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INTRODUCTION

The energy consumption of a nation can be broadly divided into the following area or sectors depending on energy related activities. These can further be subdivided into subsectors Domestic sector (house & offices including commercial buildings) Transportation sector Agriculture sector Industry sector Consumption of a large amount of energy in a country indicates increased activities in these sectors. This may imply better comforts at home due to use of various appliances better transport facilities and more

agricultural and industrial production. All this amounts to a better quality of life. Therefore, the per capita energy consumption of a country is an index of the standard of living or prosperity (i.e. income) of the people of country.

WIND ENERFY
Wind energy is created when: the atmosphere is heated unevenly by the Sun some patches of air become warmer than others the warm patches of air rise other air rushes in to fill the void thus, wind blows

A wind turbine extracts energy from moving air by slowing the wind down, and transferring this energy into a spinning shaft, which usually turns a generator to produce electricity. Power in the wind that is available for harvest depends on both: wind speed and Area thats swept by the turbine blades

Although wind has been harnessed for centuries, it has only recently emerged as a modern energy solution. Prior to the 21st century, wind power was often used to pump water from wells and to grind grain. Over the last twenty years, technology advances have reduced the cost of wind energy by more than 80 percent, making wind the most affordable form of renewable energy.

In 2008, UGE emerged as a world leader in small wind energy based on the design of our turbines, particularly regarding energy production, noise, vibration, reliability, and aesthetics. This renown led to a product partnership with General Electric and commercial partnerships with numerous of the world's leading distributed energy companies. You can also read more about our high-profile installations in our Case Studies What is Small/Distributed Wind? Small Wind, also called distributed wind, refers to an individual home, business, or site that produces its own energy, therefore taking a percentage of its energy usage off of the utility grid. In the world of small wind the characteristics of the wind itself vary greatly, particularly with regard to wind speed and direction. Wind is more consistent higher off the ground, which explains the thirty-story height of the horizontal turbines seen on large wind farms. Still with advances in sating tools and in wind turbine design, we are able to capture the lessoptimal wind found closer to ground level.

Why wind? What about solar?

Wind energy is a very affordable form of renewable energy. According to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) wind power costs just 40% as much as solar. Incentives for clean energy production at your home or business make wind power even more affordable, including a 30% federal tax credit in the US and additional local incentives at the state level. Your UGE distributor will help you understand all of the available tax credits and incentives in your area, no matter where in the world you live.

Wind energy is also known to be a very compact form of renewable energy. The UGE-4K wind turbine has a maximum Shadow of 80 square feet. A similar amount of solar panel output could take up to 800 square feet! Wind is also present day and night - and not affected negatively by winter like solar is - making wind power a more consistent form of energy. And yet, one of the great things about wind energy is that it very well complements solar. Hybrid solutions incorporate both wind and solar technologies. The benefit of a hybrid solution is that wind and sunlight are often present at different times of the day. UGE wind turbines are an excellent choice for both urban and rural customers,

About Solar Energy India gets more than 5,000 trillion kWh of Solar Energy every year. This much of energy is very high compared to the overall energy requirement and consumption in the country. As regards the latest trends in developed countries like the U.S. and Japan, it is estimated

by industry experts that millions of homes around the world are going to switch to solar energy in the next few years.

The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency is busy creating a programme to facilitate the use of solar energy in over one million homes in India in the next few years.

What is solar energy? Solar Energy is the energy received from the sun that sustains life on earth. For many decades solar energy has been considered as a huge source of energy and also an economical source of energy because it is freely available. However, it is

only now after years of research that technology has made it possible to harness solar energy.

Some of the modern Solar Energy systems consist of magnifying glasses along with pipes filled with fluid. These systems consist of frontal glass that focuses the suns light onto the pipes. The fluid present in the pipes heats up instantly. In addition they pipes are painted black on the outside so as to absorb maximum amount of heat. The pipes have reflective silver surface on the back that reflects the sunlight back, thus heating the pipes further. This reflective silver surface also helps in protecting everything that is on the back of the solar panel. The heat thus produced can be used for heating up water in a tank, thus saving the large amount of gas or electricity required to heat the water.

Solar Energy Facts

Solar Energy is already being successfully used in residential and industrial settings for cooking, heating, cooling, lighting, space technology, and for communications among other uses. In fact, fossil fuels are also one form of solar energy stored in organic matter. With fossil fuels making major impact on the environment and raising issues of pollution and global warming, solar energy has increased in its importance to industries and homes. While the reserves of fossil fuels are restricted, there is no limitation to the availability of solar energy. With improvement in solar energy technology and the increase in prices of fossil fuel, solar energy is gradually becoming more and more affordable. In addition, there is additional cost in the form of importation and transportation, required for oil, coal and gas. On a surface on the Earths orbit, normal to the sun, solar radiation hits at the rate of 1,366 Watt per Meter Square. This is known as solar constant. While 19% of this energy gets absorbed in the atmosphere, 35% gets reflected by clouds. So, the solar energy that reaches sea level is much reduced. In the last few years, the cost of manufacturing of photovoltaic cells has gone down by as much as 5% in a year and the percentage of government subsidies have gone up. This means that every year, it is becoming more and more affordable to use Solar Energy. In 2004, the global solar cell production increased by as much as 60%. The amount of energy released by a single Kilo Watt of solar energy unit is equivalent to burning as much as 76 Kg of coal that releases over 135 Kg of carbon dioxide. As per energy industry giant, Shell more than 50% of the global energy in 2040 is going to be in the form of renewable energy.

