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A Project Report On Cores process & Ways to improve its productivity.



Anubhav Ranjan Indian Institute Of Technology Madras,


AC&'OWLE$(E#E'T I thank and express my sincere gratitude to #r. 'irma) Puro%it (H.O.$. Core* Project" for having given me the golden opportunity to do my summer training in your esteemed organi ation! It "as indeed a great exposure and experience to "ork in such a huge project "ith such a cooperative people at #$%&, %a ira &td! I also thank to #r. #.&.#itra (Advisor" for taking so much interest in my training and scheduling my training program in such a "ay, so that I may get all round exposure from the summer training! I have no "ords to say except 'T%A() *O+,- to #r. Pras%ant Rao ($.(.#+ HR" for all the assistance and help, "ithout such help our training "ould not have gone so smoothly! &ast, but not the least I "ould like to thank all the %ead of the departments and their subordinates, "ho have been so helpful and thoughtful to"ards every en.uiry / information that I have asked for, "ithout their guidance the training "ould not have been completed! My sincere thanks to #r. E.#uru,an+ -(# #r. Sanjay Sin,%+ $(# #r. ..P.R.(iris%+ $# #r. A.'./.(.&ris%namurt%y+ $# #r. Arvind #adan+ #ana,er #r. '. .andaru+ Senior En,ineer

The origin of ferrous alloy production can be traced back to as early as 0111 23, "hen "ritings from ancient 3hina and India made reference to manmade ferrous metals! 2y 4561 23 to 4411 23, the production of ferrous metals from iron ore had spread to a "ide geographic area! More than 5,111 years after this early beginning of the Iron Age, modern iron and steelmakers still use the same car3ot%ermic process discovered by early iron makers! %o"ever, this industry continues to develop incremental and entirely novel technology improvements that are more efficient, more productive, and cheaper than existing processes to produce high .uality ferrous alloys "ith a "ide range of properties and end uses! Modern iron making and steelmaking is extremely intensive in material and energy usage as "ell as in capital re.uirements! The industry is also faced "ith a "ide range of environmental concerns that are fundamentally related to the high energy re.uirements, material usage, and the byproducts associated "ith producing about 4047 million tonnes of steel per year "orld"ide!

A$/A'CES !' !RO' #A&!'(12

The blast furnace, in various forms, has remained the "orkhorse of "orld8"ide virgin iron production for more than 011 years, producing carbon8saturated 9hot metal: for subse.uent processing by steelmaking processes! %o"ever, the modern blast furnace has advanced a long "ay from its earlier ancestors! 3ontinuous developments have taken place in blast furnace process technology as "ell as in the design and engineering aspects! The major drivers for technological developments related to the blast furnace are to reduce its reliance on coke and to extend campaign life to reduce capital costs of repairs!

T%e deve)opments occurred are12 a" The furnace si e has gone up from around 0111m5 to 6111m5 and productivities of 0!6t;m5;day to 5t;m5;day have been achieved! 3" <= bell8less rotating chute system for burden distribution is no" "idely adopted! c" Mathematical models and instrumentations have been developed to predict the stock line profiles and measure the effect of changes in the distribution pattern! d" =ith good hearth conditions, improved refractories, optimal cooling increases the heat flux rates in the lo"er part of the furnace and judicious gas flo" distribution in the central and peripheral regions, it has been possible to increase the campaign life to as high as 46 years! e" 2y controlling the heat loss, reducing temperature in the vicinity of the race "ay by steam or "ater injection through tuyeres, it has been possible to produce hot metal "ith less than 1.0> $i! 4" Reduction in coke consumption! i? Oxygen #nrichment! ii? 3oal @ust Injection! iii? 3oal Tar, natural gas, oil injection! iv? $tamp 3harged coke addition! ," %igh %ot 2last Temperature and %igh Top <ressure! The result of all these developments has been consistent, reliable and lo"8cost production of high .uality iron "ith higher fuel efficiency and greatly increased production! #ven then, advances have been made in developing alternative technologies of iron production!

It has been due to the follo"ing dra"backs of 2last Aurnace TechnologyB8 a" 3oke8making is extremely problematic from an environmental perspective, as many of the hydrocarbons driven off during the coking process are ha ardous! 3" (ot all types of coal are suitable for the production of coke and the coal reserves suitable for the production of coke are depleting! c" The demand for the byproducts from coke8making for secondary processing into chemical products has decreased! This has a direct impact on the increase in the cost of coke making!

'O/EL PROCESSES 5OR !RO' PRO$0CT!O' The characteristics of a ne", ideal process for increased iron unit production should include the follo"ingB a" /ery %i,% e44iciency 6it% respect to ener,y and materia)s usa,eCA ne" technology "ould replace conventional reactors, "hich are extremely efficient at present and "ill only continue to improve in the near future! 3" (reater 4)e*i3i)ity in 4eed materia)s7@ependency of the modern blast furnace on coke is the greatest "eakness of the process! Any process that could use coal directly "ould have an enormous advantage over the blast furnace! In addition, the direct use of fine or lump iron ore and;or "aste iron oxides "ithout agglomeration "ould further reduce capital costs as compared "ith conventional processes! c" Reduced capita) costsC@ue to efficiencies of scale, "hich are inherent to the process, high8efficiency, high8productivity blast furnaces represent a daunting capital investment for most individual steel companies "ithout state subsidi ation! A process that could be operated on a smaller unit scale "ithout compromising efficiency "ould greatly reduce the capital re.uirements for adding ne" iron making capacity! Also, as

mentioned above, a process that could use coal and unprepared ore directly "ould eliminate the additional capital re.uirements of coke making and pelleti ing;sinter plants! d" Operationa) 4)e*i3i)ityCAlthough recent advances in blast furnace productivity exhibit that the process can be operated at a range of production rates, even greater flexibility "ould be advantageous! e" Capa3i)ity o4 producin, )o6 car3on iron direct)y CThe highly reducing environment of the blast furnace produces 9hot metal: or carbon saturated iron DE6 "t!> 3?! %o"ever, most steel products have a carbon content of less than 4 "t!> 3! <rocesses "ith improved control over reaction kinetics and thermodynamics could control the amount of carbon entering into the hot metal!

