates come across in
their everyday lives, e.g. having a meal, asking for information,
shopping, going out with friends or family, travelling to school or
work, taking part in leisure activities. A Cambridge English: Key
(KET) task that requires candidates to exchange details about a
stores opening hours exemplies an everyday situation.
Familiar topics: topics about which candidates can be expected to
have some knowledge or personal experience. Cambridge English:
First (FCE) tasks that require candidates to talk about what people
like to do on holiday, or what it is like to do diferent jobs, exemplify
familiar topics.
Unfamiliar topics: topics which candidates would not be expected
to have much personal experience of. Cambridge English: Advanced
(CAE) tasks that require candidates to speculate about whether
people in the world today only care about themselves, or the
kinds of problems that having a lot of money can cause, exemplify
unfamiliar topics.
Abstract topics: topics which include ideas rather than concrete
situations or events. Cambridge English: Prociency (CPE) tasks
that require candidates to discuss how far the development of our
civilisation has been afected by chance discoveries or events, or the
impact of writing on society, exemplify abstract topics.
Utterance Utterance: people generally write in sentences and they speak in
utterances. An utterance may be as short as a word or phrase, or a
longer stretch of language.
2. GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY (cont.)
Appropriacy of
vocabulary
Appropriacy of vocabulary: the use of words and phrases that t
the context of the given task. For example, in the utterance Im very
sensible to noise, the word sensible is inappropriate as the word
should be sensitive. Another example would be Todays big snow
makes getting around the city difcult. The phrase getting around is
well suited to this situation. However, big snow is inappropriate as
big and snow are not used together. Heavy snow would be
appropriate.
Flexibility Flexibility: the ability of candidates to adapt the language they
use in order to give emphasis, to diferentiate according to the
context, and to eliminate ambiguity. Examples of this would be
reformulating and paraphrasing ideas.
Grammatical
control
Grammatical control: the ability to consistently use grammar
accurately and appropriately to convey intended meaning.
Where language specications are provided at lower levels (as in
Cambridge English: Key (KET) and Cambridge English: Preliminary
(PET)), candidates may have control of only the simplest exponents
of the listed forms.
Attempts at control: sporadic and inconsistent use of accurate
and appropriate grammatical forms. For example, the inconsistent
use of one form in terms of structure or meaning, the production of
one part of a complex form incorrectly or the use of some complex
forms correctly and some incorrectly.
Spoken language often involves false starts, incomplete utterances,
ellipsis and reformulation. Where communication is achieved, such
features are not penalised.
2. GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY (cont.)
Grammatical
forms
Simple grammatical forms: words, phrases, basic tenses and
simple clauses.
Complex grammatical forms: longer and more complex
utterances, e.g. noun clauses, relative and adverb clauses,
subordination, passive forms, innitives, verb patterns, modal forms
and tense contrasts.
Range Range: the variety of words and grammatical forms a candidate
uses. At higher levels, candidates will make increasing use
of a greater variety of words, xed phrases, collocations and
grammatical forms.
3. DISCOURSE MANAGEMENT
Coherence and
cohesion
Coherence and cohesion are difcult to separate in discourse.
Broadly speaking, coherence refers to a clear and logical stretch of
speech which can be easily followed by a listener. Cohesion refers
to a stretch of speech which is unied and structurally organised.
Coherence and cohesion can be achieved in a variety of ways,
including with the use of cohesive devices, related vocabulary,
grammar and discourse markers.
Cohesive devices: words or phrases which indicate relationships
between utterances, e.g. addition (and, in addition, moreover);
consequence (so, therefore, as a result); order of information (rst,
second, next, nally).
At higher levels, candidates should be able to provide cohesion not
just with basic cohesive devices (e.g. and, but, or, then, nally) but
also with more sophisticated devices (e.g. therefore, moreover, as a
result, in addition, however, on the other hand).
Related vocabulary: the use of several items from the same lexical
set, e.g. train, station, platform, carriage; or study, learn, revise.