Solar Energy for home in the last few years the number of photovoltaic installations on homes connected to utility grid has grown significantly. And, the demand for Solar Energy has grown due to policies in green pricing from utilities and government rebate programs. The demand has also grown due to the interest of households to get electricity from renewable, non-polluting and clean source. However, most of the users are interest in solar energy, but they can pay only a limited premium for it. The returns on the initial high costs of installation are in the form selling solar energy to the grid at premium rates and also in the form of long-term savings that come in the form of not having to pay any utility bills. When you have a solar system that is connected to the utility grid, the regular generation of electricity is used at home and the excess electricity is exported to the utility. In this type of setup you would not require any batteries because any additional demand will be met from the grid supply. However, if you want to be free of the grid, battery storage will be required to supply power during nighttime and during cloudy or stormy conditions. Vacation homes or holiday homes that dont have access to the grid can utilize Solar Energy in a more costeffective manner as compared to relying on the grid for running wires to the remote location. People living in remote areas having sufficient sunlight can get reliable power in the form of solar energy. The basic components required in the solar power system consists of a solar

panel, battery for storing all the energy gathered during daytime, a regulator and essential switches and wiring. These types of systems are commonly known as Solar Home Systems (SHS). Solar Energy Cost When you want to install Solar Energy system at home, you would require it to be sufficient for meeting all electricity requirements in home for a day plus it should generate enough power to store for 3 to 5 days for contingency purpose. Such a system would keep supplying power and getting charged when the days are sunny. During rain or winters it would be able to keep backup charge for a couple of days until the sun emerges. This means that such a solar power system is going to supply you a regular flow of electricity. Solar panels are one of the most important factors in the generation of Solar Energy. On an average, 1 Sq. Ft. of Solar Panel generates 10.6 Watts of power. And, the cost of 1 Sq. Ft. of Solar Panel is approximately Rs. 4,500. 10.6 Watt of power is sufficient to light a room. So, if you want to power appliances like television, refrigerator and computer, you would need more solar panels. You would have to consider solar grid-tie, and install 60 to 70 solar panels on the roof to meet the overall electricity requirement of your home. You must know that the cost of installing solar panels is not at all cheap. Advantages of Solar Energy Solar Energy has more advantages than you can point out the disadvantages. When it comes to considering solar power as mainstay source of energy for home and industrial settings, it beats all other conventional sources of energy.

Once the initial cost of installation is met, the electricity generated by solar panels is free of cost. In a stand-alone solar power system you dont have to pay any utility bills. Another positive in installing solar power systems is that government offers lots of rebates and incentives to cover the initial cost. You can also sell the additional electricity generated by your system. Sometimes the utility company will give you credits for selling the excess amount of electricity. Another good thing about solar power is that the cost of the technology is decreasing almost every few months and the efficiency is improving significantly. Today, you can find different types of solar solutions that are more convenient to install. Solar Energy is a renewable and clean source of energy and you dont have to pay any transmission cost. This is because the energy would be produced and consumed at the same place.

Depending upon your budget, you can get all or a part of your electricity requirements fulfilled by solar energy. When batteries are used in the system to store electricity you can become entirely independent of the grid. This also means that you dont have to get bothered by power failures in the grid, as you would be able to enjoy seamless supply of electricity. Disadvantages of Solar Energy Even though Solar Energy has several disadvantages, they are not major in degree and the benefits of this renewable source of energy far outweigh them. The initial cost of the installation and equipment is high. When you compare fossil fuel technology with solar

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power technology, the former will seem to be far more affordable. Even though Solar Energy is being used at an increasing rate, the initial costs dont encourage the maximum users to switch to this renewable source of energy. If there is shortage of space for installing solar panels, you would not be able to generate sufficient amount of Solar Energy required to meet your electricity requirements. Considering all these factors, it doesnt require much judgment to see that solar energy is the mainstay of energy requirement in both households and industries, both in the future and in the next few years. It is only a matter of time before Solar Energy technology becomes easily affordable to make this untapped and unending source of energy a common phenomenon in every household.

WIND TURBINE
Two types of turbine design: Horizontal axis Vertical axis.

Vertical-axis wind turbines

(or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable. VAWTs can utilize winds from varying directions.