/arious a)ternatives 6ays o4 iron production %as evo)ved over t%e years and t%ey %ave 3een cate,ori8ed as12 i" $irect Reduction2 It is defined as a process used to make solid iron products from ore or pellets using natural gas or a coal8based reductant! $everal of these direct reduction processes have been commercially available for over a decade and have been optimi ed to a reasonable degree! <rocesses under this category include #!$RE9+ HyL+ 5!'#ET+ 5!OR+ 5AST#ET etc! %o"ever, these processes use pellets or lump ore, have relatively high capital costs, and re.uire relatively large production units D4 million tons per year? to be economical! Tec%no)o,ica) C%a))en,es12 The gas8based shaft furnace processes are

commercially available and further improvements "ill be incremental! 2arriers for fluid8bed processes are primarily related to productivity and e.uipment, "hile those for the coal8based processes are related to the undesirable extra gangue and sulfur associated "ith the 3oal reductant and the poor physical .uality of the reduced iron product.


!ron Sme)tin,2 The objective of iron smelting is to develop processes that

produce li.uid iron directly from coal and ore fines or concentrate! &i.uid iron is preferred to solid iron because there is no gangue and molten iron retains its sensible heat! 3oal is the fuel of choice, as opposed to natural gas, because of its abundance and lo"er cost! +se of coal directly also "ould eliminate the need for blast furnace coke, a costly commodity in increasingly short supply! The ability to use ore fines or concentrate could eliminate agglomeration costs! These ne" processes should have a high smelting intensity or productivity! %igh productivity, combined "ith elimination of coke making and ore agglomeration, "ill significantly reduce the $ystem capital cost! The iron smelting processes include CORE9+ $!OS+ 5!'E9+ H!S#ELT+ RO#ELT Trends and $rivers12 The drivers for these smelting technologies are reduction in capital costs, elimination of coke making, reduction in agglomeration re.uirements, and flexibility in location and economic si e!

Core* 1 An !ntroduction
3orex is an industrially and commercially proven $melting8Reduction <rocess that allo"s for cost efficient and environmentally compatible production of hot metal directly from iron ore and non8coking coal! The process "as developed to industrial maturity by $iemens FAI and is the only alternative to the conventional blast furnace route consisting of $inter <lant, 3oke ovens and 2last furnace! It distinguishes itself from the blast furnace route byB a" @irect use of non8coking coal as a reducing agent and an energy source! 3" Iron ore can be directly and feasibly charged to the process in the form of lump ore, pellets and sinter Arom the time of its first start up by <O$3O, one of the largest iron and steel producers of the "orld, in (ov 4GG6 at its <ohang =orks in )orea the 3orex process has gained increased popularity o"ing to its lo" capital cost, stable operation, compatible hot metal .uality to that of blast furnace and additional advantages of the #xport Has! The successful operation of four 3orex plants confirms that 3orex process is a proven and viable alternative to conventional blast furnace technology more so in an area "here po"er is a crisis! Farious 3orex <lants in operation and under construction!

Over the period of years, increased technical kno"8ho", global and local expertise, modifications, optimi ed processes for economical production led to the development of the 3orex process from 384111I D set up by I$3OR in 4GJG? to 385111 Dunder construction by 2ao $teel, 3hina?!

+pscaling of 3orex plant over the years!

'I,8 Kuantity of %ot Metal produced in tones per day!

Aeatures of 3orex <rocessB

:. $ubstantially reduced specific investment costs and operation costs compared "ith conventional blast furnace route! ;. Outstanding overall environmental compatibility <. +se of 3orex #xport Has for a "ide range of applications! =. +se of "ide variety of Iron ores and (on 3oking coals! >. #limination of 3oking <lants! ?. %ighest Operational Alexibility! @. %ot metal .uality suitable for all steel application!

Core* Process $escription1

In the 3orex process all the metallurgical "ork is carried in t"o separate process reactorsB a" The Reduction $haft! 3" The Melter Hasifier! A simplified flo" sheet of a 3orex process "ould look like the follo"ing!

T%e Reduction S%a4t1

&ump ore, pellets and additives D i!e! &imestone and @olomite? are charged into the reduction shaft via a &ock %opper system "here these are reduced to @irect Reduced Iron D@RI? by a reduction gas, moving in the counter flo" direction, injected into the shaft through various no les at the 2ustle area! The reducing gas enters the shaft at a temperature of J61 3 and moves to the top of the furnace, reducing the charged mixture and exits the shaft at a temperature of around 511 3 and is termed as Top Has! $ome amount of coke is also added to the shaft to maintain ade.uate permeability of the burden and avoid clustering of the burden! The reduced @RI has about J18G1> Ae content "hich is conveyed to the Melter gasifier using the @RI scre"s! The Reduction $haft is maintained at a pressure of 5!6bar!

T%e #e)ter (asi4ier1

It can be divided into three different reaction ones! They areB a? Haseous Aree 2oard Lone D @ome ? b? 3har 2ed 8 one above the oxygen tuyeres and belo" the dome! c? %earth Lone In the Melter Hasifier, hot @RI at about 7J18M11 3 along "ith calcined limestone, dolomite is continuously fed through the @RI scre"s! In addition, the non8coking coal .uar ite and some amount of coke are also continuously charged through the coal scre"s and lock8hopper system! The composition of non8coking coal is as follo"sB i? Aixed carbon 888 6J876> ii?Folatile Matter 888 01806> iii?Ash 888 41840> The @ome Temperature is maintained at around 4161 3! This is done in order to cause complete devolatilisation of coal follo"ed by decomposition of the volatile matter Dby cracking of hydrocarbons? into elementary carbon and hydrogen! The resultant coal after removal of volatile matter is called C%ar!