Grammatical devices: essentially the use of reference pronouns
(e.g. it, this, one) and articles (e.g. There are two women in the
picture. The one on the right ).
Discourse markers: words or phrases which are primarily used in
spoken language to add meaning to the interaction, e.g. you know,
you see, actually, basically, I mean, well, anyway, like.
Extent/extended
stretches of
language
Extent/extended stretches of language: the amount of language
produced by a candidate which should be appropriate to the task.
Long turn tasks require longer stretches of language, whereas tasks
which involve discussion or answering questions could require
shorter and extended responses.
Relevance Relevance: a contribution that is related to the task and not about
something completely diferent.
Repetition Repetition: repeating the same idea instead of introducing new
ideas to develop the topic.
61 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
SPEAKING | GLOSSARY OF TERMS
4. PRONUNCIATION
Intelligible Intelligible: a contribution which can generally be understood
by a non-EFL/ESOL specialist, even if the speaker has a strong or
unfamiliar accent.
Phonological
features
Phonological features include the pronunciation of individual
sounds, word and sentence stress and intonation.
Individual sounds are:
Pronounced vowels, e.g. the // in cat or the // in bed
Diphthongs, when two vowels are rolled together to produce one
sound, e.g. the // in host or the // in hate
Consonants, e.g. the // in cut or the // in sh.
Stress: the emphasis laid on a syllable or word. Words of two or
more syllables have one syllable which stands out from the rest
because it is pronounced more loudly and clearly, and is longer
than the others, e.g. imPORtant. Word stress can also distinguish
between words, e.g. proTEST vs PROtest. In sentences, stress
can be used to indicate important meaning, e.g. WHY is that one
important? versus Why is THAT one important?
Intonation: The way the voice rises and falls, e.g. to convey the
speakers mood, to support meaning or to indicate new information.
5. INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION
Development of
the interaction
Development of the interaction: actively developing the
conversation, e.g. by saying more than the minimum in response to
the written or visual stimulus, or to something the other candidate/
interlocutor has said, or by proactively involving the other candidate
with a suggestion or question about further developing the topic
(e.g. What about bringing a camera for the holiday? or Whys that?).
Initiating and
Responding
Initiating: starting a new turn by introducing a new idea or a new
development of the current topic.
Responding: replying or reacting to what the other candidate or the
interlocutor has said.
Prompting and
Supporting
Prompting: instances when the interlocutor repeats, or uses a
backup prompt or gesture in order to get the candidate to respond
or make a further contribution.
Supporting: instances when one candidate helps another
candidate, e.g. by providing a word they are looking for during a
discussion activity, or helping them develop an idea.
Turn and Simple
exchange
Turn: everything a person says before someone else speaks.
Simple exchange: a brief interaction which typically involves two
turns in the form of an initiation and a response, e.g. question-
answer, suggestion-agreement.
62 CAMBRIDGEENGLISH:PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS
CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: PROFICIENCY GLOSSARY
CambridgeEnglish:Prociency
glossary
Afxation adding prexes or sufxes to a base word to make it t a particular
context.
Answer Sheet the form on which candidates record their responses.
Assessor the Speaking test examiner who assigns a score to a candidates
performance, using analytical criteria to do so.
Cloze Test a type of gap-lling task in which whole words have been removed
from a text and which candidates must replace.
Coherence language which is coherent is well planned and clear, and all the
parts or ideas t well so that they form a united whole.
Collaborative
Task
the opportunity in the Speaking test for the candidates to engage
in a discussion and work together towards a negotiated outcome
of the task set.
Collocation this term describes the likelihood of two words going together, e.g.
a good job, a wonderful occasion.
Comprehension
Questions
short questions testing information selection, linking and sentence
construction.
Discourse written or spoken communication.
Discrete
Sentences
sentences not connected by context or meaning.
Distractor each incorrect option in a multiple-choice item.