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With a vertical axis, the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground, so the tower doesn't need to support it, and it is more accessible for maintenance. Drawbacks are that some designs produce pulsating torque. Drag may be created when the blade rotates into the wind. It is difficult to mount vertical-axis turbines on towers, meaning they are often installed nearer to the base on which they rest, such as the ground or a building rooftop. The wind speed is slower at a lower altitude, so less wind energy is available for a given size turbine. Air flow near the ground and other objects can create turbulent flow, which can introduce issues of vibration, including noise and bearing wear which may increase the maintenance or shorten the service life. However, when a turbine is mounted on a rooftop, the building generally redirects Wind over the roof and these can double the wind speed at the turbine. If the height of the rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% of the building

height, this is near the optimum for maximum wind energy and minimum wind turbulence.

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Vertical wind turbine

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Parts used
Vertical blades as wind turbine Dynamo for generating electricity Solar panel for generating electricity Light emitting diodes (LED) as street lamp

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Designing of axis of turbine


I've always had sort of a soft spot for the Vertical Axis Wind Turbines because of the advantages they offer. Unfortunately, most of them such as the Savonius aren't very efficient but do offer low wind characteristics. About a year ago I was emailed a patent

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of a VAWT that was a bit different. This one used the "Venturi effect" to duct air around the wings. After reading through the patent I decided to build one and see if It was any better or worse than some of the others out there. As it worked out it did outperform the Savonius but still seemed a bit low on the overall efficiency. I started searching for any others that used this principal and found one other like it. I ended up building this one also and found similar characteristics but this one also seemed a bit low on the efficiency return, still it did outperform the Savinous again. I started playing around with small units and built a coffee can model which ended up running at 700 rpm and was named the "700 RPM Coffee can". It really didn't make much power being as small as it was and was basically cut and duct taped together. Below shows a picture of the original coffee can experiment... If you decide to try this be advised the metal is very sharp and you should wear gloves as well as observing all safety precautions...

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Basically I divided it up into 4 sections, cut two out and taped them back into the can on the two remaining sections. It ran at 700 rpm in a 12.5 mph wind.

I decided to build a larger one using a plastic 5 gal bucket and similar techniques were used in the construction. This was a real dud! It didn't work at all. After some thought as to why it wouldn't work I decided to try a round drum in the center. I stacked a couple large coffee cans inside and taped them in. By changing the airflow through the unit it worked although not very well. After trying a bunch of different drums and shapes I decided to get a bit more scientific in my testing instead of my hit 'n miss style up to this point. I was intrigued as to exactly what was going on. I started doing some static tests of the air flow through the machine while in different positions but not spinning. Using a hand held

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wind speed meter I checked the wind speed in front and behind the unit as well as inside. The air flowing through the can was actually faster than the air entering the can. I found some Venturi formula's and started testing shapes and wings. I figured I had enough information to design something a bit larger, and get

some better test results. Using a combination of Savinous design ideas along with the venturi theory I came up with a design that is a bit different than the normal. Although similar to the Darrieus, wings similar to the Savonius, and a triangular drum in the middle to guide the flow of air the design was set. I built a few smaller versions for testing and the results looked promising and showed that I seemed on the right track. A larger one needed to be built. Below is the last one built to this point... Simple construction using plywood and aluminum flashing the machine is a bit under built but all the components are in place for the testing...

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The alternator is a homebuilt single phase axial design and the first test run showed 17 watts in a 12.5 mph wind. The alternator serves as a pony brake, the stator has bearings and is allowed to rotate, has an arm attached with a spring scale for taking torque readings. From

there the output is calculated. The unit stands 2ft tall and 2ft in diameter. I would say it would come close to competing with the Horizontals. It will start turning in a 3mph wind although the alternator doesn't start charging until about 5-6 mph. The turbine ran 240 rpm while driving the 17 watt load which comes out to a TSR of

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about 1.3. Static testing with my wind meter and unit not turning, 12.5 mph in front of the machine about 3mph 1 ft behind the machine but 17 mph going through the wing. I think there is still a considerable amount of work in improvements to be done and testing will continue. I'm calling it the "Lenz Turbine" and giving credit to all those before me for their unique and innovative work in this field. Also, to Hugh Piggott for helping me with the formula's for working out the wing angles based on the Darrieus type. Below is a diagram representing the dimensions for the machine above based on percentages of the overall size for those who would like to build one for their own personal use and/or for testing purposes.

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Another update to the fascinating world Below shows the beginning of the second version. Using parts from the first one and some quickie fabrication for the wings I began testing the unit. The alternator is a 12 pole 3phase machine I made up just for this project. It took some tinkering to get it where I thought it should be with good and not so good results.

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Since the unit was slightly different than the original my wing angles didn't work out real well. I played with one wing on the machine to find out where the torque was as it progressed around the 360 measuring every 10 degrees. I realized at that point the torque wasn't where I had thought and started playing with wing angles again. Finally it was dialed in at 9 degrees and worked like a dream! It was time to take it outside for some real world testing. I mounted it on the front loader of my tractor and out in the wind it went.

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The wind was dying down by the time I got it in position so I really didn't get a chance to give it a work out. Below are some output readings... 5.5 mph starts charging 7.1 mph 3.32 watts 8.5 mph 5.12 watts

9 mph 5.63 watts

9.5 mph 6.78 watts Not to bad for a small 2ft by 2ft machine.