In the 3har 2ed Lone, direct reduction of AeO in the @RI occurs by carbon! Moreover, residual reduction of Iron oxide and decomposition of unburnt limestone and dolomite takes place! Also, burning of coal char by oxygen through the tuyeres occurs in this one! In the %earth one, "e have less dense molten slag floating over more dense hot molten metal! The hot metal is then separated from the slag through an efficient cast house practice! In order to cause the generation of heat and reducing gases, oxygen is injected to the melter gasifier through the Tuyeres! The supplied oxygen in GG!G> pure O0! The gases generated as a result of burning of char are 3O, %0O and small amounts of 3O0! The heat thus generated is used for melting iron and slag and for other metallurgical reactions! These gases along "ith those generated in the free board one constitute the reducing gas and is taken out of the melter gasifier through the Has Heneration @ucts DHH@?! These gases contain fine dust particles "hich are separated in the %ot Has 3yclone before sending a major part of it to the Reduction $haft! The @ust collected in the cyclone is recycled back into the melter gasifier through the @ust 2urners, "here the dust is burnt "ith additional Oxygen injected through the burners! The reducing gas leaves the Melter Hasifier at a temperature of about 4161 3! This can,t be directly fed into the Reduction $haft because of the formation of a lumpy mass due to sticking of ores;pellets at a temperature more than J61 3! It affects the permeability of the shaft and often deposits over the @RI scre"s making them immobile! %ence, a cooling arrangement has to be made to cool the reducing gas leaving the gasifier! The excess gas left after feeding a major part to the shaft is passed through a pre8scrubber "here it is further divided into t"o components namely, 3ooling Has and #xcess Has! The 3ooling gas is further cleaned and compressed to a pressure slightly more than the plant pressure D5!6 bar? and feed at the exit of the HH@ to cool the reducing gas! The #xcess gas is also cleaned and is combined "ith the top gas to be collectively called as #xport Has!

This gas has high calorific value Di!e! E0111kcal;(m5? and hence can be used forB a? <o"er generation b? <roduction of @RI c? <roduction of Aertili ers d? %ot $trip Mill reheating furnace e? Auel Has "ithin the Iron / $teel complex!

Reducing Has from MH

%ot gas 3yclone

Reduction $haft

3ooling / #xcess gas <re8scrubber

Top Has

#xcess Has II

3ooling Has

#xcess Has I


Comparison o4 .)ast 5urnace and Core* Process1

2last Aurnace <rocess 4! A single free standing furnace shell and to"er is the heart of the process! All the metallurgical reactions occur se.uentially from the top to the bottom of the furnace!

3orex <rocess 4! It,s a t"o stage smelting reduction process! The formation of $ponge Iron is carried out in the upper furnace, the Reduction shaft! The sub se.uentially melting of iron and gangue materials forming li.uid slag is carried out in the lo"er vessel, the Melter Hasifier 0! (on8coking coal is used as reductant and the source of gases along "ith oxygen!

0! +ses 3oke as primary reductant and gas generation source "ith hot blast!

5! Arom the Tuyere area, a high hot blast of air at a temperature of around 4J11 3 is injected into the furnace! N! Iron bearing materials include predominantly $inter along "ith some lump ore and pellets! 6! 2ecause of $inter plant and coke oven re.uirements, 2A route is not environmentally friendly! 7! &o" calorific value of the 2A gas generated i!e! J1184111)cal;(m5!

5! GG!G > pure oxygen at room temperature is injected into the melter gasifier!

N! <ellets are the major source of iron bearing materials along "ith lump ore! Addition of $inter does not provide any benefit! 6! It is an environmentally friendly iron making process!

7!%igh calorific value of the 3orex export gas i!e! E0111)cal;(m5!

M! &ess flexible process and re.uires more response time for the changes

M! %ighly flexible process and re.uires less time to correct the hot metal and slag chemistry!

Productivity o4 !ron #aAin, Processes1

<roductivity of any integrated steel is defined as the annual tonnage of the hot metal produced calculated over a period of years normally, the campaign life of the furnace! A campaign life of the furnace is the life expectancy of the furnace! It is crudely defined as the time span for "hich the furnace runs smoothly, continuously "ithout any major repairs! The campaign life of the blast furnace is about 41 years "hile that of the corex process is 6 years! Over the years, improvements in process control, reduced refractory "ear, technological design, age and sophistication of e.uipments, materials of construction etc! have increased blast furnace campaign life significantly! The current expected life time of ne"ly built blast furnaces is 01 years or greater! Increasing the campaign life increases the number of days for "hich the plant is in continuous operation! Aor a 41 year campaign life of blast furnace, the furnace runs for about 561 days in a year! On the other hand, a 01 year campaign life "ould run for around 566 days in a year! Aor a 3orex plant,380111, the campaign life is around 6years, thus limiting the number of days of operation to 5N0 days in a year! The productivity of a 3orex 380111 on an annual basis, considering an average continuous run of 5N0 days a year can be calculated asB Kuantity of %ot metal produced per annum O 5N0 P 0111 O 7JN111 tonnes per day! E 1.7J MT<A %o"ever, over the years the process has undergone several technological and design modifications and "ith each modifications there has been a significant increase in the hot metal productivity! =ith a productivity of about J5 tph DO0111;0N? during the start up, it is no" possible to attain a productivity of 411 tph!

=e at #ssar $teel D%a ira? &imited are aiming at a productivity of 416 tph by incorporating in our plant all the possible technological up gradations done over the years! Also, learning from the past experiences of the already functional 3orex plants around the "orld D $aldanha in $outh Africa , <ocso in )orea ,QF$& in India? and in consultation "ith FAI D Foest Alpine Industrianlagenbau?, Austria, several design modifications have been carried out both in the furnaces and in the auxiliaries! The %ot Metal production per annum per 3orex plant at #ssar $teel D%a ira? &imited =ith t"o 3orex 380111 plants coming up, the total %ot Metal productivity "ould be 4!MN MT<A DO 1!JM P0?! O 5N0 P 0N P416 E 1!JM MT<A

W%at A44ects Productivity1

<roductivity of %ot Metal is in direct proportion of the Melting Rate achieved during plant operation! The melting rate, in 3orex, is controlled mainly by the tuyere oxygen flo" follo"ed by @RI and 3oal feeding! In addition, it is also dependent on parameters like metalli ation, ra" material .uality, slag volume etc!