Gap-Filling Item any type of item which requires the candidate to insert some
written material letters, numbers, single words, phrases,
sentences or paragraphs into spaces in the text. The response may
be supplied by the candidate or selected from a set of options.
Gist the central theme or meaning of the text.
Impeding Error an error which prevents the reader from understanding the word
or phrase.
Input Material the text which candidates have to base their answers on in the
Cambridge English: Prociency Writing questions.
Interlocutor the Speaking test examiner who conducts the test and makes a
global assessment of each candidates performance.
Item each testing point in a test which is given a separate mark or marks,
e.g. Cambridge English: Prociency Listening Part 1 has 6 items.
Key the correct answer to an item.
Lexical adjective from lexis, meaning to do with vocabulary.
Long Turn the opportunity in the Speaking test for a candidate to talk
uninterrupted for a period of time, enabling them to produce an
extended piece of discourse.
Lozenge the space on the answer sheet which candidates must ll in to
indicate their answer to a multiple-choice question.
Multiple Choice a task where candidates are given a set of several possible answers
of which only one is correct.
Multiple
Matching
a task in which a number of questions or sentence completion
items, generally based on a reading text, are set. The responses are
provided in the form of a bank of words or phrases, each of which
can be used an unlimited number of times.
Neutral Style a writing style with no specic features of formality or informality.
Options the individual words in the set of possible answers for a multiple-
choice item.
Paraphrase to give the meaning of something using diferent words.
Phrasal Verb a verb which takes on a new meaning when followed by a certain
preposition or adverb (e.g. get away, take up).
Pretesting a stage in the development of test materials at which items are tried
out with representative samples from the target population in order
to determine their difculty.
Productive Task a task which provides candidates with a stimulus to which the
response is a piece of written or spoken language. As well as
the Writing and Speaking tasks, productive tasks are found in
Cambridge English: Prociency Reading and Use of English and
Listening.
Referencing the technique of using referents.
Referent a word or term that refers to another person, place, etc.
Register the tone of a piece of writing. The register should be appropriate for
the task and target reader, e.g. a letter of application is written in
formal register.
Rhetorical/
Stylistic Devices
techniques used in a text to achieve a particular efect.
Rubrics the instructions to an examination question which tell the candidate
what to do when answering the question.
Sentence
Transformations
a task where a lead-in sentence is followed by a prompt and a
gapped sentence, which must be completed.
Stem Word the word at the end of each line in Cambridge English: Prociency
Reading and Use of English Part 3 which is the basis for the word
that has to be formed.
Style a property of a text which may be neutral, formal, informal, etc.
Summary Task a task which requires candidates to summarise in a specic number
of words information from two texts.
Target Reader the intended recipient of a piece of writing. It is important to ensure
that the efect of a written task on a target reader is a positive one.
Transactional
Letter
a letter written in response to a request for action or to initiate
action, i.e. the letter will trigger some outcome or result, usually
in the form of further communication. A letter of complaint is
transactional, a letter giving advice is not.
Trialling a stage in the development of test materials at which tasks for
the Writing or Speaking papers are tried out with representative
samples of students to determine their suitability as test materials
and whether they work as expected.
Acronyms
ALTE The Association of Language Testers in Europe.
CEFR Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.
EFL English as a Foreign Language.
ESOL English for Speakers of Other Languages.
UCLES University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.
University of Cambridge
ESOL Examinations
1 Hills Road
Cambridge
CB1 2EU
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1223 553997
Email: ESOLhelpdesk@CambridgeESOL.org
www.CambridgeESOL.org
Cambridge English: Proficiency, also known as Certificate of Proficiency
in English (CPE), is at Level C2 of the Common European Framework
of Reference for Languages (CEFR) published by the Council of
Europe.
Cambridge English: Proficiency has been accredited by Ofqual, the
statutory regulatory authority for external qualifications in England
and its counterparts in Wales and Northern Ireland; for more
information, see www.ofqual.gov.uk
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UCLES 2012 | EMC/2318/2Y06
9 781908 791054
ISBN 978-1-908791-05-4