It was time to build a larger one to see if it could be scaled up and still maintain its efficient run. I built up a larger one 3ft dia x 4 ft tall unit shown below..

I'm not going to get into a lot of details but it does 52 watts in a 12.5 mph wind. I'm not one to be impressed easily, this machine has definitely impressed me. Now, Its time to take it to another level.... Page on building the wings can be found here...

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Designing of blades

A few details for building the 3ft diameter x 4ft tall Lenz2 turbine... Below is a drawing for the wing ribs cut from 3/4" plywood.

The wings are basically built from 3/4" plywood for the ribs and the stringers were cut from treated 2x4's. The

stringers are glued into the slots and later drilled for wood screws. Simply clamp the stringers into the slots and allow the glue to set. Once the glue has set you can cover the wings with aluminum sheet. I've also used

PVC sheet in 1/8" thickness which might be cheaper than the aluminum. The aluminum sheet was .025 thickness and is actually lighter than the PVC sheet. Other light weight weather proof materials will work as well.

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Above is another shot of the wing frame The rivets are aluminum 1/8" and are 3/4 to 1 inch long. I start by bending a 90 degree angle on the leading edge of the aluminum and rivet it to the top outer leading edge of

the wing frame.

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Below are some formula's to help find the rpm it might run in a given wind as well as how much power you might expect from the unit.... Watts output = .00508 x Area x windspeed^3 x efficiency Area in square feet ( height x width ) Windspeed in mph Example: the 3 x 4 described above in a 15 mph wind and an alternator of around 75% efficient would have a power output of ;

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.00508 x ( 3x4 ) x 15^3 x ( .41 x.75 ) = 63.26 watts Efficiency would vary depending on the alternator and building techniques. The turbine as tested will function at 41% efficiency at the shaft. The alternators efficiency

will vary depending on the load. If you have an alternator performing at 90% and a turbine at 40% then

the overall efficiency of the machine would be .9 x .4 = .36 or 36% efficient. If the alternator is only 50% efficient then the overall efficiency would be .5 x .4 = 20% . As you can see the alternator efficiency plays a big part in the overall efficiency or what you would see for charging. How large will it need to be to make a specific power output in a given wind... Watts / ( .00508 x windspeed^3 x efficiency) = total square feet of area Example: Lets say we want 63 watts in a 15 mph wind using the number from above; 63 watts / ( .00508 x 15^3 x (.75x.41)) = 11.94 sq ft ( or a 3ft diameter x 4 ft tall ) How fast will it run in a given wind speed... Windspeed x 88 / ( diameter x 3.14 ) x TSR

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Windspeed in mph diameter in feet

the "88" is simply to convert the mph to feet per minute The TSR ( tip speed ratio ) for this machine for peak power is 0.8. Because it is a hybrid lift/drag machine in order for it to extract energy from both the upwind and downwind wings it needs to run slightly slower that the wind. 0.8 seems to be optimum while loaded although it will run at 1.6 unloaded.

Example: The same turbine in a 15mph wind loaded to 0.8 TSR... 15mph x 88 / ( 3 x 3.14 ) x .8 = 112 rpm

or unloaded - 15 x 88 / ( 3 x 3.14 ) x 1.6 = 224 Some things to consider when designing... if the alternator is weak the turbine will "run away" or overspeed in higher winds. It needs to be well balanced to handle these conditions or it could vibrate and cause something to break as well as burn up the alternator. It's better to overbuild the alternator slightly. You should incorporate a way to control the speed such as a shorting switch or break to slow it down and even stop it in high winds. The shorting switch is simply wired to your output wires from the alternator and shorts the

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alternator. This loads the turbine considerably, it won't stop it from turning but it will turn very slowly with that high load - here again this depends on the alternator in use. Since VAWT's can't be "furled" out of the wind they do need to be controlled. I've designed the turbine to work very well in low winds, and operate at much safer speed than some of it's counterparts. This wing design is very dirty in winds above 20mph and the efficiency drops off considerably in higher winds although it will continue to produce higher outputs as the wind speed increases. You are responsible for building and controlling the turbine, as with any wind machine mother nature can be cruel so build it strong and mount it well and you'll get years of use out of it... Have Fun! Play safe!

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Designing of Alternator
I built this alternator from some emails I recieved about direct drive units and lowering the RPM per volt. I've done a few chain drive units that work well but they have their drawbacks. Problems relating to drive losses, they require higher winds to start, and have higher maintenance to name a few.

My goal, once again, was to keep it as simple as possible so others could build one with basic tools and could be done relatively cheap. I believe what I have here accomplishes these goals.