Ho6 can productivity 3e increased1

<roductivity of the 3orex process can be increased byB a" Increasing the campaign life of the furnace 3" Incorporating the technological developments and modifications in the existing iron making techni.ue! c" Increasing plant availability d" <roper .uality of Ra" Material!

!ncreasin, t%e Campai,n Li4eB8 It can be achieved in the follo"ing "aysB a" $uitable Refractory linings on the furnace "alls and on the auxiliaries! 3" $uitable 3ast house practice! Re4ractory #ateria)s1 Refractories are constructional Dorganic, synthetic or natural? materials "ith the ability of retaining their shape and strength at high temperature under ardous service conditions! A refractory material should have the follo"ing propertiesB i" ii" iii" iv" v" vi" vii" viii" It must be strong at higher temperatures! It should be resistant to thermal shock! It must be chemically inert! It should have high load bearing capacity D3old 3rushing $trength?! It should have lo" thermal conductivity and lo" coefficient of thermal expansion! It should have superior resistance to abrasion, chemical corrosion or erosion, slag and vapor;gas resistance! %igh modulus rupture! $palling resistance!

#xamples of refractoriesB 8 MgO, 3aO, Aire clay, $ilicon 3arbide, 3orrundum etc!

Types o4 Re4ractories12 a" Acidic 8 Aire bricks, Aluminosilicates, $ilica, $emi8silicates etc! 3" 2asic 8 Magnesia, @olomite, 3hrome Magnesite etc! c" (eutral R $ilicon 3arbide, 3hromite, 3arbon, Hraphite!

TO''A(E O5 RE5RACTORB #ATER!AL 5OR S!'(LE CORE912 The life of the furnace depends mainly on the ability of the refractory lining on the furnace shell and "all to resist abrasion, "ear, and erosion during the furnace operation! $urface degradation of the refractory lining arises due to the presence of fine particles, moisture, thermal shocks etc! The decision for capital repair of the plant mainly depends on the design of the refractory and the .uality of the refractories used! 3orex Melter Hasifier Reduction $haft Reducing gas duct Henerator gas duct Top gas duct $afety gas duct %ot gas cyclone @RI Aeed legs Runners %eat protection R 0501MT R J40MT R 0J0MT R 4JGMT R 417MT R 65MT R 040MT R NJMT R 4061MT R 477JMT

/arious Re4ractories used in #e)ter (asi4ier12

Melter Hasifier is associated "ith high temperatures, presence of abrasive burden, high volume of gas generation and thermo8mechanical stresses! Moreover, different ones of MH are subjected to different service conditions thus re.uiring different varieties of refractories! T%e Heart% one12 The basic re.uirements of the refractories in the hearth one areB8 i? ii? iii? %igh 3old 3rushing $trength! %igh Ausibility! 3hemically inert!

W%at is Heart% made o4C The bottom most layer of hearth consists of ; )ayers o4 (rap%ite 3)ocAs! These blocks are provided "ith grooves to enable cooling of the refractories by running through the pipes a cooling fluid mostly "ater! Above the graphite layers, "e have < )ayers o4 #icro2porous car3on 3)ocAs. It is then follo"ed by layers of #u))ite+ <A);O<.;SiO;, a naturally occurring mineral! The %earth "all upto the tuyeres is lined "ith Micro8porous 3arbon! The use of micro8porous carbon "ill limit the attack of alkali, Ln, 3O and iron penetration! Also, addition of metallic silicon and pure Al 0O5 to the carbon mix as additives "ill reduce the pore si e! Tap2Ho)e Re4ractory12 The refractories to be lined around the tap hole should have the follo"ing propertiesB8 a? %igh resistance to corrosion and corrosion by Iron and $lag! b? Resistance to Alkali vapors and 3O corrosion! c? Ability to accommodate thermo8mechanical stress! d? @imensional stability at high temperatures! %ence, Hi,% Dua)ity SiALO' 3onded Corundum 3ricAs (a)so ca))ed Ceramic cups ? are used over the micro8porous 3arbon blocks lined till the tuyeres! SiALO'S are the refractory materials of oxide;monoxide compounds having high density and high strength! A solid solution of alumina in silicon nitride is a specific example of this group of ceramic materials from "hich its name $i8Al8O8( D$ialon? has been derived! These have good oxidation resistance and are not easily eroded by sulphuric acid, borax, alkalis etc!

Tuyere one re4ractory12 Re.uirementsB8 a" Resistance to abrasion from s"irling coal and coke! 3" Oxidation resistance! c" %igh thermal conductivity D high temperature one? d" #xcellent thermal shock resistance! Refractory usedB8 SiA)O' 3onded SiC. C%ar .ed one12 The basic re.uirements include resistance to abrasion, oxidation and corrosion! The char bed one is lined "ith layers of S!ALO' 3onded SiC ( S!CA'!T AL<". T%e Ca)min, oneB8 Temperatures one in this one is lo"est but the burden materials are abrasive! In addition, 3arbon monoxide "ill tend to attack the refractory! $uper duty fire clay bricks are lined in this one! This is backed up by a "orking layer of an insulating material such as Styro88e). $ome area12 Hunning t"in layers does the entire lining of the dome one! The first layer is the insulation layer and the "orking lining is done by ?EF A);O< ,unnin, mass! #ono)it%ic cast ta3)es are used as gunning materials! <roper metallic anchors are "elded in site to have the stability of the gunning material! A protection lining is given to avoid the initial thermal shock to the main "orking lining!

The follo"ing diagram sho"s the different ones of a MH and the refractories used in the respective ones!

(unnin, materia)s

CORA'!T over an inner insulating lining

S!ALO' 3onded SiC!

CORA'!T over Microporous 3arbon!

4 &ayer of #u))ite! 5 &ayers of #icro2porous Car3on .)ocAs

0 &ayers of (rap%ite 3)ocAs

Re4ractories used in t%e Reduction S%a4t12

N different ones of the reduction shaft have been identified and the refractories are lined based of the different basic re.uirements of these ones! $i44erent ones o4 Reduction S%a4t12

$pider &egs for iron bearing materials and additive distribution! Lone @

Lone 3

Lone 2

(o le

Lone A

@RI scre"

!n t%e 8one A, "e have linings o4 S5 <>, mostly N6> dense alumina bricks! These bricks offer properties like high refractoriness, high erosion and abrasion resistance, good volume stability and higher load bearing capacity! %o"ever, the main aspect of using these bricks is their stability! !n t%e 8one ., the 2ustle Region, "e have linings of either $A 56 or nitride bonded $ilicon carbide, S!CA'!T :>. The bustle ports get jammed due to the dust carried by the corex gas and the

.uality of ra" materials used! The cleaning of these ports is a difficult task! Moreover, these dusts after setting form cluster "hich restrict the flo" of the gases to the shaft! Qamming is avoided by flushing the ports "ith high pressure nitrogen! These problems are avoided by providing a smooth surface to give a glassy appearance using Lirconia or by using of <aints! !n t%e 8one C+ "e have linings of S5 <>.! This is supported by an inner layer of insulating bricks like Styro88e). !n t%e 8one $, the dome area, "e have ,unnin, materia)s ( A);O< 3ased"+ monolithic cast tables! Re4ractories used in Cast Houses12

There is also a huge amount of refractory being used in the cast house in order to transfer the hot metal Dtapped at around4611 3? to the ladle "ithout a great dip in its temperature, else, it "ould lead to solidification of the molten iron in the runners! In the cast house trough, the refractory has to offer multiple aspects of resistanceB8 a" It has to be strong to resist the "eight of the molten iron and slag! 3" It has to resist the effect of the continuous flo" of iron and slag c" It should resist the erosive;corrosive action of the slag and slag;iron!

The most refractory "ear is visible in the slag;iron interface and the lining belo" the iron is the least affected one! This is becauseB8 a" The slag being in contact "ith the molten iron is at its highest temperature! 3" At the interface, there is a partial oxidation of iron into AeO, "hich is highly corrosive! c" The refractory erodes both from the chemical attack by the slag at the slag;metal interface along "ith the mechanical erosion from the continuous flo" of slag and slag;iron along the lining, thus exposing the ne" surfaces of the refractory! The refractory composition in this area has to satisfy the above criteria! The composition of refractory in the through is based on A)umina as 3ase materia) to provide resistance to high temperature, Si)icon car3ide addition to provide the corrosive;erosion resistance and some amount o4 car3on to provide 9non8"etting: characteristics!

Cast %ouse practices

3ast house is an area "here tapping is carried out to take out the hot metal and the slag from the furnace! The opening of the tap hole is accomplished by the use of both hydraulically and pneumatically operated @rilling Machine! The hot metal and slag "ould then flo", "ith the slag floating above the dense molten iron, through a refractory lined trough Dcalled the Main Iron Trough? to the $kimmer "here slag and molten metal are separated out! The slag then flo"s through the $lag Runner to the $lag Hranulation plant "here it is granulated into fine particles of si e around 085mm by spraying "ater jets at high velocity! In case of excessive slag production or malfunctioning of $lag Hranulation <lant, these slags are collected into $lag @ry <its! On the other hand, molten iron, after skimmer, flo"s through the Iron Trough to the Tilting runner "here it is collected into refractory lined ladles! After tapping, the tap hole is closed by the use of Mud Hun "hich pushes in the tap hole mass Dgenerally clay? to close the opening!

The sophistication "ith "hich the entire cast house process is carried out determines the efficiency of the entire process, affects the productivity of the furnace, and go a long "ay in determining the campaign life of the furnace through stable tap opening and closing processes! An efficient and trouble free tapping practice "ould increase the longevity of the furnace, thereby increasing the productivity! Ways to accomp)is% trou3)e 4ree tappin,12 :. Constant Tap Ho)e Len,t%. 8 To avoid the "ear of the refractories follo"ed by exposure of staves to high temperature melt and finally the MH shell! ;. Contro))ed erosion o4 t%e tap %o)e 6it% %ot meta) and s)a,. 8 #rosion occurs due to the abrasive action of the metal and the slag at high temperatures! This can be avoided by using good .uality of clay and proper adjustment of the tap hole center! The follo"ing are the properties that "e look for in a tap hole mass a? &ess setting time! b? %igh strength at higher temperatures! c? 3orrosion resistance and smooth drilling! <. 'o tur3u)ence in t%e stream at t%e top %o)e e*it. 8 @ue to high plant pressure, the metal and the slag rushes out of the tap hole "ith a great velocity !Initial flo" of the melt is turbulent "hich later changes to a laminar flo"! =. Smoot% openin, and c)osin, o4 t%e tap %o)e. >. $raina,e rate s%ou)d 3e norma) t%rou,% out t%e tappin,. 8 Aluctuations in drainage rate "ould lead to increased erosion of the refractory of the runners! It "ould also mean a decrease in the tap hole length!

A ,ood cast %ouse practice 6ou)d avoid t%e occurrence o41 :. Tap c)ose 4ai)ure. 8 Occurs due to the presence of a sticky material at the mouth of the tap hole! 8 @elay in pushing the mass! ;. Se)42Openin, o4 t%e tap %o)e. 8 @ue to bad .uality of mass! 8 Improper closing of the tap hole! <. E*p)osion o4 Tap Ho)e.

Technological developments and ModificationsB

The 3orex 380111 plant at #$$AR has incorporated various design and e.uipment modifications in consultant "ith FAI to increase the production! They areB i" ii" iii" iv" v" vi" vii" viii" i*" Modification in the @ust Recycling $ystem D@R$?! Modification of Fenturi cones and $haft design of $crubber! Increase 3har bed Lone by addition of Gth stave! 3u staves in 6th and 7th ro" and copper ledges "ith embedded refractory in the 7th, Mth and Jth ro"! Improved @RI and 3oal @istribution! @eeper %earth $ump! Tuyeres @esign <rescrubber design modification! (e" %earth =are Thermocouples! $ust Recyc)in, System ($RS"12

Ori,ina) Concept1 The original design of the @ust Recycling system consists of a %ot Has 3yclone, an +pper @ust 2in, a &o"er @ust 2in and a T8piece! The dust fines collected in the cyclone are taken into the +pper and lo"er dust bins in batches through operation of the %ydraulic disc gates provided belo" the cyclone and the upper dust bin! The bins are maintained at certain pressure! The dust bins are also provided "ith meshes;grids to remove coarser dust particles! The disc gates are operated in either 2atch mode or 3ontinuous mode to remove the dusts from the bins once the (ucleonic sensors are activated! The dust collected is then injected into the dust burners in the melter gasifier by purging "ith (0 in the T8piece!