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Since Radial flux type units require specificaly sized parts I chose the Axial Flux type. One of the things in the back of my mind was the "cogging" effect created by most of the PM alternators and the amount of wind it takes to start it. During the thought process for

acomplishing this project I needed to either make it an "air core" or come up with a way to hand build an iron

core. The "air core" type isn't very efficient in the sense that the coils aren't saturated properly when the magnets pass the coil. In order to cure this problem you would need 2 disc's with magnets on them. This would complicate the design so I started looking for other ideas. On first thought I pulled out a roll of mig welding wire and thought about rolling a "core" from this. Unfortuneately, this would require a special jig and a way to separate the wires from each other. I started looking at laminations from motors, transformers or what ever I thought would transfere flux fairly well. It dawned on me that sheet metal could be used in this part of the project. I cut strips of sheet metal and strips of cardboard and coiled them up until I had a piece the size that I needed. I used Fiberglass Resin to "laminate" the coil together then glued it to a 9" disc made from 3/4" plywood. Below shows the disc and laminations glued in place.

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The steel coil was glued to the wood with JB weld then the fiberglass Resin poured over the steel core. The outside diameter of the steel core is 8" and inside diameter is 5.5". The magnets I chose was Item #27 from www.wondermagnet.com . I marked the stator at 20 degree intervals so there would be 18 magnets used on the rotor. The coils had to fit over the 20 degree area

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and in a trianglular form so I made a jig to make the coils. There is 27 coils to fill the rotor for a 3 phase set up. Each coil was 30 turns of #20 wire, and all made in the same

direction. Below shows the coils of each phase being placed on the stator.

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The initial tests of the single coil showed 1.1V at 630 rpm which meant I should get 9.9 Volts from the series of 9 coils. Testing showed 13.5V AC and 22V rectified which was much better than I had anticipated. I laid in all the other sets and soldered up all the connections in series for the last 2 phases of the alternator. This leaves 6 wires loose - 3 starts and 3 finishes to be wired up later. I used a hot glue gun to place the coils before finishing the stator. I reinstalled it on the lathe and started testing it with all the phases in place. In a "star" wiring it made 38 volts at 630 rpm and in a "Delta" wiring it made 22 volts. "Star" gives you more volts but less amps and "Delta" gives you more amps but less volts. I'll talk about the different wiring of it later.

Below shows the Stator filled in with fiberglass resin. This seals the unit and holds the coils in place ... permanently! The other shows the steel disc the magnets are on for the rotor. None of them were glued on during the testing. They are quite strong and are very hard to move. The steel disc the magnets are on could be a disc cut out from plywood with a sheet metal disc laminated to the plywood disc. This would serve the same purpose. The steel behind the magnets intensifies the field going to the core and through the coils.

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The magnet rotor will be mounted to the prop hub and the stator will be attatched to the bearing head. To complete the rotor the magnets are glued in place and resin will be poured onto the plate to lock them in forever then it will have to be balanced.

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Now to the wiring.... Here lies a problem, you can wire the alternator in a star configuration or in a Delta. The star gives you much more voltage but less amps and the Delta gives you less voltage and more amps. Below shows the way each of the three phases would be wired....

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About battery
Wind turbines are available in two electrical configurations: Depending on your preference, you can purchase turbines in a battery back-up configuration or a grid-tie configuration. Each of these options is described below. Although these are the two main options, our engineers are able to provide custom configurations as

well. If you have a specific need, our engineers can provide you with a custom solution. If this is the case, please do not hesitate to Contact Us.

BATTERY BACK-UP
All of our wind turbines are available in battery backup configuration. With battery back-up, the wind turbine produces energy from its generator that passes through a charge controller device which converts the electricity into a voltage meant for charging batteries. This electricity is stored in the batteries where it can be used for nearly any application with the addition of an inverter/charger. The main benefit of a battery back-up system is its versatility. Another popular benefit is that you will have

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power even if your electricity goes out. If you have a battery back-up solar power system, you can combine them into a hybrid system. An electrician can wire this system into your home or business so that select appliances like lights, computer servers, and security systems will be powered even when the grid is down. Furthermore, in the rare instance of prolonged periods of low wind, UGE systems are designed so the grid will automatically back-up the battery, leaving your batteries charged. No matter what, when your neighbors power is out, your power is still on! The one downside of using a battery back-up system is that it requires that additional component to a grid-tie system, the batteries themselves. They take up a little bit more room and increase the cost of your system

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Solar panel
Solar panel is a photo voltaic cell which converts the solar energy into electrical energy

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LED street lamp

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GENERAL AERODYNAMICS
The forces and the velocities acting in a Darrieus turbine are depicted in figure 1. The resultant velocity vector, , is the vectorial sum of the undisturbed upstream air velocity, , and the velocity vector of the advancing blade, .

Fig1: Forces and velocities acting in a Darrieus turbine for various azimuthal positions

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Five-kilowatt vertical axis wind turbine Thus, the oncoming fluid velocity varies, the maximum is found for and the minimum is found for , where is the azimuthal or orbital blade position. The angle of attack, , is the angle between the oncoming air speed, W, and the blade's chord. The resultant airflow creates a varying, positive angle of attack to the blade in the upstream zone of the machine, switching sign in the downstream zone of the machine. From geometrical considerations, the resultant airspeed flow and the angle of attack are calculated as follows:

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[3]

where

is the tip speed ratio parameter.

The resultant aerodynamic force is decomposed either in lift (F_L) - drag (D) components or normal (N) tangential (T) components. The forces are considered acting at 1/4 chord from the leading edge (by convention), the pitching moment is determined to resolve the aerodynamic forces. The aeronautical terms lift and drag are, strictly speaking, forces across and along the approaching net relative airflow respectively. The tangential force is acting along the blade's velocity and, thus, pulling the blade around, and the normal force is acting radially, and, thus, is acting against the bearings. The lift and the drag force are useful when dealing with the aerodynamic behaviour around each blade, i.e. dynamic stall, boundary layer, etc; while when dealing with global performance, fatigue loads, etc., it is

more convenient to have a normal-tangential frame. The lift and the drag coefficients are usually normalised by the dynamic pressure of the relative airflow, while the normal and the tangential coefficients are usually normalised by the dynamic pressure of undisturbed upstream fluid velocity.

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A = Surface Area The amount of power, P, that can be absorbed by a wind turbine.

Where is the power coefficient, is the density of the air, is the swept area of the turbine, and is the wind speed.

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A General Method for Fatigue Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blades
Introduction
The fatigue life of wind turbine blades is a necessary ingredient in the estimate of the cost effectiveness of a wind turbine system. Ideally, rotor control parameters (such as the cutin and cutout wind speeds) should he selected to maximize both turbine life and rate of energy capture. However, energy capture (on a yearly basis) and blade fatigue life are conflicting quantities that require trade offs to determine the most suitable operating mode for a given wind system. The goal of this fatigue analysis is to define techniques that help to clarify the balance between rotor life expectancy and the rate of energy production. Because the turbine operates in a randomloading environment, a statistical approach to defining the operating stresses is used. Reference 1 describes the method used to produce an estimate of blade life based upon descriptions of the cyclic stresses and wind speeds in terms of probability density functions .byusing Miner's cumulative damage rule, the damage produced by the stress cycles at each stress amplitude within the pdf are integrated to estimate the blade life. However, Reference 1 does not include the effects of the control system. Since evaluating the control system that turns the turbine on and off is a goal of the fatigue analysis, it is important to know which wind speeds cause the bulk of the fatigue

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damage. A damage density function that plots damage as a function of wind speed is introduced for this purpose. In a similar way, the amount of energy available at each wind speed is expressed in terms of an energy density function Both the maximum energy and maximum

damage are accumulated if the wind turbine is operated (on) at all times. The life expectancy of the rotor is extended by incorporating a high-wind cutout in the turbine control algorithm. The effect of this cutout algorithm is expressed by plotting an "on parameter" that shows the fraction of the total available time at each wind speed actually operated by the turbine. In general, the on parameter is less than the unity between cutin and cutout, and above zero elsewhere because of the wind speed averaging times associated with the control algorithms. The operating edf and ddf are found by multiplying the maximum edf and ddf by the on parameter. The area under the edf is related to the annual energy production and the area under the ddf is related to the inverse of the blade fatigue life This approach allows the analyst to visualize the effect of changing algorithm parameters on the fatigue life and energy production rate of the turbine. The ideal algorithm is one that removes as much area as possible from the ddf, thus increasing rotor life expectancy without taking area from the edf, thus maximizing the annual energy production. It is important to remember that the fatigue life and energy capture of a turbine are inseparable components of a cost of energy estimate.

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The damage accumulated while the turbine is parked and during start-stop cycles is not included in this analysis procedure. Data collected during testing of several Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) systems support the assumption that these events have negligible effect on blade fatigue life. This is not necessarily a universal truth, but should be checked for each turbine individually.

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Damage Density and Energy Density-

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In order to examine the effects of the operating parameters on the rotor fatigue life, it is convenient to know which wind speeds are responsible for the mostdamage. This can be visualized by plotting the damage as a function of wind speed in terms of a ddf. The ddf is derived in Appendix A. Although the stress levels (and hence the damage rate) continue to rise as wind speed increases, the amount of wind available at higher wind speeds decreases. The net result is that the ddf goes to zero as wind speeds continue to rise. The area under the ddf is the inverse of the blade life expectancy. The ddf for the blade to tower joint of the DOE 100-kW turbine at the Bushland, TX site is6 shown in Figure 1. This ddf is calculated as if the turbine operates at all times. The calculation of this ddf and the data used to produce it are included in Appendix B. The relationships described by Eqs (1), (2), and (3) havebeen found to be very accurate for the DOE 100-kW machines and are useful approximations. The general shape of the maximum ddf is as shown in Figure 1. The peak of the ddf is at a wind speed of Observe that the peak of the maximum ddf is a function only of the average wind speed (V) and the fatigue life exponent (b). (The fatigue life exponent is the slope of the RMS stress vs cycles to failure curve when plotted log-log.) At the high-cycle end of the fatigue life curve, the slope is, in general, quite flat; typical values of the exponent (b) are between -5 and -12.This puts the peak of the ddf between 2 and 3 times the annual average