!n t%e modi4ied desi,n, both the upper and the lo"er dust bins have been removed and a single vertical pipe inliner runs from the hot gas cyclone directly to the T8piece! To enhance the life of the hot gas cyclone, refractory design and materials have been changed to the ones having high refractoriness under load, resistant to abrasion and erosion! Additional (0 purging units are added in the T8piece "ith grids and meshes to separate the coarser dust particles entering the dust burners! These coarser particles are collected in the catch pot attached to the T8piece! T%e Ori,ina) desi,n o4 t%e $ust Recyc)in, system12

T%e modi4ications done in t%e $RS are1 :. Remova) o4 0pper and Lo6er $ust 3ins! 8 To avoid fre.uent jamming of @R$ lines! 8 To avoid depressuri ing lines! 8Adds to the economy of the process by avoiding the additional use of nucleonic sensors, valves and grids for the bins! ;. #odi4ication in t%e T2piece! 8 Hrids added for better particle separation! 83atch pots added to the T8piece to facilitate collection of coarser dust particles! 8Additional side "ays (0 purging to propel the dust into the dust burner! 8 The si e of the T8piece has increased to reduce fre.uent jamming! <. Re4ractory desi,n in t%e Hot (as cyc)one c%an,ed! 8 To avoid "ear and tear of the refractories due to tangential impact by high velocity reducing gases and by the high fraction of fines carried by these gases! 8 To increase the life of the e.uipment! The overall change in the @R$ "ould increase the avai)a3i)ity and per4ormance of the @R$! Adjusta3)e /enturi Scru33erB

Ori,ina) $esi,nB The venturi scrubbers are used to remove the fine dust particles carried by the gases by spraying "ater through the no les! It consists of a century cone D R$ element? "hich is electro8 hydraulically operated !A shaft Dof larger diameter? runs from the piston of the

cylinder and is "elded to the shaft Dof smaller diameter? bore into the venturi cone! The spacing bet"een the cone and the shell of the venturi determines the amount of gas passing through the throat! =ater in injected by means of flat jet no les in such a "ay that a pointed "ater injection occurs in the annular gap! This ensures that the highest possible volume of "ater is taken up by the gas, "hich becomes saturated "ith "ater in this area! At the narro"est cross section of the throat there is a sharp tear off edge "here because of sudden change in gas speed and direction, a relative speed exists bet"een the gas and the dust particles and hence particles fall do"n and are collected at the bottom of the scrubber! The annular gas scrubber "orks as a system "hich serves as a fine cleaning stage and for the noiseless reduction of the furnace pressure!

T%e modi4ications done are12 :. A continuous s%a4t runs from the cylinder through the venturi cone!

8 Avoid "elding of the shafts! This "ould lead to less breakage and "ear of
the shaft during operation! %ence, life of the scrubber is enhanced!

;. Water spray system enhanced

8 Aacilitates better removal of coarse and fine particulates including

particulates that are sticky or high in moisture! C%ar .ed one1 The volume of the char bed one is correlated to the productivity of the furnace! Hreater its volume, greater is the amount of charge that can be put into the process, facilitating an increase in the speed of the process!

#odi4ications doneB8 4! T%e %ei,%t o4 t%e c%ar 3ed 8one %as 3een increased 3y :m by the addition of an extra ro" of cooling staves!

8 It "ould result in uniform distribution of charge and greater productivity

due to increase in interaction volume!

8 Improve heat utili ation! This is due to the increase in the contact time
bet"een the gases and the solid phase, resulting in better transfer of sensible heat carried by the gases!

8 Reduced fuel consumption, oxygen consumption per ton of %ot Metal


8 Improved %ot Metal .uality! This is due to better interaction bet"een the
charge and gases generated as a result of combustion of coal! Cu Staves and Led,es in t%e #e)ter (asi4ier1

Coo)in, Staves1 $taves are cooling arrangements installed in an annular space bet"een the furnace shell and its lining to extract the heat from the refractory "alls lined on the furnace shell and hence increase the life of the furnace! These staves are made of either (odular 3ast iron or 3opper! In the stave coolers, cooling occurs by circulating a cooling fluid Di!e! "ater? through it! The staves are arranged in successive superimposed rings along the internal "alls of the of the furnace and being traversed by internal fluid circulation tubes, the internal tubes of t"o staves adjacent in a vertical plane being interconnected so as to define a net"ork of vertical fluid circulation lines, "herein this net"ork is connected at each of its extremities to an external circulation and fluid cooling circuit defining a pressuri ed forced closed circuit in "hich the cooling fluid is maintained in the li.uid phase!

Of the different methods of cooling arrangements like cooling boxes, spray jet cooling and jacket cooling, cooling staves are preferred because of their ability to cover the entire surface area of the furnace shell efficiently and economically by a hori ontal and vertical arrangement of the staves!

(enera) Arran,ement o4 staves in t%e 4urnace1

!nterna) circu)atin, Pipes o4 Cu2Staves.

The shell of the melter gasifier is lined "ith the cooling staves from the hearth to the point "here the dome starts. Altogether there are G ro"s of staves "ith each ro" forming a ring around the shell!