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wind speed. As a result of the flat nature of the fatigue life curve at high cycles, small changes in the operating stress level or in the fatigue-life curve produce large changes in the life estimate. Therefore, a reliable fatiguelife estimate requires an accurate description of the operating stresses and a statistical description of the fatigue-life characteristics. A family of fatigue-life curves for various confidence levels should be produced. Then a fatigue-life estimate can be described based upon a specified confidence level. Unfortunately, defining the statistics of the fatigue-life curve requires a large number of tests of the blade components. The energy-capture characteristics of a turbine in a particular site are often described using an edf analogous to the ddf. The maximum edf is the product of the wind speed pdf and the power curve. A convenient way to visualize the trade off between fatigue life and energy capture is to plot both the edf and the ddf on the same wind speed axis. Figure 2 is a plot that includes the edf and two extreme cases of the ddf; the first with a high slope on the fatigue-life curve (b = -5) that results in a peak at 2V , and the second with a low slope on the fatigue curve (b = -12) that produces a peak at 3V. The peak of the maximum edf will typically be at about 1.5 times the average wind speed. Note that the bulk of the damage is usually accumulated at higher wind speeds than the bulk of the available energy. This makes it possible to obtain a significant extension in the blade fatigue life without sacrificing a great deal of the available energy by shutting down the turbine at the

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appropriate time. 7 obtained by multiplying the maximum edf and pdf by theon parameter. The ddf's in Figure 4 are calculated by combining the on parameters in Figure 3 with the damage density in Figure 1. Since the area under the ddf is the inverse of the blade fatigue life, the reduced areas under the ddf's associated with lower cutout wind speeds indicate increased blade life. Similarly, the family of edf's for different cutout wind speeds plotted in Figure 5 show how the annual energy capture is affected by the cutout algorithm. Note that, with a 20.1 m/s (45 mph) cutout, almost all of the available energy is captured while a substantial fraction of the fatigue damage is still eliminated. Table 1 lists the

blade fatigue life expectancy and annual energy capture associated with edf's and ddf 's for the blade-to-tower joints on the DOE 100-kW turbine at Bushland, TX, shown in Figures 5 and 4, respectively.

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Statistical Considerations
The data presented here is used to produce an estimate of the mean component fatigue life. There are two very important points that must be made:first, this is the mean (or 50%) confidence level of the fatigue life; second, it is the fatigue life of a single component (such as one joint) and not the entire rotor. If there is a P percent confidence that a component will not fail in T years and there are n components in the rotor, then the confidence that the rotor will not fail in T yr is Protor = Pn (6) For example, if there is a 50%, confidence that one joint on the Bushland turbine will not fail for 5 yr and there

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are four similar joints on the rotor experiencing the same stress levels, there is only a 6.25% confidence that the rotor will not fail in 5 yr. In order to obtain a 50% confidence or mean rotor life, the fatigue life of each joint would have to he known at an 84% confidence level. Producing an RMS-N curve at a given confidence level requires repeated tests at each stress level. Reference 3 outlines a procedure for evaluating the fatigue life curve at a given confidence level. Summary By creating maximum damage and energy density functions, the lower hound on fatigue life and the upper bound on annual energy production are defined. Figure 2 indicates that the bulk of the energy and the bulk of the damage will usually lie in different wind speed regimes. Therefore, a good cutout algorithm can reduce the damage significantly without crippling the system by overly restricting the annual energy production. The cutout algorithm is characterizedby the on parameter that

shows the fraction of the total available time at each wind speed the turbine actually operates. The actual ddf and edf are of the on parameter and the maximum ddf and edf. The expected time to failure is the inverse of the

area under the actual ddf and the annual energy production is the area under the actual edf. The use of these density functions should aid the analyst in visualizing the fatigue life/energy capture trade-off.

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WIND POWER IN INDIA


THE DEVELOPMENT OF WIND POWER IN INDIA BEGAN IN THE 1990S, AND HAS SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED IN THE LAST FEW YEARS. ALTHOUGH A
RELATIVE NEWCOMER TO THE WIND INDUSTRY COMPARED WITH DENMARK OR THE UNITED STATES, INDIA HAS THE FIFTH LARGEST INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY IN THE WORLD. IN 2009-10 INDIA'S GROWTH RATE WAS HIGHEST AMONG THE OTHER TOP FOUR COUNTRIES.

As of 31 March 2011 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 16078 MW, mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (6007 MW), Maharashtra (2310.70 MW), Gujarat (2175.60 MW), Karnataka (1730.10 MW), Rajasthan (1524.70 MW), Madhya Pradesh (275.50 MW), Andhra Pradesh (200.20 MW), Kerala (32.8 MW), Orissa (2MW), West Bengal (1.1 MW) and other states (3.20 MW). It is estimated that 6,000 MW of additional wind power capacity will be installed in India by 2012. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed

power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. India's wind atlas is available.