Ro6s o4 Staves used in #e)ter (asi4ier 12

ROW 'O. RO= 4 RO= 0 RO= 5 RO= N RO= 6 RO= 7 RO= M RO= J RO= G ( Proposed ? 'O. O5 STA/ES <; <= <; ;? <; <; <; <; <? STA/E #ATER!AL 3A$T IRO( 3A$T IRO( 3A$T IRO( 3A$T IRO( COPPER STA/E COPPER STA/E 3A$T IRO( (Wit% Cu )ed,es" 3A$T IRO( (Wit% Cu )ed,es" 3A$T IRO( (Wit% Cu )ed,es"

T%e modi4ications done are1 :. Rep)acin, Cast !ron staves in t%e >t% and ?t% ro6 3y Copper Staves. The 6th and 7th ro" of staves lie in the region close to the tuyeres! These are regions of high temperatures and the refractories at these locations are more prone to abrasion, "ear and fusibility Dsoftening at high temperatures?! A refractory failure at these locations can lead to development of red spots on the steel shell! <rotection against these effects can be established by intense cooling of these refractories! %ence instead of cast iron staves, copper staves are used because of their follo"ing propertiesB a? 3opper has a better thermal conductivity coefficient compared to cast iron!

b? Thermal expansion is less and the surface temperature is much lo"er DS 011T3 vs J11T3?! 3opper :free es: slag on the surface that forms a 9natural: protection once the refractory bricks fail! c? The copper staves have been designed "ith noses and ledges to support refractory and enhance the formation and stabili ation of skulls! ;. Copper )ed,es on t%e ?t%+@t% and Gt% ro6 6it% an in3ui)t )ed,e in t%e Ht% ro6. &edges are additional projections on the vertical surface of the staves! The benefits of incorporating ledges areB a? .etter %eat conductivity! Addition of ledges provides an increase in surface area of the staves! An increase in surface area results in greater dissipation of heat Dby (e"ton,s la" of 3ooling?, hence, efficient cooling and an increase in the life of the refractory lining and the shell! b? Re4ractory )inin, support and stabili ation of skull!

A vie" of &edges mounted on the $tavesB8

A copper stave "ith an inbuilt ledge and the hose pipes emerging out it!

$R! and Coa) $istri3ution1

The six @RI scre" conveyors are hori ontally arranged compact conveying units and are used for conveying @RI and the additives at elevated temperatures from the reduction shaft to the melter gasifier through the @RI do"n pipe and drop box! The speed of @RI scre" conveyors is around 58N rpm! On the other hand, coal is charged into the melter gasifier through the 3oal scre" conveyors! There are t"o coal scre" conveyors aligned hori ontally but are placed at different elevations! The upper coal scre" conveyor is located directly belo" the intermediate storage hooper of the &ock8%opper system! The speed of upper and lo"er coal scre" conveyors are 44rpm and 45rpm respectively! +niform distribution of the charge into the melter gasifier is very important for smooth and efficient function of the furnace! Aollo"ing are the factors "hich are influenced by uniform distribution of the chargeB a" %ot Metal Kuality and Temperature! 3" %eat utili ation! c" 3oke re.uirement! d" <ermeability e" Aurnace <roductivity 4" @ead Man Lone! #odi4ications done to %ave a uni4orm c%ar,e distri3ution are1 :. 3hains are provided in the @RI drop box! ;. $olid Riffler at the Melter Hasifier dome for peripheral coal distribution!

8 <eripheral coal distribution is important in order to attain complete

burning of coal by oxygen tuyeres! It also has a control over the dead man,s one developed in the gasifier!

#onitorin, dead manIs 8one is important 3ecause it in4)uences1

a" %ot metal temperature and composition! 3" The refractory lining "ear! c" The campaign life of the furnace by controlling the %ot Metal flo" in the hearth! $eeper Heart% Sump12

The depth of the hearth has been increased by 1.6m by changing the refractory design of the hearth one! Instead of having N layers of microporous carbon refractory, "e no" have 5 layers of it! An increase in depth implies larger volume to accommodate the hot molten metal! An increased hearth depth "ould result in the follo"ingB a" Less 6ear out o4 t%e Tap Ho)e Re,ion! 8 2y avoiding the development of 9elephant,s pad:! It results due to the churning of the molten metal inside the furnace! The molten metal churns about the dead man,s one and in the process eats a"ay the refractory of the tap hole and surrounding regions! This exposes the cooling staves, initially, and the furnace shell, later, to the high temperature molten metal! This may cause developments of hot $pots n the shell! 2y increasing the depth, the churning of the melt is reduced due to increased volume of the melt, thus reducing the damage to the refractories! 3" Reduces Wear o4 t%e Heart%. 8 Of the various properties a refractory should have, the hearth refractory should have a high load bearing capacity Di!e! high 3old 3rushing $trength? to sustain the "eight of the entire burden Dsolid and li.uid?! The additional volume of the molten metal "ould act as cushioning to these refractories! Also, after each tapping D"hich "ould result in emptying of the hearth?, the hearth refractories aren,t directly exposed to the high temperature molten metal because an increase hearth sump "ould allo" a certain volume of molten metal to be al"ays present n the hearth Dunless "e go for 9salamander tapping:?! This "ould increase the life of the refractories! c" !t 6ou)d ensure overa)) %omo,eneity o4 t%e %eart% area. Tuyere $esi,nB

Tuyeres are 3opper pipes inserted into the furnace to carry oxygen into the melter gasifier at a high pressure of about J8Gbar to facilitate combustion! One end of these pipes is connected to a pressuri ing source through "hich pressuri ed oxygen enters the system "hile the other end is connected to the MH shell! Right in front of the tuyeres, a temperature of about 5511 3 is attained due to the combustion of the char! Thus, a tuyere has to sustain such high temperatures! 9Qumbo Qets: surround the tuyeres! These are cooling arrangements for the tuyeres "hich carries a coolant Di!e! "ater? to dissipate the heat of the tuyeres, thus increasing the shelf life of the tuyeres!

Causes o4 Tuyure .urnin,1 4! Aormation of high fusion point viscous slag above the tuyere level! 0! Improper hot metal and slag drainage of the furnace! 5! 3hange over from Oxygen to (itrogen shall be smooth else slag or metal may enter the tuyeres! N! @ue to burning of coal in front of the tuyeres arising due to its non8uniform distribution in the furnace Dchanneling or preferential flo"?! 6! 2urning due to splash of the slag on the tuyeres due to dislodge of the skull from its position! #odi4ications done are12 a" T%e )en,t% o4 t%e tuyere is increased. 8 To avoid "ear of the refractories in its surrounding! 8 To reduce the @ead Man Lone! 8 To have uniform flame temperature DRace "ay Adiabatic Alame temperature? over a greater volume! 8 To have proper gas utili ation!