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CONTENTS

1 Overview 2 State-level wind power


o

2.1 Tamil Nadu (6007 MW) 2.2 Maharashtra (2310.70 MW) 2.3 Gujarat (2466.20 MW) 2.4 Karnataka (1730.10 MW) 2.5 Rajasthan (1900 MW) 2.6 Madhya Pradesh (275.50 MW) 2.7 Kerala (32 MW) 2.8 West Bengal (1.10MW)

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India is the world's fifth largest wind power producer, with an annual power production of 8,896 MW. Shown here is a wind farm in Kayathar, Tamil Nadu. The worldwide installed capacity of wind power reached 197 GW by the end of 2010. China (44,733 MW), US (40,180 MW), Germany (27,215 MW) and Spain (20,676

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MW) are ahead of India in fifth position. The short gestation periods for installing wind turbines, and the increasing reliability and performance of wind energy machines has made wind power a favored choice for capacity addition in India.[10] Suzlon, an Indian-owned company, emerged on the global scene in the past decade, and by 2006 had captured almost 7.7 percent of market share in global wind turbine sales. Suzlon is currently the leading manufacturer of wind turbines for the Indian market, holding some 52 percent of market share in India. Suzlons success has made India the developing country leader in advanced wind turbine technology.

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STATE-LEVEL WIND POWER


There is a growing wind energy installations in the number of the states across the India. TAMIL NADU (6007 MW)

India is keen to decrease its reliance on fossil fuels to meet its energy demand. Shown here is a wind farm in Muppandal, Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is the state with the most wind generating capacity: 6007 MW constituting almost 47% of the total capacity of India.[12] Not far from Aralvaimozhi, the Muppandal wind farm, the largest in the subcontinent, is located near the once impoverished village of Muppandal, supplying the villagers with electricity for work.[13][14] The village had been selected as the showcase for India's $2 billion clean energy program which provides companies with tax breaks for establishing fields of wind turbines in the area.

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Wind turbiness in Tamil Nadu In February 2009, Shriram EPC bagged INR 700 million contract for setting up of 60 units of 250 KW (totaling 15 MW) wind turbines in Tirunelveli district by Cape Energy.[15] Enercon WinWinD Suzlon Gamesa and Vestas are playing a major role in development of wind energy in India. In Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore and Tiruppur Districts having more wind Mills from 2002 onwards,specially, Chittipalayam, Kethanoor, Gudimangalam, Poolavadi, Murungappatti (MGV Place), Kottamangalam, Kumarapalayam, Sunkaramudaku, KongalNagaram, Gomangalam, Anthiur, Edyarpalayam, Bogampatti, Puliya Marathu Palayam, Chandrapuram are the high wind power production places in the both districts. The diverse areas of Panagudi, Kavalkinaru, Koodankulam, Rathapuram, Vallioor, Alangulam, Kayathar, Gangaikondan, Surandai, V.K.Puthur, Kalakad, Sengottai, Cheranmahadevi, Tisayanvillai, Uvari of Tirunelveli district are growing enormously in the installation of new wind turbines.

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Maharashtra is second only to Tamil Nadu in terms of generating capacity. Suzlon has been heavily involved.[10] Suzlon operates what was once Asia's largest wind farm, the Vankusawade Wind Park (201 MW), near the Koyna reservoir in Satara district of Maharashtra.

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VAWT advantages A massive tower structure is less frequently used, as VAWTs are more frequently mounted with the lower bearing mounted near the ground. Designs without yaw mechanisms are possible with fixed pitch rotor designs. A VAWT can be located nearer the ground, making it easier to maintain the moving parts.

VAWTs have lower wind startup speeds than HAWTs. Typically, they start creating electricity at 6 M.P.H. (10 km/h). VAWTs may be built at locations where taller structures are prohibited. VAWTs situated close to the ground can take advantage of locations where mesas, hilltops, ridgelines, and passes funnel the wind and increase wind velocity. VAWTs may have a lower noise signature.

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VAWT disadvantages Most VAWTs produce energy at only 50% of the efficiency of HAWTs in large part because of the additional drag that they have as their blades rotate into the wind. Versions that reduce drag produce more energy, especially those that funnel wind into the collector area. A VAWT that uses guy-wires to hold it in place puts stress on the bottom bearing as all the weight of the rotor is on the bearing. Guy wires attached to the top bearing increase downward thrust in wind Gusts. Solving this problem requires a superstructure to hold a top bearing in place to eliminate the downward thrusts of gust events in guy wired models. While VAWTs' parts are located on the ground, they are also located under the weight of the structure above it, which can make changing out parts nearly impossible without dismantling the structure if not designed properly.

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APPLICATION VAWT can be used in many places like: In our cities in place of street light polls we can use this VAWT with solar panel and lights attached to it so that it can generate electricity any time or any season and give light. It can be used in village also. It can be used in our houses also

It can be used in many other places where there is problem in reaching sun light or the area is covered with high buildings and does not have much area to put horizontal wind turbines.

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