3" Si)icon car3ide re4ractories around t%e tuyeres.

8 The follo"ing properties of $ilicon carbides are responsible for its use as refractory around the tuyeresB a? Resistance to Oxidation! b? %igh Refractoriness! c? %igh thermal shock resistance and very lo" coefficient of expansion! c" !ntroduction o4 'itro,en injection 4or 3urnt tuyeres to avoid immediate s%utdo6n. 8 To avoid immediate shut do"n "henever tuyeres get burnt! It "ould result in increased day production and improved plant availability! Pre Scru33ers1

These are dedusting e.uipments used to clean and cool the dust laden gases leaving the reduction shaft and the melter gasifier! <re scrubbers are mainly used to .uench the hot gases flo"ing out of the furnaces! The cooled gases are then flushed "ith "ater in the 2aumco $crubber and then further cleaned in the packing scrubber consisting of "ooden packing "here removal of the "ater droplets is accomplished by relying on the fact that the droplets are relatively large and, due to inertia, cannot change direction rapidly, such as "hen the gas flo" is directed to"ard a surface of an impingement "ooden pack! =hile the gas moves around the surface, the inertia of the relatively large "ater droplets causes them to strike the surface "here they are captured! #odi4ications in t%e pre2scru33er1 4. C%an,e in re4ractory desi,n1 8 The hot gases entering the pre8scrubber strikes the shell of the vertical inliners and causes "ear of these refractories! This "ould lead to exposure of the shell to the high temperature furnace gases resulting in red hotness Dor hot spot?! ;. Sti44ners and anc%ors added1

8 To avoid the collapse of the refractories lined on the line ducts at the entrance of the pre8scrubber! <. 'e6 !nspection and PocAin, 'o88)es1 8 Aor efficient cleaning and cooling of the incoming gases! 8 To create a thin film of "ater on the inliners through M adjustable pocking no les to enhance the life of these e.uipments by avoiding direct contact of these inliners "ith high temperature gases! 'e6 Heart%6are T%ermocoup)es12

The hearth one is decisive for the length of the furnace campaign! Only "ith a reliable monitoring of the "ear situation, a prolongation of the furnace life can be achieved by protective measures for the regions of identified "ear! =ith a reliable hearth supervision system, damaged refractory regions as "ell as heat and permeability conditions can be identified! Additiona) reasons 4or %eart% supervision1 4! %eat level control of the hearth by metallurgical decision, slag rate control 0! Increase of safety and security, avoidance of hot metal break outs! 5! The reliable scheduling of repairs and relinings! The %earth refractories are subjected to temperatures of about 4711 3! At such high temperatures, unless proper cooling arrangements are made, refractories are easily "orn out! The refractory lining thickness decreases! To keep a track of the hearth "ear and to determine the residual refractory thickness, a great number of thermocouples are installed into the hearth brick"ork at various locations and at different depths! The actual hearth "ear profile is determined by the temperature measurements of these thermocouples and feeding the data in a standard computer program!

Jua)ity o4 Ra6 #ateria)s12 The ra" material .uality affects both the .uality and the .uantity of the hot metal produced! Moreover, the amount of production and the economy of the process can also be controlled by .uality management of the ra" materials! An economical process "ould be one "hich allo"s flexibility in the usage of "ide range of ra" materials! 2esides its flexibility, it also offers environmental benefits! The various ra" materials used in the 3orex <rocess areB8 a? Iron 2earing materials B <ellets, &ump Ore b? 3arbonaceous Materials B 3oal, 3oke c? Additives B &imestone, @olomite, Kuart The iron bearing materials should have Ae content of about 76 "t>, uniform grain si e Dranging 41851mm?, lo" sulphur content, high reducibility rate and greater metalli ation degree! The carbonaceous materials should haveB8

8 Reduced as% content R to increase the available volume! 8 Reduced moisture retainin, capa3i)ity R &ess heat re.uirement! 8 Hi,% amount o4 4i*ed car3on R Improved hot metal .uality, generation
of large amount of reducing gases, reduced coke re.uirement!

8 CSR Dcoke strength after reaction? and CR! D3oke reactivity index? values
should be high R Improved interaction bet"een the charge and greater mechanical strength!

8 Hreater permeability and increased Thermo Mechanical stability!

The ra" material charge should contain 4e6er amounts o4 4ines! An increase usage of fines "ill lead to the follo"ing irregularitiesB8 i" $ecrease in over a)) permea3i)ity "ould increase the burden do"n time! Hreater retention time of the charge "ill increase the hot metal .uality but "ould drastically reduce the productivity by reducing the melting rate! ii" C%anne)in,1 2 <referential flo" of the ascending gases through certain areas of the burden because of their relatively much better permeability! It reduces the effective cross section of the furnace for gas8solid interaction and thereby decreases the productivity directly! It "ill also drop the metalli ation and the in burden temperature! iii" (enerator (as $uct -ammin, due to high amount of fines carried by the reducing gases! iv" -ammin, o4 $RS12 This "ould lead to a" Increased dust load in the reducing gas affecting the performance of the reduction shaft! 3" Increased coke and fuel rates resulting in high cost of production! c" Increase sludge load and sludge disposal problems!

CO'CL0S!O'S1 The past 51 years have "itnessed several dramatic technological developments, "hich have changed the organi ational structure, productivity, efficiency, and product properties of the iron industry "orld"ide! $everal exciting ne" technologies for the production of iron have advanced to a fairly developed stage and "ill likely be implemented on a production scale sometime in the future! The ne" technologies "ill develop in parallel "ith continued incremental improvements in reliability and energy and materials efficiency of conventional processes! The ne" emerging technologies including the 3orex <rocess must "ork on the follo"ing principlesB i? ii? iii? %igh process .uality, lo"er energy cost and increased through put by taking all the process into account! Kuality and efficient use of the charging materials! &o" life cycle cost but maximi ed life cycle returns!

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